Topic:
STATE BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS; APPOINTMENT TO OFFICE; JUDGES; JUDICIAL MERIT SELECTION;
Location:
JUDGES;

OLR Research Report


February 13, 2007

 

2007-R-0104

STATE REFEREES, JUDGE TRIAL REFEREES, AND SENIOR JUDGES

By: George Coppolo, Chief Attorney

You asked (1) whether state referees go through the Judicial Selection Commission for their reappointments; (2) what are the duties and powers of senior judges, state referees, and judge trial referees; (3) what is their term of office and can the legislature change this; and (4) for a list of state referees, judge trial referees, and senior judges, including how many days each worked and how much each earned last year.

SUMMARY

According to Diane Yannetta, who has been executive director of the Judicial Selection Commission (JSC) for over 20 years, neither state referees nor judge trial referees go through the JSC for their reappointments. But senior judges who seek reappointment as a senior judge must do so. The statute that authorizes state referees to be reappointed “in the manner prescribed by law for the appointment of a judge of the court of which he is a member” can be read as requiring that referees go through the JSC. But neither JSC nor the Judicial Branch have interpreted the law that way.

As you know, the JSC is an independent, non-partisan commission of lawyers and non-lawyers appointed by the governor and the General Assembly to seek and approve qualified applicants for judgeships. The commission also evaluates incumbent judges who seek reappointment and forwards to the governor for consideration the names of those judges recommended for reappointment.

Judges who retire before reaching age 70 automatically become senior judges. A senior judge has all the powers of the court to which he is designated and assigned. Senior judge status ceases when the senior judge reaches age 70, the mandatory retirement age for judges. If a senior judge's eight year term expires before he reaches age 70, he can be re-nominated as a senior judge by the governor.

By statute, any judge or senior judge, who reaches the mandatory retirement age of 70 automatically becomes a state referee, and by statute is eligible for reappointment as a state referee for the remainder of his life. Also by statute, a state referee has the power of a judge of the Superior Court on matters referred to him from the Superior Court. But for the most part, the statutes limit state referees to a fact-finding role and typically authorize the sitting judge to accept or reject the referee's findings and conclusions.

The statutes authorize the chief justice to designate individual state referees as judge trial referees for a one year term. The statutes authorize judge trial referees to be assigned to a broad array of matters and cases and give them the authority of a sitting judge to handle them. Thus, judge trial referees may handle many matters that state referees may not. For example, the statutes authorize the Superior Court to refer any criminal case, other than a criminal jury trial, to a judge trial referee assigned to a geographical area criminal court session.

According to Stephen Ment of the Judicial Branch, on January 31, 2007 there were 97 state referees. Ninety-three of them were designated judge trial referees.

State referees are reappointed for an eight year term. This is not constitutionally required. Thus, it appears that the legislature can establish whatever term it wishes and can establish limitations or conditions on the types of assignments and powers referees have since the constitution does not specify their powers.

The designation of trial referees by the chief justice is not constitutionally mandated. Thus it appears the legislature can establish whatever term it wishes, as well as prescribing a judge trial referee's assignments and powers.

The Judicial Branch provided us with data concerning the days worked and amount earned by each state referee, judge trial referee, and senior judge for calendar year 2006. According to this data, judge trial referee William Hickey worked the most days that year — 230. At a daily rate of $215, he earned $49,450 in addition to his retirement income. The average number of days worked for the entire group was 131 and the average amount earned was $28,200.

CONSTITUTION

The state constitution has three principal sections that deal with the appointment and the authority of judges and state referees.

Article fifth, 1 provides: “The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, an appellate court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.”

Article fifth, 2 provides: “Judges of all courts, except those courts to which judges are elected, shall be nominated by the governor exclusively from candidates submitted by the judicial selection commission. The commission shall seek and recommend qualified candidates in such numbers as shall by law be prescribed. Judges so nominated shall be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed. They shall hold their offices for the term of eight years, but may be removed by impeachment. The governor shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly and the Supreme Court may also remove them as is provided by law.”

Article fifth, 6 provides: “No judge or justice of the peace shall be eligible to hold his office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years, except that a chief justice or judge of the supreme court, a judge of the superior court, or a judge of the court of common pleas, who has attained the age of seventy years and has become a state referee may exercise, as shall be prescribed by law, the powers of the superior court or court of common pleas on matters referred to him as a state referee.”

