CHAPTER 248*
VEHICLE HIGHWAY USE

*Cited. 119 C. 569. Plea of guilty to violation of motor vehicle law as admission of negligence in civil action. 146 C. 210. In event of any conflict between provisions of no-fault insurance law and existing statutes concerning motor vehicles, the latter shall prevail. 169 C. 267, 278.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 695. Cited. 22 CA 88, 90.
Defendant who left keys in ignition of automobile which was then stolen and caused damage to innocent persons held liable for damages. 23 CS 350.

Table of Contents

Sec. 14-212. Definitions.
Sec. 14-212a. Highway construction zones and utility work zones. Fines doubled.
Sec. 14-212b. School zones. Fines doubled.
Sec. 14-212c. Fines doubled for failure to yield right-of-way to a bicyclist.
Sec. 14-213. Operation without carrying operator's license.
Sec. 14-213a. Operation of private passenger motor vehicle when insurance coverage does not meet minimum no-fault security requirements. Penalty.
Sec. 14-213b. Operation prohibited when insurance coverage fails to meet minimum requirements. Penalty. Evidence of insurance coverage required to restore suspended license.
Sec. 14-214. Instruction of unlicensed person in motor vehicle operation.
Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked. Penalty.
Sec. 14-216. Operation by persons under eighteen without insurance.
Sec. 14-217. Operator to give name and address and show or surrender license, registration and insurance identification card when requested.
Sec. 14-218. Negligent homicide.
Sec. 14-218a. Traveling unreasonably fast. Establishment of speed limits.
Sec. 14-219. Speeding.
Sec. 14-219a. Parking area defined.
Sec. 14-219b. Limitation of municipal liability.
Sec. 14-219c. Use of speed monitoring devices to support a conviction.
Sec. 14-220. Slow speed.
Sec. 14-221. Low-speed vehicles carrying passengers for hire.
Sec. 14-222. Reckless driving.
Sec. 14-222a. Negligent homicide with a motor vehicle.
Sec. 14-223. Failure to bring motor vehicle to full stop when signalled. Disregard of signal. Penalty.
Sec. 14-224. Evasion of responsibility in operation of motor vehicles. Racing. Required removal of motor vehicle from traveled portion of highway.
Sec. 14-225. Evading responsibility in operation of other vehicles.
Sec. 14-225a. Operation of motor vehicles in parking areas.
Sec. 14-226. Operator to report injury to dog.
Sec. 14-227. Operation while intoxicated.
Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug, while having an elevated blood alcohol content or while impaired.
Sec. 14-227b. Implied consent to test operator's blood, breath or urine. Testing procedures. License suspension. Hearing.
Sec. 14-227c. Blood and breath samples following fatal accidents.
Sec. 14-227d. Pilot program permitting issuance of warning to and twenty- four hour revocation of license of certain alleged offenders.
Sec. 14-227e. Community service for persons convicted of operation while under the influence of liquor or drug.
Sec. 14-227f. Alcohol and drug addiction treatment program. Waiver. Appeal. Regulations.
Sec. 14-227g. Operation by person under twenty-one years of age while blood alcohol content exceeds two-hundredths of one per cent. Procedures. Penalties.
Sec. 14-227h. Impoundment of motor vehicle operated by certain persons arrested for operating while under the influence of liquor or drug.
Sec. 14-227i. Records of police investigation of defendant re operation of motor vehicle while under influence of, or impaired by, intoxicating liquor or drugs. Copies.
Sec. 14-228. Leaving motor vehicle without setting brake.
Sec. 14-229. Using motor vehicle without owner's permission.
Sec. 14-230. Driving in right-hand lane.
Sec. 14-230a. Restricted use of left-hand lane on divided limited access highways.
Sec. 14-231. Vehicles in opposite directions to pass on right.
Sec. 14-232. Passing.
Sec. 14-233. Passing on right.
Sec. 14-234. Determination of no-passing zones.
Sec. 14-235. Vehicle not to be driven on left side of highway on curve or upgrade.
Sec. 14-236. Multiple-lane highways.
Sec. 14-237. Driving on divided highways.
Sec. 14-238. Controlled-access highways.
Sec. 14-238a. (Formerly Sec. 13a-59). Illegal entry on limited access highway.
Sec. 14-239. One-way streets. Rotaries.
Sec. 14-240. Vehicles to be driven reasonable distance apart.
Sec. 14-240a. Vehicles to be driven reasonable distance apart. Intent to harass or intimidate.
Sec. 14-241. Turns.
Sec. 14-242. Turns restricted. Signals to be given before turning or stopping. U-turns. Left turns. Right turns when passing bicyclist.
Sec. 14-243. Starting or backing vehicle.
Sec. 14-244. Signals.
Sec. 14-245. Intersection. Right-of-way.
Sec. 14-246. Right-of-way at intersection turn.
Sec. 14-246a. Right-of-way at junction of highways.
Sec. 14-247. Right of way at driveway or private road.
Sec. 14-247a. Right-of-way yielded by one emerging from alley, driveway or building.
Sec. 14-248. Cattle crossings.
Sec. 14-248a. Cattle crossings.
Sec. 14-249. Stopping at grade crossings.
Sec. 14-250. Certain motor vehicles to stop at railroad crossing.
Sec. 14-250a. Vehicles prohibited on sidewalks.
Sec. 14-251. Parking vehicles.
Sec. 14-252. Parking so as to obstruct driveway.
Sec. 14-253. Parking privileges of handicapped persons.
Sec. 14-253a. Special license plates and removable windshield placards for blind persons and persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk. Parking spaces. Penalty. Regulations.
Sec. 14-253b. Municipal police departments to report violations of handicapped parking laws.
Sec. 14-254. Parking privileges of disabled veterans.
Secs. 14-255 and 14-256. Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment. Following vehicle to dim lights.
Sec. 14-257. Crowded seats. Riders on outside of vehicle. Aisle seats.
Secs. 14-258 and 14-259. Use of metal tires restricted. Use of radio telephones.
Sec. 14-260. Filling tanks.
Secs. 14-260a to 14-260m.
Sec. 14-260n. Definitions.
Sec. 14-261. Towing and pushing of vehicles. Double trailers and semitrailers.
Sec. 14-261a. Regulation of commercial vehicle combinations.
Sec. 14-261b. Drug and alcohol testing of drivers of certain vehicles, mechanics and forklift operators.
Sec. 14-262. Width and length of vehicles. Exceptions. Permits.
Sec. 14-262a. Removal of disabled trucks and trailers from highways.
Sec. 14-263. Length of camp trailers.
Sec. 14-264. Special permits for vehicles of excessive height.
Sec. 14-265. Special permits for trailers.
Sec. 14-266. Operating vehicles of over four tons' capacity on restricted highways.
Sec. 14-267. Operating overweight commercial vehicles. Highway weighing required. Penalty.
Sec. 14-267a. Weight restrictions for vehicles, trailers or other objects. Highway weighing procedure. Penalties for overweight violations. Fines for failure to comply. Regulations.
Sec. 14-267b. Weight restrictions for motor buses. Penalties.
Sec. 14-268. Weight of vehicles and trailers restricted.
Sec. 14-269. Weight of vehicles and trailers engaged in construction work.
Sec. 14-269a. Weight of refuse vehicles.
Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties.
Sec. 14-270a. Portable truck weight scales.
Sec. 14-270b. Truck weight enforcement program.
Sec. 14-270c. Official weighing areas. Staffing requirements.
Sec. 14-270d. Temporary closing of weigh stations.
Sec. 14-271. Securing of loads.
Sec. 14-271a. Limits for weakening of vehicle frames. Regulations.
Sec. 14-272. Projecting loads. Carrying of animals.
Sec. 14-272a. Carrying of children in pickup trucks or open-bed vehicles. Restrictions.
Sec. 14-273. Operation of motor vehicles requiring a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement.
Sec. 14-274. Hours of operators of motor vehicles with commercial registration or requiring a passenger endorsement or a passenger and school endorsement.
Sec. 14-275. Equipment and color of school buses.
Sec. 14-275a. Use of standard school bus required, when. Use of mass transportation permitted, when. Use of certain motor vehicles prohibited.
Sec. 14-275b. Transportation of mobility impaired students.
Sec. 14-275c. Regulations re school buses and motor vehicles used to transport special education students. Operators age seventy or older. Penalties.
Sec. 14-276. School bus operators to hold valid passenger and school endorsement. Names of suspended or revoked licensees furnished upon request.
Sec. 14-276a. Regulations re school bus operators and operators of student transportation vehicles; qualifications; training. Preemployment drug test required for operators.
Sec. 14-277. Operator's duties on stopping bus.
Sec. 14-278. Hours of operation. Placement of seats. No extra exemption or authority for operators.
Sec. 14-279. Vehicles to stop for school bus. Penalties. Written warning or summons.
Sec. 14-280. Letters and signals to be concealed when not used in transporting children. Signs on other vehicles.
Sec. 14-281. Penalties.
Sec. 14-281a. Speed of school buses. Display of head lamps.
Sec. 14-281b. Summons issued to holder of license endorsement while operating school bus or student transportation vehicles; copy to be sent to employer and local board of education; notification of disposition of case.
Sec. 14-281c. Report of serious accidents involving school buses or student transportation vehicles.
Sec. 14-281d. Duties of operators of student transportation vehicles re receipt or discharge of school children.
Sec. 14-282. Vehicle formerly used as school bus to be repainted. Inspection of other vehicles.
Sec. 14-282a. Inspection districts for school buses and student transportation vehicles.
Sec. 14-283. Rights of emergency vehicles. Obstruction of.
Sec. 14-283a. Adoption of state-wide policy for pursuits by police officers.
Sec. 14-284. Use of restricted highway by livery service vehicles.
Sec. 14-285. Use of mirrors by vehicles other than motor vehicles.
Sec. 14-286. Use of bicycles and bicycles with helper motors. Regulations re bicycles on bridges. Use of high-mileage vehicles.
Sec. 14-286a. Rights, duties and regulation of cyclists.
Sec. 14-286b. Operation of bicycles; attaching to moving vehicle prohibited; carrying of passengers, packages, bundles and other articles restricted; at least one hand to be kept on handle bars. Operators of roller skates, sleds, skateboards, coasters and toy vehicles prohibited from attaching to moving vehicle. Penalty.
Sec. 14-286c. Left and right turns.
Sec. 14-286d. Bicycle helmets. Children. Renting bicycles. Public awareness campaign.
Sec. 14-286e. Police officers on bicycles.
Sec. 14-287. Carrying person other than operator on bicycle.
Sec. 14-288. Lights, reflectors and brakes on bicycles. Whistle emitting devices prohibited.
Sec. 14-289. Regulation of use of bicycles by municipality.
Sec. 14-289a. Riding on motorcycle. Carrying of passenger.
Sec. 14-289b. Operation of motorcycles.
Sec. 14-289c. Riding motorcycle sidesaddle; carrying of passenger on motorcycle not so designed.
Sec. 14-289d. Vision-protecting devices for motorcyclists.
Sec. 14-289e. Headgear for motorcyclists and passengers.
Sec. 14-289f. Liability insurance required for motorcycles.
Sec. 14-289g. Protective headgear for motorcyclists and passengers under eighteen years old. Regulations. Penalty.
Sec. 14-290. Exemptions from motor vehicle laws.
Sec. 14-291. Traffic regulations for special occasions.
Sec. 14-292. Marking of vehicle operated by student driver.
Sec. 14-293. Vehicles and persons driving or leading animals to display lights.
Sec. 14-293a. Riding animals on highways.
Sec. 14-293b. Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators when approaching equestrians.
Sec. 14-294. Security for appearance of accused.
Sec. 14-295. Double or treble damages for persons injured as a result of certain traffic violations.
Sec. 14-296. General penalty.
Sec. 14-296a. House trailer not to be occupied when on highway.
Sec. 14-296b. Following or parking near fire apparatus, driving over hose prohibited.
Sec. 14-296c.
Sec. 14-296d. Moving violation defined. Motor vehicle operator's retraining program for operators eighteen years of age or over. Fee. Hearing. Possible license suspension. Regulations.


