CHAPTER 166

TEACHERS AND SUPERINTENDENTS

Table of Contents

Sec. 10-144o. Definitions.

Sec. 10-145. Certificate necessary to employment. Forfeiture for noncompliance. Substitute teachers.

Sec. 10-145a. (Formerly Sec. 10-146). Certificates of qualification. Specific components of teacher preparation programs.

Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates.

Sec. 10-145d. State board regulations for teacher certificates. Certification of school business administrators; membership in teachers’ retirement system; applicability of teacher tenure law. Certification of computer science teachers. Reading instruction examination requirement for certain endorsements. Teaching experience in birth-to-three programs. Certification of marital and family therapists.

Sec. 10-145f. Testing for prospective teachers.

Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher.

Sec. 10-145i. Limitation on issuance and reissuance of certificates, authorizations or permits to certain individuals.

Sec. 10-145k. Issuance of international teacher permit.

Sec. 10-145p. Alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. Requirements; exception. Issuance of initial educator certificate upon completion.

Sec. 10-146c. Interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification.

Sec. 10-146h. Report re quality of teacher preparation programs.

Sec. 10-149b. Concussions: Training courses for coaches. Education plan. Informed consent form. Development or approval by State Board of Education. Revocation of coaching permit.

Sec. 10-151. Employment of teachers. Definitions. Tenure. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal.

Sec. 10-151b. Teacher evaluations. Teacher evaluation and support program; development; adoption; implementation; guidelines.

Sec. 10-158a. Cooperative arrangements among towns. School building projects. Student transportation.


PART I

TEACHERS

Sec. 10-144o. Definitions. As used in sections 10-145 to 10-158a, inclusive:

(1) “Equivalent” means qualifications reasonably comparable to those specifically listed as required for certification;

(2) “Initial educator certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1989, to a person who has successfully met the preparation and eligibility requirements specified by the State Board of Education for entrance into a beginning educator program;

(3) “Beginning educator program” means the support and standards program established by the State Board of Education for holders of initial educator certificates. The program shall be designed to improve the quality of the first school years of teaching and to determine whether holders of initial educator certificates have achieved the level of competency, as defined by said board, to entitle them to provisional educator certificates;

(4) “Provisional teaching certificate” or “provisional certificate” means a license to teach during the provisional certification period, issued prior to July 1, 1989, to a person who meets in full the preparation requirements of the State Board of Education;

(5) “Provisional educator certificate” means a license to teach, issued on or after July 1, 1989, to a person who (A) has successfully completed a beginning educator program, if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area, and not less than one school year of successful teaching in a public school, (B) has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education or appropriate governing body in another state within ten years prior to application for such provisional educator certificate or (C) has successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding application for such provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education;

(6) “Standard teaching certificate” or “standard certificate” means a license to teach issued prior to July 1, 1989, to one who has successfully completed no less than three school years of satisfactory teaching experience and fulfilled other requirements while holding a provisional certificate or its equivalent;

(7) “Professional educator certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1989, initially to a person who has successfully completed not less than three school years of teaching in a public school or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education while holding a provisional educator or provisional teaching certificate and prior to July 1, 2016, has successfully completed not fewer than thirty semester hours of credit beyond a bachelor’s degree, and on and after July 1, 2016, holds a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such person’s certification endorsement area. Said certificate shall be continued every five years after issuance;

(8) “Temporary ninety-day certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1988, to a person upon the request of a local or regional board of education pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-145b. Each such certificate issued prior to July 1, 1989, may be reissued once upon the request of a local or regional board of education during the 1988-1989 school year and upon reissuance shall be effective until July 1, 1989. Any provision for the reissuance of such certificate after said school year shall be pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education;

(9) “One year” means one school year.

(P.A. 78-218, S. 96; P.A. 85-613, S. 96, 154; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 20, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 3, 4, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 1, 9; P.A. 90-325, S. 11, 32; P.A. 91-288, S. 2; P.A. 93-353, S. 14, 52; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 9; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6, S. 39; P.A. 12-116, S. 40; P.A. 15-108, S. 11.)

History: P.A. 85-613 made technical change, substituting reference to Sec. 10-158a for reference to Sec. 10-159a; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 deleted the definition of “provisional certification period”, added definitions for “initial educator certificate”, “beginning education program”, “provisional educator certificate”, “professional educator certificate”, and “temporary ninety-day certificate”, and redefined “provisional teaching certificate” and “standard teaching certificate” to state that they be issued prior to July 1, 1988, and added that the years of teaching experience for a standard teaching certificate be school years; P.A. 87-499 redefined “professional educator certificate” in Subdiv. (7) to provide that a person may have taught in an approved nonpublic school and to eliminate the requirement that the 30 semester hours be “teaching-related” and redefined “temporary ninety-day certificate” in Subdiv. (8) by adding “on or after July 1, 1988” and by referring to Sec. 10-145b rather than listing the requirements for the certificate; P.A. 88-273 substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date before which provisional and standard teaching certificates are issued and after which initial, provisional and professional educator certificates are issued, added provisions re the reissuance of temporary ninety-day certificates and made a technical change; P.A. 90-325 in Subdiv. (5) added Subpara. (c) re issuance of a provisional educator certificate to persons who have taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding application for a provisional educator certificate; P.A. 91-288 in Subdiv. (7) substituted 90 hours of continuing education for nine continuing education units; P.A. 93-353 amended Subdiv. (5) defining “provisional educator certificate” to clarify that the requirement for passage of the beginning educator program only applies if such a program is available for the person’s certification endorsement area, effective July 1, 1993; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subdiv. (7) by deleting requirement that continuing education be “not less than ninety hours” and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6 amended Subdiv. (3) by replacing “assessment” with “standards”, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 12-116 amended Subdiv. (7) to redefine “professional educator certificate”, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 15-108 amended Subdiv. (8) by adding “issued prior to July 1, 1989,”, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145. Certificate necessary to employment. Forfeiture for noncompliance. Substitute teachers. (a) No teacher, supervisor, administrator, special service staff member or school superintendent, except as provided for in section 10-157, shall be employed in any of the schools of any local or regional board of education unless such person possesses an appropriate state certificate, nor shall any such person be entitled to any salary unless such person can produce such certificate dated prior to or on the first day of employment, except as provided for in section 10-157; provided nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the board of education from prescribing qualifications additional to those prescribed by the regulations of the State Board of Education and provided nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent any local or regional board of education from contracting with a licensed drivers’ school approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles for the behind-the-wheel instruction of a driver instruction course, to be given by driving instructors licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles. No person shall be employed in any of the schools of any local or regional board of education as a substitute teacher unless such person holds a bachelor’s degree, provided the Commissioner of Education may waive such requirement for good cause upon the request of a superintendent of schools.

(b) If the State Board of Education determines that a local or regional board of education is not in compliance with any provision of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and section 10-220a, the State Board of Education may require the local or regional board of education to forfeit of the total sum which is paid to such board of education from the State Treasury an amount to be determined by the State Board of Education, which amount shall be not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. The amount so forfeited shall be withheld from a grant payment, as determined by the commissioner, during the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which noncompliance is determined pursuant to this subsection. Notwithstanding the penalty provision of this section, the State Board of Education may waive such forfeiture if the board determines that the failure of the local or regional board of education to comply with such a provision was due to circumstances beyond its control.

(1949 Rev., S. 1432; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 116; 1971, P.A. 456, S. 5; P.A. 78-218, S. 93; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 21, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 5, 34; P.A. 89-137, S. 1, 14; P.A. 93-353, S. 49, 52; P.A. 07-241, S. 5; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 15; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6, S. 48; P.A. 11-27, S. 1; P.A. 15-215, S. 16.)

History: 1961 act added regional district; 1971 act added proviso for contracts with licensed drivers’ schools; P.A. 78-218 deleted reference to “supervising agents”, substituted “local or regional board of education” for “town or regional district” and made technical changes; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 required administrators to have state certificates, substituted “employment” for “the opening of school” re dating of certificates and deleted provision that certificates in force July 1, 1935, are valid and renewable; P.A. 87-499 deleted principal and added special service staff member to list of persons to whom the section applies and added that the certificate may be dated the first day of employment; P.A. 89-137 added Subsec. (a) designation and new Subsec. (b) re forfeiture of funds by local and regional boards of education for noncompliance with certain statutes; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to add the requirement that a substitute teacher hold a bachelor’s degree unless such requirement is waived, effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor’s note: In 1997 references throughout the general statutes to “Motor Vehicle(s) Commissioner” and “Motor Vehicle(s) Department” were replaced editorially by the Revisors with “Commissioner of Motor Vehicles” or “Department of Motor Vehicles”, as the case may be, for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 07-241 amended Subsec. (a) to add language re exception provided for in Sec. 10-157, effective July 1, 2007; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re waiver of requirement that substitute teachers hold a bachelor’s degree, effective July 1, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6 amended Subsec. (a) to add exception to bachelor’s degree requirement for substitute teachers applicable to school year commencing July 1, 2009, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 11-27 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting exception to bachelor’s degree requirement for substitute teachers applicable to school year commencing July 1, 2009, adding provision re waiver of requirement that substitute teachers hold a bachelor’s degree and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 15-215 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145a. (Formerly Sec. 10-146). Certificates of qualification. Specific components of teacher preparation programs. (a) The State Board of Education may, in accordance with section 10-19 and such regulations and qualifications as it prescribes, issue certificates of qualification to teach, to administer, to supervise or to serve in other positions requiring certification pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education in any public school in the state and may revoke the same. Any such regulations shall provide that the qualifications to maintain any administrator, supervisor or special service certificate shall incorporate the professional development provisions of section 10-148a. The certificates of qualification issued under this section shall be accepted by boards of education in lieu of any other certificate, provided additional qualifications may be required by a board of education, in which case the state certificate shall be accepted for such subjects as it includes.

(b) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be encouraged to successfully complete an intergroup relations component of such a program which shall be developed with the participation of both sexes, and persons of various ethnic, cultural and economic backgrounds. Such intergroup relations program shall have the following objectives: (1) The imparting of an appreciation of the contributions to American civilization of the various ethnic, cultural and economic groups composing American society and an understanding of the life styles of such groups; (2) the counteracting of biases, discrimination and prejudices; and (3) the assurance of respect for human diversity and personal rights. The State Board of Education, the Board of Regents for Higher Education, the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities and the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women shall establish a joint committee composed of members of the four agencies, which shall develop and implement such programs in intergroup relations.

(c) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be encouraged to complete a (1) health component of such a program, which includes, but need not be limited to, human growth and development, nutrition, first aid, disease prevention and community and consumer health, and (2) mental health component of such a program, which includes, but need not be limited to, youth suicide, child abuse and alcohol and drug abuse.

(d) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall complete a school violence, bullying, as defined in section 10-222d, and suicide prevention and conflict resolution component of such a program.

(e) On and after July 1, 1998, any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall complete a computer and other information technology skills component of such program, as applied to student learning and classroom instruction, communications and data management.

(f) On and after July 1, 2006, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in literacy skills and processes that reflects current research and best practices in the field of literacy training. Such instruction shall (1) be incorporated into requirements of student major and concentration, and (2) on and after July 1, 2015, include not fewer than twelve clock hours of instruction in the detection and recognition of, and evidence-based structured literacy interventions for, students with dyslexia, as defined in section 10-3d.

(g) On and after July 1, 2006, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in the concepts of second language learning and second language acquisition and processes that reflects current research and best practices in the field of second language learning and second language acquisition. Such instruction shall be incorporated into requirements of student major and concentration.

(h) On and after July 1, 2011, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification may permit teaching experience in a nonpublic school, approved by the State Board of Education, and offered through a public or private institution of higher education to count towards the preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, provided such teaching experience is completed as part of a cooperating teacher program, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of section 10-220a.

(i) On and after July 1, 2012, any candidate entering a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be required to complete training in competency areas contained in the professional teaching standards established by the State Board of Education, including, but not limited to, development and characteristics of learners, evidence-based and standards-based instruction, evidence-based classroom and behavior management, assessment and professional behaviors and responsibilities and the awareness and identification of the unique learning style of gifted and talented children, social and emotional development and learning of children, and cultural competency. The training in social and emotional development and learning of children shall include instruction concerning a comprehensive, coordinated social and emotional assessment and early intervention for children displaying behaviors associated with social or emotional problems, the availability of treatment services for such children and referring such children for assessment, intervention or treatment services. The training in cultural competency shall include instruction concerning the awareness of students’ background and experience that lead to the development of skills, knowledge and behaviors that enable educators and students to build positive relationships and work effectively in cross-cultural situations.

(j) On and after July 1, 2016, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall require, as part of the curriculum, clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience in a classroom during four semesters of such program of teacher preparation. Such clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience shall occur: (1) In a school district that has been categorized by the Department of Education as District Reference Group A, B, C, D or E, and (2) in a school district that has been categorized by the department as District Reference Group F, G, H or I. Such clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience may include a cooperating teacher serving as a mentor to student teachers, provided such cooperating teacher has received a performance evaluation designation of exemplary or proficient, pursuant to section 10-151b, for the prior school year.

(k) On and after July 1, 2012, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in the implementation of student individualized education programs as it relates to the provision of special education and related services, including, but not limited to, the provision of services to gifted and talented children.

(1949 Rev., S. 1433; February, 1965, P.A. 140, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 555, S. 62; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 34; 1971, P.A. 370, S. 3; 1972, P.A. 204, S. 1, 2; P.A. 73-632, S. 1, 5; P.A. 74-331, S. 1, 7; P.A. 75-372, S. 3; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 78-218, S. 94, 95, 212; P.A. 80-405, S. 3, 4; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 22, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 6, 34; P.A. 89-168, S. 3; P.A. 94-221, S. 4; P.A. 95-259, S. 13, 32; P.A. 96-244, S. 52, 63; P.A. 04-75, S. 1; 04-227, S. 2; P.A. 08-160, S. 8; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 1; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; 11-127, S. 2; 11-232, S. 8; P.A. 12-116, S. 35, 42; 12-173, S. 2; P.A. 13-133, S. 1; 13-261, S. 10; P.A. 14-39, S. 2; P.A. 15-97, S. 2; 15-108, S. 9; 15-243, S. 2.)

