PA 07-116—sSB 1439
Public Health Committee
AN ACT CONCERNING CONSERVATORS AND APPEALS OF CONSERVATORSHIPS AND GUARDIANSHIPS
SUMMARY: The law allows the probate court to appoint a conservator of the estate for someone who cannot manage his or her affairs and a conservator of the person for someone incapable of caring for himself or herself. This act changes procedures for appointing conservators and designating their powers, and sets procedures for appealing probate court decisions and filing habeas corpus petitions.
Among the act's most important changes, it:
1. requires the probate court to record proceedings on appointing conservators, setting their powers and duties, and terminating conservatorships;
2. requires appeals of hearings appointing a conservator to be on the record and sets the standard for court review;
3. changes the definitions of incapacity, which is required for the court to find appointment of a conservator necessary;
4. includes specific language for a notice to the person who is the subject of a petition for appointment of a conservator;
5. adds specific provisions about the right to an attorney and to choose an attorney, for a person who has a conservator appointed for him or her or is the subject of a petition for the appointment of one;
6. requires the probate court to consider certain factors and changes the standard the court must apply before deciding to appoint a conservator, including requiring a finding that appointing the conservator is the least restrictive intervention available to assist the person;
7. requires the probate court to give a conservator only the least restrictive duties and authority necessary to meet the person's needs, and the court to make specific findings on the need for each duty or authority;
8. requires a conservator to carry out the duties and authority assigned by the court in a manner that is the “least restrictive means of intervention” (§§ 19-20);
9. makes a number of similar changes to provisions on appointing a temporary conservator;
10. imposes specific requirements on the conservator of the person, including assisting in removing obstacles to the conserved person's independence, ascertaining the person's views, and making decisions that conform with the person's reasonable and informed preferences;
11. creates a procedure for the probate court to hold a hearing on changing a conserved person's residence similar to provisions in existing law for a conservator placing a person in a long-term care institution;
12. allows a conserved person to petition the probate court to terminate the conservatorship at any time; and
13. provides that a person under involuntary conservatorship and minors or people with mental retardation under guardianship can use a writ of habeas corpus to challenge the legality of the conservatorship or guardianship, without exhausting other available remedies.
The act defines “least restrictive means of intervention” as intervention for a conserved person that is sufficient to provide, within the available resources of the person's estate or public or private assistance, for the person's personal needs or property management while allowing the greatest amount of independence and self-determination (§ 10).
The act also changes the term of someone who is subject to involuntary representation by a conservator from ward to a conserved person (§ 10). It makes numerous technical and conforming changes (§§ 7-9, 12, 26-32).
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2007
§ 1 — REFUSING MEDICAL EXAMS
By law, the probate court can order an examination by a physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist in any matter where a party's capacity is at issue. The act allows someone who is under involuntary representation by a conservator to refuse an examination. It specifies that someone who is the subject of an application for involuntary representation by a conservator or temporary conservator can refuse an examination. Prior law already allowed them to refuse as part of the court proceedings on the application.
§§ 2-6, 33 — APPEALING PROBATE ORDERS
§ 2 — Time for Appeal
The act imposes new requirements on appeals to the Superior Court from probate orders, denials, or decrees when another law does not specify otherwise. It requires the appeal within 45 days after mailing the order, denial, or decree if it concerns:
1. appointing a guardian or conservator for a veteran or beneficiary of veterans' benefits;
2. compensation of a guardian or conservator of a social services beneficiary or veteran;
3. investment of funds in insurance and annuity contracts by a conservator or guardian of the estate of a ward, conserved person, or incapable person;
4. payment by a guardian or conservator of administrative expenses of a deceased protected person;
5. many provisions regarding conservators such as naming a conservator for future incapacity, applying for and release from voluntary representation, appointment of involuntary representation, appointing temporary conservators, duties of conservators, and terminating conservatorship;
6. appointing guardians of people with mental retardation, their powers and duties;
7. sterilization; and
8. a guardian's or conservator's petition on competency to vote.
For other matters, unless another statute applies, the act requires the appeal within 30 days of mailing the order, denial, or decree.