Sec. 14-212. Definitions. Terms used in this chapter shall be construed as follows, unless another construction is clearly apparent from the language or context in which the term is used or unless the construction is inconsistent with the manifest intention of the General Assembly:
(1) The following terms shall be construed as they are defined in section 14-1: "Authorized emergency vehicle", "commissioner", "driver", "fuels", "gross weight", "head lamp", "high-mileage vehicle", "highway", "light weight", "limited access highway", "maintenance vehicle", "motor bus", "motorcycle", "motor vehicle registration", "nonresident", "nonskid device", "number plate", "officer", "operator", "owner", "passenger motor vehicle", "passenger and commercial motor vehicle", "person", "pneumatic tires", "pole trailer", "registration", "registration number", "second offense", "semitrailer", "shoulder", "solid tires", "stop", "subsequent offense", "tail lamp", "tractor", "tractor-trailer unit", "trailer", "truck" and "vanpool vehicle";
(2) "Carrier" means (A) any local or regional school district, any educational institution providing elementary or secondary education or any person, firm or corporation under contract to such district or institution engaged in the business of transporting school children; (B) any person, firm or corporation providing transportation for compensation exclusively to persons under the age of twenty-one years; or (C) any corporation, institution or nonprofit organization providing transportation as an ancillary service primarily to persons under the age of eighteen years;
(3) "Curb" includes the boundary of the traveled portion of any highway, whether or not the boundary is marked by a curbstone;
(4) "Intersection" means the area embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines of two or more highways which join one another at an angle, whether or not one of the highways crosses the other;
(5) "Motor vehicle" includes all vehicles used on the public highways;
(6) "Parking area" means lots, areas or other accommodations for the parking of motor vehicles off the street or highway and open to public use with or without charge;
(7) "Rotary traffic island" means a physical barrier legally placed or constructed at an intersection to cause traffic to move in a circuitous course;
(8) "Student transportation vehicle" means any motor vehicle other than a registered school bus used by a carrier for the transportation of students, including children requiring special education; and
(9) "Vehicle" is synonymous with "motor vehicle".
(1949 Rev., S. 2488; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 16; P.A. 84-429, S. 38; P.A. 90-112, S. 3, 14; 90-263, S. 50, 74; P.A. 94-189, S. 31, 34.)
History: 1965 act deleted provisions excepting rail or track vehicles and including all motor vehicle statutory definitions by reference and added "motor vehicle"; P.A. 84-429 substantially revised section, dividing section into Subsecs., applying definitions in Sec. 14-1 to terms added in Subdiv. (1) and added definitions in Subdivs. (2), (3), (5) and (6); P.A. 90-112 added definitions of "carrier" in Subdiv. (2) and "student transportation vehicle" in Subdiv. (8), renumbering remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 90-263 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete from list of terms "commercial motor vehicle" and "public service motor vehicle"; P.A. 94-189 redefined "carrier", effective July 1, 1994.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 714, 715.
Subdiv. (1):
Cited. 9 CA 686, 714.
Subdiv. (5):
Term "open to public use" discussed. Judgment of appellate court in 11 CA 644 revised. 207 C. 612, 614−618.
"Open to public use" discussed. 11 CA 644−646, 648, but see 207 C. 612, 614−618. Cited. 17 CA 100−102.
Subdiv. (6):
Cited. 45 CA 225.