JUDICIAL SELECTION COMMISSION

Reflecting the constitutional mandate in Article fifth, 2, the statutes require that judges of all courts, except those courts to which judges are elected, be nominated by the Governor exclusively from the list of candidates or incumbent judges submitted by the JSC (CGS 51-44a(h)).

The law also requires the JSC to evaluate “incumbent judges who seek reappointment to the same court” and forward to the governor for consideration the names of incumbent judges who it recommends for reappointment (CGS 51-44a(e)).

The law requires the commission to adopt regulations concerning criteria by which to evaluate incumbent judges who seek reappointment to the same court. In evaluating the reappointment of an incumbent judge, the law requires the commission to consider the incumbent judge's legal ability, competence, integrity, character, and temperament and any other relevant information concerning the judge. The law establishes a presumption that each incumbent judge who seeks reappointment to the same court qualifies for retention in judicial office. The burden of rebutting this presumption is on the commission.

The law requires the commission to investigate and interview each incumbent judge who seeks reappointment and, before the expiration of their term of office, must recommend such incumbent judge for nomination for reappointment by the Governor to the same court unless it denies the recommendation.

If a preliminary examination indicates further inquiry is necessary before a recommendation of reappointment may be made, the commission must hold a hearing concerning the reappointment. It must notify the judge by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, at least 180 days before the convening of the legislative session that is to consider his reappointment that it will hold a hearing on his reappointment, and of the time, date, and place of such hearing, which must be between 30 and 45 days after the date of such notice. The notice must also advise the judge of specific claims made against him.

The commission must make a record of all hearings it conducts. The hearing may be open to the public at the judge's request. At least 10 commission members must be present and voting. A judge appearing at the hearing is entitled to counsel, to present evidence, and to cross-examine witnesses who appear voluntarily. No judge may be required to sign or execute any release in order to proceed with the hearing. The commission must render its decision not later than 20 days after the close of such hearing. An affirmative vote of a majority plus one of the members present and voting is required to deny recommendation to the governor for nomination of an incumbent judge to the same court.

A judge who has not received approval by the commission may within 10 days after receipt of the notice of decision, which must include a record of the numerical vote, request a rehearing on the grounds that the commission's conclusions are contrary to the evidence presented at the hearing or the commission failed to comply with the procedural or substantive requirements of law. The commission's decision is final. There is no right of appeal by any judge appearing before the commission.

Except for reappointments to the same court, the commission must seek qualified candidates for consideration by the governor for nomination as judges for the Superior Court, Appellate Court and Supreme Court (CGS 51-44a(f)). The commission must adopt regulations concerning criteria by which to evaluate the qualifications of candidates, including incumbent judges who seek appointment to a different court. The commission must investigate and interview the candidates, including incumbent judges seeking appointment to a different court. The commission must compile a list of qualified candidates.

In connection with any inquiry concerning the reappointment of an incumbent judge, the commission has the power to issue subpoenas requiring the attendance of witnesses and the production of any books or papers, which the commission determines are relevant to its inquiry (CGS 51-44a(g)). The commission may, upon request of the judge whose reappointment is at issue, issue a subpoena on behalf of such judge.

When considering the nomination of an incumbent judge for reappointment to the same court, the governor may nominate the incumbent judge if the commission did not deny recommendation for reappointment. Whenever an incumbent judge is denied recommendation for reappointment to the same court by the commission or is recommended by the commission but not nominated by the governor for reappointment to the same court, or whenever a vacancy in a judicial position occurs or is anticipated, the governor must choose a nominee from the list of candidates the commission compiled.

The law requires an affirmative vote of a majority plus one of the members present and voting to deny recommendation to the governor for nomination of an incumbent judge to the same court. No vote of the commission on a new nominee may be by secret ballot. The vote of the commission on an incumbent judge may be by secret ballot.

SENIOR JUDGES

Appointment and Reappointment

By statute, any judge who retires from full-time active service, who has not attained the age of 70 and who is an elector and a Connecticut resident, automatically becomes a senior judge of the court of which he is a member during the remainder of the term of office for which he was appointed. He is eligible for reappointment as a senior judge in the manner prescribed by law for the appointment of a judge of the court of which he is a member (CGS 51-50i).