§ 2 — Service
Under the act, someone who files an appeal under these provisions must have a state marshal, constable, or indifferent person serve a copy of the complaint on the relevant probate court and all interested parties. Failure to do so does not deprive the Superior Court of jurisdiction. Service must be in hand but a copy can be left at the probate court or at an interested party's residence or address on file at the probate court. Service must be in hand for a conserved person or someone who is subject to a petition for conservatorship for matters relating to conservators.
Within 15 days of filing the appeal, the act requires the person who filed the appeal to file with the Superior Court clerk a document with the name, address, and signature of the person who served the complaint and the date and manner of service. If an interested party has not been served, on motion, the Superior Court must require notice reasonably calculated to notify them.
§ 2 — Hearings
The act requires a hearing on an appeal in the following matters to begin within 90 days of its filing unless a stay is issued:
1. commitment of a mentally ill child and status review of a voluntarily committed mentally ill child;
2. commitment of a person with psychiatric disabilities; their release or transfer; their medication, treatment, psychotherapy, or shock therapy; and medication of criminal defendants in Department of Mental Heath and Addiction Services' (DMHAS) custody;
3. involuntary commitment for alcohol or drug dependency;
4. appointing a conservator, appointing a temporary conservator, and terminating conservatorship;
5. appointing a guardian, plenary guardian, limited guardian, temporary limited guardian for a mentally retarded person, and court review of guardians or limited guardians;
6. hearings on sterilization;
7. a guardian's or conservator's petition on competency to vote; and
8. termination of parental rights.
§ 2 — Effect of Appeal
Under the act, filing the appeal does not stay enforcement of an order, denial, or decree. The act allows an appealing party to file a motion for a stay with the probate court or Superior Court, and filing with the probate court does not prevent action by the Superior Court.
The act provides that these procedures do not prevent someone aggrieved by the order, denial, or decree from filing a petition for habeas corpus, terminating involuntary conservatorship, or any other remedy, unless a law provides otherwise.
§§ 2-3 — Appeals on the Record
Under prior law, an appeal in a probate case where the parties agreed to have a record made was based on the record and not a new trial. The act requires appeals on the record if a recording is made of proceedings (1) appointing conservators (the act requires these proceedings to be recorded) and (2) committing someone with psychiatric disabilities or for drug or alcohol treatment.
When the appeal is based on a hearing that was on the record, the act requires the probate court to transcribe any portion that has not been transcribed within 30 days of service, unless the Superior Court allows additional time. The person filing the appeal is charged the expense. If the person is unable to pay and files an affidavit showing it, the probate court administrator pays the expenses from the probate court administration fund.
The act requires the probate court to send the original or a certified copy of the entire record (including the probate court's separately stated findings of fact and conclusions of law) to the Superior Court.
Under the act, the appeals are heard by the Superior Court without a jury and can be referred to a state referee (a judge past the mandatory retirement age of 70 who continues to serve).
Under the act, the scope of the appeal is limited to the materials in the probate court record. The court can accept proof about alleged irregularities in procedure if the alleged irregularities or necessary facts to show them are not in the record. The Superior Court must hear oral argument and accept written briefs on a party's request.
§ 4 — Standard Of Review When Proceedings Are On The Record
When the appeal is based on a hearing that was on the record, the act prohibits the Superior Court from substituting its judgment for the probate court's on the weight of evidence on a question of fact. It requires the Superior Court to affirm the probate court's decision unless the substantial rights of the person appealing were prejudiced because the probate judge's findings, inferences, conclusions, or decisions:
1. violate the state or federal constitution or state statutes;
2. exceed the probate court's statutory authority;
3. were based on illegal procedures;
4. were affected by legal errors;
5. were clearly erroneous based on the reliable, probative, and substantial evidence on the whole record; or
6. were arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or a clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion.
If prejudice is found, the Superior Court can return the case to the probate court for further proceedings or modify the probate court order, denial, or decree. A remand is a final judgment.
§ 5 — Costs of Appeals
The act allows a prevailing party to receive costs as in other Superior Court judgments.
If the person appealing cannot pay the costs of the appeal, he or she can (within the time allowed for the appeal) file an application with the court clerk to waive costs, including bond. The application must conform with Superior Court rules. The court can hold a hearing if necessary and rule on the application, stating its findings of fact and conclusions.
The waiver application tolls the time for filing the appeal until the court renders judgment.
