OLR Bill Analysis

sSB 55

AN ACT CONCERNING VOTER REGISTRATION, CERTAIN NOMINATING PROCEDURES, CAMPAIGN ACCOUNTABILITY, A VOTER GUIDE, PUSH POLLING AND ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINES

SUMMARY:

This bill modifies existing and creates new voting and campaign procedures. Generally, it

1. sets standards for direct recording electronic voting machines (DREs) and establishes procedures for elections and primaries that use them;

2. expands the campaign attribution law to cover radio, television, and Internet advertisements;

3. requires the secretary of the state to prepare and publish an online voter guide;

4. requires the secretary of the state to provide voter registration services at certain naturalization ceremonies;

5. exempts from disclosure certain voter registration information;

6. conforms nominating procedures for congressional and multitown judge of probate vacancies to the direct primary law; and

7. requires a study on push polling.

EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage, except (1) the voter registration at naturalization ceremonies provision is effective on July 1, 2005 and (2) changes in campaign attribution requirements and preparation of the voter guide are effective on January 1, 2006.

VOTING MACHINES ( 7 & 8)

The bill requires the secretary of the state to consider standards that the Election Assistance Commission (EAC) adopts pursuant to the federal Help America Vote Act ((HAVA) (P. L. 107-252)) or those that the Federal Election Commission (FEC) adopts, whichever are most current, when she approves voting machines for use in Connecticut (see BACKGROUND). Under current law, she is only required to consider the FEC’s standards.

DRE Operations

The bill establishes requirements that DREs used in elections or primaries occurring on or after July 1, 2005 meet minimum standards. They must:

1. produce a contemporaneous individual, permanent, paper record of each voter’s selections and a machine self-generated, permanent, paper record after the polls close, both with an identical unique identifier that can be matched against the other and that preserve the secrecy of each elector’s ballot;

2. permit voters to verify their selections, through a paper record or an audio description, and make changes or corrections before casting their ballot;

3. void the first paper record and produce another in the event that an elector changes his ballot, and provide that person with another opportunity to verify his selections;

4. provide accessibility to blind or visually impaired individuals with a machine that has an audio capability for presenting the voter’s selections;

5. meet additional standards of accessibility that the EAC establishes pursuant to HAVA and that the secretary of the state adopts in regulations;

6. provide that ballots are considered cast when (a) an elector’s individual, permanent, voter-verified paper record is deposited into a receptacle designed to store the paper records and (b) his votes are simultaneously electronically recorded inside the voting machine; and

7. secure the secrecy of each elector’s ballot while he is (a) selecting his ballot preferences, (b) verifying his vote, (c) changing or correcting his choices, and (d) casting his ballot, as well as during any canvass, recanvass, or tally of all electors’ ballots whether manually or electronically.

Election Procedures When DREs Are Used

The bill establishes procedures and extends existing procedures that apply to elections and primaries in which DREs are used. The procedures:

1. allow individuals with disabilities to request assistance inside the voting booth (which they can do under current law);

2. require all votes, including those cast on DREs, to be tallied at the polling place immediately following the close of the polls;

3. allow any member of the public to observe the canvass of the votes (which they can do under current law);

4. require a manual recount of the individual, permanent, voter-verified paper records if a recanvass is needed for a particular candidate or question;

5. establish the individual, permanent, voter-verified paper records as the official record of each elector’s vote if a manual recount does not reconcile with the electronic vote tabulation;

6. match any damaged individual, permanent, voter-verified paper records with the machine self-generated, permanent, paper records bearing the identical unique identifier and use them as the official records;

7. allow the secretary of the state to order a discrepancy recanvass for a federal, state, or local office if she has reason to believe that it could affect the outcome of the election;

8. require registrars of voters to conduct a manual audit, within five days after each election or primary, of at least one randomly selected DRE in each voting district;

9. require voter-verified paper records to be preserved in their designated receptacle for 180 days and 22 months following an election or primary involving state or federal offices, respectively;

10. stipulate that candidates and electors retain their rights to existing remedies in a contested election or primary; and

11. allow the court or the State Elections Enforcement Commission (SEEC) to order machines (a) locked for a period longer than that required by law or (b) audited.

DRE Audit Procedures

The bill requires a manual audit of at least one DRE per voting district, selected through random drawing, within five days of each election or primary. It designates the registrars of voters or their designees representing at least two political parties as the auditors after an election. After a primary, the registrars of voters of the affiliated party designate two or more people, one of whom may be the registrar, representing at least two candidates as the auditors. No audit is required if the machines are subject to a recanvass.

