CHAPTER 952

PENAL CODE: OFFENSES

Table of Contents

Sec. 53a-29. Probation and conditional discharge: Criteria; periods; continuation or termination.

Sec. 53a-31. Calculation of periods of probation and conditional discharge. Compliance with conditions during interrupted period.

Sec. 53a-40. Persistent offenders: Definitions; defense; authorized sentences; procedure.

Sec. 53a-46a. Imposition of sentence for capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012. Hearing. Special verdict. Mitigating and aggravating factors. Factors barring death sentence.

Sec. 53a-54a. Murder.

Sec. 53a-54b. Murder with special circumstances.

Sec. 53a-54c. Felony murder.

Sec. 53a-54d. Arson murder.

Sec. 53a-60. Assault in the second degree: Class D or C felony.

Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.

Sec. 53a-70a. Aggravated sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.

Sec. 53a-110a. Simple trespass: Infraction.

Sec. 53a-155. Tampering with or fabricating physical evidence: Class D felony.

Sec. 53a-167c. Assault of public safety, emergency medical, public transit or health care personnel: Class C felony.

Sec. 53a-181f. Electronic stalking: Class B misdemeanor.

Sec. 53a-189a. Voyeurism: Class D or C felony.

Sec. 53a-189c. Unlawful dissemination of an intimate image: Class A misdemeanor.

Sec. 53a-192a. Trafficking in persons: Class B felony.

Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon: Class C felony.

Sec. 53a-217c. Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver: Class C felony.

Sec. 53a-223b. Criminal violation of a restraining order: Class D or class C felony.

Sec. 53a-223c. Criminal violation of a civil protection order: Class D felony.


PART II

SENTENCES AND SENTENCING PROCEDURE

Sec. 53a-29. Probation and conditional discharge: Criteria; periods; continuation or termination. (a) The court may sentence a person to a period of probation upon conviction of any crime, other than a class A felony, if it is of the opinion that: (1) Present or extended institutional confinement of the defendant is not necessary for the protection of the public; (2) the defendant is in need of guidance, training or assistance which, in the defendant’s case, can be effectively administered through probation supervision; and (3) such disposition is not inconsistent with the ends of justice.

(b) The court may impose a sentence of conditional discharge for an offense, other than a class A felony, if it is of the opinion that: (1) Present or extended institutional confinement of the defendant is not necessary for the protection of the public; and (2) probation supervision is not appropriate.

(c) When the court imposes a sentence of conditional discharge, the defendant shall be released with respect to the conviction for which the sentence is imposed but shall be subject, during the period of such conditional discharge, to such conditions as the court may determine. The court shall impose the period of conditional discharge authorized by subsection (d) of this section and shall specify, in accordance with section 53a-30, the conditions to be complied with. When a person is sentenced to a period of probation, the court shall impose the period authorized by subsection (d), (e) or (f) of this section and may impose any conditions authorized by section 53a-30. When a person is sentenced to a period of probation, such person shall pay to the court a fee of two hundred dollars and shall be placed under the supervision of the Court Support Services Division, provided, if such person is sentenced to a term of imprisonment the execution of which is not suspended entirely, payment of such fee shall not be required until such person is released from confinement and begins the period of probation supervision.

(d) Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, the period of probation or conditional discharge, unless terminated sooner as provided in section 53a-32 or 53a-33, shall be as follows: (1) For a class B felony, not more than five years; (2) for a class C, D or E felony or an unclassified felony, not more than three years; (3) for a class A misdemeanor, not more than two years; (4) for a class B, C or D misdemeanor, not more than one year; and (5) for an unclassified misdemeanor, not more than one year if the authorized sentence of imprisonment is six months or less, or not more than two years if the authorized sentence of imprisonment is in excess of six months, or where the defendant is charged with failure to provide subsistence for dependents, a determinate or indeterminate period.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, the court may, in its discretion, on a case by case basis, sentence a person to a period of probation which period, unless terminated sooner as provided in section 53a-32 or 53a-33, shall be as follows: (1) For a class C, D or E felony or an unclassified felony, not more than five years; (2) for a class A misdemeanor, not more than three years; and (3) for a class B misdemeanor, not more than two years.

(f) The period of probation, unless terminated sooner as provided in section 53a-32, shall be not less than ten years or more than thirty-five years for conviction of a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-90a or subdivision (2), (3) or (4) of subsection (a) of section 53a-189a, or section 53a-196b, 53a-196c, 53a-196d, 53a-196e or 53a-196f.

(g) Whenever the court sentences a person, on or after October 1, 2008, to a period of probation of more than two years for a class C, D or E felony or an unclassified felony or more than one year for a class A or B misdemeanor, the probation officer supervising such person shall submit a report to the sentencing court, the state’s attorney and the attorney of record, if any, for such person, not later than sixty days prior to the date such person completes two years of such person’s period of probation for such felony or one year of such person’s period of probation for such misdemeanor setting forth such person’s progress in addressing such person’s assessed needs and complying with the conditions of such person’s probation. The probation officer shall recommend, in accordance with guidelines developed by the Judicial Branch, whether such person’s sentence of probation should be continued for the duration of the original period of probation or be terminated. If such person is serving a period of probation concurrent with another period of probation, the probation officer shall submit a report only when such person becomes eligible for termination of the period of probation with the latest return date, at which time all of such person’s probation cases shall be presented to the court for review. Not later than sixty days after receipt of such report, the sentencing court shall continue the sentence of probation or terminate the sentence of probation. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 53a-32, the parties may agree to waive the requirement of a court hearing. The Court Support Services Division shall establish within its policy and procedures a requirement that any victim be notified whenever a person’s sentence of probation may be terminated pursuant to this subsection. The sentencing court shall permit such victim to appear before the sentencing court for the purpose of making a statement for the record concerning whether such person’s sentence of probation should be terminated. In lieu of such appearance, the victim may submit a written statement to the sentencing court and the sentencing court shall make such statement a part of the record. Prior to ordering that such person’s sentence of probation be continued or terminated, the sentencing court shall consider the statement made or submitted by such victim.

(h) For the purposes of this section, a motor vehicle violation for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year may be imposed shall be deemed an unclassified felony.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 29; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 124, 129; P.A. 79-585, S. 8, 15; P.A. 89-219, S. 6, 10; P.A. 92-260, S. 12; P.A. 93-340, S. 12, 19; P.A. 95-142, S. 2; P.A. 01-84, S. 14, 26; P.A. 02-132, S. 30; P.A. 04-139, S. 8; P.A. 05-288, S. 181; P.A. 08-102, S. 1; P.A. 09-84, S. 1; P.A. 10-43, S. 19; P.A. 12-80, S. 4; 12-133, S. 18; P.A. 13-258, S. 6; P.A. 15-213, S. 2.)

History: 1971 act repealed former Subsec. (e) requiring probation officer to make recommendation as to advisability of continuing probation after probationer has been on probation for a year and allowing person on probation to be heard by court with respect to continuance or discontinuance of probation; P.A. 79-585 replaced commission on adult probation with office of adult probation in Subsec. (c); P.A. 89-219 amended Subsec. (c) to require a person sentenced to a period of probation to pay to the court a fee of $200; P.A. 92-260 amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (d) to replace “hereinafter provided” with “provided in section 53a-32 or 53a-33” and to replace in Subdiv. (5) “less than three months” with “three months or less”; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (d)(1) to add exception re Subsec. (e) and added Subsec. (e) to authorize a period of probation of not more than 35 years for conviction of a sexual assault under certain circumstances, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-142 amended Subsec. (e) to delete reference to an early termination of probation as provided in Sec. 53a-33, establish a minimum period of probation of 10 years, include a violation of Sec. 53-21(2) and delete the provisions that limited the applicability of the Subsec. to where the conviction is of a second or subsequent violation or the defendant was 18 years of age or older and the victim was under 13 years of age; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (e) to replace reference to “subdivision (2) of section 53-21” with “subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21”, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “Office of Adult Probation” with “Court Support Services Division” and making a technical change; P.A. 04-139 amended Subsec. (e) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-90a, 53a-196b, 53a-196c, 53a-196d, 53a-196e or 53a-196f; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 08-102 amended Subsec. (c) to replace reference to period of probation authorized by “subsection (d) of this section” with period authorized by “subsection (d), (e) or (f) of this section”, amended Subsec. (d) to add exception re Subsec. (f) and to decrease maximum period of probation for class C or D felony or unclassified felony from 5 years to 3 years, for class A misdemeanor from 3 years to 2 years and for class B misdemeanor from 2 years to 1 year, added new Subsec. (e) re authority of the court to sentence a person to a maximum period of probation of 5 years for class C or D felony or unclassified felony, 3 years for class A misdemeanor and 2 years for class B misdemeanor, redesignated existing Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f), added Subsec. (g) re procedure for continuation or termination of a person’s period of probation after such person completes 2 years of such period if such person was sentenced to a period of probation for more than 2 years for class C or D felony or unclassified felony or after such person completes 1 year of such period if such person was sentenced to a period of probation for more than 1 year for class A or B misdemeanor, and made technical changes; P.A. 09-84 amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change and add proviso that if a person is sentenced to a term of imprisonment the execution of which is not suspended entirely, payment of probation supervision fee is not required until the person is released from confinement and begins period of probation supervision; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (g) to add provision re when probation officer must submit report and present probation cases for review if person is serving concurrent periods of probation; P.A. 12-80 amended Subsec. (d) to include a class D misdemeanor in Subdiv. (4) and increase threshold term of imprisonment from 3 months to 6 months in Subdiv. (5), effective October 1, 2012, and applicable to sentences imposed for crimes committed on or after that date; P.A. 12-133 added Subsec. (h) re motor vehicle violation for which sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year may be imposed to be deemed an unclassified felony; P.A. 13-258 amended Subsecs. (d)(2), (e)(1) and (g) to add references to class E felony; P.A. 15-213 amended Subsec. (f) to add reference to Sec. 53a-189a(a)(2), (3) or (4).

Sec. 53a-31. Calculation of periods of probation and conditional discharge. Compliance with conditions during interrupted period. (a) A period of probation or conditional discharge commences on the day it is imposed, unless the defendant is imprisoned, in which case it commences on the day the defendant is released from such imprisonment. Multiple periods, whether imposed at the same or different times, shall run concurrently.