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Sec. 14-212a. Highway construction zones and utility work zones. Fines doubled. (a) The Superior Court shall impose an additional fee equivalent to one hundred per cent of the fine established or imposed for the violation of the provisions of section 14-213, 14-213b, 14-214, 14-215, 14-216, 14-218a, 14-219, 14-220, 14-221, 14-222, 14-222a, 14-223, 14-224, 14-225, 14-227a, 14-230, 14-230a, 14-231, 14-232, 14-233, 14-235, 14-236, 14-237, 14-238, 14-238a, 14-239, 14-240, 14-240a, 14-241, 14-242, 14-243, 14-244, 14-245, 14-246a, 14-247, 14-247a, 14-248a, 14-249, 14-250, 14-250a, 14-257, 14-261, 14-266, 14-271, 14-273, 14-279, 14-281a, subsection (e) or (g) of section 14-283, section 14-289a or 14-289b for any such violation committed while construction work is ongoing within a highway construction zone designated in a conspicuous manner by the Department of Transportation or while utility work is ongoing within a utility work zone designated in a conspicuous manner by a public service company, as defined in section 16-1, or by a water company, as defined in section 25-32a.
(b) (1) The Department of Transportation shall post a sign at the beginning of a highway construction zone which shall read as follows: "ROAD WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and at the end of such zone which shall read as follows: "END ROAD WORK".
(2) A public service company or water company shall post a sign at the beginning of a utility work zone which shall read as follows: "UTILITY WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and at the end of such zone which shall read as follows: "END UTILITY WORK".
(c) The state or any agency or employee of the state shall not be civilly liable for any injuries or damages to any person or property which may result, either directly or indirectly, from failure on the part of the Department of Transportation to post any sign required under subsection (b) of this section.
(P.A. 95-181, S. 1; P.A. 98-196, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 98-196 added utility work zones to areas where additional fines are imposed (Revisor's note: The Revisors reformatted Subsec. (b) to match the format of Sec. 14-212b(d) and in so doing inserted a comma following "ROAD WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED" and "UTILITY WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED").

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Sec. 14-212b. School zones. Fines doubled. (a) As used in this section, "local highway" means a highway that is under the control of a town, city or borough; and "local traffic authority" means the traffic authority of a town, city or borough.
(b) (1) At the request of the legislative body of a town, city or borough, the State Traffic Commission may designate as a school zone any part of a state highway that is adjacent to school property or is, in the opinion of the commission, sufficiently close to school property as to constitute a risk to the public safety under all the circumstances. At the request of such legislative body, the commission may revoke any such designation. (2) A local traffic authority may designate as a school zone, and may revoke any such designation, any part of a local highway that is adjacent to school property or is, in the opinion of the local traffic authority, sufficiently close to school property as to constitute a risk to the public safety under all the circumstances.
(c) The Superior Court shall impose an additional fee equivalent to one hundred per cent of the fine established or imposed for the violation of the provisions of section 14-218a or 14-219, for any such violation committed in a school zone designated in a conspicuous manner by the State Traffic Commission or local traffic authority.
(d) The State Traffic Commission with regard to a state highway or the local traffic authority with regard to a local highway shall post a sign approved by said commission (1) at the beginning of a school zone in each direction that traffic is permitted to flow which shall read as follows: "SCHOOL ZONE AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and (2) at the end of such zone in each direction that traffic is permitted to flow which shall read as follows: "END SCHOOL ZONE".
(P.A. 98-252, S. 64.)

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Sec. 14-212c. Fines doubled for failure to yield right-of-way to a bicyclist. A surcharge shall be imposed equivalent to one hundred per cent of the fine established or imposed for a violation of subsection (e) of section 14-242, section 14-245, 14-246a, 14-247 or 14-247a for such violation when the driver of a vehicle fails to grant or yield the right-of-way to a person riding a bicycle, as defined in section 14-286.
(P.A. 98-165, S. 1.)

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Sec. 14-213. Operation without carrying operator's license. Each operator of a motor vehicle shall carry his operator's license while operating such vehicle. Failure to carry such operator's license as required by the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2416; P.A. 75-577, S. 65, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced three-dollar fine provision with statement that violation deemed an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Failure to carry his license does not make an operator "an unlicensed person." 93 C. 457.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 23 CA 50, 52.

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Sec. 14-213a. Operation of private passenger motor vehicle when insurance coverage does not meet minimum no-fault security requirements. Penalty. Section 14-213a is repealed.
(P.A. 79-577, S. 5, 8; P.A. 80-483, S. 63, 186; P.A. 81-217, S. 7.)

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Sec. 14-213b. Operation prohibited when insurance coverage fails to meet minimum requirements. Penalty. Evidence of insurance coverage required to restore suspended license. (a) No owner of any private passenger motor vehicle or a vehicle with a combination or commercial registration, as defined in section 14-1, registered or required to be registered in this state may operate or permit the operation of such vehicle without the security required by section 38a-371 or with security insufficient to meet the minimum requirements of said section. Failure of the operator to produce an insurance identification card as required by section 14-217 shall constitute prima facie evidence that the owner has not maintained the security required by section 38a-371 and this section.
(b) Any person convicted of violating any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.
(c) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the registration, and the operator's license, if any, of an owner, for a first conviction of violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section for a period of one month and for a second or subsequent conviction for a period of six months. No new registration shall be issued or restored for any private passenger motor vehicle or a vehicle with a combination or commercial registration, as defined in section 14-1, the registration for which has been suspended pursuant to this subsection until the owner has filed proof of financial responsibility in accordance with section 14-112. Any financial responsibility filing shall be maintained for a period of three years unless waived by the commissioner after one year has elapsed, or unless such registration for such motor vehicle has been cancelled or the commissioner is satisfied that a transfer of the private passenger motor vehicle has been made in good faith and not for the purpose of or with the effect of circumventing the intention of sections 14-12b and 14-12c. No operator's license which has been suspended pursuant to this subsection shall be restored until the owner has provided evidence to the commissioner that he maintains the security required by section 38a-371 for each motor vehicle registered in his name.
(P.A. 81-217, S. 5; P.A. 94-243, S. 3; P.A. 97-226, S. 2.)
History: In 1993 obsolete reference to Subsec. (c) of Sec. 14-117 was deleted editorially by the Revisors since Sec. 14- 117 is repealed; reference in Subsec. (c) to "sections 14-12b to 14-12e, inclusive," was corrected editorially by the Revisors to "sections 14-12b and 14-12c" to reflect the repeal of sections 14-12d and 14-12e by P.A. 93-298, S. 10; P.A. 94-243 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to apply to vehicles with commercial registrations; P.A. 97-226 amended (1) Subsecs. (a) and (c) to apply provisions to vehicles with combination registrations and to eliminate reference to "subdivision (12) of" before Sec. 14-1, (2) Subsec. (a) to apply to vehicles required to be registered and (3) Subsec. (c) to prohibit restoration of an operator's license which has been suspended pursuant to Subsec. until owner provides evidence of insurance coverage.
See Sec. 14-12f re exempt vehicles.
Cited. 11 CA 122, 124.

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Sec. 14-214. Instruction of unlicensed person in motor vehicle operation. Any licensed operator, being twenty years of age or older and having had an operator's license to operate a motor vehicle of the same class as the motor vehicle being operated for at least four years preceding the date of such instruction, may instruct a person sixteen or seventeen years of age who holds a learner's permit issued in accordance with subsection (c) of section 14-36, or a person who is eighteen years of age or older, in the operation of a motor vehicle. Any person so instructing another in the use of any motor vehicle shall be responsible for the operation thereof. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2421; 1969, P.A. 55, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 20; P.A. 75-577, S. 66, 126; P.A. 96-248, S. 3, 4; P.A. 97- 1, S. 3, 4.)
History: 1969 act required instructor to be twenty-one and to have had license in class of vehicle for which instruction is being given for two years, added exception re motorcycles and raised fine from ten to fifty dollars; 1972 act dropped age requirement to eighteen, reflecting change in age of majority; P.A. 75-577 replaced fine provision with statement that violation deemed to be infraction; P.A. 96-248 raised minimum age for instructor from eighteen to twenty and required holding license in class of vehicle for which instruction is being given for minimum of four, rather than two, years, authorized instruction of persons who hold a learner's permit under Subsec. (b) of Sec. 14-36 and eliminated exception re motorcycles and requirement that instructor be "so seated as to control the operation of the motor vehicle", effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 97-1 provided that instructor may be older than twenty years of age, limited instruction of holders of learners' permits to persons sixteen and seventeen years of age, substituted reference to Subsec. (c) for (b), and authorized instruction of persons eighteen years of age or older, effective January 30, 1997.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
If owner of car allows another to drive it, but himself retains control of it, he is liable for actual driver's negligence. 119 C. 563. Cited. 175 C. 112 −115, 123−125.
Cited. 30 CS 233.