Powers of Senior Judges

By statute, a senior judge has all the powers of a judge of the court to which he is designated and assigned (CGS 51-50d). A senior judge may not perform judicial duties unless he is so designated and assigned (CGS 51-50c). Any senior judge of the Superior Court may be designated and assigned by the chief court administrator to perform such judicial duties in the Superior Court as the senior judge is willing to undertake (CGS 51-50c). The chief court administrator may designate, assign, or summon any senior judge, in any matter in which the chief court administrator may designate, assign, or summon a judge or judges, to sit or act in any judicial capacity (CGS 51-50c).

In addition to this general authority, the statutes authorize senior judges to act in a certain capacity and exercise certain powers. Table 1 specifies these statutes and powers.

Table 1: Responsibilities and Powers of Senior Judges

Statute

Responsibility

Power

51-50c(f)

Participate in alternative dispute resolution program approved by STA-FED ADR, Inc.

Same as others performing that function

51-165

Participate in the meeting of judges of the Superior Court and vote as a member

Same as other judges

52-434b(a)

Chief Court Administrator may refer any matter or claim to a senior judge that he may refer to a state referee

Same as the referring court

52-434b(b)

Perform any action or any services of any kind that a state referee may perform without a specific reference to him.

Same as a state referee

51-194

Serve on the Sentence Review Division

Same as other judges

53a-45

Serve on three-judge panel for a person accused of murder who elects to be tried by a three judge panel instead of by a jury.

Same as other judges

54-47b- 47g

Serve as an investigatory grand jury

Same as other judges

54-82

Sit in a criminal trial as a judge when a party elects to be tried by the court instead of the jury

Same as other judge

*51-207

Summoned to sit on Supreme Court to create a full court panel

Same as other judges

*53a-45

Sit on a three-judge panel designated by chief court administrator in murder case where defendant decides not to have a jury trial

Same as other judges

* Refers to powers of retired judges, which presumably means senior judges and not state referees.

Each senior judge who ceases to hold office as a senior judge because of having reached the age of 70 and who is an elector and state resident automatically becomes a state referee for the remainder of his term. He is eligible for appointment as a state referee during the remainder of his life in the manner prescribed by law for the appointment of a judge of the court of which he is a member (CGS 51-50l).

Senior Judges Who Were on the Supreme Court

Each chief justice or associate judge of the Supreme Court who elects to retain office but to retire from full-time active service continues to be a member of the Supreme Court during the remainder of his term of office and during the term of any reappointment until he attains age 70. He is entitled to participate in the meetings of the judges of the Supreme Court and vote as a member, but only with respect to matters for which he or she has been summoned.

If any party to a case before the Supreme Court asks for a hearing before the full seven-member court and any judge is absent or if any judge is disqualified and the absence or disqualification is not waived or if the business before the court requires it, the Chief Justice or, in the case of his or her absence or disqualification, the most senior associate judge present and qualified may summon the sixth or seventh member, or both, of the Supreme Court to constitute a full court. If a full court cannot be constituted from the seven members of the Supreme Court, the chief justice or, in the case of his absence or disqualification, the most senior associate judge present and qualified may summon one or more judges of the Superior Court, including senior judges of the Supreme Court and judges and senior judges of the Appellate Court, to constitute a full court, who may act as judges of the Supreme Court (CGS 51-207(b)).

Any senior judge of the Supreme Court may be designated and assigned by the chief justice or the chief court administrator to perform such judicial duties in the Supreme Court or by the chief court administrator to perform such judicial duties in the Superior Court, as the senior judge is willing to undertake. Any senior judge of the Appellate Court may be designated by the chief judge of the Appellate Court or the chief court administrator to perform such judicial duties in the Appellate Court, or by the chief court administrator to perform such judicial duties in the Superior Court, as the senior judge is willing to undertake (CGS 51-50c).

Compensation of Senior Judges

Each senior judge who has been designated and assigned by the chief justice or the chief court administrator to perform judicial duties as a senior judge receives during the period he performs the judicial duties, in addition to his retirement salary, the compensation provided by law for a state referees for each day he performs either judicial duties or duties as a referee or both (CGS 51-47b). State referees currently receive $220 a day plus expenses including mileage (CGS 52-434(f)).

But the total of a retired judge's compensation, defined as retirement salary plus fees payable by the state for services as a senior judge or state referee for services rendered in any fiscal year, exceed a Superior Court judge (currently $146,780)) during the fiscal year for the judicial office held by the retired judge at the time of retirement.