A fiduciary acting on a court order made after the appeal period expires is not liable for good faith actions unless the fiduciary has actual notice of the tolling of the appeal period. A fiduciary includes a conservator or guardian.
§ 33 — Repealed Provisions
The act deletes provisions requiring (1) an appeal from probate or the actions of commissioners to state the appellant's interest in the motion unless the interest is apparent from the probate court's proceedings and records and (2) the probate court to order notice of appeal to an interested person as reasonable and the court to hear the appeal without further notice.
§ 10 — DEFINING INCAPACITY
For purposes of the provisions on conservators, prior law defined a person as “incapable of caring for himself or herself” if the person had a mental, emotional, or physical condition:
1. resulting from mental illness, mental deficiency, physical illness or disability, chronic drug or alcohol use, or confinement;
2. that made the person unable to provide medical care for physical or mental health needs, nutritious meals, clothing, safe and adequately heated and ventilated shelter, personal hygiene, and protection from physical abuse or harm; and
3. endangered the person's health.
The act changes this and defines a person as “incapable of caring for himself or herself” if the person has a mental, emotional, or physical condition that makes him or her unable to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions so that he or she cannot, even with appropriate assistance, meet essential requirements for personal needs. “Personal needs” include the need for food, clothing, shelter, health care, and safety.
The act makes a similar change to the definition of a person who is “incapable of managing his or her affairs. ” Under prior law, this was when a person had a mental, emotional, or physical condition (1) resulting from mental illness, mental deficiency, physical illness or disability, chronic drug or alcohol use, or confinement and (2) that prevented the person from managing his or her affairs regarding property. The act instead defines it as when the person has a mental, emotional, or physical condition that results in being unable to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions to an extent that he or she is unable, even with appropriate assistance, to manage his or her affairs regarding property.
It defines “property management” as actions to (1) obtain, administer, manage, protect, and dispose of real and personal property, intangible property, business property, benefits, and income and (2) deal with financial affairs.
§ 11 — RECORDING PROCEEDINGS
The act requires the probate court to record all proceedings regarding appointing and paying conservators, setting their powers and duties, and terminating conservatorships. The recording is part of the court record and must be made and maintained in the manner set by the probate court administrator.
§ 13 — APPLICATIONS REGARDING A PERSON NOT DOMICILED IN CONNECTICUT
Prior law required an application for involuntary representation by a conservator to be filed in the probate district where the person resided or had his domicile. The act also allows an application in the district where the person is located at the time of filing.
The act prohibits granting an application regarding someone who does not have a domicile in Connecticut unless:
1. the person is presently in the probate district where the application is filed;
2. the applicant made a reasonable effort to notify (a) the person and any of his or her relatives who may be required by law to receive notice, (b) state agencies providing aid to the person, (c) a hospital or institution if the person is in one, and (d) others who the court orders to receive notice because they have an interest or the person requests it;
3. (a) the person had an opportunity to return to his or her domicile and was given the financial means to do so (within his or her resources) but refused or (b) the applicant made reasonable but unsuccessful efforts to return the person to his or her domicile; and
4. the statutory requirements for appointing a conservator are met.
If involuntary representation is granted, the act requires the court to review it every 60 days. Involuntary representation expires 60 days after the order or latest review unless the court makes the same findings as above, but the person must be located in Connecticut and the conservator is responsible for the required notice and efforts to return the person to his or her domicile. The act requires the court to consider reports from the conservator and the conserved person's attorney regarding these requirements.
If the person becomes domiciled in Connecticut after a conservator is appointed, these provisions no longer apply.
§ 13 — PENALTIES FOR FRAUD OR FALSE TESTIMONY IN APPLICATIONS
The act increases the penalties for fraudulent or malicious applications or false testimony under the provisions on applying for involuntary representation. Prior law punished this conduct with up to one year in prison, a fine of up to $1,000, or both. The act makes it a class D felony (see Table on Penalties). The act also extends this penalty to fraudulent or malicious applications or false testimony under the statute on compensation of a conservator when the conserved person cannot pay.