History: 1965 act required passing of hygiene examination for certification to teach grades above the fifth rather than the third grade and included as part of hygiene knowledge the effects of alcohol and narcotics on personality development; 1967 act replaced “narcotics” with “controlled drugs”; 1969 act included in hygiene knowledge of the effects of nicotine or tobacco and made provision for the necessary training of teachers and guidance personnel; 1971 act required passing of hygiene examination for all certifications to teach not just for those above the fifth grade and included administrators in training provision; 1972 act added Subsec. (a) defining “equivalency”, “alternate” and “internship”, made former provisions Subsec. (b) and added provisions concerning internships for certification and equivalencies or alternates to present certification requirements; P.A. 73-632 deleted provisions added to Subsec. (b) in 1972, dropped provision allowing exemption from hygiene examination, required passing of hygiene examination for supervisor’s certificate as well as for teaching certificate and referred to “drugs” rather than “controlled drugs”, deleting specific effects and provision for training programs; P.A. 74-331 amended Subsec. (a) to extend applicability to entire chapter, to substitute “equivalent” for “equivalency”, to delete definitions of “alternate” and “internship” and to add definitions of “provisional certification period”, “provisional teaching certificate”, “standard teaching certificate” and “one year” and amended Subsec. (b) to reflect recognition of the two different types of certificates; Sec. 10-146 was transferred to Sec. 10-145a in 1975; P.A. 75-372 added Subsec. (c) re intergroup relations programs; P.A. 77-573 replaced commission for higher education with board of higher education; P.A. 78-218 deleted Subsec. (a), relettering remaining subsections accordingly, and amended Subsec. (b), formerly (c), to delete references to July 1, 1977, and to July 1, 1976, and to delete reference to advisory board on state certification of teachers as an agency involved in developing intergroup relations programs; P.A. 80-405 required development of intergroup programs with participation of both sexes and included permanent commission on the status of women as an agency involved in developing such programs; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 in Subsec. (a) substituted “issue” for “grant”, provided for certificates to administer, added provisions re regulations re administrator and supervisor certificates, deleted requirement re examination in hygiene and the effects of nicotine or tobacco, alcohol and drugs; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) provided that the state board of education may issue certificates to serve in positions requiring certification pursuant to regulations and that regulations shall provide that qualifications to maintain any special service certificate incorporate continuing education provisions; P.A. 89-168 added a new Subsec. (c) re the mental health component in a program of teacher preparation; P.A. 94-221 added Subsec. (d) re school violence prevention and conflict resolution as component of teacher preparation programs; P.A. 95-259 added Subsec. (c)(1) re health component, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-244 added Subsec. (e) requiring teacher candidate programs to provide training in computer and other information technology skills, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 04-75 added Subsec. (f) requiring teacher training programs to provide instruction in literacy skills, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-227 added Subsec. (g) requiring teacher training programs to provide instruction in second language learning and acquisition, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 08-160 amended Subsec. (d) to add language re bullying and suicide prevention, effective July 1, 2009; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (h) re competency area training, effective July 1, 2009; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-127 added new Subsec. (h) re nonpublic school teaching experience as part of teacher preparation program and redesignated existing Subsec. (h) as Subsec. (i), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-232 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting “be encouraged to” and adding “as defined in section 10-222d” re bullying, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “continuing education” with “professional development” and making a conforming change in the corresponding internal reference, and added Subsec. (j) re requirement, on and after July 1, 2015, of four semesters of clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience in a classroom as part of teacher preparation program, effective July 1, 2012 (Revisor’s note: An internal reference in P.A. 12-116, S. 42, to “section 62 of this act” was determined by the Revisors to properly refer to section 39 of said act and was therefore codified in Subsec. (a) as “section 10-148a”); P.A. 12-173 added provision, codified by the Revisors as Subsec. (k), re instruction in implementation of student individualized education programs, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 13-133 amended Subsec. (i) to add provisions requiring training in social and emotional development and learning of children, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 13-261 amended Subsecs. (i) and (k) to add provisions re gifted and talented children, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 14-39 amended Subsec. (f) by designating existing provision re requirements of student major and concentration as Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re dyslexia, effective July 1, 2014; P.A. 15-97 amended Subsec. (f) by adding “not fewer than twelve clock hours of instruction in”, “structured literacy” and internal reference to definition of dyslexia in Subdiv. (2), effective July 1, 2015; P.A. 15-108 amended Subsec. (i) by adding provisions re training in cultural competency, effective July 1, 2015; P.A. 15-243 amended Subsec. (j) by replacing “2015” with “2016”, adding Subdivs. (1) and (2) re district reference groups and adding provision re cooperating teachers serving as mentors, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates. (a) The State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate to any person who has graduated (1) from a four-year baccalaureate program of teacher education as approved by said state board, (2) from a four-year baccalaureate program approved by said state board or from a college or university accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or Office of Higher Education or regionally accredited, or (3) from the summer or weekend and evening alternate route to certification program administered by the Office of Higher Education, provided such person has taken such teacher training equivalents as the State Board of Education shall require and, unless such equivalents are taken at institutions outside of this state, as the board of regents shall accredit. In addition, on and after July 1, 1993, each applicant shall have completed a subject area major as defined by the State Board of Education, except as provided in section 10-145l. Each such initial educator certificate shall be valid for three years, except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, and may be extended by the Commissioner of Education for an additional year for good cause upon the request of the superintendent in whose school district such person is employed or upon the request of the assessment team reviewing such person’s performance.

(b) During the period of employment in a public school, a person holding an initial educator certificate shall (1) be under the supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of an initial certificate, and (2) participate in a beginning educator program if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area.

(c) (1) The State Board of Education, upon request of a local or regional board of education, shall issue a temporary ninety-day certificate to any applicant in the certification endorsement areas of elementary education, middle grades education, secondary academic subjects, special subjects or fields, special education, early childhood education and administration and supervision, or in the certification endorsement areas corresponding to teacher shortage areas, as determined by the Commissioner of Education pursuant to section 10-8b, when the following conditions are met:

(A) The employing agent of a board of education makes a written request for the issuance of such certificate and attests to the existence of a special plan for supervision of temporary ninety-day certificate holders;

(B) The applicant meets the following requirements, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C) of this subdivision:

(i) Holds a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or Office of Higher Education or regionally accredited with a major either in or closely related to the certification endorsement area in which the requesting board of education is placing the applicant or, in the case of secondary or special subject or field endorsement area, possesses at least the minimum total number of semester hours of credit required for the content area, except as provided in section 10-145l;

(ii) Has met the requirements pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-145f;

(iii) Presents a written application on such forms as the Commissioner of Education shall prescribe;

(iv) Has successfully completed an alternate route to certification program provided by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or the Office of Higher Education or public or independent institutions of higher education, regional educational service centers or private teacher or administrator training organizations and approved by the State Board of Education;

(v) Possesses an undergraduate college overall grade point average of at least “B” or, if the applicant has completed at least twenty-four hours of graduate credit, possesses a graduate grade point average of at least “B”; and

(vi) Presents supporting evidence of appropriate experience working with children; and

(C) The Commissioner of Education may waive the requirements of subparagraphs (B)(v) or (B)(vi), or both, of this subdivision upon a showing of good cause.

(2) A person serving under a temporary ninety-day certificate shall participate in a beginning support and assessment program pursuant to section 10-220a which is specifically designed by the state Department of Education for holders of temporary ninety-day certificates.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section to the contrary, on and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who has taught successfully while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate and meets the requirements established in regulations adopted pursuant to section 10-145d.

(d) (1) On and after July 1, 2016, in order to be eligible to obtain an initial educator certificate, each person shall be required to complete (A) a course of study in special education comprised of not fewer than thirty-six hours, which shall include an understanding of the growth and development of exceptional children, including handicapped and gifted and talented children and children who may require special education, and methods for identifying, planning for and working effectively with special needs children in a regular classroom, and (B) a course or courses of study in special education relating to instruction on classroom techniques in reading, differentiated instruction, social-emotional learning, cultural competencies and assistive technology. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to any person who has been issued an initial educator certificate prior to July 1, 2016.

(2) On and after July 1, 2016, in order to be eligible to obtain a provisional educator certificate, each person shall be required to complete a course of study in special education comprised of not fewer than thirty-six hours, which shall include an understanding of the growth and development of exceptional children, including handicapped and gifted and talented children and children who may require special education, and methods for identifying, planning for and working effectively with special needs children in a regular classroom.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, each applicant for such certificates who has met all requirements for certification except the completion of the course in special education shall be entitled to a certificate (A) for a period not to exceed one year, provided the applicant completed a teacher preparation program either in the state prior to July 1, 1987, or outside the state, or completed the necessary combination of professional experience or coursework as required by the State Board of Education or (B) for a period not to exceed two years if the applicant applies for certification in an area for which a bachelor’s degree is not required.

(e) On and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue a provisional educator certificate to any person who (1) has successfully completed a beginning educator program and one school year of successful teaching as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose local or regional school district such person was employed, (2) has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public school in another state or a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education or appropriate governing body in another state within ten years prior to application for such provisional educator certificate, as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose school district such person was employed, or by the supervising agent of the nonpublic school in which such person was employed, and has met preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, or (3) has successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education.

(f) Any person holding a standard or permanent certificate on July 1, 1989, shall be eligible to receive upon application a professional educator certificate to replace said standard or permanent certificate. On and after July 1, 1989, standard and permanent certificates shall no longer be valid.

(g) On or after July 1, 1989, and prior to July 1, 2016, to qualify for a professional educator certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate under subsection (e) of this section shall have completed thirty credit hours of course work beyond the baccalaureate degree. It is not necessary that such course work be taken for a master’s degree and such work may include graduate or undergraduate courses. On and after July 1, 2016, to qualify for a professional educator certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate under subsection (d) of this section shall hold a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such teacher’s certification endorsement area.

(h) (1) Unless otherwise provided in regulations adopted under section 10-145d, in not less than three years or more than eight years after the issuance of a provisional educator certificate pursuant to subsection (e) of this section and upon the statement of the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose school district such certificate holder was employed, or the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education, in whose school such certificate holder was employed, that the provisional educator certificate holder and such superintendent, or such superintendent’s designee, or supervisory agent have mutually determined or approved an individual program pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section and upon the statement of such superintendent, or such superintendent’s designee, or supervisory agent that such certificate holder has a record of competency in the discharge of such certificate holder’s duties during such provisional period, the state board upon receipt of a proper application shall issue such certificate holder a professional educator certificate. A signed recommendation from the superintendent of schools, or the superintendent’s designee, for the local or regional board of education or from the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education shall be evidence of competency. Such recommendation shall state that the person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate has successfully completed at least three school years of satisfactory teaching for one or more local or regional boards of education or such nonpublic schools. Each applicant for a certificate pursuant to this subsection shall provide to the Department of Education, in such manner and form as prescribed by the commissioner, evidence that the applicant has successfully completed coursework pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, as appropriate.

(2) Each professional educator certificate shall be valid for five years and continued every five years thereafter.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in section 10-146c, upon receipt of a proper application, the State Board of Education shall issue to a teacher from another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico who (A) is nationally board certified by an organization deemed appropriate by the Commissioner of Education to issue such certifications, (B) has taught in another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a minimum of two years in the preceding ten years, and (C) holds a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such teacher’s certification endorsement area, a professional educator certificate with the appropriate endorsement, subject to the provisions of subsection (i) of this section relating to denial of applications for certification. Applicants who have taught under an appropriate certificate issued by another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for two or more years shall be exempt from completing the beginning educator program based upon such teaching experience upon a showing of effectiveness as a teacher, as determined by the State Board of Education, which may include, but need not be limited to, a demonstrated record of improving student achievement. An applicant with two or more years of teaching experience in this state at a nonpublic school, approved by the State Board of Education, in the past ten years shall be exempt from completing the beginning educator program based upon such teaching experience upon a showing of effectiveness as a teacher, as determined by the State Board of Education, which may include, but need not be limited to, a demonstrated record of improving student achievement.

(i) (1) The State Board of Education may revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, for any of the following reasons: (A) The holder of the certificate, authorization or permit obtained such certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the holder has persistently neglected to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (C) the holder is professionally unfit to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (D) the holder is convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board continued holding of a certificate, authorization or permit by the person would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (E) other due and sufficient cause. The State Board of Education shall revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to said sections if the holder is found to have intentionally disclosed specific questions or answers to students or otherwise improperly breached the security of any administration of a mastery examination, pursuant to section 10-14n. In any revocation proceeding pursuant to this section, the State Board of Education shall have the burden of establishing the reason for such revocation by a preponderance of the evidence. Revocation shall be in accordance with procedures established by the State Board of Education pursuant to chapter 54.

(2) When the Commissioner of Education is notified, pursuant to section 10-149a or 17a-101i, that a person holding a certificate, authorization or permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, has been convicted of (A) a capital felony, under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, (B) arson murder, pursuant to section 53a-54d, (C) a class A felony, (D) a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-122, 53a-252 or 53a-291, (E) a crime involving an act of child abuse or neglect as described in section 46b-120, or (F) a violation of section 17a-101a, 53-21, 53-37a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-73a, 53a-88, 53a-90a, 53a-99, 53a-103a, 53a-181c, 53a-191, 53a-196, 53a-196c, 53a-216, 53a-217b or 21a-278 or subsection (a) of section 21a-277, any certificate, permit or authorization issued by the State Board of Education and held by such person shall be deemed revoked and the commissioner shall notify such person of such revocation, provided such person may request reconsideration pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. As part of such reconsideration process, the board shall make the initial determination as to whether to uphold or overturn the revocation. The commissioner shall make the final determination as to whether to uphold or overturn the revocation.

(3) The State Board of Education may deny an application for a certificate, authorization or permit for any of the following reasons: (A) The applicant seeks to obtain a certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the applicant has been convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board issuance of a certificate, authorization or permit would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (C) other due and sufficient cause. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit shall be notified in writing of the reasons for denial. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit may request a review of such denial by the State Board of Education.

(4) A person whose certificate, permit or authorization has been revoked may not be employed in a public school during the period of revocation.

(5) Any local or regional board of education or private special education facility approved by the commissioner shall report to the commissioner when an employee, who holds a certificate, permit or authorization, is dismissed pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (d) of section 10-151.

(j) Not later than thirty days after receipt of notification, any initial educator certificate holder who is not granted a provisional educator certificate, or any provisional educator certificate holder who is not granted a professional educator certificate, or any professional educator certificate holder who is not granted a continuation, under the provisions of sections 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, and 10-146b, may appeal to the State Board of Education for reconsideration. Said board shall review the records of the appropriate certification period, and, if a hearing is requested in writing, hold such hearing not later than sixty days after such request and render a written decision not later than thirty days after the conclusion of such hearing. Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of said board may appeal from such decision in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183 and such appeal shall be privileged with respect to assignment of such appeal.

(k) For the purposes of this section “supervisory agent” means the superintendent of schools or the principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent to provide direct supervision to a provisional certificate holder.