STATE REFEREES

Appointment and Reappointment of State Referees

As noted above, Article fifth, 6 of our state constitution establishes a mandatory retirement age of 70 for judges. But our constitution specifies a judge who has attained the age of 70 and has become a state referee may exercise, as prescribed by law, the powers of the Superior Court on matters referred to him as a state referee.

The constitution does not require that judges who reach the mandatory retirement age of 70 automatically become referees. Rather it refers to those judges who “become a state referee.” Thus it appears that the constitution defers to the legislature as to whether and how some or all such judges become state referees.

Under state statue, each judge of the Supreme Court, Appellate Court, or Superior Court who ceases to hold office because of retirement, and who is an elector and a state resident automatically becomes a state referee for the remainder of his term of office as a judge. He is eligible for re-appointment as a state referee during the remainder of his life in the manner prescribed by law for the appointment of a judge of the court of which he is a member (CGS 52-434). Thus, it is state statute that automatically makes judges who reach age 70 referees for the remainder of their term, authorizes their reappointment, and specifies that the reappointment process must be in the “manner prescribed by law for the appointment of a judge to the court of which he is a member.”

Since judges seeking reappointment must go before and be approved by the JSC, this quoted language can be read as requiring that referees also go before and be approved by the JSC in order to be nominated by the governor and confirmed by the legislature. But as noted before as a matter of practice neither the JSC nor the Judicial Brach has interpreted the law this way and thus the JSC is not involved in the reappointment of state referees.

Powers of State Referees

State statutes grant a retired chief justice or judge of the Supreme Court, judge of the Appellate Court, or judge of the Superior Court acting as a state referee after attaining the age of 70, the power of a judge of the Superior Court on matters referred to him from the Superior Court (CGS 51-50f). But state statutes generally restrict the powers and duties of state referees and for the most part limits their authority to fact-finder in certain types of cases. In some instances referees are empowered to take evidence and report back to the referring court, which can decide to accept or reject the state referee's report. In certain other instances the statutes give the state referee the authority to decide the case or matter as if they were a sitting judge. Table 2 reflects these statutes.

Table 2: Responsibilities and Powers of State Referees

Statute

Responsibility

Power

CGS 7-250, 8-133a, 8-194, 13a-126, 22a-321, 22a-470, 25-83a, and 32-224

Determine cost allocation or reimbursement owed in connection with the relocation or removal of public service facilities such as sewer pipes or utility poles

Report back to the referring court, which can accept or reject it

12-65a

Approve written agreement with taxpayer fixing assessment of real estate to be used for a housing project

Approve or disapprove

12-157

Determine the equity of the parties to proceeds from the sale of real estate for delinquent taxes

Must report to referring court, which can approve or disapprove for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of the referee's duties

13a-73(c)

Must approve any purchase of land by the transportation commissioner for highway or related purposes of over $100, 000

Approve or disapprove

13a-101

Apportioning the cost of building or rebuilding a bridge or passageway between a town and the person who owns or controls the watercourse

Court may accept or reject the referee's report

22-66

Assess the damages for taking land by the marketing authority of the agriculture department

Court may accept or reject the referee's report

22a-361

Court may appoint a three-member committee, one of whom may be a state referee, to determine damages from the taking of sand, gravel, or other material related to a state permit to dredge, erect a structure, place fill, or establish moorings

Must report to referring court, which can approve or disapprove for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of the committee's duties

28-11

Determine damages in connection with a taking of property for an emergency situation

Must report to referring court, which can approve or disapprove for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of the referee's duties

45a-62

Council on Probate Judicial Conduct must have one state referee appointed by the chief justice

Same as other council members

46b-9

Decide any divorce, separation, or annulment case or matter referred by the court

Same as sitting judge but referring court retains jurisdiction to decide any pendente lite or contempt matter

46b-22 and 38dd

Join people in marriage or civil union

Same as others who have this authority

46b-121a

Decide any juvenile matter referred to them

Same as sitting judge

48-10

Determine damages in any matter the state brings to condemn land

Referring court can accept or reject the report

49-14

Decide deficiency judgment motion in mortgage foreclosure

Referee has same powers as sitting judge

51-50h

Hear and decide small claims cases

Same power as sitting judge

Retired Judges of the Supreme and Appellate Courts

Under the statutes, the Supreme Court's chief justice can make a state referee who was on the Supreme Court or the Appellate Court eligible for assignment by the Appellate Court's chief judge to perform whatever duties of the office of judge of the Appellate Court as the chief judge may request.