§ 14 — NOTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR INVOLUNTARY REPRESENTATION APPLICATIONS
The act requires that the court-issued citation to appear at a hearing on an application for involuntary representation be served at least 10 rather than seven days before the hearing. But the act retains the seven-day limit for applications regarding people with psychiatric disabilities requesting medication, treatment, psychotherapy, and shock therapy, and medication of criminal defendants under DMHAS custody.
The law requires personal service on the person who is the subject of the petition and certain relatives. The act deletes an exception allowing the court to find that personal service is detrimental to the subject's health and welfare and to instead order service on counsel or an appointed attorney. The act provides that if personal service is not made on the person and required relatives, the court does not have jurisdiction over the application, and any action it takes has no legal effect.
By law, the notice to the subject of the petition and any relatives required to receive notice must describe the involuntary representation sought and its consequences, the facts alleged in the application, the time of the hearing, the right to appear, and the subject's right to hire and be represented by an attorney. The act requires the notice to include a statement, in bold type with 12-point print, about the hearing and the person's rights. The act includes sample language that states, among other things:
1. if you are not able to access the court where the hearing will be held, you may request that the hearing be moved to a convenient location, even to your place of residence;
2. you should have an attorney represent you at the hearing, the court will appoint one if you cannot obtain one, the court will pay attorney fees if you cannot pay, and you may choose an attorney if the attorney will accept the fees permitted by court rules;
3. the court may review any alternative plans you have to get assistance to handle your own affairs that do not require appointing a conservator;
4. the court may appoint a conservator and among the areas that may be affected are (a) accessing your money and paying bills, (b) deciding where you live, (c) medical decisions, and (d) managing your real and personal property; and
5. you may participate in selecting the conservator.
§ 14 — INABILITY TO ATTEND THE HEARING
The act requires the court to relocate the hearing to a place where the subject of the hearing can attend if the person notifies the court that he or she wants to attend but is unable to do so. Under prior law, the court could only do this if the person could not attend because of physical incapacity. It eliminates the requirement that the court visit the person before the hearing if he or she was in Connecticut and it was impractical to relocate the hearing.
§ 15 — APPOINTING ATTORNEYS
The law gives a person a right to an attorney as the subject of a petition for involuntary representation and in proceedings involving temporary conservators and for terminating conservatorships. The law provides that the court will (1) appoint counsel if the person cannot ask for or obtain counsel and (2) pay reasonable compensation, if the person is unable to, from Judicial Branch funds, if appropriated, and, if not available, from the probate court administration fund.
The act expands the right to legal representation by applying it to petitions for voluntary or involuntary representation and to all proceedings involving people under involuntary conservatorships. The act provides that the person has the right to choose that attorney.
The act provides that the court is not required to appoint an attorney if the person refuses representation and the court finds that he or she understands the nature of the refusal. If the court appoints the attorney, the act requires it to do so from a panel provided by the probate court administrator, according to regulations.
The act requires an appointed attorney to (1) represent the person in conservatorship proceedings; (2) consult with a conserved person about appealing adverse probate court rulings to the Superior Court; and (3) assist in filing and starting an appeal to the Superior Court if requested by the conserved person, without an obligation to participate in the appeal. The act prohibits a conservator from denying a conserved person access to his or her resources that are needed for an appeal.
Under the act, the person retains the right to replace his or her attorney with a different attorney of his or her choosing under these provisions. The fees of an attorney chosen by the person are subject to probate court approval or, if appealed, the Superior Court.
The act applies the same requirements in prior law for paying attorneys for indigent people but requires the Office of Probate Court Administrator to set reasonable rates of compensation for appointed attorneys.
The act prohibits an attorney representing someone in conservatorship proceedings from becoming the person's guardian ad litem or conservator unless the person (1) executed a legal document naming the attorney as conservator in the event of future incapacity or names the attorney in a similar document such as a trust or advance health care directive or (2) requests it during a conservator appointment hearing.
The act gives an attorney access to all information pertinent to the probate proceedings on presenting proof of authority. This includes immediate access to all medical records available to the client's treating physician.
§ 16 — HEARINGS ON INVOLUNTARY CONSERVATOR APPOINTMENTS
The act requires certain conditions to be met before the court can hear evidence about the condition of the person or the person's finances in hearings on applications for involuntary representation. Under the act, the court must find, by clear and convincing evidence, that (1) it has jurisdiction and (2) the person who is the subject of the application must have (a) notice, and (b) been advised of the right to an attorney and either be represented by an attorney or waived the right to one. The person who is the subject of the application has the right to attend all hearings.