(l) Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with this section and section 10-145d, there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of the applicant a nonreturnable fee of two hundred dollars in the case of an applicant for an initial educator certificate, two hundred fifty dollars in the case of an applicant for a provisional educator certificate and three hundred seventy-five dollars in the case of an applicant for a professional educator certificate, except that applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs mandated under subparagraph (A) of subsection (a) of section 10-69 shall pay a fee of one hundred dollars; persons eligible for a certificate or endorsement for which the fee is less than that applied for shall receive an appropriate refund; persons not eligible for any certificate shall receive a refund of the application fee minus fifty dollars; and persons holding standard or permanent certificates on July 1, 1989, who apply for professional certificates to replace the standard or permanent certificates, shall not be required to pay such a fee. Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of a subject area endorsement there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of such applicant a nonreturnable fee of one hundred dollars. With each request for a duplicate copy of any such certificate or endorsement there shall be paid to the board a nonreturnable fee of fifty dollars.

(P.A. 74-331, S. 2, 7; P.A. 76-373, S. 1, 2; 76-436, S. 470, 681; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; 77-603, S. 8, 125; P.A. 78-218, S. 97, 212; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 83-134, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 13, 96; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; 84-298, S. 1, 2; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 23, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 7, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 2, 9; 88-360, S. 14–18, 63; P.A. 89-137, S. 2–5, 11, 12, 14; 89-251, S. 67, 203; P.A. 90-230, S. 78, 101; 90-325, S. 1, 14, 15; P.A. 91-208, S. 1, 11; 91-288, S. 1; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 1, 2, 117; P.A. 93-70, S. 1, 2; 93-353, S. 15–18, 52; P.A. 94-221, S. 20; P.A. 95-58, S. 1, 4; 95-259, S. 14, 32; P.A. 96-244, S. 11, 12, 63; 96-246, S. 15; P.A. 98-243, S. 15, 25; 98-252, S. 37, 44, 80; P.A. 99-211, S. 9, 10; P.A. 00-220, S. 7, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 15, 53, 67; P.A. 02-106, S. 5, 6, 8; P.A. 03-76, S. 44; P.A. 04-138, S. 1; P.A. 05-288, S. 49; P.A. 08-148, S. 1; 08-153, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 152; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 2; P.A. 10-71, S. 2; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; 11-93, S. 18; 11-127, S. 1; P.A. 12-5, S. 8; 12-59, S. 7; 12-116, S. 36; 12-156, S. 5, 6; 12-173, S. 4; P.A. 13-118, S. 8, 9; 13-169, S. 1; 13-207, S. 8; P.A. 15-108, S. 1, 3; 15-205, S. 12; June Sp. Sess. 15-5, S. 276.)

History: P.A. 76-373 added Subsec. (g) re fees for teaching certificates; P.A. 76-436 amended Subsec. (e) to replace court of common pleas with superior court and to specify county or judicial district of residence, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-573 substituted board of higher education for commission for higher education; P.A. 77-603 amended appeal provisions in Subsec. (e) to provide that appeals be in accordance with Sec. 4-183; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” and “board of education” for “school district” throughout section, made reasons for revocation new Subsec. (e), removing them from Subsec. (d), and relettered former Subsecs. (e) to (g) accordingly; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 83-134 amended Subsec. (e) to clarify authority of board to revoke provisional certification; P.A. 83-587 made a technical amendment to Subsec. (c), replacing board of higher education with board of governors; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; P.A. 84-298 inserted new Subsec. (b) which requires candidates for certification to satisfactorily complete a course in special education and requires state board of education to report to the education committee upon the adoption of certification regulations requiring completion of a special education course and relettered subsequent Subsecs. accordingly; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 made provisions for initial educator, temporary ninety-day, provisional educator and professional educator certificates; made standard and permanent certificates invalid after July 1, 1988; deleted description of what may be included in an individual program for a standard certificate and requirement re final years prior to eligibility for a standard certificate, and made other technical changes; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) delayed, from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1992, the requirement that applicants for initial educator certificates have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) provided that the requirements re temporary ninety-day certificates and the issuance of initial educator certificates to the holders of such temporary certificates be in regulation rather than in the subsection that the temporary certificates not be issued until July 1, 1988; in Subsec. (e) clarified that the completion of a special education course is a prerequisite to obtaining provisional teaching and initial educator certificates; in Subsec. (g) added to the requirements for a provisional educator certificate that the person have met the requirements for an initial educator certificate and that the person may have taught for at least one year in the state; in Subsec. (h) described what may be included in an individual program; in Subsecs. (i) and (k) provided that other requirements may be provided in regulation; in Subsec. (k) added that the person may have taught in a nonpublic school; in Subsec. (p) provided exceptions to the fee requirement; changed “holder” to “person who holds or has held” and made technical changes; P.A. 88-273 in Subsecs. (a), (c), (g), (i) and (j) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date after which initial, provisional and professional educator certificates are issued; in Subsecs. (d), (h) and (i) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date before which provisional and standard teaching certificates are issued; in Subsec. (a) substituted July 1, 1993, for July 1, 1992, as the date after which applicants for initial educator certificates shall have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) added Subdiv. descriptions and in new subdivision substituted a description of the conditions which must be met for the issuance of a temporary ninety-day certificate for the provision that such a certificate be issued pursuant to regulations and added new Subdiv. (2) re participation in a beginning support and assessment program; in Subsec. (l) added Subdiv. designations and provided that continuing education units or their equivalent be determined by local or regional boards of education rather than defined by the state board of education and that commencing July 1, 1989, local and regional boards of education make not fewer than 18 hours of professional development activities available at no cost and in accordance with the subsection; and in Subsec. (p) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (e) made the requirements of the Subsec. apply to eligibility for a provisional educator certificate, specified that the required course be a course of study comprised of not fewer than 36 hours and provided exceptions to the requirements of the subsection, in Subsec. (g)(3) substituted having taught “for the 1988-1989 school year under a temporary emergency permit” for having taught “for a period of at least one year”, in Subsec. (m) added provisions for the denial of an application for certification, made Subsec. (p) apply upon applications for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with Sec. 10-145d and added Subsec. (q) re the reissuance of provisional teaching and provisional educator certificates; P.A. 89-137 in Subsec. (a) provided an exception to the requirement that initial educator certificates be valid for one year of employment, in Subsec. (c)(3) provided that an initial educator certificate issued to a person who has taught while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate be valid for one and one-half years and be nonrenewable, in Subsec. (e)(2) made applicants who have not completed the course in special education and who held temporary 90-day certificates within one year of application for provisional educator or initial educator certificates eligible for certificates for periods not to exceed two years, in Subsec. (i) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from an approved nonpublic school and that evidence of the completion of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the employing board of education, in Subsec. (k) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from the superintendent of an approved nonpublic school, that there be a statement from the superintendent that the certificate holder and the superintendent have mutually determined or approved an individual program and that evidence of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the superintendent and in Subsec. (m) expanded the types of certificates which the state board of education has the authority to revoke to those issued pursuant to Secs. 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and made a technical change; P.A. 89-251 increased fee for a certificate from $15 to $18 and for a duplicate from $5 to $6; P.A. 90-230 made a technical correction in Subsec. (k); P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (a) provided that the board of governors of higher education not have to accredit teacher training equivalents taken out of state, in Subsec. (c)(3) deleted provisions that the one and one-half years that an initial educator certificate issued pursuant to the subdivision is valid begins on the date of issuance and that such a certificate be nonrenewable and added Subsec. (g)(4) re issuance of a provisional educator certificate to a person who has taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate; P.A. 91-208 in Subsec. (c)(B)(iv) deleted reference to program developed through institute for effective teaching and substituted reference to program provided under contract with institution designated by higher education department; P.A. 91-288 in Subsec. (l) changed the requirement from nine continuing education units to 90 hours of continuing education, added the provisions concerning members of the general assembly, added language requiring boards of education to grant credit for activities offered in accordance with the plan developed pursuant to Sec. 10-220a or activities which the board approves for any individual certified employee, added in Subdiv. (2) evaluation of activities in terms of contribution to school goals and provision for each educator to attest to the state department of education that continuing education hours have been completed; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a certificate of eligibility and Subsec. (p) to establish specific fees for certificate of eligibility, initial educator certificate, provisional educator certificate, professional educator certificate, and to provide exceptions for applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs and other exceptions and provide a fee for issuance of a subject area endorsement; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 obsolete references to “subsection (a) of section 10-146f” in Subsecs. (f) and (n) were deleted editorially by the Revisors since Sec. 10-146f is repealed); P.A. 93-70 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add the provision concerning reissuance of certificate for unemployed teachers who have not completed required continuing education and made technical changes, effective May 10, 1993; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision tying the validity and extension of the initial educator certificate to employment in a public school and made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that participation in a beginning educator program is required only if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area, amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add the certification endorsement areas of middle grades education and administration and supervision, and to remove obsolete language and amended Subsec. (e)(2) to delete the exception for applicants who hold a temporary ninety-day certificate or held such certificate within one year of application for a provisional educator or initial educator certificate, removed a report to the general assembly on the adoption of regulations containing the provisions of Subsec. (c) and deleted obsolete language, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (m) to provide for the automatic revocation of certificates issued by the State Board of Education for persons convicted of crimes involving child abuse or violations of Sec. 53a-71 or 53a-73a, to require the commissioner to notify such persons of the revocation and to allow such persons to request reconsideration; P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (l) to add requirement for superintendents and certain administrators to complete training in the evaluation of teachers, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-259 amended Subsec. (m) to require the revocation of any certificate if the holder intentionally discloses information on or breaches the security of the examination pursuant to Sec. 10-14n, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from “one” to “two” years and amended Subsec. (c)(3) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from “one and one-half” to “two” years, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (m) by changing reference to Sec. 17a-101(f) to Sec. 17a-101i; P.A. 98-243 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add new Subpara. (A) re requirement for training in the teaching of reading for certain certified employees and redesignated existing Subparas. (A) and (B) as Subpara. (B)(i) and (B)(ii), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-252 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision for the issuance of a certificate of eligibility, amended Subsec. (a) and (c)(3) to make the initial educator certificate valid for three years instead of two years, amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add requirement for continuing education for certain employees to include at least 15 hours of training in the use of computers in the classroom, and amended Subsec. (p) by deleting provision re certificate of eligibility, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-211 added Subsec. (l)(l)(D) re certified employees with bilingual education endorsements, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (m) to require the State Board of Education in any revocation proceeding to establish the reason for the revocation by a preponderance of the evidence, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to allow completion of a national board certification assessment to meet the requirement for continuing education, to expand the requirement for training in the use of computers to cover secondary school teachers and add provision re demonstration of technology competence and to make technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality, and amended Subsec. (m) to apply the provisions to authorizations and permits, to expand the crimes for which conviction results in a person’s certificate, authorization or permit being deemed revoked, to redesignate existing Subdivs. (1) to (5) as Subparas. (A) to (E) of Subdiv. (1) and to divide provisions into new Subdivs. (1) to (3), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-106 amended Subsec. (g)(1) by adding reference to superintendent’s designee and (g)(2) by adding provisions re attestation and making a technical change, and amended Subsec. (k) by adding references to supervisory agent and superintendent’s designee and by making a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2002, and amended Subsec. (m)(2) by adding reference to Sec. 10-149a; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsec. (l)(1)(C), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 04-138 amended Subsec. (k) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re certification of teachers who are nationally board certified, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (k)(1), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 08-148 amended Subsec. (m)(2) to provide that as part of reconsideration process, board shall make initial determination concerning revocation, but commissioner shall make final determination, effective July 1, 2008; P.A. 08-153 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add early childhood education, effective June 12, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 increased fees, effective September 9, 2009; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding exception to subject area major requirement, amended Subsec. (c) by adding exception to subject area major requirement in Subdiv. (1)(B)(i) and rephrasing provision re alternate route to certification program in Subdiv. (1)(B)(iv), deleted former Subsecs. (d), (f) and (h), redesignated existing Subsecs. (e), (g) and (i) to (p), as (d) to (m), amended redesignated Subsec. (e) by adding “school in another state”, making a conforming change, deleting former Subdiv. (3) and redesignating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (3), amended redesignated Subsec. (f) by deleting provisions re standard teaching certificate, amended redesignated Subsec. (g) by adding “and prior to July 1, 2016”, deleting former Subdivs. (1) and (2), adding provision re graduate coursework on and after July 1, 2016, and making a technical change, amended redesignated Subsec. (h) by adding language re superintendent’s designee, adding provision re nonpublic school teaching experience and making technical changes in Subdiv. (1) and adding language re credit hours required before, on and after July 1, 2016, and making technical changes in Subdiv. (2), amended redesignated Subsec. (i)(1) by adding provisions re continuing education and professional development activities on and after July 1, 2011, amended redesignated Subsec. (j) by adding references to Secs. 53a-49 and 53a-90a in Subdiv. (2)(F), adding Subdiv. (4) re employment in public school during period of revocation and adding Subdiv. (5) re report following dismissal of employee, amended redesignated Subsec. (k) by deleting references to provisional teaching certificates and standard teaching certificates and making conforming and technical changes, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-71 made a technical change in Subsec. (k), effective May 18, 2010; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” and “Department of Higher Education” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-93 amended Subsec. (j)(2)(F) by deleting reference to Sec. 53a-49, effective July 8, 2011; P.A. 11-127 amended Subsec. (h)(1) by deleting provision re nonpublic school teaching experience shall not be accepted for issuance of professional educator certificate and amended Subsec. (i) by including certified employees of nonpublic schools, adding language re supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education and making conforming changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-5 amended Subsec. (j)(2)(A) re capital felony to reference provisions of Sec. 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, effective April 25, 2012; P.A. 12-59 made a technical change in Subsec. (m), effective May 31, 2012; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing provision re 30 credit hours of graduate coursework with provision re master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area related to teacher’s endorsement area, amended Subsec. (h) by adding new Subdiv. (2) re professional educator certificate to be valid for 5 years and continued every 5 years thereafter, redesignating existing Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3) and amending same by deleting former clauses (i) and (ii) in existing Subpara. (B), adding new Subpara. (C) re requirement that teacher from another state hold a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area related to teacher’s endorsement area, adding provisions re exceptions to beginning educator program and making technical changes, deleted former Subsec. (i) re continuing education, and redesignated existing Subsecs. (j) to (m) as Subsecs. (i) to (l), effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a) by making a technical change and adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation and amended Subsec. (c)(1)(B) by adding reference to State Board of Education in clause (i) and adding reference to Office of Higher Education in clause (iv), effective June 15, 2012; P.A. 12-173 amended former Subsec. (i)(1) by adding Subpara. (E) re professional development for certified employees with a special education endorsement to include implementation of individualized education programs and communication of program procedures, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 13-118 amended Subsecs. (a)(2) and (c)(1)(B)(i) to replace “State Board of Education” with “Office of Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 13-169 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re summer or weekend and evening alternate route to certification program, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 13-207 amended Subsec. (i)(1) to replace “state-wide mastery examination” with “mastery examination” and make a technical change, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 15-108 amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re certification endorsement areas corresponding to teacher shortage areas in Subdiv. (1) and replacing “pursuant to” with “established in” in Subdiv. (3), and amended Subsec. (h)(3) by replacing “Upon” with “Except as otherwise provided in section 10-146c, upon”, replacing out-of-state teaching requirement of a minimum of 3 years with requirement of a minimum of 2 years, adding provisions re showing of effectiveness as a teacher to exemptions from completing beginning educator program, and making technical and conforming changes, effective July 1, 2015; P.A. 15-205 amended Subsec. (i)(2) to add reference to Sec. 17a-101a, effective July 1, 2015; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (d) by adding Subdiv. (1) re requiring special education course of study to obtain initial educator certificate, designating existing provision re requiring special education course of study to obtain provisional educator certificate as Subdiv. (2) and amending same by deleting references to provisional teaching certificate and initial educator certificate, and designating existing provision re completion of all requirements for certification except special education course of study as Subdiv. (3) and amending same by redesignating existing Subdivs. (1) and (2) as Subparas. (A) and (B), effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145d. State board regulations for teacher certificates. Certification of school business administrators; membership in teachers’ retirement system; applicability of teacher tenure law. Certification of computer science teachers. Reading instruction examination requirement for certain endorsements. Teaching experience in birth-to-three programs. Certification of marital and family therapists. (a) The State Board of Education shall, pursuant to chapter 54, adopt such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 10-144o, 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, 10-145f and 10-146b. Such regulations shall provide for (1) the establishment of an appeal panel to review any decision to deny the issuance of a certificate authorized under section 10-145b; (2) the establishment of requirements for subject area endorsements; (3) the extension of the time to complete requirements for certificates under section 10-145b; (4) the establishment of requirements for administrator and supervisor certificates; (5) the composition of, and the procedures to be utilized by, the assessment teams in implementing the beginning educator program; (6) procedures and criteria for issuing certificates to persons whose certificates have lapsed or persons with non-public-school or out-of-state teaching experience; (7) the criteria for defining a major course of study; (8) a requirement that on and after July 1, 1993, in order to be eligible to obtain an initial educator certificate with an elementary endorsement, each person be required to (A) complete a survey course in United States history comprised of not fewer than three semester hours, or (B) achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment; and (9) a requirement that on and after July 1, 2004, in order to be eligible to obtain an initial educator certificate with an early childhood nursery through grade three or an elementary endorsement, each person be required to complete a comprehensive reading instruction course comprised of not less than six semester hours. Such regulations may provide for exceptions to accommodate specific certification endorsement areas.