The chief judge may assign no more than one state referee to sit on any one panel. No such designation may be for a term of more than one year. In performing the duties assigned, a retired chief justice or retired judge of the Supreme Court or Appellate Court may exercise the same powers and jurisdiction as does a judge of the Superior Court who is qualified to serve as a judge on the Appellate Court (CGS 52-434c).

Compensation of State Referees

Each referee receives, for acting as a referee for each day he is so engaged, in addition to the retirement salary: (1) on and after January 1, 2006, and before January 1, 2007, $215, and on and after January 1, 2007, $220 and (2) expenses, including mileage (CGS 52-434(f)). But the total compensation including retirement pay cannot exceed a Superior Court judge's salary (currently $146,780).

JUDGE TRIAL REFEREES

Appointment and Reappointment of Judge Trial Referees

State statute authorizes the Supreme Court's chief justice to designate, from among the state referees, judge trial referees to whom criminal and civil cases and juvenile matters may be referred. State law specifies that:

1. criminal cases and civil cases of an adversary nature may be referred only to state referees who are designated as judge trial referees,

2. proceedings resulting from a demand for a trial de novo from an arbitrator's decision may be referred only to judge trial referees who are specifically designated to hear such proceedings, and

3. juvenile matters may be referred only to judge trial referees who are specifically designated to hear juvenile cases.

No designation as a judge trial referee may be for a term of more than one year (CGS 52-434(a)).

Power of Judge Trial Referees-Civil Cases

State law specifies that the Superior Court may refer any civil, non-jury case or, with the written consent of the parties or their attorneys, any civil jury case pending before the court in which the issues have been closed to a judge trial referee who may exercise the powers of the Superior Court in respect to trial, judgment, and appeal in the case. Any proceeding resulting from a demand for a trial de novo in a case decided by an arbitrator may be referred without the consent of the parties to a judge trial referee who has been specifically designated to hear such proceedings (CGS 52-434(a)).

Power of Judge Trial Referees-Criminal Cases

State law also specifies that the Superior Court may, with the consent of the parties or their attorneys, refer any criminal case to a judge trial referee who may exercise the powers of the Superior Court in respect to trial, judgment, sentencing, and appeal in the case. The Superior Court may, without the consent of the parties or their attorneys, (a) refer any criminal case, other than a criminal jury trial, to a judge trial referee assigned to a geographical area criminal court session; and (b) refer any criminal case, other than a class A or B felony or capital felony, to a judge trial referee to preside over the jury selection process and any voir dire examination conducted in such case, unless good cause is shown not to refer (CGS 52-434(a)).

Other Powers of Judge Trial Referees

In addition to the broad authority regarding civil and criminal cases the statutes give to judge trial referees ,the statutes also confer the duties and powers specified in Table 3.

Table 3: Additional Powers of Judge Trial Referees

Statute

Responsibility

Power

CGS 1-24

Administer oaths

Same as others who have this authority

1-80e, 1-81, 1-82, 1-82a, 1-93, and 1-93a

(1) preside over and rule at any hearing of the Office of State Ethics; and (2) make findings as to probable cause following any investigation conducted by the ethics enforcement officer of the Office of State Ethics. (Chief Court Administrator appoints 10 judge trial referees for these tasks)

Unique power and role conferred by statute

8-131

Approve or disapprove compensation offered by redevelopment agency in condemnation cases and accepted by property owner in amount of $10,000 or more

Same as judge

8-132

Review compensation offered by redevelopment agency where property owner has not accepted the offer

Must report to referring court, which can approve or disapprove for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of the referee's duties

8-132a

Determine equities of parties regarding money deposited in court by redevelopment agency in condemnation case

Must report to referring court, which can approve or disapprove for any irregular or improper conduct in the performance of the referee's duties

13a-74

Must approve any payment of damages in condemnation cases agreed to by landowners and the transportation commissioner for highway or related purposes of over $100,000

Unique power given to judge trial referees

13a-76

Reassess damages offered by transportation commissioner in condemnation cases including a separate finding as to remediation costs

Same as judge

52-434

Participate in alternative dispute resolution program approved by STA-FED ADR Inc.