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Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked. Penalty. (a) No person to whom an operator's license has been refused, or whose operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state has been suspended or revoked, shall operate any motor vehicle during the period of such refusal, suspension or revocation. No person shall operate or cause to be operated any motor vehicle, the registration of which has been refused, suspended or revoked, or any motor vehicle, the right to operate which has been suspended or revoked.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars nor more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than ninety days or be both fined and imprisoned for the first offense, and for any subsequent offense shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars nor more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned.
(c) Any person who operates any motor vehicle during the period his operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation on account of a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a or section 53a-56b or 53a- 60d or pursuant to section 14-227b, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than one year, and, in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court, thirty consecutive days of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced in any manner. The court shall specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or the absence thereof.
(1949 Rev., S. 2420; 1957, P.A. 421; P.A. 82-258; P.A. 83-534, S. 3; P.A. 85-387, S. 2; P.A. 89-314, S. 3, 5; P.A. 97- 291, S. 4, 5.)
History: P.A. 82-258 increased the minimum penalty for a first offense from one hundred to one hundred fifty dollars, and increased the maximum penalty for a subsequent offense from five hundred to six hundred dollars and from three months to one year imprisonment; P.A. 83-534 added Subsec. (c) re increased penalties when the reason for the suspension or revocation was operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence, refusal to submit to a blood alcohol test or manslaughter or assault with a motor vehicle while intoxicated; P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (c) to increase from five to thirty days the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (c) to replace reference to a suspension or revocation "on account of a violation of subsection (d) or (f) of section 14-227b" with "pursuant to section 14-227b" and to specify that the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced is thirty "consecutive" days; P.A. 97-291 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the nonsuspendable sentence of thirty consecutive days is imposed in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court and to require the court to specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or absence thereof, effective July 8, 1997.
See Sec. 14-111(b), (h), (k) re suspension or revocation of driver's license.
See Sec. 14-227h re impoundment of motor vehicle in certain cases.
Cited. 159 C. 549. Cited. 209 C. 98, 124. Cited. 226 C. 191, 199. Cited. 234 C. 301, 303. Defendant's knowledge that her license has been suspended is not an essential element of the crime of operating vehicle with a suspended license. 245 C. 442.
Cited. 12 CA 338−340. Cited. 21 CA 496, 497, 500, 505. Cited. 23 CA 50, 52. Cited. 24 CA 438. Cited. 26 CA 716, 717, 719. Cited. 31 CA 797, 798, 801. Cited. 34 CA 557, 564. Cited. 36 CA 710, 711, 713. Cited. 45 CA 12. Plain meaning of section is to give state authority to prosecute any person who operates a motor vehicle outside scope of work permit while license under suspension. 53 CA 23. Legislature did not include language within section indicating that a work permit issued pursuant to Sec. 14-37a is an affirmative defense to a violation of section. Id.
Suspension extends beyond period for which license issued. 16 CS 178. A person who manipulates the steering wheel as it is being pushed along a public highway by a second car is operating a motor vehicle within the meaning of this section. 22 CS 494. One who operates a car in this state while his right to operate remains under suspension may be convicted under this section, even though he has in the meantime moved to another state and obtained a license in that state. 23 CS 26. Cited. 24 CS 347. Arrest for violation of this statute did not justify search of car without a warrant. 25 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 586, 587. Cited. 38 CS 384, 385, 387; Id., 472, 473. It is not obligatory for state to prove commissioner's action in suspending a license is valid where prosecution is for driving while under suspension. Time to contest validity of suspension is when it occurs. 39 CS 381−383, 385.
No conviction unless operation on public highway. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 79. Cited. Id., 520. Since a running engine means "operating" within the meaning of the statute, a turning off of the engine would be as much a part of operation. Id., 662. What constitutes a "public highway" for the purposes of a conviction under this section. Id. Cited. Id., 684; 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 110. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 467; id., 586; 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 253; id., 408. Operation of motor vehicle during period of license suspension not violation of statute when under direct order of police official. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 424, 428, 431. Ownership of vehicle not required element of violation. Id., 431. That suspension of driver's license was not known to him as notice of suspension was mailed to his last address after he had moved therefrom was no defense in a trial for violation of this section. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 72. That defendant obtained a provisional license while his license was suspended under this section is no defense. Id. Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 161. Motorcycles are motor vehicles within the meaning of this statute and revocation of a license applies to motorcyclist's license as well as motor vehicle operator's license. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 219. Operation of motor vehicle, defined. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 639.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 216 C. 172, 174. Cited. 229 C. 824, 826, 828.
Cited. 19 CA 594, 595. Cited. 30 CA 742, 750. Cited. 31 CA 797, 798, 804−806. Cited. 36 CA 710, 715−718.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 229 C. 824, 826, 828.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 21 CA 496, 506. Cited. 31 CA 797, 804−806. Cited. 36 CA 710, 713, 715−718. Cited. 45 CA 12.
Subsec. (c):
Violation of statute was a "crime" for purposes of qualifying for alcohol abuse treatment program under Secs. 17a-648 to 17a-658, inclusive. 226 C. 191−193, 195, 201−203. Cited. 227 C. 914. Cited. 229 C. 824−828. Cited. 230 C. 427, 429, 430.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 12 CA 338, 341. Cited. 21 CA 496, 497, 505. Violation is crime within purposes of Secs. 17a-648 through 17a-658. 27 CA 225−230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 241, 244, 245, 247. Cited 31 CA 797−800, 803−805. Cited. 32 CA 1, 2. Cited. 34 CA 557−562, 564, 567. Cited. 36 CA 710−716. Cited. 40 CA 420, 422, 423. Cited. Id., 724. Cited. 45 CA 12. Cited. Id., 722.

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Sec. 14-216. Operation by persons under eighteen without insurance. No person under the age of eighteen years shall operate any motor vehicle upon the highways of this state, and no person shall cause or permit such operation of any motor vehicle by any such person, unless such motor vehicle has been insured for the amounts required by section 14-112. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction. This section shall not apply to any motor vehicle bearing farm registration plates.
(1949 Rev., S. 2419; 1957, P.A. 334; P.A. 76-381, S. 9.)
History: P.A. 76-381 replaced provision for hundred dollar fine and/or thirty days' imprisonment with statement that violation deemed an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Mere fact that owner's son, admittedly under 16, was operator of car does not ipso facto establish violation by owner. 18 CS 41.

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Sec. 14-217. Operator to give name and address and show or surrender license, registration and insurance identification card when requested. No person who is operating or in charge of any motor vehicle, when requested by any officer in uniform, by an agent authorized by the commissioner who presents appropriate credentials or, in the event of any accident in which the car he is operating or in charge of is concerned, when requested by any other person, may refuse to give his name and address or the name and address of the owner of the motor vehicle or give a false name or address, or refuse, on demand of such officer, agent or other person, to produce his motor vehicle registration certificate, operator's license and any automobile insurance identification card for the vehicle issued pursuant to section 38a-364 or to permit such officer, agent or such other person to take the operator's license, registration certificate and any such insurance identification card in hand for the purpose of examination, or refuse, on demand of such officer, agent or such other person, to sign his name in the presence of such officer, agent or such other person. No person may refuse to surrender his license to operate motor vehicles or the certificate of registration of any motor vehicle operated or owned by him or such insurance identification card or the number plates furnished by the commissioner for such motor vehicle on demand of the commissioner or fail to produce his license when requested by a court. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2406; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 77; P.A. 76-381, S. 10; P.A. 79-577, S. 7, 8; P.A. 81-172, S. 13; P.A. 93-297, S. 8, 29.)
History: 1961 act removed obsolete reference to trial justice; P.A. 76-381 deleted provision for fifty dollar fine and/or thirty days' imprisonment with statement that violation deemed an infraction; P.A. 79-577 included no-fault insurance identification cards in documents which may be required; P.A. 81-172 authorized motor vehicle agents to request the production of a license, registration and no-fault insurance identification card; P.A. 93-297 deleted term "no-fault" in description of insurance identification card, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 161 C. 371. Cited. 181 C. 299, 304.
Cited. 24 CA 438, 446. Cited. 30 CA 742, 750. Cited. 45 CA 303.
Operator's license is privilege granted by state, not a right, and subject to reasonable restrictions. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 385, 389, 394. Roadblock stopping by state police is valid exercise of police power. Id.

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Sec. 14-218. Negligent homicide. Section 14-218 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2415; 1949, S. 1316d; 1971, P.A. 30.)
See Sec. 14-222a.