(b) The State Board of Education shall, pursuant to chapter 54, adopt regulations to provide standards for the certification of school business administrators. Such regulations shall make provision for certification requirements to be met by either (1) completion of prescribed courses of study or (2) such other experience as the state board shall deem appropriate for the position of school business administrator. Any person serving in the position of school business administrator on July 1, 1983, shall be considered as having met all requirements for certification. The regulations shall also contain standards to certify individuals who hold certification from a state other than Connecticut.

(c) Any individual certified as a school business administrator after July 1, 1983, pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall not be deemed to be eligible for membership in the teachers’ retirement system solely by reason of such certification, provided any such individual who holds a regular teacher’s certificate issued by the State Board of Education shall not be excluded from membership in said system.

(d) Any individual certified as a school business administrator pursuant to regulations adopted by the state board in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, shall not be deemed to be included in the definition of “teacher” in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 10-151 solely by reason of such certification, provided any such individual who holds a regular teacher’s certificate issued by the State Board of Education and is employed as a teacher, principal, supervisor or school superintendent shall not be excluded from such definition.

(e) The State Board of Education shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to provide standards for the certification of computer science teachers. Such regulations shall make provision for certification requirements to be met by either (1) completion of prescribed courses of study, or (2) such other experience as the state board shall deem appropriate.

(f) An endorsement issued prior to July 1, 2013, to teach elementary education grades one to six, inclusive, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to six, inclusive, and for such an endorsement issued on or after July 1, 2013, the endorsement shall be valid for grades one to six, inclusive, except such an endorsement issued between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017, to any student who was admitted to and successfully completes a teacher preparation program, as defined in section 10-10a, in the certification endorsement area of elementary education on or before June 30, 2017, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to six, inclusive. An endorsement to teach comprehensive special education grades one to twelve, inclusive, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to twelve, inclusive, provided, on and after September 1, 2013, any (1) certified employee applying for a comprehensive special education endorsement, or (2) applicant for an initial, provisional or professional educator certificate and a comprehensive special education endorsement shall achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, or a comparable reading instruction examination with minimum standards that are equivalent to the examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009.

(g) For the purposes of issuance of certificates, permits and authorizations by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, teaching experience in approved nonpublic schools shall include teaching experience in birth-to-three programs approved by the Department of Developmental Services.

(h) Any person who is a licensed marital and family therapist, pursuant to section 20-195c, and employed by a local or regional board of education as a marital and family therapist shall provide services to students, families and parents or guardians of students. Not later than July 1, 2014, the State Board of Education shall, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, adopt regulations to implement the provisions of this subsection and provide standards for the certification of marital and family therapists employed by local or regional boards of education. Such regulations shall authorize marital and family therapists employed by a local or regional board of education to provide services to students, families and parents or guardians of students and include certification requirements to be met by (1) licensure as a marital and family therapist under section 20-195c, and (2) such other experience as the State Board of Education deems appropriate for the position of marital and family therapist in a school system.

(i) On and after September 1, 2013, any (1) certified employee applying for a remedial reading, remedial language arts or reading consultant endorsement, or (2) applicant for an initial, provisional or professional educator certificate and a remedial reading, remedial language arts or reading consultant endorsement shall achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, or a comparable reading instruction examination with minimum standards that are equivalent to the examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009.

(P.A. 74-331, S. 6, 7; P.A. 83-423, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-255, S. 8, 21; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 24, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 8, 34; P.A. 89-237, S. 10, 11; P.A. 98-243, S. 14, 25; P.A. 00-187, S. 39, 75; P.A. 03-168, S. 3, 4; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 33; P.A. 07-73, S. 2(a); 07-241, S. 7; P.A. 12-63, S. 1; 12-116, S. 50, 92, 93; P.A. 13-122, S. 8, 11; 13-245, S. 15, 16; P.A. 15-108, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 83-423 added Subsecs. (b) and (c) requiring state board to adopt regulations for the certification of school business administrators specifying that eligibility for membership in the teachers’ retirement system shall not be based solely on such certification as a school business administrator; P.A. 84-255 added Subsec. (d) concerning applicability of teacher tenure law to individuals certified as school business administrators; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 in Subsec. (a) added Subdivs. (1) to (7), inclusive, re content of regulations; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) provided that the state board of education adopt regulations re certificate definitions and testing for prospective teachers and that it may, by regulation, provide for exceptions for specific certification endorsement areas; P.A. 89-237 added new Subsec. (a)(8) requiring the completion of a survey course in United States history in order to be eligible to obtain certain initial educator certificates; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 an obsolete reference in Subsec. (a) to “subsection (a) of section 10-146f” was deleted since Sec. 10-146f is repealed); P.A. 98-243 amended Subsec. (a)(8) to make a technical change and added Subsec. (a)(9) re requirement for comprehensive reading instruction course in order to be eligible to obtain certain initial educator certificates, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-187 added Subsec. (e) re certification of computer science teachers, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 03-168 amended Subsec. (a)(9) by substituting “July 1, 2004” for “July 1, 2003”, effective July 1, 2003, and added new Subsecs. (f) and (g) re endorsements to teach elementary education and comprehensive special education and re experience in birth-to-three programs, effective June 26, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (f) by adding references to grades one to six and one to twelve, effective August 20, 2003; pursuant to P.A. 07-73 “Department of Mental Retardation” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Department of Developmental Services”, effective October 1, 2007; P.A. 07-241, added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (h), required adoption of regulations re certification standards for marital and family therapists employed by boards of education, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 12-63 amended Subsec. (f) by adding provisions making endorsements to teach elementary education issued on or after July 1, 2013, valid for grades 1 to 6 and making endorsements issued between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017, to students admitted to a teacher preparation program for elementary education on or before the start of fall semester of 2012 valid for grades kindergarten to 6, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 12-116 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (f) by adding provision requiring, on and after July 1, 2013, that certified employees with comprehensive special education endorsement achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, and added Subsec. (i) requiring, on and after July 1, 2013, that certified employees with a remedial reading and remedial language arts endorsement achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 13-122 amended Subsec. (f) by replacing requirement that student be admitted to teacher preparation program on or before start of fall semester of 2012 with requirement that student successfully complete teacher preparation program on or before June 30, 2017, effective June 18, 2013, and amended Subsec. (h) by adding provision requiring marital and family therapists to provide services to students, families and parents or guardians of students, adding provision requiring regulations to authorize such therapists to provide such services, replacing “June 1, 2008” with “July 1, 2014” and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 13-245 amended Subsec. (f) by replacing “July 1, 2013” with “September 1, 2013”, applying provisions to applicants for a comprehensive special education endorsement, adding Subdiv. (1) and (2) designators and adding provision re comparable reading instruction examination, and amended Subsec. (i) by replacing “July 1, 2013” with “September 1, 2013”, applying provisions to applicants for a remedial reading, remedial language arts or reading consultant endorsement, adding Subdiv. (1) and (2) designators and adding provision re comparable reading instruction examination, effective July 2, 2013; P.A. 15-108 amended Subsec. (a)(8) by designating existing language re completion of survey course in United States history as Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (B) re achieve a satisfactory evaluation on appropriate state board approved subject area assessment, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145f. Testing for prospective teachers. (a) No person shall be formally admitted to a State Board of Education approved teacher preparation program until such person has achieved satisfactory scores on the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination prescribed by and administered under the direction of the State Board of Education, or has qualified for a waiver of such test based on criteria established by the State Board of Education.

(b) (1) Any person who does not hold a valid certificate pursuant to section 10-145b shall (A) achieve satisfactory scores on the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination prescribed by and administered under the direction of the State Board of Education, or qualify for a waiver of such test based on criteria approved by the State Board of Education, and (B) achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment in order to be eligible for a certificate pursuant to said section unless such assessment has not been approved by the State Board of Education at the time of application, in which case the applicant shall not be denied a certificate solely because of the lack of an evaluation on such assessment. A person who holds a valid school administrator certificate in another state that is at least equivalent to an initial educator certificate, pursuant to section 10-145b, as determined by the State Board of Education, and has successfully completed three years of experience as a school administrator in a public school in another state or in a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education during the ten-year period prior to the date of application for a certificate in a school administration endorsement area shall not be required to meet the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination.

(2) Any person applying for an additional certification endorsement shall achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment in order to be eligible for such additional endorsement, unless such assessment has not been approved by the State Board of Education at the time of application, in which case the applicant shall not be denied the additional endorsement solely because of the lack of an evaluation on such assessment.

(3) On and after July 1, 1992, any teacher who held a valid teaching certificate but whose certificate lapsed and who had completed all requirements for the issuance of a new certificate pursuant to section 10-145b, except for filing an application for such certificate, prior to the date on which the lapse occurred, may file, within one year of the date on which the lapse occurred, an application with the Commissioner of Education for the issuance of such certificate. Upon the filing of such an application, the commissioner may grant such certificate and such certificate shall be retroactive to the date on which the lapse occurred, provided the commissioner finds that the lapse of the certificate occurred as a result of a hardship or extenuating circumstances beyond the control of the applicant. If such teacher has attained tenure and is reemployed by the same board of education in any equivalent unfilled position for which the person is qualified as a result of the issuance of a certificate pursuant to this subdivision, the lapse period shall not constitute a break in employment for such person reemployed and shall be used for the purpose of calculating continuous employment pursuant to section 10-151. If such teacher has not attained tenure, the time unemployed due to the lapse of a certificate shall not be counted toward tenure, except that if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education as a result of the issuance of a certificate pursuant to this subdivision, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment immediately prior to the lapse towards tenure. Using information provided by the Teachers’ Retirement Board, the Department of Education shall annually notify each local or regional board of education of the name of each teacher employed by such board of education whose provisional certificate will expire during the period of twelve months following such notice. Upon receipt of such notice the superintendent of each local and regional board of education shall notify each such teacher in writing, at such teacher’s last known address, that the teacher’s provisional certificate will expire.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, to be eligible for a certificate to teach subjects for which a bachelor’s degree is not required, any applicant who is otherwise eligible for certification in such endorsement areas shall be entitled to a certificate without having met the requirements of the competency examination and subject area assessment pursuant to this subsection for a period not to exceed two years, except that for a certificate to teach skilled trades or trade-related or occupational subjects, the commissioner may waive the requirement that the applicant take the competency examination. The commissioner may, upon the showing of good cause, extend the certificate.

(5) On and after July 1, 2011, any person applying for a certification in the endorsement area of elementary education shall achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved mathematics assessment in order to be eligible for such elementary education endorsement.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section and section 10-145b, the following persons shall be eligible for a nonrenewable temporary certificate: (1) A person who has resided in a state other than Connecticut during the year immediately preceding application for certification in Connecticut and meets the requirements for certification, excluding successful completion of the competency examination and subject matter assessment, if such person holds current teacher certification in a state other than Connecticut and has completed at least one year of successful teaching in another state in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education, (2) a person who has graduated from a teacher preparation program at a college or university outside of the state and regionally accredited, and meets the requirements for certification, excluding successful completion of the competency examination and subject matter assessment, and (3) a person hired by a charter school after July first in any school year for a teaching position that school year, provided the person hired after said date could reasonably be expected to complete the requirements prescribed in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of section 10-145b. The nonrenewable temporary certificate shall be valid for one year from the date it is issued, except the State Board of Education may extend a temporary certificate in the certification endorsement area of bilingual education issued under this subsection for an additional two years to a person who is employed by a local or regional board of education and providing instruction as part of a program of bilingual instruction, as defined in section 10-17e.

