Table of Contents
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FOR STATE EMPLOYEES
Sec. 5-270. Collective bargaining. Definitions.
Sec. 5-276a. Timetable for negotiations between employer and designated employee organization. Mediation. Elective binding arbitration; procedure.
Sec. 5-270. Collective bargaining. Definitions. When used in sections 5-270 to
(a) "Employer" means the state of Connecticut, its executive and judicial branches,
including, without limitation, any board, department, commission, institution, or agency
of such branches or any appropriate unit thereof and any board of trustees of a state-owned or supported college or university and branches thereof, public and quasi-public
state corporation, or authority established by state law, or any person or persons designated by the employer to act in its interest in dealing with employees, but shall not include
the State Board of Labor Relations or the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration.
(b) "Employee" means any employee of an employer, whether or not in the classified service of the employer, except elected or appointed officials other than special
deputy sheriffs, board and commission members, disability policy specialists assigned
to the Council on Developmental Disabilities, managerial employees and confidential
(c) "Professional employee" means: (1) Any employee engaged in work (A) predominantly intellectual and varied in character as opposed to routine mental, manual,
mechanical or physical work; (B) involving the consistent exercise of discretion and
judgment in its performance; (C) of such a character that the output produced or the result
accomplished cannot be standardized in relation to a given time period; (D) requiring
knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired
by a prolonged course of specialized intellectual instruction and study in an institution
of higher learning or a hospital, as distinguished from a general academic education or
from an apprenticeship or from training in the performance of routine mental, manual
or physical processes; or (2) any employee who has completed the courses of specialized
intellectual instruction and study described in subsection (c)(1)(D) and is performing
related work under the supervision of a professional person to qualify himself to become
a professional employee as defined in subsection (c)(1).
(d) "Employee organization" means any lawful association, labor organization, federation or council having as a primary purpose the improvement of wages, hours and
other conditions of employment among state employees.
(e) "Confidential employee" means any public employee who would have access
to confidential information used in collective bargaining.
(f) "Supervisory employee" means any individual in a position in which the principal functions are characterized by not fewer than two of the following: (1) Performing
such management control duties as scheduling, assigning, overseeing and reviewing the
work of subordinate employees; (2) performing such duties as are distinct and dissimilar
from those performed by the employees supervised; (3) exercising judgment in adjusting
grievances, applying other established personnel policies and procedures and in enforcing the provisions of a collective bargaining agreement; and (4) establishing or participating in the establishment of performance standards for subordinate employees and
taking corrective measures to implement those standards, provided in connection with
any of the foregoing the exercise of such authority is not merely of a routine or clerical
nature, but requires the use of independent judgment, and such individuals shall be
employees within the meaning of subsection (b) of this section. The above criteria for
supervisory positions shall not necessarily apply to police or fire departments.
(g) "Managerial employee" means any individual in a position in which the principal functions are characterized by not fewer than two of the following, provided for any
position in any unit of the system of higher education, one of such two functions shall
be as specified in subdivision (4) of this subsection: (1) Responsibility for direction of
a subunit or facility of a major division of an agency or assignment to an agency head's
staff; (2) development, implementation and evaluation of goals and objectives consistent
with agency mission and policy; (3) participation in the formulation of agency policy;
or (4) a major role in the administration of collective bargaining agreements or major
personnel decisions, or both, including staffing, hiring, firing, evaluation, promotion
and training of employees.
(P.A. 75-566, S. 1; P.A. 77-22, S. 1, 3; P.A. 81-457, S. 12; P.A. 82-454; P.A. 86-411, S. 5, 8; P.A. 97-148, S. 1, 8; P.A.
01-103, S. 1; P.A. 05-256, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 77-22 deleted legislative branch from definition of "employer" in Subsec. (a); P.A. 81-457 added Subdiv.
(g), which defines "managerial employee", and excluded them from collective bargaining by excepting them from the
definition of "employee", where previously they were specifically excluded if working less than twenty-four hours per
week; P.A. 82-454 amended Subsec. (b) to include part-time employees within the definition of "employee", where previously they were specifically excluded if working less than twenty-four hours per week; P.A. 86-411 amended Subsec.
(g), removing the percentage cap on the number of managerial employees, and requiring the provisions of Subpara. (D)
to be satisfied for any position in the system of higher education to be considered managerial, effective July 1, 1986, and
applicable to negotiations then in progress; (Revisor's note: In 1995 the Revisors editorially substituted in Subdiv. (c) the
alphabetic indicators (A), (B), (C) and (D) for (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) for consistency with statutory usage); P.A. 97-148
amended Subsec. (b) to include special deputy sheriffs, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 01-103 deleted former Subdiv. (2) re
certain Department of Correction employees, redesignated existing Subparas. (A) to (D) as Subdivs. (1) to (4), and made
conforming technical changes; P.A. 05-256 redefined "employee" in Subsec. (b) to include disability policy specialists
assigned to the Council on Developmental Disabilities, effective July 1, 2005.