Same powers as others performing these functions

52-434d

Hear and decide special education administrative contested cases from the Department of Education

Same as judge

54-2a

Issue bench warrants, subpoenas, capias, and other criminal process

Same as judge

54-33a

Issue search warrants

Same as judge

Compensation of Judge Trial Referees

Each judge trial referee receives, for acting as a referee or as a single auditor or committee of any court or for performing duties assigned by the chief court administrator with the chief justice's approval , for each day he is so engaged, in addition to the retirement salary: (1) on and after January 1, 2006, and before January 1, 2007, $215, and on and after January 1, 2007, $220 and (2) expenses, including mileage(CGS 52-434(f)). But the total compensation including retirement pay cannot exceed a Superior Court judge's salary (currently $146,780).

JUDGE TRIAL REFEREES, STATE REFEREES, AND SENIOR JUDGES—DAYS WORKED AND AMOUNT EARNED

The Judicial Branch provided us with data concerning the hours worked and amount earned (in addition to retirement pay) by judge trial referees, trial referees, and senior judges during 2006. That information is provided in Table 4 below, organized from most days worked to fewest days worked.

Table 4: Days Worked and Amount Earned

Name

Age

Days worked

Daily Rate

Total Gross Amount

Hickey, William

77

230

$215.00

$49,450.00

Freed, Samuel

79

222

$215.00

$47,730.00

Berdon, Robert*

77

218

$215.00

$46,870.00

Gaffney, Bernard

76

217

$215.00

$46,655.00

Sylvester, Joseph

77

213

$215.00

$45,795.00

Celotto, Donald

83

212

$215.00

$45,580.00

Rittenband, Richard

76

212

$215.00

$45,580.00

Kremski, Julius

87

209

$215.00

$44,935.00

Reicher, Max

99

208

$215.00

$44,720.00

Ment, Aaron

72

206

$215.00

$44,290.00

Ronan, John

74

206

$215.00

$44,290.00

Wagner, Jerry

80

205

$215.00

$44,075.00

Caruso, John

72

204

$215.00

$43,860.00

Flanagan, John

85

204

$215.00

$43,860.00

Wollenberg, William

74

203

$215.00

$43,645.00

Cutsumpas, Lloyd

73

200

$215.00

$43,000.00

Harrigan, Dennis

76

198

$215.00

$42,570.00

Skolnick, David

71

197

$215.00

$42,355.00

Stodolink, Edward

78

195

$215.00

$41,925.00

Owens, Howard

72

194

$215.00

$41,710.00

Moran, John

71

192

$215.00

$41,280.00

Kenefick, James

72

191

$215.00

$41,065.00

Goldstein, Samuel

81

186

$215.00

$39,990.00

Ballen, Myron

77

185

$215.00

$39,775.00

Hennessy, Francis*

76

185

$215.00

$39,775.00

Bingham, James

81

182

$215.00

$39,130.00

Pellegrino, Joseph*

70

179

$215.00

$38,485.00

Bieluch, William*

88

178

$215.00

$38,270.00

Rush, William

72

178

$215.00

$38,270.00

Spallone, Daniel*

85

176

$215.00

$37,840.00

Aronson, Arnold

80

175

$215.00

$37,625.00

Hadden, William

81

171

$215.00

$36,765.00

Klaczak, Lawrence

74

170

$215.00

$36,550.00

Novack, Stanley

76

170

$215.00

$36,550.00

Hurley, Michael

80

165

$215.00

$35,475.00

Mottolese, William

71

165

$215.00

$35,475.00

Ryan, John

74

165

$215.00

$35,475.00

Nigro, Martin

77

162

$215.00

$34,830.00

D'Andrea, Frank

75

161

$215.00

$34,615.00

Purtill, Joseph

79

158

$215.00

$33,970.00

Dupont, Antionette*

77

154

$215.00

$33,110.00

Mulcahy, John

72

152

$215.00

$32,680.00

Koletsky, Joseph***

68

151

$215.00

$32,465.00

Hennessey, Mary

79

147

$215.00

$31,605.00

Santaniello, Angelo*

82

147

$215.00

$31,605.00

Satter, Robert

87

146

$215.00

$31,390.00

Stoughton, George*

87

143

$215.00

$30,745.00

Fracasse, Ronald

74

142

$215.00

$30,530.00

Mihalakos,Socrates*

73

140

$215.00

$30,100.00

Brennan, John

90

138

$215.00

$29,670.00

Axelrod, Sidney

75

137

$215.00

$29,455.00

Peters, Ellen*

76

136

$215.00

$29,240.00