(b) The issuance of a warrant or notice to appear, or an arraignment following an arrest without a warrant, for violation pursuant to section 53a-32 shall interrupt the period of the sentence until a final determination as to the violation has been made by the court. In the absence of a warrant, a notice to appear or an arrest for violation pursuant to section 53a-32, if the defendant has failed to comply with any of the conditions of probation or conditional discharge, such failure shall not relieve the Court Support Services Division from the responsibility of supervising the defendant.

(c) Notwithstanding the issuance of a warrant or notice to appear or an arrest without a warrant for violation pursuant to section 53a-32, the defendant shall continue to comply with the conditions with which the defendant was previously required to comply pursuant to section 53a-30. The Court Support Services Division shall make reasonable efforts to inform the defendant of the defendant’s obligation to continue to comply with such conditions and to provide the defendant with a copy of such conditions.

(d) In any case where a person who is under a sentence of probation or of conditional discharge is also under an indeterminate sentence of imprisonment, or a sentence authorized under section 18-65a or 18-73, imposed for some other offense by a court of this state, the service of the sentence of imprisonment shall satisfy the sentence of probation or of conditional discharge unless the sentence of probation or of conditional discharge is revoked prior to parole or satisfaction of the sentence of imprisonment.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 31; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 11; P.A. 87-282, S. 20; P.A. 92-260, S. 13; P.A. 97-151, S. 1; P.A. 02-132, S. 32; P.A. 03-278, S. 103; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 36; P.A. 08-102, S. 5, 6; P.A. 11-155, S. 1; P.A. 15-211, S. 1.)

History: 1971 act substituted sentences “authorized under section 18-73 or 18-75” for “reformatory” sentences in Subsec. (c); P.A. 87-282 amended Subsec. (c) to delete obsolete reference to repealed Sec. 18-75; P.A. 92-260 amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to Sec. 18-65a; P.A. 97-151 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the court to impose any of the conditions of release set forth in Sec. 54-64a during the interrupted period and provide that, in the absence of a warrant or notice to appear for violation, the failure of the defendant to comply with any conditions of probation or conditional discharge does not relieve the Office of Adult Probation from the responsibility of supervising the defendant; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing “Office of Adult Probation” with “Court Support Services Division”; P.A. 03-278 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 9, 2003; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (b) to replace provision that during interrupted period “the court may impose any of the conditions of release set forth in section 54-64a” with provision that during such period “unless otherwise ordered by the court, the defendant shall comply with any conditions imposed or with any conditions he or she was previously required to comply pursuant to section 53a-30”, effective January 25, 2008; P.A. 08-102 amended Subsec. (b) to replace provision that during interrupted period “unless otherwise ordered by the court, the defendant shall comply with any conditions imposed or with any conditions he or she was previously required to comply pursuant to section 53a-30” with provision that during such period “the court may impose any of the conditions of release set forth in section 54-64a”, thereby reversing the change made by Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, effective May 27, 2008, and further amended Subsec. (b) to delete “During the interrupted period, the court may impose any of the conditions of release set forth in section 54-64a”, added new Subsec. (c) to require defendant to continue to comply with previously imposed conditions notwithstanding issuance of a warrant or notice to appear for a violation and require Court Support Services Division to make reasonable efforts to inform defendant of defendant’s obligation to continue to comply with such conditions and provide defendant with copy of such conditions, and redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d), effective October 1, 2008; P.A. 11-155 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that “an arraignment following an arrest without a warrant” for violation pursuant to Sec. 53a-32 interrupts period of sentence and make conforming changes and amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to an arrest without a warrant, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (a) to replace provision re sentence of imprisonment with execution suspended with provision re case in which defendant is imprisoned.

Sec. 53a-40. Persistent offenders: Definitions; defense; authorized sentences; procedure. (a) A persistent dangerous felony offender is a person who:

(1) (A) Stands convicted of manslaughter, arson, kidnapping, robbery in the first or second degree, assault in the first degree, home invasion, burglary in the first degree or burglary in the second degree with a firearm, and (B) has been, prior to the commission of the present crime, convicted of and imprisoned under a sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year or of death, in this state or in any other state or in a federal correctional institution, for any of the following crimes: (i) The crimes enumerated in subparagraph (A) of this subdivision or an attempt to commit any of said crimes; or (ii) murder, sexual assault in the first or third degree, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree or sexual assault in the third degree with a firearm, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes; or (iii) prior to October 1, 1975, any of the crimes enumerated in section 53a-72, 53a-75 or 53a-78 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1975, or prior to October 1, 1971, in this state, assault with intent to kill under section 54-117, or any of the crimes enumerated in sections 53-9, 53-10, 53-11, 53-12 to 53-16, inclusive, 53-19, 53-21, 53-69, 53-78 to 53-80, inclusive, 53-82, 53-83, 53-86, 53-238 and 53-239 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1968, or any predecessor statutes in this state, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes; or (iv) in any other state, any crimes the essential elements of which are substantially the same as any of the crimes enumerated in subparagraph (A) of this subdivision or this subparagraph; or

(2) (A) Stands convicted of sexual assault in the first or third degree, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree or sexual assault in the third degree with a firearm, and (B) has been, prior to the commission of the present crime, convicted of and imprisoned under a sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year or of death, in this state or in any other state or in a federal correctional institution, for any of the following crimes: (i) Murder, manslaughter, arson, kidnapping, robbery in the first or second degree, assault in the first degree, home invasion, burglary in the first degree or burglary in the second degree with a firearm, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes; or (ii) prior to October 1, 1971, in this state, assault with intent to kill under section 54-117, or any of the crimes enumerated in sections 53-9, 53-10, 53-11, 53-12 to 53-16, inclusive, 53-19, 53-21, 53-69, 53-78 to 53-80, inclusive, 53-82, 53-83 and 53-86 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1968, or any predecessor statutes in this state, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes; or (iii) in any other state, any crimes the essential elements of which are substantially the same as any of the crimes enumerated in subparagraph (A) of this subdivision or this subparagraph.

(b) A persistent dangerous sexual offender is a person who (1) stands convicted of sexual assault in the first or third degree, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree or sexual assault in the third degree with a firearm, and (2) has been, prior to the commission of the present crime, convicted of and imprisoned under a sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year, in this state or in any other state or in a federal correctional institution, for (A) any of the crimes enumerated in subdivision (1) of this subsection, or (B) prior to October 1, 1975, any of the crimes enumerated in section 53a-72, 53a-75 or 53a-78 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1975, or prior to October 1, 1971, in this state, any of the crimes enumerated in section 53-238 or 53-239 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1968, or any predecessor statutes in this state, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes, or (C) in any other state, any crimes the essential elements of which are substantially the same as any of the crimes enumerated in subdivision (1) of this subsection or this subdivision.

(c) A persistent serious felony offender is a person who (1) stands convicted of a felony, and (2) has been, prior to the commission of the present felony, convicted of and imprisoned under an imposed term of more than one year or of death, in this state or in any other state or in a federal correctional institution, for a crime. This subsection shall not apply where the present conviction is for a crime enumerated in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section and the prior conviction was for a crime other than those enumerated in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) A persistent serious sexual offender is a person, other than a person who qualifies as a persistent dangerous sexual offender under subsection (b) of this section, who qualifies as a persistent serious felony offender under subsection (c) of this section and the felony of which such person presently stands convicted is a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, or section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b and the prior conviction is for a violation of section 53-21 of the general statutes, revised to January 1, 1995, involving sexual contact, committed prior to October 1, 1995, a violation of subdivision (2) of section 53-21 of the general statutes, committed on or after October 1, 1995, and prior to October 1, 2000, a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21 or a violation of section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b.

(e) A persistent larceny offender is a person who (1) stands convicted of larceny in the third degree in violation of the provisions of section 53a-124 in effect prior to October 1, 1982, or larceny in the fourth, fifth or sixth degree, and (2) has been, at separate times prior to the commission of the present larceny, twice convicted of the crime of larceny.

(f) A persistent offender for possession of a controlled substance is a person who (1) stands convicted of possession of a controlled substance in violation of the provisions of section 21a-279, and (2) has been, at separate times prior to the commission of the present possession of a controlled substance, twice convicted of the crime of possession of a controlled substance.

(g) A persistent felony offender is a person who (1) stands convicted of a felony other than a class D felony, and (2) has been, at separate times prior to the commission of the present felony, twice convicted of a felony other than a class D felony.

(h) It shall be an affirmative defense to the charge of being a persistent offender under this section that (1) as to any prior conviction on which the state is relying the defendant was pardoned on the ground of innocence, and (2) without such conviction, the defendant was not two or more times convicted and imprisoned as required by this section.

(i) When any person has been found to be a persistent dangerous felony offender, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by the general statutes for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, shall (1) sentence such person to a term of imprisonment that is not (A) less than twice the minimum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or (B) more than twice the maximum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or forty years, whichever is greater, provided, if a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment is authorized for such crime, such sentence shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment that is twice such authorized mandatory minimum term of imprisonment, and (2) if such person has, at separate times prior to the commission of the present crime, been twice convicted of and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section, sentence such person to a term of imprisonment that is not less than three times the minimum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or more than life, provided, if a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment is authorized for such crime, such sentence shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment that is three times such authorized mandatory minimum term of imprisonment.

(j) When any person has been found to be a persistent dangerous sexual offender, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by section 53a-35a for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, shall sentence such person to a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to subsection (b) of section 53a-28 which together constitute a sentence of imprisonment for life, as defined in section 53a-35b.

(k) When any person has been found to be a persistent serious felony offender, the court in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by section 53a-35 for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, or authorized by section 53a-35a if the crime of which such person presently stands convicted was committed on or after July 1, 1981, may impose the sentence of imprisonment authorized by said section for the next more serious degree of felony.

(l) When any person has been found to be a persistent serious sexual offender, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by section 53a-35a for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, may impose a sentence of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to subsection (b) of section 53a-28 which together constitute the maximum sentence specified by section 53a-35a for the next more serious degree of felony.

(m) When any person has been found to be a persistent larceny offender, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence authorized by section 53a-36 for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, may impose the sentence of imprisonment for a class D felony authorized by section 53a-35, if the crime of which such person presently stands convicted was committed prior to July 1, 1981, or authorized by section 53a-35a, if the crime of which such person presently stands convicted was committed on or after July 1, 1981.