(d) Any person who is first issued a certificate valid after July 1, 1989, or who is reissued a certificate after July 1, 1989, shall, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, be required to achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment not later than the end of the second year of teaching in a public school if hired prior to January first or, if hired on or after January first, not later than the end of the second full school year of teaching following the year in which such person was hired in order to retain the certificate. The commissioner (1) may waive the requirement that such satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment be achieved upon a determination that such assessment is not valid for the person’s teaching assignment, or (2) upon a showing of good cause, may extend the time limit for the assessment for a period of time not exceeding two years. The requirement of a clinical assessment shall not apply to any such person who has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education during the ten years immediately preceding the date of application or who successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate during the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the State Board of Education may reissue an initial educator certificate to a person who held such certificate and did not achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment provided the person submits evidence demonstrating significant intervening study and experience, in accordance with standards established by the State Board of Education.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any person who holds a valid teaching certificate that is at least equivalent to an initial educator certificate, as determined by the State Board of Education, and such certificate is issued by a state other than Connecticut in the subject area or endorsement area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut shall not be required to successfully complete the competency examination and subject matter assessment pursuant to this section, if such person has either (1) successfully completed at least three years of teaching experience or service in the endorsement area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut in the past ten years in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education in such other state, or (2) holds a master’s degree or higher in the subject area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut.

(P.A. 85-532, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-147, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-464, S. 5, 8; 87-499, S. 9, 10, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 3, 4, 8, 9; 88-360, S. 19–21, 63; P.A. 89-137, S. 6–8, 13, 14; 89-251, S. 68, 203; P.A. 90-325, S. 2–5, 32; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 3, 117; P.A. 93-353, S. 19, 34, 52; P.A. 94-245, S. 4, 46; P.A. 95-259, S. 15, 32; P.A. 96-214, S. 9; 96-244, S. 13, 57, 63; P.A. 03-76, S. 13, 14; 03-174, S. 2; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 3; P.A. 11-85, S. 7; P.A. 13-122, S. 16; P.A. 14-187, S. 42; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5, S. 338.)

History: P.A. 86-147 in Subsec. (b) deleted reference to professional knowledge assessment, added testing requirements for permanent and lapsed or revoked certificate holders and persons applying for additional certification endorsement and set deadline for development of subject area assessment, added Subsec. (c) to provide for a nonrenewable temporary certificate, added Subsec. (d) re professional knowledge clinical assessment, added Subsec. (e) which had been part of Subsec. (b) and made other technical changes; P.A. 87-464 added Subdiv. and Subpara. designations in Subsec. (b) and in Subsec. (c) provided for nonrenewable temporary certificates for graduates of out-of-state teacher preparation programs; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (b) provided an exception to the testing requirements for applicants for certificates to teach skilled trades and trade-related subjects and in Subsec. (d) deleted “provisional” and made the Subsec. apply to all certificate holders, counted the 10 years from the date of application rather than date of employment under provisional certificate, substituted July for May and provided that the time limit for assessment may be extended by “one year” rather than by “not more than one year”; P.A. 88-273 inserted new Subsec. (b)(3) re standard certificates for and the reemployment of holders of certain lapsed provisional certificates and re annual notification by state department of education of provisional certificates which are to expire in the subsequent 12 months, and renumbered old Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (4), amended Subsec. (c) to provide for the issuance of a nonrenewable temporary certificate pursuant to Subdiv. (2) for the 1988-1989 school year and in Subsec. (d) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (a) substituted “scores on all components, in one administration of the” for “score on each component of any one” state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination and made a technical change, in Subsec. (b)(1) substituted “scores on all components, in one administration, of the” for “score on each component of any one” state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination and in Subdiv. (3) (now (4)) of Subsec. (b) substituted “subjects for which a bachelor’s degree is not required” for “skilled trades and trade-related subjects” and in Subsec. (e) substituted “all fees” for “a fee”, specified that the competency examination be that administered by the state board of education, provided that the fees be at a level not to exceed the administrative costs but need not be at a level to meet all such costs and added provisions re the competency examination fee, registration fees and waivers of fees; P.A. 89-137 in Subsec. (b)(2) substituted December 1, 1990, for May 1, 1990, as the date before which the state board of education shall complete the development of subject area assessments, in Subsec. (b)(3) added Subpara. (A) designation, deleted the provisions granting a standard certificate to certain persons whose provisional certificates had lapsed and concerning the reemployment of such teachers and treatment of the lapse period, specified the circumstances under which the commissioner of education may issue a new certificate to a teacher whose certificate has lapsed, specified the circumstances under which the lapse period is not a break in employment and is used for calculating continuous employment, required superintendents to notify teachers of the expiration of provisional certificates and added new Subpara. (B) re the granting of a provisional teaching certificate to certain persons 65 years of age or older, in Subsec. (b)(4) permitted the commissioner of education to waive the competency examination requirement for applicants for certificates to teach skilled trades or trade-related or occupational subjects, and in Subsec. (d) permitted the reissuance of an initial educator certificate to certain persons who did not achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment; P.A. 89-251 set the fee for the competency examination at not less than $48 and increased the fee for retesting from $10 to $12; P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (b)(1) with an exception made the subdivision apply to any person who does not hold a valid certificate and provided that a satisfactory evaluation on a subject area assessment not be required if the assessment has not been approved by the state board of education, rather than if it has not been developed, in Subsec. (b)(2) provided that a satisfactory evaluation on a subject area assessment for eligibility for an additional endorsement not be required if the assessment has not been approved by the state board of education, rather than if it has not been developed, in Subsec. (c) removed the limitation that nonrenewable temporary certificates for graduates of out-of-state teacher preparation programs be issued only for certain years and in added Subsec. (d)(1) to allow the commissioner of education to waive the requirement of a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment if the assessment is not valid for the person’s teaching assignment and provided that the requirement not apply to certain persons who taught with provisional teaching certificates; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (e) to provide the fee shall be not less than $75 for competency examination and subject area assessment for the elementary level and to delete references to board discretion regarding assessment of fees; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions concerning the Scholastic Aptitude Test scores or those of an equivalent test and amended Subsec. (b)(3) to make the Subdiv. applicable on and after July 1, 1992, to remove the requirement that the teacher have held the certificate “while employed by a local or regional board of education or a facility approved for special education by the state board of education or on authorized leave from such a board of education or facility”, to divide Subpara. (A) into (A) and (B) and to delete the existing Subpara. (B) which was obsolete, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-245 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to provide that on and after January 1, 1995, satisfactory scores in all components of competency examinations need not be achieved in one administration and to substitute an examination administered “under the direction of” the board for an examination administered “by” the board, effective June 2, 1994; P.A. 95-259 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to apply the existing requirements to tests administered on or before March 31, 1995, and to add new requirements for tests administered after said date, also in Subsec. (b) added the provisions dealing with non-English versions and amended Subsec. (c) to change the time frame for the validity of nonrenewable temporary certificates, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-214 added Subsec. (c)(3) re person hired by a charter school after July first in any school year; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (c)(3) to change the eligibility requirement for the temporary certificate for persons hired by a charter school and amended Subsec. (d) to extend the time for achievement of a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment from within “one” to “two” years and made a technical change, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b)(3) and (c), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 03-174 amended Subsec. (d) by differentiating between teachers hired prior to January first and teachers hired on or after January first re timing of evaluation, substituting a two-year extension for a one-year extension in Subdiv. (2), and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2003; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b)(1) by eliminating provisions re components and Scholastic Aptitude Test and English competency testing requirements, adding provision re establishment of waiver criteria, and making conforming changes, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision in Subdiv. (1) re testing requirement waiver for out-of-state school administrators and deleting obsolete provisions in Subdivs. (2) and (3), amended Subsec. (c) by deleting provisions re temporary nonrenewable certificate and added Subsec. (f) re testing requirement waiver for out-of-state teachers, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-85 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (5) requiring that applicants for certification in elementary education endorsement area achieve a satisfactory evaluation on appropriate mathematics assessment, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 13-122 amended Subsec. (f)(1) by adding “or service” and replacing “subject” with “endorsement”, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 14-187 deleted former Subsec. (e) re regulations establishing testing fees and commissioner’s ability to waive fees and redesignated existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (e), effective June 11, 2014; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (c) by adding exception re two-year extension of temporary certificate in bilingual education, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher. (a) On and after July 1, 2015, the State Board of Education shall require an applicant for certification as a bilingual education teacher to demonstrate written competency in English and written and oral competency in the other language of instruction as a condition of certification. Written competency in English shall be demonstrated by successful passage of the essential skills test approved by the State Board of Education. Written competency in the other language shall be demonstrated on an examination, if available, of comparable difficulty as specified by the Department of Education. If such an examination is not available, competency shall be demonstrated by an appropriate alternative method as specified by the department. Oral competency in the other language shall be demonstrated by an appropriate method specified by the Department of Education.

(b) On and after July 1, 2015, the State Board of Education shall require persons seeking to become (1) elementary level bilingual education teachers to meet coursework requirements in elementary education and bilingual education, and (2) secondary level bilingual education teachers to meet coursework requirements in both the subject area they will teach and in bilingual education. The State Board of Education may issue an endorsement in bilingual education to an applicant who has (A) completed coursework requirements in (i) elementary education and bilingual education, or (ii) the subject area they will teach and bilingual education, and (B) successful passage of examination requirements for bilingual education, as approved by the State Board of Education.

(c) On and after July 1, 2000, the State Board of Education shall require bilingual education teachers holding provisional educator certificates to meet the requirements of this subsection in order to qualify for a professional educator certificate to teach bilingual education. (1) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the elementary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in language arts, reading and mathematics. (2) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the middle or secondary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in the subject matter that they teach. Such professional educator certificate shall be valid for bilingual education and the grade level and content area of preparation.

(P.A. 99-211, S. 4, 10; P.A. 05-290, S. 1; P.A. 06-13, S. 5; P.A. 08-170, S. 15; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5, S. 339.)

History: P.A. 99-211 effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 05-245 added Subsec. (d) re certification from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 06-13 made a technical change in Subsec. (d)(1), effective May 2, 2006; P.A. 08-170 amended Subsec. (d) to extend provisions to July 1, 2009, effective July 1, 2008; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (d) to extend provisions to June 30, 2010, effective July 1, 2009; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “1999” with “2015”, adding “written” to provisions re competency in English, adding “written and oral” to provision re competency in other language of instruction, and adding provision re oral competency in other language to be demonstrated by appropriate method specified by department, amended Subsec. (b) by replacing “be certified” with “meet coursework requirements”, deleting provision re dual certification requirement may be met by earning bachelor’s degree and meeting endorsement requirements, and adding Subparas. (A) and (B) re issuance of bilingual education endorsement, and deleted former Subsec. (d) re certification from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2010, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145i. Limitation on issuance and reissuance of certificates, authorizations or permits to certain individuals. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-146b, inclusive, and 10-149, the State Board of Education shall not issue or reissue any certificate, authorization or permit pursuant to said sections if (1) the applicant for such certificate, authorization or permit has been convicted of any of the following: (A) A capital felony, as defined under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012; (B) arson murder, as defined in section 53a-54d; (C) any class A felony; (D) any class B felony except a violation of section 53a-122, 53a-252 or 53a-291; (E) a crime involving an act of child abuse or neglect as described in section 46b-120; or (F) a violation of section 17a-101a, 53-21, 53-37a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-73a, 53a-88, 53a-90a, 53a-99, 53a-103a, 53a-181c, 53a-191, 53a-196, 53a-196c, 53a-216, 53a-217b or 21a-278 or a violation of subsection (a) of section 21a-277, and (2) the applicant completed serving the sentence for such conviction within the five years immediately preceding the date of the application.

(P.A. 00-220, S. 41, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 54, 67; P.A. 03-168, S. 5; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 5; P.A. 11-93, S. 19; P.A. 12-5, S. 9; P.A. 15-205, S. 13.)

History: P.A. 00-220 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subdiv. (1) to redesignate Subpara. (E) as Subpara. (F), add new Subpara. (E) re crime involving act of child abuse or neglect, expand the list of crimes in Subpara. (F), and make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-168 added “authorization or permit”, effective July 1, 2003; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subdiv. (1)(F) by adding references to Secs. 53a-49 and 53a-90a, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-93 deleted reference to Sec. 53a-49 in Subdiv. (1)(F), effective July 8, 2011; P.A. 12-5 amended Subdiv. (1)(A) re capital felony to reference provisions of Sec. 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, effective April 25, 2012; P.A. 15-205 added reference to Sec. 17a-101a in Subdiv. (1)(F), effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145k. Issuance of international teacher permit. (a) The State Board of Education shall, upon the request of a local or regional board of education, issue an international teacher permit in a subject shortage area pursuant to section 10-8b, provided the conditions for issuance of such permit pursuant to the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section are met. Such permits shall be issued for one year and may be renewed for a period of up to one year, upon the request of the local or regional board of education, provided the teacher whose permit is to be renewed maintains, at the time of such renewal, a valid J-1 Visa issued by the United States Department of State at the time such permit is renewed.

(b) The local or regional board of education requesting the issuance of an international teacher permit shall attest to the existence of a plan for the supervision of the teacher.

(c) The teacher shall:

(1) Hold a J-1 visa issued by the United States Department of State;

(2) Be in the United States to teach (A) in accordance with a memorandum of understanding between Connecticut and the country from which the teacher is entering, or (B) as part of the Exchange Visitor Program administered by the United States Department of State Teacher Exchange Branch;

(3) (A) Hold the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree, from a regionally accredited institution of higher education, as determined by a foreign credentialing agency recognized by the Commissioner of Education, with a major in or closely related to the certification endorsement area in which the teacher is to teach, (B) hold such a degree without such a major and have successfully completed the teacher assessment for the appropriate subject area, as approved by the State Board of Education, or (C) have completed coursework or training prescribed by the State Board of Education to achieve proficiency deemed equivalent to a bachelor’s degree, if such person will be providing instruction as part of a program of bilingual instruction, as defined in section 10-17e;

(4) Have completed, in the country from which the teacher is entering, the equivalent of a regionally accredited teacher preparation program; and

(5) Have achieved the level of oral proficiency in English as determined by an examination approved by the Commissioner of Education.

(P.A. 07-30, S. 1; P.A. 11-179, S. 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5, S. 340.)