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Sec. 14-218a. Traveling unreasonably fast. Establishment of speed limits. (a) No person shall operate a motor vehicle upon any public highway of the state, or road of any specially chartered municipal association or any district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or on any parking area as defined in section 14-212, or upon a private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with this subsection, or upon any school property, at a rate of speed greater than is reasonable, having regard to the width, traffic and use of highway, road or parking area, the intersection of streets and weather conditions. The State Traffic Commission may determine speed limits which are reasonable and safe on any state highway, bridge or parkway built or maintained by the state, and differing limits may be established for different types of vehicles, and may erect or cause to be erected signs indicating such speed limits. The traffic authority of any town, city or borough may establish speed limits on streets, highways and bridges or in any parking area for ten cars or more or on any private road wholly within the municipality under its jurisdiction; provided such limit on streets, highways, bridges and parking areas for ten cars or more shall become effective only after application for approval thereof has been submitted in writing to the State Traffic Commission and a certificate of such approval has been forwarded by the commission to the traffic authority; and provided such signs giving notice of such speed limits shall have been erected as the State Traffic Commission directs, provided the erection of such signs on any private road shall be at the expense of the owner of such road. The presence of such signs adjacent to or on the highway or parking area for ten cars or more shall be prima facie evidence that they have been so placed under the direction of and with the approval of the State Traffic Commission. Approval of such speed limits may be revoked by said commission at any time if it deems such revocation to be in the interest of public safety and welfare, and thereupon such speed limits shall cease to be effective and any signs that have been erected shall be removed. Any speed in excess of such limits, other than speeding as provided for in section 14-219, shall be prima facie evidence that such speed is not reasonable, but the fact that the speed of a vehicle is lower than such limits shall not relieve the operator from the duty to decrease speed when a special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or highway conditions.
(b) The State Traffic Commission shall establish a speed limit of sixty-five miles per hour on any multiple lane, limited access highways that are suitable for a speed limit of sixty-five miles per hour, taking into consideration relevant factors including design, population of area and traffic flow.
(c) Any person who operates a motor vehicle at a greater rate of speed than is reasonable, other than speeding, as provided for in section 14-219, shall commit the infraction of traveling unreasonably fast.
(P.A. 75-577, S. 7, 126; P.A. 77-103; 77-340, S. 4; P.A. 84-429, S. 65; P.A. 98-181, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 77-103 clarified proviso re effective date of speed limits; P.A. 77-340 replaced first reference to parking areas for ten or more cars with parking areas as defined in Sec. 14-219a and specified infraction in Subsec. (b) as infraction "of traveling unreasonably fast"; P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; P.A. 98-181 added new Subsec.(b) requiring the State Traffic Commission to establish a speed limit of sixty-five miles per hour on multiple lane, limited access highways determined to be suitable for said speed limit, relettering former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c).
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
Cited. 181 C. 515, 516, 519. Cited. 208 C. 94, 99. Cited. 234 C. 660, 678.
Cited. 5 CA 434. Cited. 9 CA 825. Cited. 29 CA 791, 800. Cited. 30 CA 810, 815. Cited. 33 CA 44, 47. Cited. 34 CA 189−191. Cited. 46 CA 633.
Cited. 38 CS 426, 431, 434, 435, 445. Cited. 39 CS 313, 314.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 34 CA 189, 190. Cited. 38 CA 322, 326.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 37 CA 85, 87.