Sec. 5-276a. Timetable for negotiations between employer and designated employee organization. Mediation. Elective binding arbitration; procedure. (a) In the
event that either the employer, as defined in subsection (a) of section 5-270, or a designated employee organization, as defined in subsection (d) of said section, may desire
negotiations with respect to an original or successor collective bargaining agreement,
such party, not more than three hundred thirty days prior to the expiration of the existing
collective bargaining agreement nor less than one hundred fifty days prior thereto, shall
serve written notice thereof upon the other party. Negotiations shall commence within
thirty days of such service. Negotiations as to wage reopeners shall commence within
twenty days of receipt by one party of a written notice with respect thereto, served in
accordance with the provisions of any such reopener in the affected contract or, if none
is stated therein, not more than sixty days nor less than thirty days prior to the effective
date of such reopener.
(b) Upon the joint request of the parties, following the commencement of good faith
negotiations, the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration may designate a mediator
to assist the parties in continuing such negotiations and in reaching a settlement of the
issues presented in such negotiations. The mediator designated shall be experienced in
labor mediation and shall be drawn from lists of such mediators maintained by the
board, the American Arbitration Association or the Federal Mediation and Conciliation
Service. The mediator so designated may only serve if approved by both parties.
(c) If, after a reasonable period of negotiation, or, in the case of negotiations by the
parties to an existing collective bargaining agreement to revise such agreement concerning any matter affecting wages, hours and other conditions of employment, after sixty
days from the commencement of such negotiations, the parties are unable to reach an
agreement, both parties or either of them may initiate arbitration by filing with the State
Board of Mediation and Arbitration a list of the issues as to which an impasse has been
reached. If such filing is not made jointly, a copy of the filing shall be served on the
(d) Within ten days of a joint filing or within ten days of service on the other party
in the case of a single filing, the parties shall jointly select an arbitrator. The person
selected shall have substantial, current experience as an impartial arbitrator of labor-management disputes. Persons who serve partisan interests as advocates or consultants
for labor or management in labor-management relations or who are associated with or
are members of a firm which performs such advocate or consultant work may not be
selected. If the parties fail to agree on an arbitrator within the ten-day period, the selection
shall be made using the procedures under the voluntary labor arbitration rules of the
American Arbitration Association.
(e) (1) The arbitrator selected shall contact the parties to schedule dates and places
for hearings which shall commence not later than twenty days after the selection of the
arbitrator and which shall be, where feasible, in the principal locality of the state board,
department, commission or agency or unit thereof involved. At least ten days prior to
each such hearing, written notice of the designated time and place of such hearing shall
be sent to the state employer and the state employee organization. The arbitrator shall
preside over such hearings, shall have the power to take testimony, to administer oaths
and to summon, by subpoena, any person whose testimony may be pertinent to the
proceedings, together with any records or other documents deemed by the arbitrator to
relate to such matters. In the case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to
any person, the Superior Court, upon application by the arbitrator or either party, shall
have jurisdiction to order such person to appear before the arbitrator to produce subpoenaed records and to give testimony touching the matter under investigation or in question, and any failure to obey such order may be punished by the court as a contempt
thereof. The parties may, at any time during the course of the proceeding, jointly request
the arbitrator to attempt to mediate any or all of the disputed issues.
(2) The hearings may, at the discretion of the parties or the arbitrator, be continued
and shall be concluded within thirty days after their commencement, unless such period
is extended by the joint request of the parties or by the arbitrator.
(3) Prior to the commencement of the hearings, each party shall submit to the arbitrator three copies of a list of all resolved and unresolved issues, including the party's
proposal on each disputed issue. During the hearing no new issues can be considered
unless such addition is mutually agreed to by the parties. Upon receipt of both such lists,
the arbitrator shall simultaneously distribute a copy of each to the opposing party. Upon
the hearing, each party shall present such testimony and other evidence as it deems
appropriate and as the arbitrator finds relevant to the issues presented. Evidence as to
each disputed issue shall be presented first by the party presenting the demand underlying
such issue. At any time prior to the issuance of the award by the arbitrator, the parties
may jointly file with the arbitrator stipulations setting forth such disputed issues the
parties have agreed are to be withdrawn from arbitration. Within fourteen days after the
conclusion of the taking of testimony, the parties may file with the arbitrator three copies
of their briefs including their last best offer on each unresolved issue and, where possible,
estimates of the costs of resolution of each disputed issue. Immediately upon receipt of
both briefs or upon the expiration of the time for filing such briefs, whichever is sooner,
the arbitrator shall distribute a copy of each such brief to the opposing party. Within
seven days after receipt of the opposing briefs on the disputed issues or within seven
days after the expiration of the time for filing such briefs, whichever is sooner, the parties
may file with the arbitrator three copies of a reply brief, responding to the briefs on the
unresolved issues. Immediately upon receipt of both reply briefs or upon the expiration
of the time for filing such briefs, whichever is sooner, the arbitrator shall distribute a
copy of each such brief to the opposing party.