History: P.A. 07-30 effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-179 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing limitation on number of times permit can be renewed with requirement that teacher seeking renewal maintains valid J-1 Visa at time of renewal, effective July 13, 2011; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (c)(3) by adding Subpara. (C) re completion of coursework or training prescribed by State Board of Education for person providing bilingual instruction, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-145p. Alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. Requirements; exception. Issuance of initial educator certificate upon completion. (a) The Department of Education shall review and approve proposals for alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. In order to be approved, a proposal shall provide that the alternate route to certification program (1) be provided by a public or independent institution of higher education, a local or regional board of education, a regional educational service center or a private, nonprofit teacher or administrator training organization approved by the State Board of Education; (2) accept only those participants who (A) hold a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or Office of Higher Education or regionally accredited, (B) (i) have at least forty school months teaching experience, of which at least ten school months are in a position requiring certification at a public school, in this state or another state, or (ii) have less than ten months teaching experience in a public school in another state while holding professional certification, provided (I) such participant provides a statement of justification for participation in such alternate route to certification program and receives approval from the department for such participant’s participation in such alternate route to certification program, and (II) the number of such participants shall not be greater than ten per cent of the total number of participants in such alternate route to certification program for a school year, and (C) are recommended by the immediate supervisor or district administrator of such person on the basis of such person’s performance; (3) require each participant to (A) complete a one-year residency that requires such person to serve (i) in a position requiring an intermediate administrator or supervisor endorsement, and (ii) in a full-time position for ten school months at a local or regional board of education in the state under the supervision of (I) a certified administrator, and (II) a supervisor from an institution or organization described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, or (B) have ten school months experience in a full-time position as an administrator in a public or nonpublic school in another state that is approved by the appropriate state board of education in such other state; and (4) meet such other criteria as the department requires.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of section 10-145b, on and after July 1, 2010, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate in the certification endorsement area of administration and supervision, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who (1) successfully completed the alternate route to certification program for administrators and superintendents pursuant to this section, and (2) meets the requirements established in subsection (b) of section 10-145f.

(c) Notwithstanding any regulation adopted by the State Board of Education pursuant to section 10-145b, any person who successfully completed the alternate route to certification program for administrators pursuant to this section and was issued an initial educator certificate in the endorsement area of administration and supervision shall obtain a master’s degree not later than five years after such person was issued such initial educator certificate. If such person does not obtain a master’s degree in such time period, such person shall not be eligible for a professional educator certificate.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, any entity described in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section that administers an alternate route to certification program for school administrators, approved by the Department of Education under this section, shall permit any person who has provided service to a local or regional board of education in a supervisory or managerial role for at least forty school months and held a professional educator certificate for at least ten school months during such forty school months, to participate in such alternate route to certification program for school administrators, provided such person holds a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or Office of Higher Education or regionally accredited and is recommended by the immediate supervisor or district administrator of such person on the basis of such person’s performance.

(P.A. 10-111, S. 1; P.A. 11-28, S. 11; 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 9; P.A. 13-118, S. 12; 13-122, S. 14; P.A. 14-113, S. 1; P.A. 15-215, S. 12.)

History: P.A. 10-111 effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(4), effective June 3, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (a)(2)(A), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(A) by adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation, effective June 15, 2012; P.A. 13-118 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(A) to replace “State Board of Education” with “Office of Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2013; P.A. 13-122 added Subsec. (d) re exception to participation requirements for alternate route to certification program for school administrators, effective June 18, 2013; P.A. 14-113 amended Subsec. (d) by replacing “State Board of Education” with “Office of Higher Education”, effective June 6, 2014; P.A. 15-215 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(B) by designating existing provision as clause (i) and adding clause (ii) re participants with less than 10 months teaching experience in a public school in another state, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-146c. Interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification. The Commissioner of Education, or the commissioner’s designee, as agent for the state shall establish or join interstate agreements to facilitate the certification of qualified educators from other states, territories or possessions of the United States, or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, provided candidates for certification, at a minimum, hold a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university, have fulfilled post preparation assessments as approved by the commissioner, have taught under an appropriate certificate issued by another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and meet all conditions as mandated by such interstate agreement. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 10-145b and 10-145f, the State Board of Education shall issue an initial educator certificate to any person who satisfies the requirements of this section and the appropriate interstate agreement.

(1969, P.A. 269, S. 1; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 7; P.A. 15-108, S. 2.)

History: June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 replaced provisions re Interstate Agreement on Qualification of Educational Personnel with provision authorizing commissioner to establish or join interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 15-108 replaced “may” with “shall” re establishing or joining interstate agreements, added provision re out-of-state educators, replaced provision re fulfill assessment requirements approved by state board with provision re fulfill post preparation assessments approved by commissioner and taught under certificate issued by another state, and added provision re issuance of initial educator certificate, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-146h. Report re quality of teacher preparation programs. On and after July 1, 2015, the Department of Education shall annually submit a report on the quality of teacher preparation programs leading to professional certification offered at institutions of higher education in the state to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education and higher education, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a. Such report shall include, but not be limited to, (1) information and data relating to the extent to which graduates of such teacher preparation programs help their students learn, including, but not limited to, data relating to the academic achievement and progress of the students of such graduates, (2) measures for assessing the classroom teaching performance of such graduates, (3) retention rates in the teaching profession of such graduates, (4) survey results from such graduates and the employers of such graduates regarding such teacher preparation programs, (5) data relating to the employment of such graduates in a teaching position, (6) certification issuance rates, including first-time pass rates for such graduates, and (7) recommendations regarding the recruitment of minority teachers and administrators pursuant to section 10-155l.

(P.A. 15-243, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 15-243 effective July 10, 2015.

Sec. 10-149b. Concussions: Training courses for coaches. Education plan. Informed consent form. Development or approval by State Board of Education. Revocation of coaching permit. (a)(1) For the school year commencing July 1, 2010, and each school year thereafter, any person who holds or is issued a coaching permit by the State Board of Education and is a coach of intramural or interscholastic athletics shall complete an initial training course regarding concussions, developed or approved pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section, prior to commencing the coaching assignment for the season of such school athletics.

(2) For the school year commencing July 1, 2014, and each school year thereafter, any coach who has completed the initial training course described in subdivision (1) of this subsection shall annually review current and relevant information regarding concussions, prepared or approved pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section, prior to commencing the coaching assignment for the season of such school athletics. Such annual review shall not be required in any year when such coach is required to complete the refresher course, pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection, for reissuance of his or her coaching permit.

(3) For the school year commencing July 1, 2015, and each school year thereafter, a coach shall complete a refresher course, developed or approved pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (b) of this section, not later than five years after completion of the initial training course, as a condition of the reissuance of a coaching permit to such coach. Such coach shall thereafter retake such refresher course at least once every five years as a condition of the reissuance of a coaching permit to such coach.

(b) (1) The State Board of Education, in consultation with (A) the Commissioner of Public Health, (B) the governing authority for intramural and interscholastic athletics, (C) an appropriate organization representing licensed athletic trainers, and (D) an organization representing county medical associations, shall develop or approve a training course regarding concussions. Such training course shall include, but not be limited to, (i) the recognition of the symptoms of a concussion, (ii) the means of obtaining proper medical treatment for a person suspected of having a concussion, and (iii) the nature and risk of concussions, including the danger of continuing to engage in athletic activity after sustaining a concussion and the proper method of allowing a student athlete who has sustained a concussion to return to athletic activity.

(2) On or before October 1, 2014, and annually thereafter, the State Board of Education, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health and the organizations described in subparagraphs (B) to (D), inclusive, of subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall develop or approve annual review materials regarding current and relevant information about concussions.

(3) The State Board of Education, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health and the organizations described in subparagraphs (B) to (D), inclusive, of subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall develop or approve a refresher course regarding concussions. Such refresher course shall include, but not be limited to, (A) an overview of key recognition and safety practices, (B) an update on medical developments and current best practices in the field of concussion research, prevention and treatment, (C) an update on new relevant federal, state and local laws and regulations, and (D) for football coaches, current best practices regarding coaching the sport of football, including, but not limited to, frequency of games and full contact practices and scrimmages as identified by the governing authority for intramural and interscholastic athletics.

(c) On or before January 1, 2015, the State Board of Education, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health and the organizations described in subparagraphs (B) to (D), inclusive, of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section, shall develop or approve a concussion education plan for use by local and regional boards of education. Each local and regional board of education shall implement such plan by utilizing written materials, online training or videos or in-person training that shall address, at a minimum: (1) The recognition of signs or symptoms of concussion, (2) the means of obtaining proper medical treatment for a person suspected of sustaining a concussion, (3) the nature and risks of concussions, including the danger of continuing to engage in athletic activity after sustaining a concussion, (4) the proper procedures for allowing a student athlete who has sustained a concussion to return to athletic activity, and (5) current best practices in the prevention and treatment of a concussion.

(d) For the school year commencing July 1, 2015, and each school year thereafter, each local and regional board of education shall prohibit a student athlete from participating in any intramural or interscholastic athletic activity unless the student athlete, and a parent or guardian of such student athlete, (1) reads written materials, (2) views online training or videos, or (3) attends in-person training regarding the concussion education plan developed or approved pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(e) (1) On or before July 1, 2015, the State Board of Education, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health and the organizations described in subparagraphs (B) to (D), inclusive, of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section, shall develop or approve an informed consent form to distribute to the parents and legal guardians of student athletes involved in intramural or interscholastic athletic activities regarding concussions. Such informed consent form shall include, at a minimum, (A) a summary of the concussion education plan developed or approved pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and (B) a summary of the applicable local or regional board of education’s policies regarding concussions.

(2) For the school year commencing July 1, 2015, and each school year thereafter, each school shall provide each participating student athlete’s parent or legal guardian with a copy of the informed consent form developed or approved pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection and obtain such parent’s or legal guardian’s signature, attesting to the fact that such parent or legal guardian has received a copy of such form and authorizes the student athlete to participate in the athletic activity.

(f) The State Board of Education may revoke the coaching permit, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (i) of section 10-145b, of any coach found to be in violation of this section.

(P.A. 10-62, S. 1; P.A. 12-116, S. 45; P.A. 14-66, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5, S. 115.)

History: P.A. 10-62 effective May 18, 2010; P.A. 12-116 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 14-66 amended Subsec. (a) by changing “2011” to “2014” in Subdiv. (2) and deleting references to head injuries, amended Subsec. (b) by deleting an obsolete date, adding new Subpara. (A) re Commissioner of Public Health, redesignating existing Subparas. (A) to (C) as Subparas. (B) to (D) and changing “play” to “engage in athletic activity” in Subdiv. (1), changing “July 1, 2011” to “October 1, 2014”, adding reference to Commissioner of Public Health and changing “prepare” to “develop” in Subdiv. (2), deleting an obsolete date, adding reference to Commissioner of Public Health and adding “and current best practices” and “and treatment” in Subdiv. (3), adding Subdiv. (3)(D) re current best practices training for football coaches’ refresher course, and deleting references to head injuries, added new Subsec. (c) re development of concussion education plan, added Subsecs. (d) and (e) re requirements for student athlete to participate in intramural or interscholastic athletic activity and re informed consent form, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (f), and made technical and conforming changes, effective July 1, 2014; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by making a technical change, effective July 1, 2015.

Sec. 10-151. Employment of teachers. Definitions. Tenure. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal. (a) For the purposes of this section:

(1) “Board of education” means a local or regional board of education, a cooperative arrangement committee established pursuant to section 10-158a, or the board of trustees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34, which is located in this state;

(2) “Teacher” includes each certified professional employee below the rank of superintendent employed by a board of education for at least ninety calendar days in a position requiring a certificate issued by the State Board of Education;

(3) “Continuous employment” means that time during which the teacher is employed without any break in employment as a teacher for the same board of education;

(4) “Full-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of fifty per cent or more of the salary rate of such teacher in such position if such position were full-time;

(5) “Part-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of less than fifty per cent of the salary rate of such teacher in such position, if such position were full-time;

(6) “Tenure” means:

(A) The completion of forty school months of full-time continuous employment for the same board of education, provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year on the basis of effective practice as informed by performance evaluations conducted pursuant to section 10-151b. For purposes of calculating continuous employment towards tenure, the following shall apply: (i) For a teacher who has not attained tenure, two school months of part-time continuous employment by such teacher shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment except, for a teacher employed in a part-time position at a salary rate of less than twenty-five per cent of the salary rate of a teacher in such position, if such position were full-time, three school months of part-time continuous employment shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment; (ii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count layoff time towards tenure, except that if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment immediately prior to the layoff towards tenure; (iii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count authorized leave time towards tenure if such time exceeds ninety student school days in any one school year, provided only the student school days worked that year by such teacher shall count towards tenure and shall be computed on the basis of eighteen student school days or the greater fraction thereof equaling one school month; (iv) for a teacher who has not attained tenure and who is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment with such board immediately prior to such cooperative arrangement towards tenure; and (v) for a teacher who has not attained tenure and who is employed by a local board of education or as part of a cooperative arrangement, pursuant to section 10-158a, and such board or cooperative arrangement joins a regional school district, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment with such local board or cooperative arrangement immediately prior to employment by the regional board of education towards tenure.

(B) For a teacher who has attained tenure prior to layoff, tenure shall resume if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff.

(C) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (D) and (E) of this subdivision, any teacher who has attained tenure with any one board of education and whose employment with such board ends for any reason and who is reemployed by such board or is subsequently employed by any other board, shall attain tenure after completion of twenty school months of continuous employment, provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year on the basis of effective practice as informed by performance evaluations conducted pursuant to section 10-151b. The provisions of this subparagraph shall not apply if, (i) prior to completion of the twentieth school month following commencement of employment by such board such teacher has been notified in writing that his or her contract will not be renewed for the following school year, or (ii) for a period of five or more calendar years immediately prior to such subsequent employment, such teacher has not been employed by any board of education.

(D) Any certified teacher or administrator employed by a local or regional board of education for a school district identified as a priority school district pursuant to section 10-266p may attain tenure after ten months of employment in such priority school district, if such certified teacher or administrator previously attained tenure with another local or regional board of education in this state or another state.

(E) For a teacher who has attained tenure and is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher shall not experience a break in continuous employment for purposes of tenure as a result of such cooperative arrangement.

(F) For a teacher who has attained tenure and is employed by a local board of education or as part of a cooperative arrangement, pursuant to section 10-158a, and such board or cooperative arrangement joins a regional school district, such teacher shall not experience a break in continuous employment for purposes of tenure as a result of joining such regional school district.

(7) “School month” means any calendar month other than July or August in which a teacher is employed as a teacher at least one-half of the student school days.

(b) Any board of education may authorize the superintendent to employ teachers. Any superintendent not authorized to employ teachers shall submit to the board of education nominations for teachers for each of the schools in the town or towns in such superintendent’s jurisdiction and, from the persons so nominated, teachers may be employed. Such board shall accept or reject such nominations not later than thirty-five calendar days from their submission. Any such board of education may request the superintendent to submit multiple nominations of qualified candidates, if more than one candidate is available for nomination, for any supervisory or administrative position, in which case the superintendent shall submit such a list and may place the candidates on such list in the order in which such superintendent recommends such candidates. If such board rejects such nominations, the superintendent shall submit to such board other nominations and such board may employ teachers from the persons so nominated and shall accept or reject such nominations not later than one month from their submission. Whenever a superintendent offers a teacher who has not attained tenure a contract to return for another year of employment, such offer shall be based on records of evaluations pursuant to subsection (a) of section 10-151b. The contract of employment of a teacher shall be in writing.