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Sec. 14-219. Speeding. (a) No person shall operate any motor vehicle (1) upon any highway, road or any parking area for ten cars or more, at such a rate of speed as to endanger the life of any occupant of such motor vehicle, but not the life of any other person than such an occupant; or (2) at a rate of speed greater than fifty-five miles per hour upon any highway other than a highway specified in subsection (b) of section 14- 218a for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of said subsection; or (3) at a rate of speed greater than sixty-five miles per hour upon any highway specified in subsection (b) of section 14-218a for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of said subsection.
(b) Any person who operates a motor vehicle (1) on a multiple lane, limited access highway other than a highway specified in subsection (b) of section 14-218a for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of said subsection at a rate of speed greater than fifty-five miles per hour but not greater than seventy miles per hour or (2) on a multiple lane, limited access highway specified in subsection (b) of section 14-218a for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of said subsection at a rate of speed greater than sixty-five miles per hour but not greater than seventy miles per hour or (3) on any other highway at a rate of speed greater than fifty-five miles per hour but not greater than sixty miles per hour, shall commit an infraction, provided any such person operating a truck, as defined in section 14-260n, shall have committed a violation and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one hundred fifty dollars.
(c) Any person who violates any provision of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section or who operates a motor vehicle (1) on a multiple lane, limited access highway at a rate of speed greater than seventy miles per hour but not greater than eighty-five miles per hour or (2) on any other highway at a rate of speed greater than sixty miles per hour but not greater than eighty-five miles per hour shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one hundred fifty dollars, provided any such person operating a truck, as defined in section 14-260n, shall be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars nor more than two hundred dollars.
(d) No person shall be subject to prosecution for a violation of both subsection (a) of this section and subsection (a) of section 14-222 because of the same offense.
(e) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, any person who violates subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of this section while operating a truck, as defined in section 14-260n, or subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of this section while operating a motor vehicle or a truck, as defined in section 14-260n, shall follow the procedures set forth in section 51-164n.
(1949 Rev., S. 2407; 1961, P.A. 379, S. 2; 517, S. 15; 1963, P.A. 289; 595; February, 1965, P.A. 92; 1969, P.A. 450, S. 1, 2; 670, S. 1, 2; P.A. 73-253, S. 1; P.A. 75-577, S. 6, 126; P.A. 79-609, S. 1; P.A. 80-276, S. 1, 6; P.A. 84-372, S. 5, 9; P.A. 90-213, S. 7; P.A. 98-181, S. 2.)
History: 1961 acts amended Subsec. (a) to add parking areas for ten cars or more and deleted exception for Merritt Parkway from first sentence of Subsec. (b); 1963 acts established maximum speed limits in Subsec. (a)(2) and added roads of specially chartered municipal associations; 1965 act added district roads to Subsec. (a); 1969 acts amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to add provisions re private roads and to establish speed limits applicable to commercial vehicles; P.A. 73-253 prohibited operation of vehicle at greater than reasonable speed on school property; P.A. 75-577 deleted provisions of Subsec. (a) re operation at greater than reasonable speed, deleted Subsec. (b) re determination of speed limits and relettered former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (b); P.A. 79-609 reduced speed limit from seventy to fifty-five miles per hour with limit being generally applicable, special limit provisions were deleted; P.A. 80-276 inserted new Subsec. (b) re offenses deemed infractions and expanded Subsec. (c) re speeding offenses and replaced one hundred dollar maximum fine with one hundred dollar minimum fine and one hundred fifty dollar maximum fine; P.A. 84-372 established higher penalties for person operating a truck; P.A. 90-213 amended Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (c) to establish a maximum speed of eighty-five miles per hour and added Subsec. (e) to require a person who violates Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a), Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (b) while operating a truck, or Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (c) while operating a motor vehicle or truck to follow the procedures set forth in Sec. 51-164n; P.A. 98-181 amended Subsec. (a) to exclude from Subdiv. (2) a highway for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with Sec. 14-218a(b) and to add Subdiv. (3) prohibiting operation at a rate of speed greater than sixty-five miles per hour on a highway for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with Sec. 14-218a(b), amended Subsec. (b) to exclude from Subdiv. (1) a highway for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with Sec. 14-218a(b) and to add Subdiv. (2) prohibiting operation on a multiple lane, limited access highway for which a speed limit has been established in accordance with Sec. 14-218a(b) at a rate of speed greater than sixty-five miles per hour but not greater than seventy miles per hour, renumbering former Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3), and amended Subsec. (e) to include a violation of Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (b) while operating a truck.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-219c re use of radar to support conviction.
See Sec. 14-222 re penalty for operation at rate of speed greater than eighty-five miles per hour.
The effect of exceeding former statutory speed limits. 81 C. 500; 90 C. 707; 98 C. 490; 99 C. 727; 106 C. 386. Former statute applied. 102 C. 44. Excessive speed and failure to look ahead. 105 C. 693. Duty of driver to keep reasonable lookout. 108 C. 508, 546, 560. Permissible rate of speed depends on existing conditions. 108 C. 706. Endangering life of occupant of vehicle being driven should be distinguished from endangering life of another, which is a violation of section 14-222. 124 C. 270. Where jury was cautioned that plaintiff was limited to negligence specified in complaint, it was not prejudicial to read inapplicable portion of statute. 125 C. 512. Cited. 125 C. 448; 139 C. 719; 140 C. 274. Trier to decide whether the speed was actually unreasonable under all the circumstances. 146 C. 470. If plaintiff's speed was unreasonable, it cannot be said that as a matter of law, under the circumstances of the case, the excess speed was a proximate cause of the collision. Id. Violation constitutes negligence per se. 147 C. 644. Cited. 148 C. 456. Prima facie evidence discussed. 148 C. 481. Cited. 149 C. 385. Court may take judicial notice that radar is an accurate speed-measuring principle. 153 C. 365, 371. Cited. 154 C. 100, 102. Cited. 170 C. 495, 509. Cited. 202 C. 629, 638. Cited. 208 C. 94, 99. Cited. 209 C. 98, 124.
Cited. 27 CA 346, 348. Cited. 29 CA 791, 800.
Right of Merritt Parkway Commission to fix speed limits under former statute discussed. 7 CS 165. Cited. 16 CS 398. Prima facie presumption that driving at rate of speed exceeding posted speed limit is not reasonable. Proof of favorable conditions is effective neither to rebut, as a matter of law, state's prima facie case nor to constitute, as a matter of law, a defense to a prosecution under this section. 22 CS 464. Cited. 23 CS 303, 342. Passing at speed in excess of posted speed limit and returning to right-hand lane are among circumstances for trier to consider in determining reasonableness of speed. 23 CS 437. Court may take judicial notice of regulations of state traffic commission. Id. Radar can show speed, and it is for the trier to believe or disbelieve testimony with regard to the accuracy of the radar. 24 CS 13. Cited. 24 CS 91, 124, 160, 167, 345. Plea of guilty and absence of affidavit of explanation can result in inference that speeding was proximate cause of accident. 25 CS 380. Cited. 26 CS 513. Officer's testimony that speedometer had recently been tested satisfies requirement in speeding prosecutions of some showing of instrument's accuracy prior to admissibility. 37 CS 601, 602. Cited. 39 CS 313, 318.
Speed recorded on radar unit admissible in evidence if accuracy of unit is established and car identified. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 68. Defendant has right, prior to trial, to inspect radar equipment. Id., 369. Not abuse of discretion to refuse postponement of trial when request made during trial. Id. Speeding violation may be established by circumstantial evidence. Id., 439. Where facts conflict with witnesses' estimates of speed, the facts control. Id. It is for the trier to decide under all the circumstances, some of which may be favorable to the driver, whether the speed was greater than was reasonable at the time. Id., 644. Testimony of state trooper as to speed of defendant's vehicle during "clocking" period is admissible although no foundation has been laid to establish accuracy of device by which trooper reached his conclusion. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 566, 568. Speedometer reading is only prima facie evidence. Trier of facts shall determine its credibility. Id. Operation of police radar requires no technical knowledge of radar science. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 575, 577. Individual graphic record containing alleged speed of defendant is admissible without producing graphic record covering entire period of operation. Id. Prima facie evidence of defendant's speed of seventy miles an hour as unreasonable is rebuttable but casts on defendant burden of going forward with the evidence his speed was reasonable under the conditions. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 93. Court will judicially notice that radar instrument measures speed accurately. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 109. Expressed intent of legislature was to distinguish between the types of highways described in statute. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 374. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 461 (fn); 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 499 (fn). It is not double jeopardy to prosecute offender for two successive speeding offenses in different towns in same hour of one day. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 102. This statute does not go much beyond the common law rule and the jury must decide whether defendant's speed was negligent under the circumstances. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 671. Where there was no evidence of the testing of the speedometer of the state trooper within a reasonable time before the clocking of the defendant's car, evidence of the clocked speed was inadmissible. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 190. Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 333. Defense of entrapment must establish the criminal design arose solely in the mind of the police. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 379. In a trial for violation of this section, the court may not direct the jury to find a verdict of guilty even where there was a stipulation of all facts. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 223. Failure of officer issuing summons to defendant to correctly identify him in court or trial did not affect the establishment of the identity of the driver where defendant had entered a general appearance and appeared for trial. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 697. Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 618. No clocked measurements are necessary to establish prima facie evidence of speed in excess of the maximum limits. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 334. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 161, 162, id., 560, 599.
Subsec. (a):
Each of the two sentences in this subsection states a separate interdict. 144 C. 399. Violation of this subsection would be negligence per se. 165 C. 635. Subdiv. (1) cited. 176 C. 451, 452, 457, 458.
Cited. 34 CA 201, 203.
Subdiv. (2) cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 580; 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 516. In crime of speeding which is malum prohibitum the intent to do the prohibited act is only intent necessary for conviction and motive of defendant is of no consequence. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 573.
Subsec. (b):
Degree of excess speed over posted limit is factor to be considered by trier in determining whether, under all circumstances, a motor vehicle has been operated at greater than reasonable speed. 144 C. 399. Violation of posted speed limit not negligence per se. 165 C. 635, 639.
History discussed; state traffic commission has authority to post speed limits on Merritt Parkway and it is proper to admit evidence of posted speed. 23 CS 468.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 14 CA 816. Cited. 17 CA 416, 417. Cited. 19 CA 432, 433. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 432, 434.
Cited. 34 CA 201, 203. Cited. 46 CA 633.
Cited. 41 CS 356, 357.

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Sec. 14-219a. Parking area defined. Section 14-219a is repealed.
(1961, P.A. 379, S. 1; P.A. 77-340, S. 5; P.A. 84-429, S. 78.)
See Sec. 14-212 for definition of "parking area".

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Sec. 14-219b. Limitation of municipal liability. Nothing in section 14-218a, subsection (a) of section 14-222 or subsection (a) of section 14-227a shall be construed to impose any liability upon any municipality as a result of its establishing a speed limit upon any private road within its jurisdiction as provided by section 14-218a.
(1969, P.A. 450, S. 5; P.A. 77-340, S. 6.)
History: P.A. 77-340 replaced references to Sec. 14-219 with references to Sec. 14-218a.

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Sec. 14-219c. Use of speed monitoring devices to support a conviction. A prima facie presumption of accuracy sufficient to support a conviction under section 14-219 will be accorded to a radar, speed monitoring laser, vascar device or any other speed monitoring device approved by the Commissioner of Public Safety only upon testimony by a competent police officer that: (1) The police officer operating the radar, laser, vascar device or other device has adequate training and experience in its operation; (2) the radar, laser, vascar device or other device was in proper working condition at the time of the arrest, established by proof that suggested methods of testing the proper functioning of the device were followed; (3) the radar, laser, vascar device or other device was used in an area where road conditions provide a minimum possibility of distortion; (4) if moving radar was used, the speed of the patrol car was verified; and (5) the radar, laser, vascar device or other device was expertly tested within a reasonable time following the arrest, and such testing was done by means which do not rely on the internal calibrations of such radar, laser, vascar device or other device.
(P.A. 79-609, S. 3; P.A. 92-141, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-189, S. 13.)
History: P.A. 92-141 added references to lasers, vascar devices or other speed monitoring devices approved by the commissioner of public safety; P.A. 94-189 amended Subdiv. (4), eliminating the reference to "laser, vascar device or other device" since only when moving radar is used is the speed of the patrol car a factor.
Statute refers to the accuracy of radar readings and does not purport to create any prima facie presumptions with respect to the accuracy of a patrol car's speedometer. 37 CS 601, 603. Court held to be reasonable in time test for accuracy conducted three weeks after the arrest. 39 CS 313, 318.