(n) When any person has been found to be a persistent offender for possession of a controlled substance, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence authorized by section 53a-36 for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, may impose the sentence of imprisonment for a class E felony authorized by section 53a-35a.

(o) When any person has been found to be a persistent felony offender, the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence authorized by section 53a-35a for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, may impose the sentence of imprisonment authorized by said section for the next more serious degree of felony; provided the sentence imposed may not be less than three years, and provided further three years of the sentence so imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

(p) (1) Whenever a person is arrested for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section, the prosecuting authority shall investigate and ascertain whether such person has, at separate times prior to the commission of the present crime, been twice convicted of and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in said subsection (a) and would be eligible to be sentenced under subsection (i) of this section if convicted of such crime.

(2) If the prosecuting authority ascertains that such person has, at separate times prior to the commission of the present crime, been twice convicted of and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section and such person has been presented to a geographical area courthouse, the prosecuting authority shall cause such person to be transferred to a judicial district courthouse.

(3) No court shall accept a plea of guilty, not guilty or nolo contendere from a person arrested for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section unless it finds that the prosecuting authority has complied with the requirements of subdivision (1) of this subsection.

(4) If the prosecuting authority ascertains that such person has, at separate times prior to the commission of the present crime, been twice convicted of and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section but decides not to initiate proceedings to seek the sentence enhancement provided by subsection (i) of this section, the prosecuting authority shall state for the record the specific reason or reasons for not initiating such proceedings.

(5) If the prosecuting authority ascertains that such person has, at separate times prior to the commission of the present crime, been twice convicted of and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in subsection (a) of this section and initiates proceedings to seek the sentence enhancement provided by subsection (i) of this section, but subsequently decides to terminate such proceedings, the prosecuting authority shall state for the record the specific reason or reasons for terminating such proceedings.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 40; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 15; P.A. 73-616, S. 40; P.A. 76-336, S. 20; P.A. 80-442, S. 12, 28; P.A. 83-4, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-603; P.A. 92-260, S. 18; P.A. 94-37, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 48; P.A. 01-84, S. 18, 26; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 6, 7; P.A. 08-51, S. 1, 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2, S. 19.)

History: 1971 act removed requirements that offenders under Subsecs. (a) and (b) have been previously convicted and imprisoned “two or more times” and “at separate times” and redefined persistent larceny offender as one who stands convicted of larceny in “the third or fourth degree” rather than in “the second or a lesser degree” in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-616 corrected section reference re assault with intent to kill, substituting Sec. 54-117 for Sec. 53-117 in Subsec. (a); P.A. 76-336 substituted sexual assault in first or third degree or sexual assault in first or third degree with a firearm for “rape” in Subsec. (a) and specified applicability of conviction for crimes enumerated in Secs. 53a-72, 53a-75 or 53a-78 prior to October 1, 1975; P.A. 80-442 specified applicability of Subsec. (b) to persistent “serious” felony offenders, inserted new Subsec. (d) re persistent felony offenders, relettering as necessary, amended Subsecs. (f) to (h), formerly (e) to (g), re crimes committed on or after July 1, 1981, and added Subsec. (i) re extended incarceration effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 83-4 amended Subsec. (c) to reflect the establishment of six degrees of larceny pursuant to P.A. 82-271 by including persons convicted of larceny in the third degree “in violation of the provisions of section 53a-124 in effect prior to October 1, 1982” and larceny in the “fifth or sixth” degree; P.A. 85-603 made a technical change to Subsec. (h) and rewrote some of the language of said Subsec. to reflect said change; P.A. 92-260 amended Subsec. (a) to replace an obsolete reference to the offense of “sexual assault in the first degree with a firearm” with its revised name of “aggravated sexual assault in the first degree”, and made other minor technical changes in Subsecs. (a), (b) and (d); P.A. 94-37 amended Subsec. (f) to revise the penalty for a person found to be a persistent dangerous felony offender by replacing the provision that permitted the court to impose the sentence of imprisonment authorized for a class A felony with the provision requiring the court to sentence such person to a term of imprisonment of not more than 40 years and by adding the provision requiring the court to sentence such person to a term of imprisonment of not more than life if such person has been twice convicted and imprisoned for any of the crimes enumerated in Subsec. (a)(2); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2 amended Subsec. (a) to delete from category of a persistent dangerous felony offender a person who stands convicted of sexual assault in the first or third degree, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree or sexual assault in the third degree with a firearm and has been previously convicted and imprisoned for more than one year for any of said crimes or any predecessor statutes, or an attempt to commit any of said crimes, to revise and restructure Subsec. to reflect such deletion and to revise Subdiv. and Subpara. indicators accordingly, added new Subsec. (b) re persistent dangerous sexual offender, new Subsec. (d) re persistent serious sexual offender, new Subsec. (i) re penalty for persistent dangerous sexual offender and new Subsec. (k) re penalty for persistent serious sexual offender, relettering intervening and remaining Subsecs. accordingly, and made provisions of section gender neutral; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (d) to replace in provision re the offense for which the person presently stands convicted the reference to “a violation of subdivision (2) of section 53-21” with “a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21”, to replace in provision re offenses for which the person was previously convicted the reference to “a violation of subdivision (2) of section 53-21” with “a violation of subdivision (2) of section 53-21 of the general statutes, committed on or after October 1, 1995, and prior to October 1, 2000,” and to add reference to a prior conviction for “a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21”, effective July 1, 2001; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (h) to replace reference to “subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section” with “subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section”, amended Subsecs. (h) and (i) to delete requirement for imposition of enhanced sentence that “the court is of the opinion that such person’s history and character and the nature and circumstances of such person’s criminal conduct indicate that extended incarceration and lifetime supervision will best serve the public interest” and amended Subsecs. (j) to (m) to delete requirement for imposition of enhanced sentence that “the court is of the opinion that such person’s history and character and the nature and circumstances of such person’s criminal conduct indicate that extended incarceration will best serve the public interest”, effective January 25, 2008, and amended Subsec. (a) to include the crimes of home invasion, burglary in the first degree and burglary in the second degree with a firearm in Subdivs. (1)(A) and (2)(B)(i), effective March 1, 2008; P.A. 08-51 amended Subsec. (h) to replace “the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by section 53a-35 for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted, or authorized by section 53a-35a if the crime of which such person presently stands convicted was committed on or after July 1, 1981,” with “the court, in lieu of imposing the sentence of imprisonment authorized by the general statutes for the crime of which such person presently stands convicted”, insert Subdiv. designators (1) and (2) and in Subdiv. (1) replace a term of imprisonment of “not more than forty years” with a term of imprisonment “that is not (A) less than twice the minimum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or (B) more than twice the maximum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or forty years, whichever is greater, provided, if a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment is authorized for such crime, such sentence shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment that is twice such authorized mandatory minimum term of imprisonment”, and in Subdiv. (2) replace reference to “subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section” with “subsection (a) of this section” and replace a term of imprisonment “of not more than life” with a term of imprisonment “that is not less than three times the minimum term of imprisonment authorized for such crime or more than life, provided, if a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment is authorized for such crime, such sentence shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment that is three times such authorized mandatory minimum term of imprisonment”, and added Subsec. (n) re obligations of the prosecuting authority and the court whenever a person is arrested for any of the crimes enumerated in Subsec. (a), effective May 8, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2 added new Subsecs. (f) and (n) re persistent offender for possession of controlled substance, redesignated existing Subsecs. (f) to (l) as Subsecs. (g) to (m) and existing Subsecs. (m) and (n) as Subsecs. (o) and (p), and made conforming changes.

Sec. 53a-46a. Imposition of sentence for capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012. Hearing. Special verdict. Mitigating and aggravating factors. Factors barring death sentence. (a) A person shall be subjected to the penalty of death for a capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012, under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, only if (1) a hearing is held in accordance with the provisions of this section, and (2) such person was eighteen years of age or older at the time the offense was committed.

(b) For the purpose of determining the sentence to be imposed when a defendant is convicted of or pleads guilty to a capital felony, the judge or judges who presided at the trial or before whom the guilty plea was entered shall conduct a separate hearing to determine the existence of any mitigating factor concerning the defendant’s character, background and history, or the nature and circumstances of the crime, and any aggravating factor set forth in subsection (i) of this section. Such hearing shall not be held if the state stipulates that none of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section exists or that any factor set forth in subsection (h) of this section exists. Such hearing shall be conducted (1) before the jury that determined the defendant’s guilt, or (2) before a jury impaneled for the purpose of such hearing if (A) the defendant was convicted upon a plea of guilty; (B) the defendant was convicted after a trial before three judges as provided in subsection (b) of section 53a-45; or (C) if the jury that determined the defendant’s guilt has been discharged by the court for good cause, or (3) before the court, on motion of the defendant and with the approval of the court and the consent of the state.

(c) In such hearing the court shall disclose to the defendant or his counsel all material contained in any presentence report that may have been prepared. No presentence information withheld from the defendant shall be considered in determining the existence of any mitigating or aggravating factor. Any information relevant to any mitigating factor may be presented by either the state or the defendant, regardless of its admissibility under the rules governing admission of evidence in trials of criminal matters, but the admissibility of information relevant to any of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section shall be governed by the rules governing the admission of evidence in such trials. The state and the defendant shall be permitted to rebut any information received at the hearing and shall be given fair opportunity to present argument as to the adequacy of the information to establish the existence of any mitigating or aggravating factor. The burden of establishing any of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section shall be on the state. The burden of establishing any mitigating factor shall be on the defendant.

(d) In determining whether a mitigating factor exists concerning the defendant’s character, background or history, or the nature and circumstances of the crime, pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the jury or, if there is no jury, the court shall first determine whether a particular factor concerning the defendant’s character, background or history, or the nature and circumstances of the crime, has been established by the evidence, and shall determine further whether that factor is mitigating in nature, considering all the facts and circumstances of the case. Mitigating factors are such as do not constitute a defense or excuse for the capital felony of which the defendant has been convicted, but which, in fairness and mercy, may be considered as tending either to extenuate or reduce the degree of his culpability or blame for the offense or to otherwise constitute a basis for a sentence less than death.