The random drawing must be announced in advance, open to the public, and use selection methods set out in the bill.

The audit consists of a manual tally of a machine’s individual, permanent, voter-verified paper records compared with its electronic vote tabulation. If a voter-verified paper record is damaged, the audit officials must instead use the matching machine self-generated, permanent, paper record. The bill requires the officials to prepare a reconciliation sheet, comparing the tabulations and listing any discrepancies, and file it with the town clerk and the secretary of the state. The sheet is open to the public and may be used as prima facie evidence of a discrepancy in a contested election or primary. If the audit officials are unable to reconcile the manual count with the electronic vote tabulation and discrepancies, the secretary of the state must conduct an investigation and may order a recanvass.

CAMPAIGN ACCOUNTABILITY ( 4)

By law, written, typed, and other printed political communications paid for by people or committees cooperating with, in consultation with, or acting at the request of a candidate or his agent or committee to promote or defeat a candidate must include an attribution.

The bill expands the attribution law. It extends to written Internet-based campaign communications the requirement that they include the identity of the person who paid for it. This means, if the expenditure is made by (1) an individual, the person’s name and address; (2) a party committee, the committee’s name; and (3) other committees, the name of the committee and its campaign treasurer.

The bill expands the attribution for all communications by requiring them to include the identity of the person who approved it. The face of any printed literature must show “approved by” and, if the expenditure is made by (1) an individual, the person’s name; (2) a candidate committee, the candidate’s name; (3) a party committee, the name and title of the chairperson; or (4) a political committee (known as a PAC), the name and title of the chairperson or the treasurer. Like existing attribution requirements, the bill’s provisions do not apply to (1) unsolicited, freely published newspaper, magazine, or journal editorials, news stories, or commentary; (2) banners; (3) political paraphernalia; or (4) signs under 32 square feet.

The bill also requires television and Internet video communications to show images and readable and personal messages of approval from the candidate or the person paying for the communication. Radio and Internet audio communications must include a personal, audio message from the person or committee responsible for it.

Table 1 shows the bill’s new attribution requirements.

TABLE 1: ATTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS

Agent

Television/Internet Video

Radio/Internet Audio

Candidate or his committee

Clearly identifiable image of the candidate

Clearly readable statement identifying him and indicating that he approves the message

Personal audio message stating “I am… (candidate’s name) and I approved this message”

Personal audio message by the candidate indicating his name, the office he is seeking, and his approval of the message by stating “I am…(candidate’s name) and I approved this message”

Political or party committee

Clearly identifiable image of the committee chairperson or treasurer

Clearly readable statement identifying the committee and indicating that the committee’s campaign chairperson or treasurer approves the message

Personal audio message stating “I am…( chairperson’s or treasurer’s name and title and committee’s name) and I approved this message”

Personal audio message by the chairperson or treasurer indicating the committee name and that he has approved the message by stating “I am…(chairperson’s or treasurer’s name and title) and I approved this message”

VOTER GUIDE ( 5)

The bill requires the secretary of the state, in consultation with the SEEC and within available appropriations, to prepare and publish on the Internet a voter guide for each state election. She must complete it by October 1 in each state election year.

The voter guide must include:

1. the date of the election and hours the polls will be open;

2. the name, party affiliation, and contact information of each candidate for the offices of U. S. President and vice-president, U. S. senator and representative, the six state constitutional offices, and the state legislature;

3. maps showing the current boundaries of congressional and state legislative districts;

4. a description of each office to be filled;

5. an absentee ballot application form in printable format with instructions on how to vote by absentee ballot;

6. a voter registration form in printable format with information on voter registration procedures;

7. the text of each proposed constitutional amendment, if any, and the explanatory text for it; and

8. the text of the Voter’s Bill of Rights.

The bill authorizes the secretary of the state, in consultation with the SEEC, to adopt regulations that implement the preparation and publication of the voter guide but she cannot authorize the inclusion of information beyond what is specified in the bill.

VOTER REGISTRATION ( 1 & 2)

The bill requires the secretary of the state, within available appropriations and in consultation with registrars of voters and nonprofit organizations, to provide voter registration services at naturalization ceremonies for 25 or more people.

The bill exempts from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act information submitted as part of a mail-in voter registration application. The law allows a person who applies by mail to register for the first time in Connecticut to submit as part of his application (1) a copy of a current and valid photo identification; (2) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or government document showing his name and address; (3) a valid Connecticut driver's license number; or (4) the last four digits of his Social Security number. A person who does not submit a form of identification with his registration application must do so when voting for the first time at a federal election, or cast a provisional ballot.