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Sec. 14-220. Slow speed. (a) No person shall operate a motor vehicle at a speed lower than forty miles per hour on any limited access divided highway and no person shall operate a motor vehicle on any other highway at such a slow speed as to impede or block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except, in either case, when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in an emergency, or in compliance with the law or the direction of an officer. The provisions of this section shall not apply to (1) maintenance vehicles or equipment of the state or any municipal highway department, or to such vehicles or equipment of a contractor under contract with any such department while engaged in maintenance operations; (2) any motor vehicle with a commercial registration which while traveling on any limited access divided highway is unable to maintain the minimum speed limit of forty miles per hour due to the gradient, or to any such vehicle which while traveling on any other highway is being driven at such a slow speed as to obstruct or endanger following traffic, provided the operator thereof employs flashing lights on such motor vehicle.
(b) The operator of any motor vehicle having a gross weight of more than twenty- five thousand pounds shall also employ flashing lights when the vehicle is traveling on a limited access divided highway and maintaining a speed higher than forty miles per hour but lower than the speed of the traffic on the highway due to the gradient.
(c) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1957, P.A. 136; 1967, P.A. 875; 1971, P.A. 618, S. 1; P.A. 75-577, S. 68, 126; P.A. 84-278; P.A. 90-263, S. 66, 74.)
History: 1967 act set minimum speed of forty on limited access divided highways; 1971 act excluded from provisions commercial vehicles unable to maintain speed on grades and vehicles using flashing lights; P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 84-278 divided section into Subsecs. and added new language in Subsec. (b), requiring operators of certain commercial motor vehicles to use flashing lights while traveling faster than forty miles per hour but slower than the speed of traffic due to the gradient; P.A. 90-263 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to substitute phrase "motor vehicle with a commercial registration" for "commercial motor vehicle" and to delete other references to "commercial" motor vehicle.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Requirement that there be a written request to charge on legal principle involved in a statute (Practice Book, section 250) is especially applicable to this section. 154 C. 381, 386.
Cited. 30 CA 742, 749.

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Sec. 14-221. Low-speed vehicles carrying passengers for hire. No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle which travels at a normal rate of speed of not more than fifteen miles per hour, when transporting persons for hire or when transporting three or more persons for pleasure purposes, whether or not for hire, unless he has obtained a permit from the traffic authority of each city, town and borough in which the vehicle is to be operated. Such permit shall include reasonable restrictions and may require the temporary installation and use of such additional lighting equipment as such traffic authority deems to be essential for the safety of the persons being transported from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise or whenever smoke or weather conditions render it impossible to see at least two hundred feet ahead of such vehicle. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1953, S. 1379d; P.A. 75-577, S. 69, 126; P.A. 85-174, S. 1, 2.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 85-174 eliminated the limitation on the permit to one round trip per day and provided that the permit shall include reasonable restrictions.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-222. Reckless driving. (a) No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway of the state, or any road of any specially chartered municipal association or of any district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or in any parking area for ten cars or more or upon any private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of section 14-218a or upon any school property recklessly, having regard to the width, traffic and use of such highway, road, school property or parking area, the intersection of streets and the weather conditions. The operation of a motor vehicle upon any such highway, road or parking area for ten cars or more at such a rate of speed as to endanger the life of any person other than the operator of such motor vehicle, or the operation, downgrade, upon any highway, of any motor vehicle with a commercial registration with the clutch or gears disengaged, or the operation knowingly of a motor vehicle with defective mechanism, shall constitute a violation of the provisions of this section. The operation of a motor vehicle upon any such highway, road or parking area for ten cars or more at a rate of speed greater than eighty-five miles per hour shall constitute a violation of the provisions of this section.
(b) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than three hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days or be both fined and imprisoned for the first offense and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned.
(1949 Rev., S. 2408; 1961, P.A. 379, S. 3; 1963, P.A. 290; February, 1965, P.A. 224; 1969, P.A. 450, S. 3; 1971, P.A. 31; P.A. 73-253, S. 2; P.A. 77-340, S. 7; P.A. 81-268, S. 1; P.A. 90-213, S. 8; 90-263, S. 67, 74.)
History: 1961 act amended Subsec. (a) to include parking areas for ten or more cars; 1963 act amended Subsec. (a) to include roads of specially chartered municipal associations; 1965 act added district roads to Subsec. (a); 1969 act prohibited operating vehicle recklessly on private roads with established speed limits; 1971 act replaced "occupant" with "operator" in Subsec. (a) provision re endangerment; P.A. 73-253 prohibited operating vehicle recklessly on school property; P.A. 77-340 replaced reference to Sec. 14-219 in Subsec. (a) with reference to Sec. 14-218a; P.A. 81-268 amended Subsec. (b) by establishing a minimum fine of one hundred dollars and increasing the maximum fine from one hundred to three hundred dollars for first offenses, and increasing the maximum fine for subsequent offenses from two hundred to six hundred dollars; P.A. 90-213 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that operation of a motor vehicle at a rate of speed greater than eighty-five miles per hour constitutes a violation of the section; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute phrase "motor vehicle with a commercial registration" for "commercial motor vehicle".
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See Sec. 14-111(b), (k) re suspension or revocation of operator's license.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-112(a) re proof of financial responsibility.
See Sec. 14-219b re limitation of municipal liability.
Criminal homicide by reckless driving. 82 C. 671; 83 C. 437; 108 C. 212. Former statute applied. 93 C. 254. Driving down icy hill in high gear. 105 C. 669. Violation does not entitle injured person to recover treble damages. 93 C. 249. Doing any act prohibited by motor vehicle laws is negligence of itself, and is actionable when proximate cause of injury. 98 C. 495; 99 C. 727. Reckless driving does not lie in speed alone, but in that and other circumstances which together show reckless disregard of consequences. 108 C. 214. Operating recklessly is operating without regard for safety of others. 123 C. 212. Negligence as a prerequisite for finding statute was violated. 117 C. 616, 617. Contributory negligence, while not a defense to action for reckless misconduct, is a defense to action for negligence consisting in part of violation of this statute. 116 C. 475; 123 C. 211, 212. Cited. 119 C. 314. Where complaint had no allegation of reckless driving, court properly omitted reading portion of statute referring to it. 123 C. 177. Where jury was cautioned that plaintiff was limited to negligence specified in complaint, it was not prejudicial to read inapplicable portion of statute. 125 C. 512. If speed in passing vehicle was not such as to endanger any of its occupants, it did not constitute reckless driving. 124 C. 270. Violation of this statute not necessarily established by fact only that defendant was driving under influence of liquor; or only that car was going at high rate of speed. 132 C. 227. Excessive speed passing trolley car may be reckless driving. 132 C. 248. Cited. 139 C. 719; 149 C. 385. The allegations of plaintiff's complaint that defendant was negligent because of actions including violations of this statute were not sufficient to permit recovery upon the ground of reckless and wanton misconduct by the defendant. 159 C. 91. Cited. 162 C. 565. Plaintiff's waiver of representation by counsel at hearing where his license was suspended for contributing to accidental death precludes later claim of denial of procedural due process. 168 C. 94. Police officer's failure to enforce this statute discussed. 187 C. 147, 148, 149, 152, 154, 162 (Diss. Op.). Cited. 202 C. 629, 638. Cited. 203 C. 305, 315. Cited. 208 C. 94, 99. Cited. 226 C. 191, 195. Cited. 230 C. 427, 428. Cited. 240 C. 489.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 12 CA 306−308. Cited. 14 CA 347, 348, 355. Cited. 27 CA 225, 227, 238. Cited. Id., 377, 379. Cited. 32 CA 1, 2. Cited. 33 CA 49, 50. Cited. 36 CA 710, 714. Cited. 38 CA 8, 10; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 18 et seq. Cited. Id., 85, 86. Cited. 41 CA 664, 668. Evidence is sufficient to prove defendant operated motor vehicle recklessly or at such a rate of speed as to endanger the life of another when state proves, beyond a reasonable doubt, that defendant ignored posted warning signs, drove well in excess of the posted speed limit and operated vehicle in such a reckless manner as to endanger the lives of the passengers. 51 CA 463.
Operating recklessly within the meaning of this section requires a conscious choice of action either with knowledge of the serious danger to others involved in it or with knowledge of facts which would disclose this danger to a reasonable man. There must be something more than a failure to use reasonable care, something more than gross negligence. 22 CS 391. Neither speed nor driving under the influence of liquor would alone be sufficient for a conviction for reckless driving, but such circumstances in conjunction with other circumstances can be taken into consideration in determining whether a defendant showed a reckless disregard of consequences. 22 CS 400. Nature of reckless misconduct discussed. 24 CS 108. Cited. 24 CS 156, 157; 26 CS 184. The misconduct of the plaintiff was simple negligence and not the exacerbated type which is reckless misconduct. 31 CS 325. Cited. 37 CS 661, 662. Cited. 38 CS 549.
Evidence of injuries received in auto accident relevant in proving offense. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 446. Reckless driving does not lie in speed alone but in speed and other circumstances which, together, show a reckless disregard of circumstances. Id., 501, 502. Cited. Id., 634. To establish violation of first sentence of statute reckless or wanton misconduct must be shown. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 25. Guilt might be established under second sentence of statute by evidence which would prove only that life was endangered. Id., 26, 27. Where only evidence relative to defendant's operational conduct is an estimate of his speed at a point 600 feet before accident occurred, evidence held insufficient to warrant conclusion of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Id., 28. Cited. Id., 294, 295. Presumption raised by section 14-107 that proof of registration number of motor vehicle shall be prima facie evidence that owner was operator thereof is not violative of due process since there is a rational and reasonable connection between the facts proved and the ultimate fact presumed. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 462, 463. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 380; 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 499 (fn); id., 541. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 298.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 198 C. 43, 45. Cited. 236 C. 18, 20.
Cited. 38 CA 85, 86. Cited. 40 CA 643, 645.
Defendant who, following another car, bumped it from the rear more than once could reasonably be found guilty of reckless driving under this section. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 509, 510.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730.