Prior law required the applicant to submit a written report or testimony by at least one licensed physician who examined the person within 30 days of the hearing, including information about the person's disability and its incapacitating effect. The act changes these requirements by (1) extending the examination period to 45 days before the hearing and (2) allowing the court to waive the evaluation.
The law permits probate court judges to consider other forms of evidence at these hearings. The act requires the probate court to use the Superior Court rules of evidence and requires testimony under oath or affirmation.
The act eliminates a specific provision requiring the court, on the Department of Social Services' request, to order an examination of an elderly person subject to a protective supervision petition by a physician, psychologist, or psychiatrist regardless of reports submitted by the elderly person or his or her caretaker.
The act requires, rather than permits as under prior law, the court to order all required medical information disclosed. Under the act, disclosure is to the attorney for the person who is the subject of the application or, on request, to the person. The act allows the court to order disclosure to anyone else it deems necessary.
Factors in Decisions on Appointing Conservators
The law requires the court to consider any previous alternative arrangements for care for the person or his or her affairs, including a durable power of attorney, health care agents, or similar documents. The act requires the court to consider the adequacy of these arrangements and also requires considering any springing power of attorney (one that takes effect on a specific date or when a specified event occurs), health care representative, living will, or trust.
The act requires the court to consider certain factors before making a decision on whether to appoint a conservator. The act deletes a specific provision that the court is guided by the person's best interests when making this decision and in selecting the conservator. The act adds consideration of the following factors:
1. the person's abilities;
2. the person's capacity to understand and articulate an informed preference about his or her care or affairs;
3. any relevant and material information from the person;
4. evidence of the person's past preferences, lifestyle choices, and cultural background;
5. the desirability of continuity in the person's life and environment;
6. any relevant and material evidence from the person's family or anyone else about the person's past practices and preferences; and
7. any supportive services, technologies, or other means available to assist the person in meeting his or her needs.
Standard in Decision-Making
The act prohibits appointing a conservator if the person's personal needs and property management are adequately cared for by an agency or individual appointed under a power of attorney or health care directive.
Conservator of the Estate. Under prior law, the court had to appoint a conservator of the estate if (1) clear and convincing evidence showed that the person was incapable of managing his or her affairs and (2) it did not appear that the affairs were being managed properly without a conservator.
The act instead allows the court to appoint a conservator after considering the factors listed in the section above if it finds by clear and convincing evidence that (1) the person cannot manage his or her affairs, (2) the person's affairs cannot be managed adequately without appointing a conservator, and (3) appointing a conservator is the least restrictive intervention available to assist the person in managing his or her affairs.
Conservator of the Person. Under prior law, the court had to appoint a conservator of the person if (1) clear and convincing evidence showed that the person was incapable of caring for himself or herself and (2) it did not appear that the person was being properly cared for without a conservator.
The act instead allows the court to appoint a conservator after considering the factors listed in the section above if it finds by clear and convincing evidence that (1) the person is incapable of caring for himself or herself, (2) the person cannot be adequately cared for without appointing a conservator, and (3) appointing a conservator is the least restrictive intervention available to assist the person in caring for himself or herself.
Naming a Conservator
The law allows a person to request, if capable of forming an intelligent preference, someone to act as his or her conservator. The act also allows a person to name a conservator in a legal document to take effect in the event of future incapacity or in an advance health care directive. Under prior law, the court accepted an appointment unless it was not in the person's best interests. The act instead requires the court to accept the appointment unless the nominee is unwilling or unable to serve or there is substantial evidence to disqualify the person.
The law allows the appointment as conservator of any qualified person or an authorized public official or corporation. The act adds the following considerations when deciding who to appoint as conservator:
1. the proposed conservator's knowledge of the person's preferences regarding care or management of the affairs;
2. the proposed conservator's ability to carry out a conservator's duties, responsibilities, and powers;
3. the costs of the proposed conservatorship to the estate or the person;
4. the proposed conservator's commitment to promoting the person's welfare and independence; and
5. any existing or potential conflicts of interest.
The act eliminates a provision requiring the court to make and furnish findings of fact to support its conclusion within 30 days if it is requested by the person who is the subject of the hearing or his or her counsel.