(e) The jury or, if there is no jury, the court shall return a special verdict setting forth its findings as to the existence of any factor set forth in subsection (h) of this section, the existence of any aggravating factor or factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section and whether any aggravating factor or factors outweigh any mitigating factor or factors found to exist pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(f) If the jury or, if there is no jury, the court finds that (1) none of the factors set forth in subsection (h) of this section exist, (2) one or more of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section exist, and (3) (A) no mitigating factor exists or (B) one or more mitigating factors exist but are outweighed by one or more aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section, the court shall sentence the defendant to death.

(g) If the jury or, if there is no jury, the court finds that (1) any of the factors set forth in subsection (h) of this section exist, or (2) none of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section exists, or (3) one or more of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section exist and one or more mitigating factors exist, but the one or more aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) of this section do not outweigh the one or more mitigating factors, the court shall impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of release.

(h) The court shall not impose the sentence of death on the defendant if the jury or, if there is no jury, the court finds by a special verdict, as provided in subsection (e) of this section, that at the time of the offense (1) the defendant was a person with intellectual disability, as defined in section 1-1g, or (2) the defendant’s mental capacity was significantly impaired or the defendant’s ability to conform the defendant’s conduct to the requirements of law was significantly impaired but not so impaired in either case as to constitute a defense to prosecution, or (3) the defendant was criminally liable under sections 53a-8, 53a-9 and 53a-10 for the offense, which was committed by another, but the defendant’s participation in such offense was relatively minor, although not so minor as to constitute a defense to prosecution, or (4) the defendant could not reasonably have foreseen that the defendant’s conduct in the course of commission of the offense of which the defendant was convicted would cause, or would create a grave risk of causing, death to another person.

(i) The aggravating factors to be considered shall be limited to the following: (1) The defendant committed the offense during the commission or attempted commission of, or during the immediate flight from the commission or attempted commission of, a felony and the defendant had previously been convicted of the same felony; or (2) the defendant committed the offense after having been convicted of two or more state offenses or two or more federal offenses or of one or more state offenses and one or more federal offenses for each of which a penalty of more than one year imprisonment may be imposed, which offenses were committed on different occasions and which involved the infliction of serious bodily injury upon another person; or (3) the defendant committed the offense and in such commission knowingly created a grave risk of death to another person in addition to the victim of the offense; or (4) the defendant committed the offense in an especially heinous, cruel or depraved manner; or (5) the defendant procured the commission of the offense by payment, or promise of payment, of anything of pecuniary value; or (6) the defendant committed the offense as consideration for the receipt, or in expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value; or (7) the defendant committed the offense with an assault weapon, as defined in section 53-202a; or (8) the defendant committed the offense set forth in subdivision (1) of section 53a-54b to avoid arrest for a criminal act or prevent detection of a criminal act or to hamper or prevent the victim from carrying out any act within the scope of the victim’s official duties or to retaliate against the victim for the performance of the victim’s official duties.

(P.A. 73-137, S. 4; P.A. 80-332, S. 1; 80-442, S. 14, 28; P.A. 85-366, S. 1; P.A. 93-306, S. 12; P.A. 95-19, S. 1; P.A. 01-151, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 11-129, S. 20; P.A. 12-5, S. 5; P.A. 15-84, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 80-332 restated provisions and referred to mitigating or aggravating factors throughout, replacing references to factors set forth in Subsecs. (f) and (g); P.A. 80-442 referred to imposition of sentence in accordance with Sec. 53a-35a(1) rather than to sentence for a Class A felony in Subsec. (e), effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 85-366 added a new Subsec. (d) to specify the procedure for the determination by a jury or court of the existence of a mitigating factor and to add a definition of mitigating factors, relettered the remaining Subsecs. and amended Subsec. (f) to replace “a sentence in accordance with Sec. 53a-35a(1)” with “a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of release”; P.A. 93-306 amended Subsec. (h) to add as an aggravating factor that the defendant committed the offense with an assault weapon; P.A. 95-19 revised section to permit the jury or court to make findings as to whether any aggravating factor or factors outweigh any mitigating factor or factors and require the court to sentence the defendant accordingly, while retaining provision that the existence of certain factors concerning the defendant will operate to automatically bar the imposition of the death sentence, and, more specifically, amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the separate hearing shall not be held if the state stipulates “that any factor set forth in subsection (h) exists” rather than “that one or more mitigating factors exist” and make technical changes, amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (e) to require the jury or court to return a special verdict setting forth its findings as to “the existence of any factor set forth in subsection (h), the existence of any aggravating factor or factors set forth in subsection (i) and whether any aggravating factor or factors outweigh any mitigating factor or factors found to exist pursuant to subsection (d)” rather than “the existence of any aggravating or mitigating factor”, amended Subsec. (f) to revise the circumstances that must be found for the court to impose the death sentence by requiring the court to sentence the defendant to death if the jury or court finds “that (1) none of the factors set forth in subsection (h) exist, (2) one or more of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) exist and (3)(A) no mitigating factor exists or (B) one or more mitigating factors exist but are outweighed by one or more aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i)” rather than “that one or more of the factors set forth in subsection (h) exist and that no mitigating factor exists”, designated provisions of Subsec. (f) re the circumstances that must be found for the court to impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of release as new Subsec. (g) and amended said Subsec. to require the court to impose said sentence if the jury or court finds “that (1) any of the factors set forth in subsection (h) exist, or (2) none of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) exists or (3) one or more of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) exist and one or more mitigating factors exist, but the one or more aggravating factors set forth in subsection (i) do not outweigh the one or more mitigating factors” rather than “that none of the factors set forth in subsection (h) exists or that one or more mitigating factors exist”, redesignated former Subsec. (g) as new Subsec. (h) and amended said Subsec. to replace the provision that the court shall not impose the death sentence if the jury or court finds that “any mitigating factor exists” and that “the mitigating factors to be considered concerning the defendant shall include, but are not limited to” the five enumerated factors with the provision that the court shall not impose the death sentence if the jury or court finds any of the enumerated factors and deleted former Subdiv. (3) as a factor that would in and of itself bar the imposition of the death sentence the circumstance that at the time of the offense the defendant “was under unusual and substantial duress, although not such duress as to constitute a defense to prosecution”, renumbering Subdivs. (4) and (5) as Subdivs. (3) and (4), respectively, redesignated former Subsec. (h) re aggravating factors as new Subsec. (i) and amended said Subsec. to replace the provision requiring the court to impose the death sentence if no mitigating factor is present and the jury or court finds one of the enumerated factors with “The aggravating factors to be considered shall be limited to the following:”; P.A. 01-151 amended Subsec. (h) to add new Subdiv. (2) barring the imposition of the death sentence on a defendant who was a person with mental retardation, as defined in Sec. 1-1g, redesignate existing Subdivs. (2), (3) and (4) as Subdivs. (3), (4) and (5), and make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality and amended Subsec. (i) to add Subdiv. (8) establishing as an aggravating factor the commission of the offense set forth in Sec. 53a-54b(1) to avoid arrest for a criminal act, prevent detection of a criminal act, hamper or prevent the victim carrying out the victim’s official duties or retaliate against the victim for performance of the victim’s official duties and make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; pursuant to P.A. 11-129, “mental retardation” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “intellectual disability” in Subsec. (h)(2); P.A. 12-5 amended Subsec. (a) to replace reference to capital felony with provision re capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012, under provisions of Sec. 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, effective April 25, 2012; P.A. 15-84 amended Subsec. (a) to designate existing provision re hearing as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdiv. (2) re person 18 years of age or older at time of offense, amended Subsec. (h) to delete former Subdiv. (1) re defendant under age 18 and redesignate existing Subdivs. (2) to (5) as Subdivs. (1) to (4), and made technical changes, effective October 1, 2015, and applicable to any person convicted prior to, on or after that date.

PART IV

HOMICIDE

Sec. 53a-54a. Murder. (a) A person is guilty of murder when, with intent to cause the death of another person, he causes the death of such person or of a third person or causes a suicide by force, duress or deception; except that in any prosecution under this subsection, it shall be an affirmative defense that the defendant committed the proscribed act or acts under the influence of extreme emotional disturbance for which there was a reasonable explanation or excuse, the reasonableness of which is to be determined from the viewpoint of a person in the defendant’s situation under the circumstances as the defendant believed them to be, provided nothing contained in this subsection shall constitute a defense to a prosecution for, or preclude a conviction of, manslaughter in the first degree or any other crime.

(b) Evidence that the defendant suffered from a mental disease, mental defect or other mental abnormality is admissible, in a prosecution under subsection (a) of this section, on the question of whether the defendant acted with intent to cause the death of another person.

(c) Murder is punishable as a class A felony in accordance with subdivision (2) of section 53a-35a unless it is (1) a capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012, by a person who was eighteen years of age or older at the time of the offense, punishable in accordance with subparagraph (A) of subdivision (1) of section 53a-35a, (2) murder with special circumstances committed on or after April 25, 2012, by a person who was eighteen years of age or older at the time of the offense, punishable as a class A felony in accordance with subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of section 53a-35a, or (3) murder under section 53a-54d committed by a person who was eighteen years of age or older at the time of the offense.

(P.A. 73-137, S. 2; P.A. 80-442, S. 15, 28; P.A. 83-486, S. 4; P.A. 92-260, S. 26; P.A. 12-5, S. 7; P.A. 15-84, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 80-442 amended Subsec. (c) to specify punishment in accordance with Sec. 53a-35a(2), deleting reference to death penalty imposed as provided by Sec. 53a-46a for capital felony, effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 83-486 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “acted” with “committed the proscribed act or acts”; P.A. 92-260 amended Subsec. (c) to add exception for murder under Sec. 53a-54d; P.A. 12-5 amended Subsec. (c) to replace reference to capital felony with provision re capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012, punishable under Sec. 53a-35a(1)(A), or murder with special circumstances committed on or after April 25, 2012, punishable as a class A felony under Sec. 53a-35a(1)(B), effective April 25, 2012; P.A. 15-84 amended Subsec. (c) to designate existing provision re capital felony as Subdiv. (1), existing provision re murder with special circumstances as Subdiv. (2) and existing provision re murder under Sec. 53a-54d as Subdiv. (3) and add provisions re person 18 years of age or older at time of offense, effective October 1, 2015, and applicable to any person convicted prior to, on or after that date.