(c) The contract of employment of a teacher who has not attained tenure may be terminated at any time for any of the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of subsection (d) of this section; otherwise the contract of such teacher shall be continued into the next school year unless such teacher receives written notice by May first in one school year that such contract will not be renewed for the following year. Upon the teacher’s written request, not later than three calendar days after such teacher receives such notice of nonrenewal or termination, a notice of nonrenewal or termination shall be supplemented not later than four calendar days after receipt of the request by a statement of the reason or reasons for such nonrenewal or termination. Such teacher, upon written request filed with the board of education not later than ten calendar days after the receipt of notice of termination, or nonrenewal shall be entitled to a hearing, except as provided in this subsection, (1) before the board, or (2) if indicated in such request and if designated by the board, before an impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section. Such hearing shall commence not later than fifteen calendar days after receipt of such request unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen calendar days. The impartial hearing officer or a subcommittee of the board of education, if the board of education designates a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings, shall submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition. The teacher shall have the right to appear with counsel of the teacher’s choice at the hearing. A teacher who has not attained tenure shall not be entitled to a hearing concerning nonrenewal if the reason for such nonrenewal is either elimination of position or loss of position to another teacher. The board of education shall rescind a nonrenewal decision only if the board finds such decision to be arbitrary and capricious. Any such teacher whose contract is terminated for the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (3) and (4) of subsection (d) of this section shall have the right to appeal in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section.

(d) The contract of employment of a teacher who has attained tenure shall be continued from school year to school year, except that it may be terminated at any time for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Inefficiency, incompetence or ineffectiveness, provided, if a teacher is notified on or after July 1, 2014, that termination is under consideration due to incompetence or ineffectiveness, the determination of incompetence or ineffectiveness is based on evaluation of the teacher using teacher evaluation guidelines established pursuant to section 10-151b; (2) insubordination against reasonable rules of the board of education; (3) moral misconduct; (4) disability, as shown by competent medical evidence; (5) elimination of the position to which the teacher was appointed or loss of a position to another teacher, if no other position exists to which such teacher may be appointed if qualified, provided such teacher, if qualified, shall be appointed to a position held by a teacher who has not attained tenure, and provided further that determination of the individual contract or contracts of employment to be terminated shall be made in accordance with either (A) a provision for a layoff procedure agreed upon by the board of education and the exclusive employees’ representative organization, or (B) in the absence of such agreement, a written policy of the board of education; or (6) other due and sufficient cause. Nothing in this section or in any other section of the general statutes or of any special act shall preclude a board of education from making an agreement with an exclusive bargaining representative which contains a recall provision. Prior to terminating a contract, the superintendent shall give the teacher concerned a written notice that termination of such teacher’s contract is under consideration and give such teacher a statement of the reasons for such consideration of termination. Not later than ten calendar days after receipt of written notice by the superintendent that contract termination is under consideration, such teacher may file with the local or regional board of education a written request for a hearing. A board of education may designate a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings and submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition in the case of teachers whose contracts are terminated. Such hearing shall commence not later than fifteen calendar days after receipt of such request, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension, not to exceed fifteen calendar days (A) before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board, or (B) if indicated in such request or if designated by the board before an impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent. If the parties are unable to agree upon the choice of a hearing officer not later than five calendar days after the decision to use a hearing officer, the hearing officer shall be selected with the assistance of the American Arbitration Association using its expedited selection process and in accordance with its rules for selection of a neutral arbitrator in grievance arbitration. If the hearing officer is not selected with the assistance of such association after five days, the hearing shall be held before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board. When the reason for termination is incompetence or ineffectiveness, the hearing shall (i) address the question of whether the performance evaluation ratings of the teacher were determined in good faith in accordance with the program adopted by the local or regional board of education pursuant to section 10-151b and were reasonable in light of the evidence presented, and (ii) be limited to twelve total hours of evidence and testimony, with each side allowed not more than six hours to present evidence and testimony except the board, subcommittee of the board or impartial hearing officer may extend the time period for evidence and testimony at the hearing when good cause is shown. Not later than forty-five calendar days after receipt of the request for a hearing, the subcommittee of the board or hearing officer, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen calendar days, shall submit written findings and a recommendation to the board of education as to the disposition of the charges against the teacher and shall send a copy of such findings and recommendation to the teacher. The board of education shall give the teacher concerned its written decision not later than fifteen calendar days after receipt of the written recommendation of the subcommittee or hearing officer. Each party shall share equally the fee of the hearing officer and all other costs incidental to the hearing. If the hearing is before the board of education, the board shall render its decision not later than fifteen calendar days after the close of such hearing and shall send a copy of its decision to the teacher. The hearing shall be public if the teacher so requests or the board, subcommittee or hearing officer so designates. The teacher concerned shall have the right to appear with counsel at the hearing, whether public or private. A copy of a transcript of the proceedings of the hearing shall be furnished by the board of education, upon written request by the teacher within fifteen days after the board’s decision, provided the teacher shall assume the cost of any such copy. Nothing herein contained shall deprive a board of education or superintendent of the power to suspend a teacher from duty immediately when serious misconduct is charged without prejudice to the rights of the teacher as otherwise provided in this section.

(e) Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of a board of education after a hearing as provided in subsection (d) of this section may appeal therefrom, not later than thirty calendar days after such decision, to the Superior Court. Such appeal shall be made returnable to said court in the same manner as is prescribed for civil actions brought to said court. Any such appeal shall be a privileged case to be heard by the court as soon after the return day as is practicable. The board of education shall file with the court a copy of the complete transcript of the proceedings of the hearing and the minutes of board of education meetings relating to such termination, including the vote of the board on the termination, together with such other documents, or certified copies thereof, as shall constitute the record of the case. The court, upon such appeal, shall review the proceedings of such hearing. The court, upon such appeal and hearing thereon, may affirm or reverse the decision appealed from in accordance with subsection (j) of section 4-183. Costs shall not be allowed against the board of education unless it appears to the court that it acted with gross negligence or in bad faith or with malice in making the decision appealed from.

(1949 Rev., S. 1438; 1949, 1955, S. 938d; 1959, P.A. 625; 1961, P.A. 480; 556; February, 1965, P.A. 278; 1969, P.A. 532; 1971, P.A. 61; P.A. 73-456, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-278, S. 3, 5; P.A. 75-435; 75-615; P.A. 76-436, S. 297, 681; P.A. 78-218, S. 99; 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 79-90; 79-504, S. 1, 4; P.A. 80-354, S. 1–3; P.A. 81-216, S. 1, 2; P.A. 82-257; P.A. 83-398, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-230; 85-343, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 86-22, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-58, S. 2, 4; P.A. 97-247, S. 25, 27; P.A. 00-13, S. 1, 2; P.A. 01-173, S. 16, 67; P.A. 10-111, S. 9; P.A. 11-28, S. 8; 11-135, S. 10; 11-136, S. 14; P.A. 12-116, S. 57; P.A. 13-31, S. 12; 13-245, S. 4; P.A. 15-215, S. 21.)

History: 1959 act added Subsec. (e); 1961 acts amended Subsec. (a) by providing for the supplying of a statement of the reasons for failure to renew the contract upon request, amended Subsec. (b) to provide for giving copy of transcript to teacher and added first proviso to Subsec. (e); 1965 act added Subsec. (f) re appeals to court of common pleas; 1969 act included in Subsec. (a) provisions for filling supervisory or administrative positions; 1971 act amended Subsec. (a) to require that board accept or reject nominations within 35 days rather than within one month; P.A. 73-456 inserted new Subsec. (c) re teacher evaluations, relettering following subsections accordingly and deleted reference to supervising agents in Subsec. (d), formerly (c); P.A. 74-278 deleted Subsec. (c), relettering following subsections accordingly; P.A. 75-435 included in provisions of Subsec. (e) teachers who leave employment and are subsequently rehired in the same municipality or school district; P.A. 75-615 amended section to include provisions concerning hearings before impartial hearing panels; P.A. 76-436 amended Subsec. (f) to substitute superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-218 made technical changes; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties in Subsec. (f); P.A. 79-90 amended Subsec. (a) to delete provision which had forbidden court appeal from decisions of impartial panel and clarified circumstances in which teachers whose contracts have been terminated may appeal; P.A. 79-504 extended provisions of section to include certified professional employees of incorporated or endowed high schools; P.A. 80-354 clarified application of provisions to professional employees of incorporated or endowed high schools by requiring them to choose coverage in Subsec. (a) and amended Subsec. (b)(5) re loss of position to another teacher and clarified provisions concerning layoffs and added to Subsec. (b) general proviso re agreements with bargaining representatives; P.A. 81-216 amended Subsec. (c) to define “continuous employment” and “part-time employment” for purposes of clarifying the provisions of the teacher fair dismissal law; P.A. 82-257 amended Subsec. (c) to require that authorized leave time be treated in the same manner as layoff time for purposes of computing continuous employment where previously authorized leave was entirely excluded in computations; P.A. 83-398 redesignated former Subsec. (c) containing definitions as Subsec. (a), adding definitions of “board of education”, “full-time employment”, “tenure” and “school month” and redefining “part-time employment”, redesignated former Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (b) and limited provisions to employment of teachers, moved provision re termination of contract of employment previously contained in former Subsec. (a) to Subsec. (c) for teachers who have not attained tenure and Subsec. (d) for tenured teachers; and repealed former Subsec. (e) re employment and termination of contracts for tenured teachers, effective July 1, 1983, provided provisions of P.A. 83-398 shall not apply to layoff, nonrenewal or termination proceedings initiated prior to that date; P.A. 85-230 amended Subsec. (d) to provide for hearing before a single impartial hearing officer if both parties agree; P.A. 85-343 amended Subsecs. (c) and (d) to allow the board to designate a subcommittee to conduct hearings and submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition in certain teacher termination cases and made technical changes; P.A. 86-22 required that findings be submitted within 90 days after receipt of the request for a hearing rather than within 15 days after the close of the hearing in Subsec. (d); P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add employment “for at least ninety days”, Subsec. (a)(6)(A) to apply the 30 school months to teachers hired prior to July 1, 1996, and to require teachers hired after said date to be employed for 40 school months provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year, Subsec. (a)(6)(C) to change 16 to 20 school months for the attainment of tenure by teachers who previously attained tenure with the same or a different board of education, Subsec. (b) to require the superintendent to base the offer of a contract to return on the records of evaluations, Subsec. (c) to allow a terminated teacher to request and receive a statement of the reason for such termination, to remove provision for hearings for nonrenewal, to add alternative for a hearing before an impartial hearing officer, to limit extensions for the commencement of hearings to 15 days, to require the submission of written findings and recommendations to the board of education in all cases not just in the case of teachers whose contracts are terminated for the reasons stated in Subsec. (d)(5), to remove the right to an appeal for teachers terminated for the reasons enumerated in Subsec. (d)(1) and (2), Subsec. (d) to replace board of education with superintendent re notice to teachers that termination is under consideration and provision of statements in writing of the reasons upon request, to allow boards of education to designate subcommittees to conduct hearings in all cases not just terminations for the reasons stated in Subdiv. (5), to limit extensions to 15 days, to substitute agreement by the teacher and superintendent for “both parties” re hearings before single impartial hearing officers, to substitute superintendent for board of education re appointment of panels, to add provision for appointment of third panel member with the assistance of the American Arbitration Association, to reduce the time for the submission of findings from 90 to 75 days, to specify that the Subsec. does not limit the right of a superintendent to suspend a teacher and to make technical changes, deleted former Subsec. (e) specifying that the provisions of a special act regarding the dismissal or employment of teachers prevail over the provisions of the section in the event of conflict and relettered Subsecs., and amended newly designated Subsec. (e), formerly Subsec. (f), to require submission of the minutes of board of education meetings relating to the termination, including the vote of the board on termination, removed language allowing parties to the appeal to introduce evidence and added requirement that the court affirm or reverse the decision appealed from in accordance with Sec. 4-183(j), effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-247 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for a hearing for nonrenewal unless the contract of a teacher who has not attained tenure is not renewed due to elimination of the position or loss of position to another teacher and to provide that the board of education rescind a nonrenewal decision only if the board finds such decision to be arbitrary and capricious, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 00-13 amended Subsec. (d) to add requirement for the determination of incompetence to be based on evaluations, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsec. (d) to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; (Revisor’s note: In 2005 the Revisors changed the reference to “subsection (f)” in the phrase “shall have the right to appeal in accordance with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section”, at the end of Subsec. (c), to “subsection (e)”, to correctly reflect the relettering of the subsections by P.A. 95-58); P.A. 10-111 amended Subsec. (a)(6) by replacing “subparagraph (B)” with “subparagraphs (B) and (D)” in Subpara. (C) and adding Subpara. (D) re attainment of tenure for employment in a priority school district, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 2011; P.A. 11-135 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re cooperative arrangement committee in Subdiv. (1), adding Subdiv. (6)(A)(iv) re previous continuous employment immediately prior to cooperative arrangement for purposes of attaining tenure, adding Subdiv. (6)(E) re tenured teachers employed by board that enters into cooperative arrangements, and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-136 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “April” with “May” and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a)(6) to redefine “tenure” by replacing “thirty” with “forty” re school months of continuous employment and adding provision re contract based on effective practice as informed by performance evaluations in Subpara. (A) and by adding provision re contract to return offered by superintendent based on effective practice as informed by performance evaluations in Subpara. (C), amended Subsec. (c) by revising time periods re statement of reasons for nonrenewal or termination and re hearing request and deleting provisions re hearing panel, amended Subsec. (d) by adding “or ineffectiveness” and replacing “July 1, 2000” with “July 1, 2014” in Subdiv. (1), deleting provision re written request filed by teacher following notice that contract is under consideration for termination, requiring request for hearing to be filed not later than 10 calendar days after receipt of written notice, deleting provisions re hearing panel, adding provision re hearing process when reason for termination is incompetence or ineffectiveness, and requiring submission of written findings and recommendation not later than 45 calendar days after receipt of hearing request, and replaced “days” with “calendar days” and made technical and conforming changes throughout, effective July 1, 2014; P.A. 13-31 made technical changes in Subsecs. (d) and (e), effective July 1, 2014; P.A. 13-245 amended Subsec. (d) by replacing “developed” with “adopted” in clause (i), effective July 1, 2014; P.A. 15-215 amended Subsec. (a)(6) by adding clause (v) re joining a regional school district in Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (F) re joining a regional school district, effective June 30, 2015.