Powers of Conservators
Under prior law, the court could limit the powers and duties given to a conservator but it was required to make specific findings to justify any limitation. Prior law required the court to consider the conserved person's abilities; the prior appointment of an attorney, health care representative, trustee, or other fiduciary to act for the person; available support services; and other relevant evidence.
The act requires the court to give a conservator only the duties and authority that are the least restrictive intervention necessary to meet the person's needs and the management must be provided in an appropriate manner. The act requires the court to find by clear and convincing evidence that the duties and authority restrict the person's decision-making only to the extent necessary to provide for personal needs or property management. The court must make a finding of the clear and convincing evidence that supports the need for each duty and authority. The act provides that the person retains all rights and authority not expressly given to the conservator.
The act requires a conservator to follow all health care decisions by a person's health care representative, based on an advance health care directive, unless the court or the law provides otherwise.
The act provides that nothing in the statutory provisions about conservators limits a conserved person's right to an attorney or to seek redress in a court or agency, including using a habeas corpus petition to challenge limits the court imposed on the person under the provisions on conservatorships, people with psychiatric disabilities, and treatment for addictions. In any other proceeding where the conservator retains counsel for the conserved person, the person can request that the probate court direct the conservator to substitute an attorney of the person's choosing.
§ 17 — NOTICE OF PENDING APPLICATION FOR CONSERVATOR
While an application to appoint a conservator is pending, the law allows the person who filed it to:
1. record notice of the application with the clerk in any town where the alleged incapable person resides or has property in order to invalidate any contracts or conveyances of real property without court approval, until the application is adjudicated; and
2. file notice of the application with a bank to prevent withdrawal of the alleged incapable person's funds without court approval, until the application is adjudicated.
The act requires these notices to be copies certified by the court. It requires the original to be filed with the court.
§ 18 — APPOINTING A TEMPORARY CONSERVATOR
Standard for Appointment
As under prior law, a probate court can appoint a temporary conservator if a person is incapable of managing his or her affairs or caring for himself or herself and immediate or irreparable injury to mental or physical health or financial or legal affairs will otherwise result. But the act additionally requires the appointment to be the least restrictive intervention available to prevent the harm and the court to make all of these findings by clear and convincing evidence.
The act requires, instead of allows as under prior law, the temporary conservator to give a probate bond.
Prior law required the court to make specific findings to justify limitations on the temporary conservator's powers. The act instead requires specific findings, supported by clear and convincing evidence, (1) of the immediate and irreparable harm that will be prevented by appointing a conservator and (2) that support appointing the temporary conservator. It also requires the court to list each duty or authority given the temporary conservator.
By law, a temporary conservator is appointed for up to 30 days unless an application for a conservator is filed during that period, in which case the court can extend the term for up to 30 days or until the application is decided, whichever occurred first. The act specifies that a temporary conservator's appointment cannot exceed 60 days from the initial appointment date.
Application, Notice, and Hearing
Unless excused, the law requires a physician's report before appointing a temporary conservator. The act requires the report to be filed with the application. Prior law allowed the court to order this medical information disclosed. The act requires disclosure to the subject of the application on request, his or her attorney, and other parties the court considers appropriate.
The act requires the court, on receiving an application, to notify the subject of the application, appoint counsel for the person, and hold a hearing in the same manner as for other involuntary conservators.
The act requires notice to the subject of the application at least five days before the hearing and the hearing must be within seven days of the application's filing (excluding weekends and holidays). If the application is made ex parte (without holding a hearing or giving advance notice to other parties), this notice must be made within 48 hours after the ex parte appointment of a temporary conservator and the hearing must be held within three days of the ex parte appointment (excluding weekends and holidays). Prior law required a hearing within 72 hours of the application (excluding weekends and holidays) unless continued for cause and notice to the next of kin and the person's attorney.
The act requires the notice to be served in hand by a state marshal, constable, or indifferent person. By law, it must include:
1. a copy of the application and accompanying physician's report;
2. a copy of the ex parte order, if any; and
3. the time and place of the hearing.
The act prohibits the court from appointing a temporary conservator until it makes the required findings and holds a hearing, except under the ex parte appointment provisions.