(4) Within twenty days after the last day for filing reply briefs, the arbitrator shall
file with the secretary of the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration the award on
each unresolved issue as well as the issues resolved by the parties during the arbitration
proceedings. The arbitrator shall immediately and simultaneously distribute a copy
thereof to each party. In making such award, the arbitrator shall select the more reasonable last best offer proposal on each of the disputed issues based on the factors in subdivision (5) of this subsection. The arbitrator (A) shall give a decision as to each disputed
issue considered, (B) shall state with particularity the basis for such decision as to each
disputed issue and the manner in which the factors enumerated in subdivision (5) of this
subsection were considered in arriving at such decision, (C) shall confine the award to
the issues submitted and shall not make observations or declarations of opinion which
are not directly essential in reaching a determination, and (D) shall not affect the rights
accorded to either party by law or by any collective bargaining agreement nor in any
manner, either by drawing inferences or otherwise, modify, add to, subtract from or
alter such provisions of law or agreement. If the day for filing any document under this
subsection falls on a day which is not a business day of the State Board of Mediation
and Arbitration, then the time for filing shall be extended to the next business day of
(5) The factors to be considered by the arbitrator in arriving at a decision are: The
history of negotiations between the parties including those leading to the instant proceeding; the existing conditions of employment of similar groups of employees; the wages,
fringe benefits and working conditions prevailing in the labor market; the overall compensation paid to the employees involved in the arbitration proceedings, including direct
wages compensation, overtime and premium pay, vacations, holidays and other leave,
insurance, pensions, medical and hospitalization benefits, food and apparel furnished
and all other benefits received by such employees; the ability of the employer to pay;
changes in the cost of living; and the interests and welfare of the employees.
(6) The award of the arbitrator shall be final and binding upon the employer and
the designated employee organization unless rejected by the legislature as provided in
section 5-278, except that a motion to vacate or modify the arbitrator's decision concerning any issue in such award may be filed in the superior court for the judicial district of
Hartford within thirty days following receipt of such award. Such motion to vacate or
modify shall identify the specific issue or issues in the award which the court is being
asked to vacate or modify. Any decision by the arbitrator on issues that are not subject
to a motion to vacate or modify shall be final and binding upon the parties. The court,
after hearing, may vacate or modify the arbitrator's decision concerning the award or
any issue in the award only if the court finds that substantial rights of a party have been
prejudiced because such award is: (A) In violation of constitutional provisions; (B) in
excess of the statutory authority of the arbitrator; (C) made upon unlawful procedure;
(D) affected by other error of law; (E) clearly erroneous in view of the reliable, probative
and substantial evidence of the whole record; or (F) arbitrary or capricious or characterized by abuse of discretion or clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion.
(7) The secretary of the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration shall serve as staff
to the arbitrator for purposes of all proceedings undertaken pursuant to this subsection.
(f) The arbitrator's fees and itemized expenses, the rental, if any, of the facilities
used for the hearing and the cost of the transcript, if any, of the proceedings shall be
divided equally between the employer and the designated employee organization.
(g) Any or all of the timing requirements established in this section that are imposed
upon the parties may be waived by agreement of the parties or by a ruling of the arbitrator
following a timely request by any party. Any or all of the timing requirements established
in this section that are imposed upon the arbitrator may be waived by agreement of the
(P.A. 86-411, S. 3, 8; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-364, S. 6, 123; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-290; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7,
8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 05-277, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 86-411 effective July 1, 1986, and applicable to negotiations then in progress; P.A. 88-230 replaced
"judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-364
made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to
September 1, 1993; P.A. 91-290 amended Subsec. (c) by adding provisions re ninety-day period for negotiations to revise
existing collective bargaining agreements; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993,
to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1,
1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 05-277 amended Subsec. (a) to change the earliest date for filing
notice of a desire to negotiate from not more than one hundred eighty days prior to the expiration of the existing collective
bargaining agreement to not more than three hundred thirty days prior to the expiration of such agreement, amended Subsec.
(c) to change the date for initiation of arbitration from ninety days after negotiations begin to sixty days after negotiations
begin, amended Subsec. (e)(6) to require a motion to vacate or modify to identify the specific issues that are requested to
be vacated or modified and to provide that any issues not so identified shall be final, and amended Subsec. (g) to provide
that any timing requirements imposed upon the parties may be waived by agreement of the parties or a ruling of the arbitrator
and that the parties may agree to waive any time requirements imposed on the arbitrator.