Sec. 10-151b. Teacher evaluations. Teacher evaluation and support program; development; adoption; implementation; guidelines. (a) The superintendent of each local or regional board of education shall annually evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher, and for the school year commencing July 1, 2013, and each school year thereafter, such annual evaluations shall be the teacher evaluation and support program adopted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. The superintendent may conduct additional formative evaluations toward producing an annual summative evaluation. An evaluation pursuant to this subsection shall include, but need not be limited to, strengths, areas needing improvement, strategies for improvement and multiple indicators of student academic growth. Claims of failure to follow the established procedures of such teacher evaluation and support program shall be subject to the grievance procedure in collective bargaining agreements negotiated subsequent to July 1, 2004. In the event that a teacher does not receive a summative evaluation during the school year, such teacher shall receive a “not rated” designation for such school year. The superintendent shall report (1) the status of teacher evaluations to the local or regional board of education on or before June first of each year, and (2) the status of the implementation of the teacher evaluation and support program, including the frequency of evaluations, aggregate evaluation ratings, the number of teachers who have not been evaluated and other requirements as determined by the Department of Education, to the Commissioner of Education on or before September fifteenth of each year. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a board of education, below the rank of superintendent, who holds a certificate or permit issued by the State Board of Education.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, not later than September 1, 2013, each local and regional board of education shall adopt and implement a teacher evaluation and support program that is consistent with the guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program adopted by the State Board of Education, pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. Such teacher evaluation and support program shall be developed through mutual agreement between the local or regional board of education and the professional development and evaluation committee for the school district, established pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-220a. If a local or regional board of education is unable to develop a teacher evaluation and support program through mutual agreement with such professional development and evaluation committee, then such board of education and such professional development and evaluation committee shall consider the model teacher evaluation and support program adopted by the State Board of Education, pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and such board of education may adopt, through mutual agreement with such professional development and evaluation committee, such model teacher evaluation and support program. If a local or regional board of education and the professional development and evaluation committee are unable to mutually agree on the adoption of such model teacher evaluation and support program, then such board of education shall adopt and implement a teacher evaluation and support program developed by such board of education, provided such teacher evaluation and support program is consistent with the guidelines adopted by the State Board of Education, pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. Each local and regional board of education may commence implementation of the teacher evaluation and support program adopted pursuant to this subsection in accordance with a teacher evaluation and support program implementation plan adopted pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(c) (1) On or before July 1, 2012, the State Board of Education shall adopt, in consultation with the Performance Evaluation Advisory Council established pursuant to section 10-151d, guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program. Such guidelines shall include, but not be limited to, (A) the use of four performance evaluations designators: Exemplary, proficient, developing and below standard; (B) the use of multiple indicators of student academic growth and development in teacher evaluations; (C) methods for assessing student academic growth and development; (D) a consideration of control factors tracked by the state-wide public school information system, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-10a, that may influence teacher performance ratings, including, but not limited to, student characteristics, student attendance and student mobility; (E) minimum requirements for teacher evaluation instruments and procedures, including scoring systems to determine exemplary, proficient, developing and below standard ratings; (F) the development and implementation of periodic training programs regarding the teacher evaluation and support program to be offered by the local or regional board of education or regional educational service center for the school district to teachers who are employed by such local or regional board of education and whose performance is being evaluated and to administrators who are employed by such local or regional board of education and who are conducting performance evaluations; (G) the provision of professional development services based on the individual or group of individuals’ needs that are identified through the evaluation process; (H) the creation of individual teacher improvement and remediation plans for teachers whose performance is developing or below standard, designed in consultation with such teacher and his or her exclusive bargaining representative for certified teachers chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, and that (i) identify resources, support and other strategies to be provided by the local or regional board of education to address documented deficiencies, (ii) indicate a timeline for implementing such resources, support, and other strategies, in the course of the same school year as the plan is issued, and (iii) include indicators of success including a summative rating of proficient or better immediately at the conclusion of the improvement and remediation plan; (I) opportunities for career development and professional growth; and (J) a validation procedure to audit evaluation ratings of exemplary or below standard by the department or a third-party entity approved by the department.

(2) The State Board of Education shall, following the completion of the teacher evaluation and support pilot program, pursuant to section 10-151f, and the submission of the study of such pilot program, pursuant to section 10-151g, review and may revise, as necessary, the guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program and the model teacher evaluation and support program adopted under this subsection.

(d) A local or regional board of education may phase in full implementation of the teacher evaluation and support program adopted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section during the school years commencing July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2014, pursuant to a teacher evaluation and support program implementation plan adopted by the State Board of Education, in consultation with the Performance Evaluation Advisory Council, not later than July 1, 2013. The Commissioner of Education may waive the provisions of subsection (b) of this section and the implementation plan provisions of this subsection for any local or regional board of education that has expressed an intent, not later than July 1, 2013, to adopt a teacher evaluation program for which such board requests a waiver in accordance with this subsection.

(P.A. 74-278, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 77-27, S. 3; P.A. 78-218, S. 101; P.A. 82-74, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-2, S. 12, 21; P.A. 89-26, S. 1, 4; P.A. 90-324, S. 7, 13; P.A. 91-220, S. 3, 8; P.A. 93-353, S. 30, 52; P.A. 95-58, S. 3, 4; 95-182, S. 3, 11; P.A. 00-220, S. 8, 43; P.A. 04-137, S. 1; P.A. 10-111, S. 4; P.A. 11-135, S. 7, 9; P.A. 12-116, S. 51; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2, S. 23; P.A. 13-245, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5, S. 341.)

History: P.A. 77-27 amended Subsec. (b) to make provisions generally applicable rather than specific to January 1, 1975, report; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” and “board of education” for “school district”; P.A. 82-74 amended Subsec. (b) to require boards of education to file triennial rather than annual reports on teacher evaluation programs; P.A. 87-2 amended Subsec. (a) to require a review of the guidelines and in Subsec. (b) substituted the fifteenth of June, 1989, for January first of 1983 and provided for monitoring teacher evaluation programs by the department of education; P.A. 89-26 amended the definition of “teacher” in Subsec. (a) to include the word “professional” and deleted an obsolete provision re a review and revision of guidelines not later the May 15, 1987; P.A. 90-324 in Subsec. (b) deleted reference to the program submitted pursuant to repealed Sec. 10-155ee; P.A. 91-220 in Subsec. (b) changed “triennially” to every five years re reports on teacher evaluation programs; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute requirement that the report be submitted in accordance with Sec. 10-220 instead of every five years, to specify that the programs be consistent with the plan developed in accordance with the provisions of Sec. 10-220a and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (a) to specify areas to be included in evaluations, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-182 amended Subsec. (b) to delete requirement that report on teacher evaluation program be used to monitor program implementation, effective June 28, 1995; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 04-137 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re claims of failure to follow procedures of evaluation programs, effective May 21, 2004; P.A. 10-111 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “continuously evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher”, adding provision re guidelines pursuant to Subsec. (c) and adding provision re multiple indicators of student academic growth, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re guidelines pursuant to Subsec. (c) and added Subsec. (c) re adoption of guidelines for model teacher evaluation program, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-135 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting “for the development of evaluation programs” and deleting “continuously evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher” and amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “2013” with “2012”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “continuously” with “annually” re evaluations, adding provision re additional formative evaluations to produce an annual summative evaluation and adding provision re “not rated” designation, amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing language as Subdiv. (1) and replacing “established” with “adopted” in same and adding Subdiv. (2) re report by superintendent, amended Subsec. (c) by adding new Subdivs. (1) and (6) to (10) re guidelines for model teacher evaluation and support program, designating existing language re use of multiple indicators as Subdiv. (2), redesignating existing Subdivs. (1) to (3) as Subdivs. (3) to (5) and adding “and development” in redesignated Subdivs. (2) and (3), added Subsec. (d) re waiver of requirements for preexisting evaluation programs that are in substantial compliance with guidelines, added references to teacher evaluation and support program and made conforming changes, effective May 14, 2012; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by adding “not later than September 1, 2013”, effective June 15, 2012; P.A. 13-245 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re other guidelines as may be established by mutual agreement between boards of education and teachers’ representatives, adding provision re annual evaluations shall be the teacher evaluation and support program, adding Subdiv. (1) designator in provision re superintendent report and adding Subdiv. (2) re status of teacher evaluation and support program implementation, amended Subsec. (b) by deleting Subdiv. (1) designator, replacing “develop” with “adopt”, deleting provision re plan developed in accordance with Sec. 10-220a(b), adding provisions re process for development, adoption and implementation of teacher evaluation and support program, and deleting former Subdiv. (2) re status of teacher evaluation implementation, amended Subsec. (c) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1), redesignating existing Subdivs. (1) to (10) as Subparas. (A) to (J), deleting provision re validation of exemplary or below standard evaluation ratings in redesignated Subpara. (J), deleting provision re validation of guidelines by State Board of Education following pilot program completion and adding new Subdiv. (2) re review and revision of guidelines and model program by State Board of Education, amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re teacher evaluation and support program implementation plan, deleting provision re validation of guidelines and model program by State Board of Education and adding provisions re waiver of implementation plan provisions by Commissioner of Education, and made technical and conforming changes, effective July 2, 2013; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 15-5 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “June thirtieth” with “September fifteenth” re report, effective July 1, 2015.

PART II

SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING AGENTS

Sec. 10-158a. Cooperative arrangements among towns. School building projects. Student transportation. (a) Any two or more boards of education may, in writing, agree to establish cooperative arrangements to provide school accommodations services, programs or activities, special education services, health care services or alternative education, as defined in section 10-74j, to enable such boards to carry out the duties specified in the general statutes. Such arrangements may include the establishment of a committee to supervise such programs, the membership of the committee to be determined by the agreement of the cooperating boards. Such committee shall have the power, in accordance with the terms of the agreement, to (1) apply for, receive directly and expend on behalf of the school districts which have designated the committee an agent for such purpose any state or federal grants which may be allocated to school districts for specified programs, the supervision of which has been delegated to such committee, provided such grants are payable before implementation of any such program or are to reimburse the committee pursuant to subsection (d) of this section for transportation provided to a school operated by a cooperative arrangement; (2) receive and disburse funds appropriated to the use of such committee by the cooperating school districts, the state or the United States, or given to the committee by individuals or private corporations; (3) hold title to real or personal property in trust, or as otherwise agreed to by the parties, for the appointing boards; (4) employ personnel; (5) enter into contracts; and (6) otherwise provide the specified programs, services and activities. Teachers employed by any such committee shall be subject to the provisions of the general statutes applicable to teachers employed by the board of education of any town or regional school district. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a committee below the rank of superintendent who holds a regular certificate issued by the State Board of Education and who is in a position requiring such certification.

(b) Subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, any board of education may withdraw from any agreement entered into under subsection (a) of this section if, at least one year prior to the date of the proposed withdrawal, it gives written notice of its intent to do so to each of the other boards. Upon withdrawal by one or more boards of education, two or more boards of education may continue their commitment to the agreement. If two or more boards of education continue the arrangement, then such committee established within the arrangement may continue to hold title to any real or personal property given to or purchased by the committee in trust for all the boards of education which entered the agreement, unless otherwise provided in the agreement or by law or by the grantor or donor of such property. Upon dissolution of the committee, any property held in trust shall be distributed in accordance with the agreement, if such distribution is not contrary to law.

(c) If a cooperative arrangement receives a grant for a school building project pursuant to chapter 173, the cooperative arrangement shall use the building for which the grant was provided for a period of not less than twenty years after completion of such project. If the cooperative arrangement ceases to use the building for the purpose for which the grant was provided, the Commissioner of Education shall determine whether (1) title to the building and any legal interest in appurtenant land reverts to the state or (2) the cooperative arrangement reimburses the state an amount equal to ten per cent of the eligible school building project costs of the project.

(d) Any cooperative arrangement established pursuant to this section, or any local or regional board of education which is a member of such a cooperative arrangement which transports students to a school operated by such cooperative arrangement shall be reimbursed in accordance with the provisions of section 10-266m. At the end of each school year, any such cooperative arrangement or local or regional board of education which provides such transportation shall file an application for reimbursement on a form provided by the Department of Education.

(1961, P.A. 544, S. 1, 3; 1963, P.A. 449; February, 1965, P.A. 391, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 160, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 333, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-218, S. 113; P.A. 81-257, S. 1, 10; P.A. 82-85, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-26, S. 2, 4; P.A. 96-270, S. 9, 11; P.A. 97-247, S. 15, 27; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 21; P.A. 10-71, S. 3; P.A. 15-133, S. 5.)

History: 1963 act deleted former provision limiting application to towns employing a total of not more than one hundred teachers and clarified powers and duties of superintendent and types of joint programs; 1965 act included in Subsec. (b) any two or more boards which have the same supervising agent, inserted new Subsec. (c) concerning special fund for purposes of section and relettered former Subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e) respectively; 1967 act amended Subsec. (b) to apply to cooperative arrangements between two or more boards of education which may be supervised by committee and deleted reference to boards with same supervising agent, deleted Subsec. (c) re special fund and relettered remaining Subsecs. accordingly; 1969 act amended Subsec. (b) to include in powers of committee the power to apply for, receive and expend state or federal grants for specified programs or other funds appropriated for its use and the power to hold title to real or personal property in trust for boards involved and amended Subsec. (c) to provide for committee’s continued holding of title upon withdrawal of one participating board and for distribution of property upon dissolution of committee; P.A. 78-218 deleted Subsec. (a) which had provided for joint employment of school superintendent, relettering Subsecs. (b) and (c) as (a) and (b); P.A. 81-257 amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that two or more boards of education may continue a cooperative arrangement upon withdrawal from the arrangement by one or more towns; P.A. 82-85 amended Subsec. (a) to include definition of “teacher”, clarifying applicability of section provisions; P.A. 89-26 amended the definition of “teacher” in Subsec. (a) to include the word “professional”; P.A. 96-270 added Subsec. (c) re grants for school building projects, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-247 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute school accommodations services for special services, to add provision concerning grants to reimburse the committee for school transportation in Subdiv. (1), and to add authority to hold title in accordance with agreement of the parties in Subdiv. (3), amended Subsec. (b) to specify that withdrawal is subject to the provisions of Subsec. (c), and added Subsec. (d) re reimbursement for transportation costs, effective July 1, 1997; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “special education services or health care services” and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-71 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective May 18, 2010; P.A. 15-133 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “or alternative education, as defined in section 10-74j”, effective July 1, 2015.