If notice is given to the next of kin, the act prohibits the court from disclosing the physician's report to that person without a court order.
Ex Parte Appointments
Prior law allowed a court to appoint a temporary conservator ex parte and then hold a hearing within 72 hours of the appointment. The act requires the hearing within three days and provides that the ex parte order expires within three days of its issuance unless the hearing begins during that period and is continued for cause.
By law, the court can waive the medical examination requirement if the person refuses an examination. The act provides that if the court waives the requirement, it cannot appoint a temporary conservator unless clear and convincing evidence shows that (1) the person is incapable of managing his or her affairs or caring for himself or herself or (2) immediate and irreparable harm to the person's mental or physical health or financial or legal affairs will result without appointing a temporary conservator.
The act removes a provision that a temporary conservator cannot change the person's residence without notifying the court and obtaining specific court findings after a hearing. It also eliminates procedures for placing a person in an institution for long-term care. Conservators of the person retain the ability to do so, although the act sets new standards they must use.
The law requires a temporary conservator to file a written report with the court when the temporary conservatorship ends. The act also requires a final accounting if it is directed by the court.
§ 20 — DUTIES OF A CONSERVATOR OF THE PERSON
The act requires a conservator of the person to carry out the duties and authority expressly assigned by the court in a manner that is the least restrictive intervention. The conservator must also:
1. assists the person in removing obstacles to independence and achieving self-reliance,
2. ascertain the person's views,
3. make decisions conforming with the person's reasonable and informed expressed preferences,
4. make all reasonable efforts to ascertain the person's health care instructions and other wishes, and
5. make health care decisions conforming with (a) the person's expressed preferences including instructions and other wishes in an advanced health care directive or (b) a decision of a health care representative unless the law allows the conservator's decision to take precedence.
The act requires the conservator to give the person (1) the opportunity for meaningful participation in decision-making based on the person's abilities and (2) reasonable responsibility for decisions affecting his or her well-being.
The law requires a conservator to report at least annually to the probate court on the person's condition. The act also requires the report to address efforts made to encourage the person's independence and include a statement on whether appointing a conservator is the least restrictive means of intervention for managing the person's needs.
§ 21 — CHANGING A PERSON'S RESIDENCE AND LONG-TERM CARE PLACEMENTS
The law gives a conservator of the person the power to change where the person lives. The act sets rules for doing so.
It prohibits a conservator from ending a person's tenancy or lease, selling or disposing of real property or household furnishings, or changing the person's residence unless a probate court holds a hearing and finds that (1) the termination, sale, disposal, or change is necessary or (2) the person agrees to it.
It creates a procedure for filing a report and holding a hearing on changing the person's residence that is similar to provisions in existing law for a conservator placing a person in a long-term care institution (such as a nursing home).
The act requires the conservator, when he or she determines it is necessary to change the person's residence, to file a report of the intended change with the probate court. The court must hold a hearing to consider the report and the conservator can make the change if the court grants permission after the hearing. The hearing must be at least five days after filing the report (excluding weekends and holidays) and at least 72 hours before the change of residence.
The person can waive the right to a hearing after consultation with an attorney if the attorney files a waiver with the court, but it is invalid if it does not represent the person's wishes.
The act also applies these procedures to placing the person in a long-term care institution. By doing so, it changes prior law by:
1. requiring the hearing rather than only requiring it on request of the person or an interested party or on the court's motion, but adds the provision on waiving the hearing;
2. eliminating provisions allowing placement before filing a report based on avoiding irreparable harm;
3. requiring notice to the person's attorney, in addition to the person and interested parties as under prior law, and requires service by first-class mail with the conservator certifying that service was made;
4. allowing the person to request a hearing at any time, following the procedures described above; and
5. expanding the definition of an “institution for long-term care” to include a residential care home, extended care facility, nursing home, rest home, or rehabilitation hospital or facility (as under prior law, it also includes a federally-certified skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility).
As under prior law, the act still allows placement in a long-term care institution on discharge from a hospital before filing a report and requires filing the report within five days. The act also requires the report to include related circumstances requiring the placement. It prohibits such a placement from continuing unless the probate court orders it after a hearing.