Sec. 53a-54b. Murder with special circumstances. A person is guilty of murder with special circumstances who is convicted of any of the following and was eighteen years of age or older at the time of the offense: (1) Murder of a member of the Division of State Police within the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection or of any local police department, a chief inspector or inspector in the Division of Criminal Justice, a state marshal who is exercising authority granted under any provision of the general statutes, a judicial marshal in performance of the duties of a judicial marshal, a constable who performs criminal law enforcement duties, a special policeman appointed under section 29-18, a conservation officer or special conservation officer appointed by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection under the provisions of section 26-5, an employee of the Department of Correction or a person providing services on behalf of said department when such employee or person is acting within the scope of such employee’s or person’s employment or duties in a correctional institution or facility and the actor is confined in such institution or facility, or any firefighter, while such victim was acting within the scope of such victim’s duties; (2) murder committed by a defendant who is hired to commit the same for pecuniary gain or murder committed by one who is hired by the defendant to commit the same for pecuniary gain; (3) murder committed by one who has previously been convicted of intentional murder or of murder committed in the course of commission of a felony; (4) murder committed by one who was, at the time of commission of the murder, under sentence of life imprisonment; (5) murder by a kidnapper of a kidnapped person during the course of the kidnapping or before such person is able to return or be returned to safety; (6) murder committed in the course of the commission of sexual assault in the first degree; (7) murder of two or more persons at the same time or in the course of a single transaction; or (8) murder of a person under sixteen years of age.

(P.A. 73-137, S. 3; P.A. 77-604, S. 39, 84; 77-614, S. 486, 610; P.A. 80-335; P.A. 85-144; P.A. 92-260, S. 27; P.A. 95-16, S. 4; P.A. 98-126, S. 1; P.A. 00-99, S. 120, 154; P.A. 01-84, S. 10, 26; 01-151, S. 3, 5; P.A. 11-51, S. 134; 11-80, S. 1; P.A. 12-5, S. 1; P.A. 15-84, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 77-604 substituted “chief inspector or inspector in the division of criminal justice” for “county detective” in Subdiv. (1); P.A. 77-614 made state police department a division within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-335 added Subdivs. (7) and (8) making murder in course of committing sexual assault in first degree and murder of two or more persons at same time a capital felony; P.A. 85-144 amended Subdiv. (6) by adding “economic” and deleting the proviso that the seller was not, at the time of such sale, a drug-dependent person; P.A. 92-260 made technical changes in Subdivs. (1) and (3); P.A. 95-16 added Subdiv. (9) re murder of a person under 16 years of age; P.A. 98-126 amended Subdiv. (1) to replace “an official of the Department of Correction authorized by the Commissioner of Correction to make arrests in a correctional institution or facility” with “an employee of the Department of Correction or a person providing services on behalf of said department when such employee or person is acting within the scope of his employment or duties in a correctional institution or facility and the actor is confined in such institution or facility”; P.A. 00-99 amended Subdiv. (1) to replace reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff with provision re state marshal exercising statutory authority and judicial marshal in performance of duties, effective December 1, 2000; P.A. 01-84 replaced “fireman” with “firefighter” and made other technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 01-151 amended Subdiv. (1) to include the murder of a conservation officer or special conservation officer appointed by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection under the provisions of Sec. 26-5, deleted former Subdiv. (6) re the illegal sale, for economic gain, of cocaine, heroin or methadone to a person who dies as a direct result of the use of such cocaine, heroin or methadone, redesignating existing Subdivs. (7), (8) and (9) as Subdivs. (6), (7) and (8), and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, “Department of Public Safety” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection”, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Commissioner of Environmental Protection” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-5 substituted “murder with special circumstances” for “capital felony”, effective April 25, 2012, and applicable to crimes committed on or after that date; P.A. 15-84 added provision re person 18 years of age or older at time of offense, effective October 1, 2015, and applicable to any person convicted prior to, on or after that date.

Sec. 53a-54c. Felony murder. A person is guilty of murder when, acting either alone or with one or more persons, such person commits or attempts to commit robbery, home invasion, burglary, kidnapping, sexual assault in the first degree, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree, sexual assault in the third degree, sexual assault in the third degree with a firearm, escape in the first degree, or escape in the second degree and, in the course of and in furtherance of such crime or of flight therefrom, such person, or another participant, if any, causes the death of a person other than one of the participants, except that in any prosecution under this section, in which the defendant was not the only participant in the underlying crime, it shall be an affirmative defense that the defendant: (1) Did not commit the homicidal act or in any way solicit, request, command, importune, cause or aid the commission thereof; and (2) was not armed with a deadly weapon, or any dangerous instrument; and (3) had no reasonable ground to believe that any other participant was armed with such a weapon or instrument; and (4) had no reasonable ground to believe that any other participant intended to engage in conduct likely to result in death or serious physical injury.

(P.A. 74-186, S. 11, 12; P.A. 76-336, S. 21; P.A. 79-570, S. 2; P.A. 92-260, S. 28; P.A. 15-211, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 76-336 replaced rape in first degree, deviate sexual intercourse in first degree and sexual contact in first degree with sexual assault in first degree, sexual assault in first degree with firearm, sexual assault in third degree and sexual assault in third degree with firearm; P.A. 79-570 removed murder resulting from commission of or attempt to commit arson from purview of section; P.A. 92-260 replaced obsolete reference to offense of “sexual assault in the first degree with a firearm” with revised name of “aggravated sexual assault in the first degree”; (Revisor’s note: In 1995 the indicators (A), (B), (C) and (D) were changed editorially by the Revisors to (1), (2), (3) and (4) respectively for consistency with statutory usage); P.A. 15-211 added “home invasion,” and made technical changes.

Sec. 53a-54d. Arson murder. A person is guilty of murder when, acting either alone or with one or more persons, he commits arson and, in the course of such arson, causes the death of a person. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, any person convicted of murder under this section who was eighteen years of age or older at the time of the offense shall be punished by life imprisonment and shall not be eligible for parole.

(P.A. 79-570, S. 1; P.A. 15-84, S. 8.)

History: P.A. 15-84 added provision re person 18 years of age or older at time of offense, effective October 1, 2015, and applicable to any person convicted prior to, on or after that date.

PART V

ASSAULT AND RELATED OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-60. Assault in the second degree: Class D or C felony. (a) A person is guilty of assault in the second degree when: (1) With intent to cause serious physical injury to another person, the actor causes such injury to such person or to a third person; or (2) with intent to cause physical injury to another person, the actor causes such injury to such person or to a third person by means of a deadly weapon or a dangerous instrument other than by means of the discharge of a firearm; or (3) the actor recklessly causes serious physical injury to another person by means of a deadly weapon or a dangerous instrument; or (4) for a purpose other than lawful medical or therapeutic treatment, the actor intentionally causes stupor, unconsciousness or other physical impairment or injury to another person by administering to such person, without his consent, a drug, substance or preparation capable of producing the same; or (5) the actor is a parolee from a correctional institution and with intent to cause physical injury to an employee or member of the Board of Pardons and Paroles, he causes physical injury to such employee or member; or (6) with intent to cause serious physical injury to another person by rendering such other person unconscious, and without provocation by such other person, the actor causes such injury to such other person by striking such other person on the head; or (7) with intent to cause physical injury to another person, the actor causes such injury to such person by striking or kicking such person in the head while such person is in a lying position.

(b) Assault in the second degree is a class D felony or, if the offense resulted in serious physical injury, a class C felony.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 61; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 18; P.A. 73-639, S. 20; P.A. 84-236, S. 4; P.A. 93-246, S. 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 5; P.A. 04-234, S, 2; P.A. 14-220, S. 1; P.A. 15-211, S. 4.)

History: 1971 act added Subsec. (a)(6) re physical injury to employee of department of correction or member of parole board; P.A. 73-639 deleted former Subsec. (a)(3) re physical injury to peace officer or fireman resulting from intentional attempt to prevent such person from performing his duty, renumbering accordingly; P.A. 84-236 amended Subsec. (a)(5) by changing “committed to” to “in the custody of” and adding phrase “confined in any institution or facility of the department of correction”; P.A. 93-246 amended Subsec. (a)(5) to delete from the scope of the offense a person who is in the custody of the commissioner of correction or confined in any institution or facility of the department of correction and with intent to cause physical injury to an employee of the department of correction causes physical injury to such employee; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add “other than by means of the discharge of a firearm” to reflect changes made to Sec. 53a-59 by same public act; P.A. 04-234 replaced Board of Parole with Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 14-220 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (6) re serious physical injury by rendering person unconscious by striking on the head; P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (7) re striking or kicking a person in the head and make technical changes, and amended Subsec. (b) to add provision re offense resulting in serious physical injury is a class C felony.

PART VI

SEX OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony. (a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the first degree when such person (1) compels another person to engage in sexual intercourse by the use of force against such other person or a third person, or by the threat of use of force against such other person or against a third person which reasonably causes such person to fear physical injury to such person or a third person, or (2) engages in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is under thirteen years of age and the actor is more than two years older than such person, or (3) commits sexual assault in the second degree as provided in section 53a-71 and in the commission of such offense is aided by two or more other persons actually present, or (4) engages in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is mentally incapacitated to the extent that such other person is unable to consent to such sexual intercourse.

(b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, sexual assault in the first degree is a class B felony for which two years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court or, if the victim of the offense is under ten years of age, for which ten years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

(2) Sexual assault in the first degree is a class A felony if the offense is a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section and the victim of the offense is under sixteen years of age or the offense is a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section. Any person found guilty under said subdivision (1) or (2) shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which ten years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court if the victim is under ten years of age or of which five years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court if the victim is under sixteen years of age.

(3) Any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of at least ten years, a portion of which may be suspended, except as provided in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, or a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to subsection (b) of section 53a-28 which together constitute a sentence of at least ten years. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 53a-29 and except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a court may suspend a portion of a sentence imposed under this subsection and impose a period of supervised probation pursuant to subsection (f) of section 53a-29.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 71; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 19; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 78; P.A. 75-619, S. 3; P.A. 82-428, S. 2; P.A. 89-359; P.A. 92-87, S. 3; P.A. 93-340, S. 14; P.A. 95-142, S. 13; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 49; P.A. 00-161, S. 1; P.A. 02-138, S. 5; P.A. 15-211, S. 16.)