Maiocco, John

74

134

$215.00

$28,810.00

Meadow, Frank

84

134

$215.00

$28,810.00

Ripley, George

80

134

$215.00

$28,810.00

Moraghan, Howard

76

133

$215.00

$28,595.00

Barrall, Herbert

74

132

$215.00

$28,380.00

Sullivan, William***

67

132

$215.00

$28,380.00

Demayo, Anthony

82

131

$215.00

$28,165.00

Zoarski, Howard

80

130

$215.00

$27,950.00

Petroni, Romeo

77

129

$215.00

$27,735.00

Hale, Robert

85

128

$215.00

$27,520.00

Cocco, Leonard

73

127

$215.00

$27,305.00

Downey, John

76

126

$215.00

$27,090.00

Gill, Charles***

68

124

$215.00

$26,660.00

Ford, Sarsfield

73

123

$215.00

$26,445.00

Freedman, Frederick*

77

119

$215.00

$25,585.00

Grogins, Jack

75

119

$215.00

$25,585.00

Sequino, Karen***

60

119

$215.00

$25,585.00

Hendel, Seymour

75

114

$215.00

$24,510.00

Shaughnessy, William

77

114

$215.00

$24,510.00

Leuba, Robert

74

109

$215.00

$23,435.00

Teller, Samuel

72

106

$215.00

$22,790.00

Murray, William

71

105

$215.00

$22,575.00

Hammer, Harry

80

100

$215.00

$21,500.00

Cretella, Albert*

81

98

$215.00

$21,070.00

Vasington, Paul

82

97

$215.00

$20,855.00

West, Thomas*

72

94

$215.00

$20,210.00

Goldberg, Joseph

80

89

$215.00

$19,135.00

Foti, Paul*

71

80

$215.00

$17,200.00

Lewis, William

76

80

$215.00

$17,200.00

Brenneman, Frederica

80

78

$215.00

$16,770.00

Gormley, Joseph

74

78

$215.00

$16,770.00

Sullivan, Terence***

68

78

$215.00

$16,770.00

Tobin, Richard (Deceased 9/1/06)

72

76

$215.00

$16,340.00

Melville, Scott

73

75

$215.00

$16,125.00

Freedman, Samuel

79

66

$215.00

$14,190.00

Callahan, Robert*

76

55

$215.00

$11,825.00

Walsh, Richard

73

49

$215.00

$10,535.00

Potter, Russell

70

43

$215.00

$9,245.00

Smith, Allen

75

37

$215.00

$7,955.00

Coppetto, Barbara

73

32

$215.00

$6,880.00

Steinberg, Joseph

78

32

$215.00

$6,880.00

McDonald, Francis*

75

30

$215.00

$6,450.00

Parker, Thomas

71

24

$215.00

$5,160.00

Budney, Walter

81

16

$215.00

$3,440.00

Burns, Robert**

82

1

$215.00

$215.00

Byrne, John

74

0

$215.00

$0.00

Cohen, Simon**

97

0

$215.00

$0.00

Corrigan, Thomas

79

0

$215.00

$0.00

Landau, Sidney*

71

0

$215.00

$0.00

O'Brien, Francis**

87

0

$215.00

$0.00

Ottaviano, John**

89

0

$215.00

$0.00

Totals

 

13,510

 

$2,904,650.00

Average

 

131.17

 

28,200.49

* former Supreme Court Justice/Appellate Court Judge

** State Referee

*** Senior Justice/Judge

ATTORNEY REFEREES

Because you did not ask us, this report does not include deal with attorney referees that are authorized by statute. Specifically, CGS 52-434(f) authorizes the chief justice to appoint, from qualified members of the bar of the state who are electors and residents of this state, as many state referees as the chief justice may from time to time deem advisable or necessary. No appointment of a member of the bar may be for a term of more than three years.

They receive such reasonable compensation and expenses as may be determined by the Chief Justice. The Superior Court may appoint such a state referee to take such evidence as it directs in any civil, non-jury case. Any such state referee must report on such evidence to the court with any findings of fact. The report constitutes a part of the proceeding upon which the court's determination must be made.

In 1986, the state Supreme Court held that the appointment of attorney referees by the chief justice pursuant to this statutory authority to serve only as fact finders did not violate (1) the constitutional provision that authorizes state constitutional referees who were formerly judges to exercise powers of the Superior Court or (2) due process protections of state and federal constitutions (Seal Audio, Inc. v. Bozak, Inc. 199 Conn. 496).

GC:ro