§ 22 — PROPERTY OF NON-RESIDENTS
The law sets procedures for the probate court to appoint a conservator of the estate for a person who is not domiciled in Connecticut but has real or personal property in this state. The act prohibits the court from acting on an application for this purpose until an attorney is appointed under the act's provisions to represent the person.
The law allows the proceeds from the sale of the real or personal property to be transferred to the conservator or similar individual who is in charge of the incapable person or his or her estate in the other state. The act also allows transfer of the tangible personal property itself.
§ 23 — TERMINATING CONSERVATORSHIP
The act allows a conserved person to petition the probate court to terminate the conservatorship at any time. The petition is determined based on the preponderance of the evidence and the person does not need to present medical evidence. The court must hold a hearing within 30 days of the petition's filing except for good cause. The conservatorship terminates if the hearing is not held within the 30 days or any extended period granted for good cause.
Prior law required the court to review the conservatorship at least every three years. The act instead requires a review within one year of ordering the conservatorship and at least every three years after that. Prior law required the conservator, the person's attorney, and a physician to submit written reports within 45 days of the court's request. The act deletes the requirement for the attorney's report and requires the court to provide copies of the other reports to the conserved person and his or her attorney.
The act requires the conserved person's attorney, within 30 days of receiving the reports of the conservator and physician, to notify the court (1) that he or she has met with the conserved person and (2) whether a hearing is requested, although it does not prohibit either the person or the attorney from requesting one at any other time the law permits.
The law allows the court to order disclosure of medical information and the act requires disclosure to the conserved person's attorney.
Under prior law, the court was not required to hold a hearing if the person's condition did not change since the court's last review based on the filed reports, unless requested by the attorney, physician, or conservator. The act instead requires the court to find by clear and convincing evidence that the conserved person continues to be incapable of managing his or her affairs or caring for himself or herself and there is no less restrictive means available to assist the person. The act then allows the court to continue or modify the conservatorship but requires it to terminate the conservatorship if it does not make these findings. The court retains discretion to hold a hearing and it is required to do so if, as under prior law, the conserved person, his or her attorney, or the conservator requests it.
§§ 24-25 — HABEAS CORPUS PETITIONS
The act provides that a person under involuntary conservatorship and minors or mentally retarded people under guardianship can use a writ of habeas corpus without exhausting other available remedies such as appealing the court order of guardianship or conservatorship. The court must then determine the legality of the guardianship or conservatorship. The writ must be directed to the guardian or conservator and, if alleging that the guardianship or conservatorship is illegal or invalid, to the court that issued the order.
The application for habeas corpus can be brought in the Superior Court or probate court. If brought to the probate court, the probate court administrator must appoint three probate judges to hear the application from a list of those approved to hear these cases by the chief justice. The probate judge who issued the order cannot sit on the panel. The judges choose a chief judge. All proceedings are recorded, the recording is part of the record, and it is retained in the probate court that appointed the conservator or guardian in a manner set by the probate court administrator. Applications cannot be denied unless two of the three judges vote to do so.
Hearings are held within 10 days (excluding weekends and holidays) after return of service of the writ. If the representation or guardianship is determined legal, the decision (1) is a final judgment subject to appeal and (2) does not bar another writ if it is claimed that (a) the person is no longer subject to the condition for which the person was under conservatorship or (b) the application is based on a different ground. The individual subject to the guardianship or conservatorship or a relative, friend, or person interested in his or her welfare can apply for the writ.
An appeal to the Superior Court from a probate judge panel is filed in the judicial district for the probate court that appointed the guardian or conservator. The appeal is heard within 30 days of return of service of the appeal.
Alcohol or Drug Treatment Facilities
Under the act, someone confined in a hospital or inpatient treatment facility for alcohol or drug dependency treatment can seek a writ of habeas corpus in Superior Court. The court or judge issuing the writ determines the legality of confinement. The writ is directed to the facility's superintendent or director and the judge of the committing court, if commitment is allegedly illegal or invalid. The act requires the state's attorney for the relevant judicial district to represent the judge. If the confinement is determined legal, it does not bar another writ if it claims the individual is no longer subject to the condition for which the individual was confined. The confined person, a relative, a friend, or person interested in the individual's welfare can bring the writ.
The act prohibits charging court fees to the judge or hospital superintendent or director.
OLR Tracking: CR: KM: PF: RO