History: 1971 act replaced alphabetic Subdiv. indicators in Subsec. (a) with numeric indicators; 1972 act changed applicable age in Subsec. (a)(1) from 21 to 18 reflecting lowered age of majority; P.A. 75-619 reworded section to reflect changes in definitions of Sec. 53a-65, substituted sexual “assault” for sexual “misconduct” and made the offense a Class B rather than Class D felony; P.A. 82-428 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that 1 year of sentence may not be suspended or reduced by the court; P.A. 89-359 added Subsec. (a)(2) re engaging in sexual intercourse with a person under 13 years of age; P.A. 92-87 added Subsec. (a)(3) re committing sexual assault in the second degree while aided by two or more other persons actually present; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to require that the actor be more than 2 years older than the other person; P.A. 95-142 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that 10 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court if the victim is under 10 years of age; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2 amended Subsec. (b) to increase from 1 year to 2 years the nonsuspendable portion of the sentence imposed when the victim is other than a victim under 10 years of age and to add requirement that any person found guilty be sentenced to a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to Sec. 53a-28(b) which together constitute a sentence of at least 10 years; P.A. 00-161 added Subsec. (a)(4) re engaging in sexual intercourse with a person who is mentally incapacitated, which conduct was formerly classified as sexual assault in the second degree under Sec. 53a-71(a)(2) but was deleted from said section by same public act; P.A. 02-138 amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing provision re classification of offense and length of nonsuspendable sentence as Subdiv. (1) and amending said Subdiv. to add exception re Subdiv. (2), adding new Subdiv. (2) to classify the offense as a class A felony for a violation of Subsec. (a)(1) when the victim is under 16 years of age and for a violation of Subsec. (a)(2) and establish a nonsuspendable sentence for said violations of 10 years if the victim is under 10 years of age and 5 years if the victim is under 16 years of age and designating existing provisions re minimum length of a combined sentence of imprisonment and special parole as Subdiv. (3); P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to add provision re term of imprisonment of at least 10 years, a portion of which may be suspended, and exception and add provision re suspension of sentence and imposition of period of supervised probation.

Sec. 53a-70a. Aggravated sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony. (a) A person is guilty of aggravated sexual assault in the first degree when such person commits sexual assault in the first degree as provided in section 53a-70, and in the commission of such offense (1) such person uses or is armed with and threatens the use of or displays or represents by such person’s words or conduct that such person possesses a deadly weapon, (2) with intent to disfigure the victim seriously and permanently, or to destroy, amputate or disable permanently a member or organ of the victim’s body, such person causes such injury to such victim, (3) under circumstances evincing an extreme indifference to human life such person recklessly engages in conduct which creates a risk of death to the victim, and thereby causes serious physical injury to such victim, or (4) such person is aided by two or more other persons actually present. No person shall be convicted of sexual assault in the first degree and aggravated sexual assault in the first degree upon the same transaction but such person may be charged and prosecuted for both such offenses upon the same information.

(b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, aggravated sexual assault in the first degree is a class B felony. Any person found guilty under this section of a class B felony shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of at least ten years, five years of which may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

(2) Aggravated sexual assault in the first degree is a class A felony if the victim of the offense is under sixteen years of age. Any person found guilty under this section of a class A felony shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which ten years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, except that, if such person committed sexual assault in the first degree by violating subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-70, and the victim of the offense is under sixteen years of age, twenty years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 53a-29 and except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a court may suspend a portion of a sentence imposed under this subdivision and impose a period of probation pursuant to subsection (f) of section 53a-29, or may impose a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to subsection (b) of section 53a-28.

(P.A. 75-619, S. 9; P.A. 80-442, S. 20, 28; P.A. 87-246; P.A. 92-87, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 50; P.A. 02-138, S. 6; P.A. 15-211, S. 17.)

History: P.A. 80-442 substituted “deadly weapon” for “firearm” and reference to specific firearms where occurring and increased portion of sentence which may not be suspended or reduced from 1 year to 5 years in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 87-246 changed the name of the offense from sexual assault in the first degree with a deadly weapon to aggravated sexual assault in the first degree and added Subsec. (a)(2) re disfiguring the victim or destroying, amputating or disabling a member or organ of the victim and (a)(3) re recklessly engaging in conduct creating a risk of death to the victim and thereby causing serious physical injury to the victim; P.A. 92-87 added Subsec. (a)(4) re commission of the offense while aided by two or more other persons actually present; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2 amended Subsec. (b) to add requirement that any person found guilty be sentenced to a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole pursuant to Sec. 53a-28(b) which together constitute a sentence of 20 years and made provisions of section gender neutral; P.A. 02-138 amended Subsec. (b) to classify the offense as a class A felony if the victim is under 16 years of age, add exception re 20-year nonsuspendable sentence if the violation is of Sec. 53a-70(a)(1) and the victim is under 16 years of age and replace provision that a person found guilty shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment and a period of special parole “which together constitute a sentence of twenty years” with provision that a person found guilty shall be sentenced to a period of special parole “of at least five years”; P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing provision re class B felony as Subdiv. (1) and amend same to add reference to Subdiv. (2) and add provision re sentence of at least 10 years imprisonment, 5 years of which may not be suspended or reduced, to designate existing provision re class A felony as Subdiv. (2) and amend same to increase imprisonment from 5 years to 10 years and add provision re suspension of sentence and imposition of period of probation, and to make technical and conforming changes.

PART VIII

BURGLARY, CRIMINAL TRESPASS, ARSON,
CRIMINAL MISCHIEF AND RELATED OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-110a. Simple trespass: Infraction. (a) A person is guilty of simple trespass when, knowing that such person is not licensed or privileged to do so, such person enters or remains in or on any premises without intent to harm any property.

(b) Simple trespass is an infraction.

(P.A. 83-276, S. 1; P.A. 92-260, S. 45; P.A. 15-211, S. 8.)

History: P.A. 92-260 made technical changes; P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re remaining in or on any premises and making technical changes.

PART XI

BRIBERY, OFFENSES AGAINST THE ADMINISTRATION
OF JUSTICE AND OTHER RELATED OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-155. Tampering with or fabricating physical evidence: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of tampering with or fabricating physical evidence if, believing that a criminal investigation conducted by a law enforcement agency or an official proceeding is pending, or about to be instituted, such person: (1) Alters, destroys, conceals or removes any record, document or thing with purpose to impair its verity or availability in such criminal investigation or official proceeding; or (2) makes, presents or uses any record, document or thing knowing it to be false and with purpose to mislead a public servant who is or may be engaged in such criminal investigation or official proceeding.

(b) Tampering with or fabricating physical evidence is a class D felony.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 157; P.A. 15-211, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re criminal investigation conducted by law enforcement agency and making technical and conforming changes.

Sec. 53a-167c. Assault of public safety, emergency medical, public transit or health care personnel: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of assault of public safety, emergency medical, public transit or health care personnel when, with intent to prevent a reasonably identifiable peace officer, special policeman appointed under section 29-18b, motor vehicle inspector designated under section 14-8 and certified pursuant to section 7-294d, firefighter or employee of an emergency medical service organization, as defined in section 53a-3, emergency room physician or nurse, health care employee as defined in section 19a-490q, employee of the Department of Correction, member or employee of the Board of Pardons and Paroles, probation officer, employee of the Judicial Branch assigned to provide pretrial secure detention and programming services to juveniles accused of the commission of a delinquent act, liquor control agent, state or municipal animal control officer, security officer, employee of the Department of Children and Families assigned to provide direct services to children and youths in the care or custody of the department, employee of a municipal police department assigned to provide security at the police department’s lockup and holding facility, active individual member of a volunteer canine search and rescue team, as defined in section 5-249, or public transit employee from performing his or her duties, and while such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, health care employee, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member is acting in the performance of his or her duties, (1) such person causes physical injury to such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member, or (2) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any rock, bottle, can or other article, object or missile of any kind capable of causing physical harm, damage or injury, at such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member, or (3) such person uses or causes to be used any mace, tear gas or any like or similar deleterious agent against such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member, or (4) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any paint, dye or other like or similar staining, discoloring or coloring agent or any type of offensive or noxious liquid, agent or substance at such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member, or (5) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any bodily fluid including, but not limited to, urine, feces, blood or saliva at such peace officer, special policeman, motor vehicle inspector, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, liquor control agent, animal control officer, security officer, probation officer or active individual member. For the purposes of this section, “public transit employee” means a person employed by the state, a political subdivision of the state, a transit district formed under chapter 103a or a person with whom the Commissioner of Transportation has contracted in accordance with section 13b-34 to provide transportation services who operates a vehicle or vessel providing public ferry service or fixed route bus service or performs duties directly related to the operation of such vehicle or vessel, or who, as part of the provision of public rail service, is a train operator, conductor, inspector, signal person or station agent and “security officer” has the same meaning as provided in section 29-152u.

(b) Assault of public safety, emergency medical, public transit or health care personnel is a class C felony. If any person who is confined in an institution or facility of the Department of Correction is sentenced to a term of imprisonment for assault of an employee of the Department of Correction under this section, such term shall run consecutively to the term for which the person was serving at the time of the assault.

(c) In any prosecution under this section involving assault of a health care employee, as defined in section 19a-490q, it shall be a defense that the defendant is a person with a disability as described in subdivision (13), (15) or (20) of section 46a-51 and the defendant’s conduct was a clear and direct manifestation of the disability.

(P.A. 73-639, S. 19; P.A. 90-157, S. 2; 90-250, S. 2; P.A. 93-246, S. 1; P.A. 94-62; P.A. 98-41; P.A. 99-26, S. 28; 99-204; P.A. 01-84, S. 13, 26; P.A. 03-6, S. 1; 03-19, S. 126; P.A. 04-234, S. 2; 04-241, S. 3; 04-257, S. 120; P.A. 05-108, S. 7; 05-180, S. 6; P.A. 06-196, S. 185; P.A. 08-150, S. 54; P.A. 09-191, S. 2; P.A. 10-36, S. 24; P.A. 11-175, S. 4; P.A. 13-111, S. 1; P.A. 15-211, S. 15.)