NOMINATING PROCEDURES ( 3)

The bill conforms the nominating procedures for congressional and multitown judge of probate vacancies to the 2003 direct primary law. It (1) amends the endorsement and nomination deadlines, (2) requires the secretary of the state to make petition forms available for candidates for nomination starting 75 days before an election, and (3) requires candidacies to be filed with the secretary of the state no later than 4: 00 PM on the 14th day following a convention. Candidacies can be filed by submitting either (1) a certification that the candidate received at least 15% of the delegates’ votes at a convention or (2) primary petition pages. By law, petitioning candidates for a congressional district office must submit petitions signed by at least 2% of the enrolled members of their party in the district and petitioning candidates for multi-town judge of probate offices must submit signatures of at least 5% of the enrolled party members in the district. Table 2 lists the bill’s changes to the deadlines when the vacancy is to be filled at a regular state election. After the convention delegates are selected, the schedule corresponds to the regular election calendar.

TABLE 2: ENDORSEMENT DEADLINES FOR FILLING A VACANCY AT A STATE ELECTION

 

Current Law

The Bill

Governor Issues Election Notice (Writs)

On or before May 21

On or before May 1

Notice for Delegate Selection

May 24

May 4

Delegate Selection

Between 56 days after publication of delegate selection notice and five days before the convention

The day before the convention

Table 3 shows the deadlines for filling a vacancy at a special election.

TABLE 3: ENDORSEMENT AND NOMINATION DEADLINES FOR FILLING A VACANCY AT A SPECIAL ELECTION

 

Current Law

The Bill

Governor Issues Election Notice (Writs)

After May 21

After May 1

Election Date

At least 91 days after the election notice is issued

At least 150 days after the election notice is issued

Notice of District Convention

84 days before the election

145 days before the election

Delegate Selection

Between 28 days after publication of district convention notice and 56 days before the election

Between 85 days after publication of district convention notice and 80 days before the election

Certification of Delegates

21 days preceding the primary

79 days preceding the election

District Convention Date

Between 5 days after the primary and 49 days before the election

Between 75 and 70 days before the election

PUSH POLLING ( 6)

The bill requires the SEEC to conduct a study of the use of push polling in Connecticut campaigns. By February 1, 2006, it must submit a report to the Government Administration and Elections Committee on its findings, conclusions, and any recommended legislation.

The bill defines “push poll” as a paid telephone survey or series of surveys that are similar in nature and reference a candidate or group of candidates other than in a basic preference question. Additionally, in a push poll:

1. the polling organization uses a list or directory to select respondents based on demographic or political information such as race, age, sex, ethnicity, party affiliation, or like characteristics;

2. the survey fails to ask demographic questions such as age, household income, or status as a likely voter sufficient to tabulate results based on a relevant subset of the population consistent with standard polling industry practices;

3. the pollster or polling organization does not collect or tabulate survey results;

4. the survey prefaces a question regarding support for a candidate on the basis of an untrue statement; and

5. the survey’s primary purpose is to suppress or change the call recipient’s voting position.

BACKGROUND

Help America Vote Act

Congress passed HAVA in October of 2002 as a package of federally ordered election improvements. Under HAVA ( 301), the technology and administration of every voting system used in federal elections must meet uniform and nondiscriminatory requirements. Beginning January 1, 2006, all voting systems must:

1. permit voters to verify their selections on their ballot, notify them of overvotes, and permit them to make changes or correct an error before casting the ballot;

2. produce a permanent paper record for the voting system that can be manually audited and is available as an official record for recounts;

3. provide individuals with disabilities, including the blind and visually impaired, the same accessibility to voting while maintaining voter privacy and ballot confidentiality through the use of at least one DRE or properly equipped voting system at each polling place;

4. provide alternative language accessibility, as required by the Voting Rights Act of 1965; and

5. comply with the error rate standards in the federal voting system standards in effect on October 29, 2002.

Related Bill

sHB 6669, An Act Concerning Prevention of Absentee Voting Violation and Greater Accountability for Absentee Voting Compliance, which the Government Administration and Elections Committee reported favorably on March 23, establishes a voting technology standards board for electronic voting machines.

COMMITTEE ACTION

Government Administration and Elections Committee

Joint Favorable Substitute

Yea

19

Nay

1