History: P.A. 90-157 applied provisions to assaults of employees of an emergency medical service organization; P.A. 90-250 applied provisions to employees of the department of correction, specified that assault must occur while peace officer, fireman or correction department employee is acting in performance of his duties and added provision re consecutive sentences for persons sentenced for assault of correction department employees; P.A. 93-246 applied provisions to assault of an employee or member of the board of parole or probation officer; P.A. 94-62 applied the provisions to emergency room physicians and emergency room nurses; P.A. 98-41 applied provisions to an assault of an employee of the Judicial Branch assigned to provide pretrial secure detention and programming services to juveniles accused of the commission of a delinquent act or an assault of an employee of the Department of Children and Families performing duties at Long Lane School; P.A. 99-26 revised the category of employees of the Department of Children and Families to which provisions apply by replacing an employee “performing duties at Long Lane School” with an employee “assigned to provide direct services to children and youth in the care or custody of the department”; P.A. 99-204 added Subsec. (a)(5) re throwing or hurling any bodily fluid at specified personnel and changed the name of the offense to “assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel” where appearing; P.A. 01-84 replaced “fireman” with “firefighter” in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of an employee of a municipal police department assigned to provide security at the police department’s lockup and holding facility and make a technical change for the purpose of gender neutrality; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 04-234 replaced Board of Parole with Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-241 applied provisions to assaults of active individual members of volunteer canine search and rescue teams; P.A. 04-257 amended Subsec. (a) to delete reference to an employee of the Board of Parole, effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-108 amended Subsec. (a) to restore reference to an employee of the Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective June 7, 2005; P.A. 05-180 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of a special policeman appointed under Sec. 29-18b; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 08-150 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of Department of Motor Vehicles inspector appointed under Sec. 14-8 and certified pursuant to Sec. 7-294d; P.A. 09-191 amended Subsec. (a) to define and apply provisions to a “public transit employee”, and changed name of the offense to “assault of public safety, emergency medical or public transit personnel”; P.A. 10-36 amended Subsec. (a) to replace “Department of Motor Vehicles inspector appointed” with “motor vehicle inspector designated”, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-175 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of a “health care employee as defined in section 19a-490q” and added Subsec. (c) re disability defense for defendant being prosecuted for assault of a health care employee; P.A. 13-111 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to liquor control agent; P.A. 15-211 amended Subsec. (a) to add references to state or municipal animal control officer and security officer, redefine “public transit employee” by adding provision re public rail service and add definition of “security officer”.

PART XIV

BREACH OF THE PEACE, HARASSMENT
AND RELATED OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-181f. Electronic stalking: Class B misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of electronic stalking when such person recklessly causes another person to reasonably fear for his or her physical safety by wilfully and repeatedly using a global positioning system or similar electronic monitoring system to remotely determine or track the position or movement of such other person.

(b) Electronic stalking is a class B misdemeanor.

(P.A. 15-175, S. 1.)

PART XVII

TAMPERING WITH PRIVATE COMMUNICATIONS,
EAVESDROPPING, VOYEURISM AND UNLAWFUL
DISSEMINATION OF INTIMATE IMAGES

Sec. 53a-189a. Voyeurism: Class D or C felony. (a) A person is guilty of voyeurism when, (1) with malice, such person knowingly photographs, films, videotapes or otherwise records the image of another person (A) without the knowledge and consent of such other person, (B) while such other person is not in plain view, and (C) under circumstances where such other person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, (2) with intent to arouse or satisfy the sexual desire of such person or any other person, such person knowingly photographs, films, videotapes or otherwise records the image of another person (A) without the knowledge and consent of such other person, (B) while such other person is not in plain view, and (C) under circumstances where such other person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, (3) with the intent to arouse or satisfy the sexual desire of such person, commits simple trespass, as provided in section 53a-110a, and observes, in other than a casual or cursory manner, another person (A) without the knowledge or consent of such other person, (B) while such other person is inside a dwelling, as defined in section 53a-100, and not in plain view, and (C) under circumstances where such other person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, or (4) with intent to arouse or satisfy the sexual desire of such person or any other person, such person knowingly photographs, films, videotapes or otherwise records the genitals, pubic area or buttocks of another person or the undergarments or stockings that clothe the genitals, pubic area or buttocks of another person (A) without the knowledge and consent of such other person, and (B) while such genitals, pubic area, buttocks, undergarments or stockings are not in plain view.

(b) Voyeurism is (1) a class D felony for a first offense, except as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, (2) a class C felony for any subsequent offense, and (3) a class C felony for a first offense when (A) such person has been previously convicted of an offense enumerated in subsection (f) of section 53a-29, or (B) the intended subject of the offense is a person under sixteen years of age.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 54-193, no person may be prosecuted for an offense under subdivision (1), (2) or (4) of subsection (a) of this section except within five years from the date of the offense, or within five years from the date the subject of the offense discovers the existence of the photograph, film, videotape or other recording that constitutes a violation of subdivision (1), (2) or (4) of subsection (a) of this section, whichever is later.

(P.A. 99-143, S. 1; P.A. 03-114, S. 1; P.A. 06-187, S. 42; 06-196, S. 292; P.A. 15-213, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 03-114 increased the penalty from a class A misdemeanor to a class D felony; P.A. 06-187 amended Subsec. (a) to designate elements of the offense committed with the mens rea of malice as new Subdiv. (1), redesignate existing Subdivs. (1), (2) and (3) as Subparas. (A), (B) and (C) of new Subdiv. (1) and reenact elements of the offense committed with the mens rea of “intent to arouse or satisfy the sexual desire of such person or any other person” as new Subdiv. (2), effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 06-196 changed effective date of P.A. 06-187, S. 42 from July 1, 2006, to October 1, 2006, effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 15-213 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re with intent to arouse or satisfy sexual desire a person commits simple trespass and add Subdiv. (4) re with intent to arouse or satisfy sexual desire a person photographs, films, videotapes or otherwise records genitals, pubic area or buttocks, undergarments or stockings of another person, amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing provision re class D felony as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdivs. (2) and (3) re class C felonies, and added Subsec. (c) re time for prosecuting offense.

Sec. 53a-189c. Unlawful dissemination of an intimate image: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of unlawful dissemination of an intimate image when (1) such person intentionally disseminates by electronic or other means a photograph, film, videotape or other recorded image of (A) the genitals, pubic area or buttocks of another person with less than a fully opaque covering of such body part, or the breast of such other person who is female with less than a fully opaque covering of any portion of such breast below the top of the nipple, or (B) another person engaged in sexual intercourse, as defined in section 53a-193, (2) such person disseminates such image without the consent of such other person, knowing that such other person understood that the image would not be so disseminated, and (3) such other person suffers harm as a result of such dissemination. For purposes of this subsection, “disseminate” means to sell, give, provide, lend, trade, mail, deliver, transfer, publish, distribute, circulate, present, exhibit, advertise or otherwise offer.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this subsection shall not apply to:

(1) Any image described in subsection (a) of this section of such other person if such image resulted from voluntary exposure or engagement in sexual intercourse by such other person, in a public place, as defined in section 53a-181, or in a commercial setting;

(2) Any image described in subsection (a) of this section of such other person, if such other person is not clearly identifiable; or

(3) Any image described in subsection (a) of this section of such other person, if the dissemination of such image serves the public interest.

(c) Unlawful dissemination of an intimate image is a class A misdemeanor.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to impose liability on the provider of an interactive computer service, as defined in 47 USC 230, an information service, as defined in 47 USC 153, or a telecommunications service, as defined in section 16-247a, for content provided by another person.

(P.A. 15-213, S. 8.)

PART XIX

COERCION

Sec. 53a-192a. Trafficking in persons: Class B felony. (a) A person is guilty of trafficking in persons when such person (1) compels or induces another person to engage in conduct involving more than one occurrence of sexual contact with one or more third persons, or provide labor or services that such person has a legal right to refrain from providing, by means of (A) the use of force against such other person or a third person, or by the threat of use of force against such other person or a third person, (B) fraud, or (C) coercion, as provided in section 53a-192, or (2) compels or induces another person who is under eighteen years of age to engage in conduct involving more than one occurrence of sexual contact with one or more third persons that constitutes (A) prostitution, or (B) sexual contact for which such third person may be charged with a criminal offense. For the purposes of this subsection, “sexual contact” means any contact with the intimate parts of another person.

(b) Trafficking in persons is a class B felony.

(P.A. 06-43, S. 1; P.A. 10-36, S. 26; P.A. 13-166, S. 2; P.A. 15-195, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 06-43 effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 10-36 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to replace “work” with “provide labor or services”, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 13-166 amended Subsec. (a) to substantially revise elements of offense and add definition of “sexual contact”; P.A. 15-195 amended Subsec. (a) by designating existing provision re person compelling or inducing another person to engage in conduct involving more than one occurrence of sexual contact with one or more third persons as new Subdiv. (1), redesignating existing Subdivs. (1) to (3) as Subparas. (A) to (C) and adding new Subdiv. (2) re compelling or inducing another person who is under 18 to engage in conduct involving more than one occurrence of sexual contact with one or more third persons.

PART XXI

MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES

Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal possession of a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon when such person possesses a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon and (1) has been convicted of a felony committed prior to, on or after October 1, 2013, or of a violation of section 21a-279, 53a-58, 53a-61, 53a-61a, 53a-62, 53a-63, 53a-96, 53a-175, 53a-176, 53a-178 or 53a-181d committed on or after October 1, 2013, (2) has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, as defined in section 46b-120, (3) has been discharged from custody within the preceding twenty years after having been found not guilty of a crime by reason of mental disease or defect pursuant to section 53a-13, (4) knows that such person is subject to (A) a restraining or protective order of a court of this state that has been issued against such person, after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, that has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, (5) (A) has been confined on or after October 1, 2013, in a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding sixty months by order of a probate court, or with respect to any person who holds a valid permit or certificate that was issued or renewed under the provisions of section 29-28 or 29-36f in effect prior to October 1, 2013, such person has been confined in such hospital within the preceding twelve months, or (B) has been voluntarily admitted on or after October 1, 2013, to a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding six months for care and treatment of a psychiatric disability and not solely for being an alcohol-dependent person or a drug-dependent person as those terms are defined in section 17a-680, (6) knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to subsection (d) of section 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, or (7) is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4). For the purposes of this section, “convicted” means having a judgment of conviction entered by a court of competent jurisdiction, “ammunition” means a loaded cartridge, consisting of a primed case, propellant or projectile, designed for use in any firearm, and a motor vehicle violation for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year may be imposed shall be deemed an unclassified felony.

(b) Criminal possession of a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon is a class C felony, for which two years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, and five thousand dollars of the fine imposed may not be remitted or reduced by the court unless the court states on the record its reasons for remitting or reducing such fine.

(P.A. 82-464, S. 1; P.A. 86-287, S. 5; P.A. 91-212; P.A. 98-129, S. 12; P.A. 99-212, S. 1; P.A. 01-130, S. 15; P.A. 03-98, S. 4; P.A. 05-147, S. 4; 05-283, S. 2; P.A. 12-133, S. 19; P.A. 13-3, S. 44; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 86-287 added reference to electronic defense weapons; P.A. 91-212 replaced “pistol, revolver” with “firearm” and made technical changes; P.A. 98-129 added Subsec. (a)(2) prohibiting possession by a person who has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense; P.A. 99-212 made provisions applicable to a person convicted of any felony rather than only of a capital felony and specified class A, B, C and D felonies; P.A. 01-130 added Subsecs. (a)(3) and (4) re possession by a person who knows he or she is subject to a restraining or protective order issued after notice and an opportunity to be heard in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person and re possession by a person who knows he or she is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to Sec. 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard; P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a)(3) by replacing “protective order issued by a court” with “protective order of a court of this state” and adding provisions re foreign order of protection and re order that has been issued against such person; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to designate existing provisions re a restraining or protective order as Subpara. (A), designate existing provisions re a foreign order of protection as Subpara. (B) and amend said Subpara. (B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued “after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person”; P.A. 05-283 added Subsec. (a)(5) re possession by a person who is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4); P.A. 12-133 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re motor vehicle violation for which sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than 1 year may be imposed to be deemed an unclassified felony; P.A. 13-3 changed “criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon” to “criminal possession of a firearm, ammunition or an electronic defense weapon”, amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re violation of Sec. 21a-279(c), 53a-58, 53a-61, 53a-61a, 53a-62, 53a-63, 53a-96, 53a-175, 53a-176, 53a-178 or 53a-181d committed on or after October 1, 2013, in Subdiv. (1), add new Subdiv. (3) re person discharged within preceding 20 years after being found not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect, redesignate existing Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (4), add new Subdiv. (5) re person confined on or after October 1, 2013, in hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities within preceding 60 months by probate court order, or such confinement within preceding 12 months for person who held valid permit or certificate in effect prior to October 1, 2013, and re person voluntarily admitted within preceding 6 months on or after October 1, 2013, redesignate existing Subdivs. (4) and (5) as Subdivs. (6) and (7), and define “ammunition”, and amended Subsec. (b) to change penalty from class D felony to class C felony and provide that $5,000 of the fine imposed may not be remitted or reduced unless the court states its reasons for remitting or reducing the fine; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to replace reference to Sec. 21a-279(c) with reference to Sec. 21a-279.

Sec. 53a-217c. Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal possession of a pistol or revolver when such person possesses a pistol or revolver, as defined in section 29-27, and (1) has been convicted of a felony committed prior to, on or after October 1, 2013, or of a violation of section 21a-279, 53a-58, 53a-61, 53a-61a, 53a-62, 53a-63, 53a-96, 53a-175, 53a-176, 53a-178 or 53a-181d committed on or after October 1, 1994, (2) has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, as defined in section 46b-120, (3) has been discharged from custody within the preceding twenty years after having been found not guilty of a crime by reason of mental disease or defect pursuant to section 53a-13, (4) (A) has been confined prior to October 1, 2013, in a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding twelve months by order of a probate court, or has been confined on or after October 1, 2013, in a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding sixty months by order of a probate court, or, with respect to any person who holds a valid permit or certificate that was issued or renewed under the provisions of section 29-28 or 29-36f in effect prior to October 1, 2013, such person has been confined in such hospital within the preceding twelve months, or (B) has been voluntarily admitted on or after October 1, 2013, to a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding six months for care and treatment of a psychiatric disability and not solely for being an alcohol-dependent person or a drug-dependent person as those terms are defined in section 17a-680, (5) knows that such person is subject to (A) a restraining or protective order of a court of this state that has been issued against such person, after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, that has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, (6) knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to subsection (d) of section 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, (7) is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4), or (8) is an alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States. For the purposes of this section, “convicted” means having a judgment of conviction entered by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(b) Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver is a class C felony, for which two years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, and five thousand dollars of the fine imposed may not be remitted or reduced by the court unless the court states on the record its reasons for remitting or reducing such fine.

(July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 3; P.A. 98-129, S. 13; P.A. 99-212, S. 21; P.A. 03-98, S. 5; P.A. 05-147, S. 5; 05-283, S. 3; P.A. 13-3, S. 45; 13-220, S. 16; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 98-129 added Subsec. (a)(2) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and replaced in Subdiv. (4) “hospital for mental illness” with “hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities”; P.A. 99-212 added Subsec. (a)(6) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to Sec. 29-38c(d) after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, renumbering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly, and made provisions gender neutral; P.A. 03-98 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1) and replaced “protective order issued by a court” with “protective order of a court of this state”, and added provisions re foreign order of protection and re order that has been issued against such person in Subsec. (a)(5); P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(5) to designate existing provisions re a restraining or protective order as Subpara. (A), designate existing provisions re a foreign order of protection as Subpara. (B) and amend said Subpara. (B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued “after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person”; P.A. 05-283 added Subsec. (a)(7) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922 (g)(4) and redesignated existing Subdiv. (7) as Subdiv. (8); P.A. 13-3 amended Subsec. (a)(4) by inserting Subpara. (A) designator, adding “prior to October 1, 2013,” re person confined in hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities within preceding 12 months by probate court order, adding provision re such confinement on or after October 1, 2013, within preceding 60 months or within preceding 12 months for person who held valid permit or certificate in effect prior to October 1, 2013, and adding Subpara. (B) re person voluntarily admitted within preceding 6 months on or after October 1, 2013, and amended Subsec. (b) to change penalty from class D felony to class C felony for which 2 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court and $5,000 of the fine may not be remitted or reduced unless the court states its reasons for remitting or reducing the fine; P.A. 13-220 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to add “committed prior to, on or after October 1, 2013,” re felony and add “committed on or after October 1, 1994,” re violation of Sec. 21a-279(c), 53a-58, 53a-61, 53a-61a, 53a-62, 53a-63, 53a-96, 53a-175, 53a-176, 53a-178 or 53a-181d; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-2 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to replace reference to Sec. 21a-279(c) with reference to Sec. 21a-279.

Sec. 53a-223b. Criminal violation of a restraining order: Class D or class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal violation of a restraining order when (1) (A) a restraining order has been issued against such person pursuant to section 46b-15, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another, and (2) such person, having knowledge of the terms of the order, (A) does not stay away from a person or place in violation of the order, (B) contacts a person in violation of the order, (C) imposes any restraint upon the person or liberty of a person in violation of the order, or (D) threatens, harasses, assaults, molests, sexually assaults or attacks a person in violation of the order.

(b) No person who is listed as a protected person in such restraining order or foreign order of protection may be criminally liable for (1) soliciting, requesting, commanding, importuning or intentionally aiding in the violation of the restraining order or foreign order of protection pursuant to subsection (a) of section 53a-8, or (2) conspiracy to violate such restraining order or foreign order of protection pursuant to section 53a-48.

(c) No person who is listed as a respondent in a restraining order issued pursuant to section 46b-15 or a foreign order of protection issued pursuant to section 46b-15a and against whom there is an order of no contact with the protected party or parties may be criminally liable for a violation of such order if such person causes a document filed in a family relations matter, as defined in section 46b-1, to be served on the protected party or parties in accordance with the law by mail or through a third party who is authorized by statute to serve process.

(d) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, criminal violation of a restraining order is a class D felony.

(2) Criminal violation of a restraining order is a class C felony if the offense is a violation of subparagraph (C) or (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section.

(P.A. 02-127, S. 1; P.A. 03-98, S. 6; P.A. 05-147, S. 6; P.A. 11-152, S. 13; P.A. 14-217, S. 124; P.A. 15-85, S. 17.)

History: P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re foreign order of protection issued after notice and opportunity to be heard in a case involving use of physical force and making technical changes; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued “after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person” and amended Subsec. (b) to increase the penalty from a class A misdemeanor to a class D felony; P.A. 11-152 added new Subsec. (b) to provide that no protected person may be criminally liable for specified offenses and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c); P.A. 14-217 amended Subsec. (c) to designate existing provision re class D felony as Subdiv. (1) and amend same to add “Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection,” add Subdiv. (2) re when criminal violation of a restraining order is class C felony, and make a technical change, effective January 1, 2015; P.A. 15-85 added new Subsec. (c) re restraining order respondent not criminally liable for violation of order if respondent causes document filed in family relations matter to be served on protected party in accordance with law and redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d).

Sec. 53a-223c. Criminal violation of a civil protection order: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal violation of a civil protection order when (1) a civil protection order has been issued against such person pursuant to section 46b-16a, and (2) such person, having knowledge of the terms of the order, violates such order.

(b) No person who is listed as a respondent in a civil protection order issued pursuant to section 46b-16a may be criminally liable for a violation of such order if such person causes a legal document to be served on the protected person by mail or through a third party in accordance with the law. For purposes of this subsection, “legal document” includes, but is not limited to, a notice of appearance or any other application, petition, or motion filed in good faith by such person in connection with any pending court matter, or in any court matter that may be brought subsequently.

(c) Criminal violation of a civil protection order is a class D felony.

(P.A. 14-217, S. 187; P.A. 15-85, S. 18.)

History: P.A. 14-217 effective January 1, 2015; P.A. 15-85 added new Subsec. (b) re civil protection order respondent not criminally liable for violation of order if respondent causes legal document to be served on protected party in accordance with law, and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c).