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Sec. 14-222a. Negligent homicide with a motor vehicle. Any person who, in consequence of the negligent operation of a motor vehicle, causes the death of another person shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than six months or both.
(P.A. 81-26, S. 1.)
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
Cited. 202 C. 629, 638, 639. Cited. 222 C. 444, 449. Cited. 226 C. 191, 198.
Negligent homicide with a motor vehicle is a lesser included offense of misconduct with a motor vehicle (Sec. 53a- 57). 9 CA 686−689, 694, 695, 697, 698, 711, 712, 714, 716, 724, 726, 729, 731. Cited. 11 CA 122, 133, 134. Cited. Id., 473, 476. Cited. 22 CA 108, 111. Cited. 27 CA 225, 233. Cited. 28 CA 283, 284. Cited. 38 CA 322, 324.

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Sec. 14-223. Failure to bring motor vehicle to full stop when signalled. Disregard of signal. Penalty. (a) Whenever the operator of any motor vehicle fails promptly to bring his motor vehicle to a full stop upon the signal of any officer in uniform or prominently displaying the badge of his office, or disobeys the direction of such officer with relation to the operation of his motor vehicle, he shall be deemed to have committed an infraction and be fined thirty-five dollars for a first offense and shall be fined not less than thirty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars for any subsequent offense.
(b) No person operating a motor vehicle, when signalled to stop by an officer in a police vehicle using an audible signal device or flashing or revolving lights, shall increase the speed of the motor vehicle in an attempt to escape or elude such police officer. Any person who violates this subsection shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor, except that, if such violation causes the death or serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person, such person shall be guilty of a class D felony, and shall have such person's motor vehicle operator's license suspended for one year for the first offense, except that the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may, after a hearing, as provided for in subsection (k) of section 14-111, and upon a showing of compelling mitigating circumstances, reinstate such person's license before the expiration of such one-year period. For any subsequent offense such person shall be guilty of a class D felony, except that if any prior offense by such person under this subsection caused, and such subsequent offense causes, the death or serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person, such person shall be guilty of a class D felony for which one year of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, and shall have such person's motor vehicle operator's license suspended for not less than eighteen months nor more than two years, except that said commissioner may, after a hearing, as provided for in subsection (k) of section 14-111, and upon a showing of compelling mitigating circumstances, reinstate such person's license before such period.
(1949 Rev., S. 2409; P.A. 78-372, S. 3, 7; P.A. 82-189; 82-223, S. 15; P.A. 83-577, S. 21; P.A. 96-99; P.A. 99-171, S. 4, 5.)
History: P.A. 78-372 added Subsec. (b) re attempts to elude police vehicles; P.A. 82-189 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting the reference to intentional disregard and endangerment and increasing the minimum penalties from a minimum fine of one to five hundred dollars and a minimum license suspension from two months to one year for a first offense and a minimum fine from five hundred to one thousand dollars and a minimum license suspension from six to eighteen months for a subsequent offense; P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (a) by specifying that the commission of a first offense constituted an infraction, changing the fine from not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars to twenty-five dollars for a first offense, and increasing the minimum fine for a subsequent offense from ten to twenty-five dollars; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the fine for a first offense from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars and the minimum fine for a subsequent offense from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars; P.A. 96-99 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the maximum fine from one thousand to two thousand dollars and establishing a term of imprisonment of not more than one year for a first offense and by establishing a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than five years for a subsequent offense; P.A. 99-171 amended Subsec. (b) by making a violation of this section a class A misdemeanor and deleting specific fine limits and prison terms, by increasing the penalty for violation of this section when such violation causes death or serious injury, by providing for an additional penalty when there is more than one violation of this section causing death or serious injury, and by making technical changes, effective January 1, 2000.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
Cited. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 385.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 202 C. 629, 631. Cited. 222 C. 444, 448.
Cited. 33 CA 49, 50. Cited. 40 CA 762−764, 767.

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Sec. 14-224. Evasion of responsibility in operation of motor vehicles. Racing. Required removal of motor vehicle from traveled portion of highway. (a) Each person operating a motor vehicle who is knowingly involved in an accident which causes serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, to or results in the death of any other person shall at once stop and render such assistance as may be needed and shall give his name, address and operator's license number and registration number to the person injured or to any officer or witness to the death or serious physical injury of any person, and if such operator of the motor vehicle causing the death or serious physical injury of any person is unable to give his name, address and operator's license number and registration number to the person injured or to any witness or officer, for any reason or cause, such operator shall immediately report such death or serious physical injury of any person to a police officer, a constable, a state police officer or an inspector of motor vehicles or at the nearest police precinct or station, and shall state in such report the location and circumstances of the accident causing the death or serious physical injury of any person and his name, address, operator's license number and registration number.
(b) Each person operating a motor vehicle who is knowingly involved in an accident which causes physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, to any other person or injury or damage to property shall at once stop and render such assistance as may be needed and shall give his name, address and operator's license number and registration number to the person injured or to the owner of the injured or damaged property, or to any officer or witness to the physical injury to person or injury or damage to property, and if such operator of the motor vehicle causing the physical injury of any person or injury or damage to any property is unable to give his name, address and operator's license number and registration number to the person injured or the owner of the property injured or damaged, or to any witness or officer, for any reason or cause, such operator shall immediately report such physical injury of any person or injury or damage to property to a police officer, a constable, a state police officer or an inspector of motor vehicles or at the nearest police precinct or station, and shall state in such report the location and circumstances of the accident causing the physical injury of any person or the injury or damage to property and his name, address, operator's license number and registration number.
(c) No person shall operate a motor vehicle upon any public highway for a wager or for any race or for the purpose of making a speed record.
(d) Each person operating a motor vehicle who is knowingly involved in an accident on a limited access highway which causes damage to property only shall immediately move or cause his motor vehicle to be moved from the traveled portion of the highway to an untraveled area which is adjacent to the accident site if it is possible to move the motor vehicle without risk of further damage to property or injury to any person.
(e) No person who acts in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section may be considered to have violated subsection (b) of this section.
(f) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or be imprisoned not less than one year nor more than ten years or be both fined and imprisoned.
(g) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall be fined not less than seventy-five dollars nor more than six hundred dollars or be imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned, and for any subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned.
(1949 Rev., S. 2410; September, 1957, P.A. 11, S. 8; P.A. 81-268, S. 2; P.A. 82-472, S. 45, 183; P.A. 83-135; 83-534, S. 10; P.A. 94-188, S. 9; P.A. 97-291, S. 3, 5.)
History: P.A. 81-268 amended Subsec. (c) by increasing the minimum fine from fifty to seventy-five dollars and the maximum fine from one hundred to two hundred dollars for first offenses, and increasing the maximum fine for subsequent offenses from two hundred to six hundred dollars; P.A. 82-472 made a technical correction; P.A. 83-135 amended Subsec. (c) by increasing the maximum fine from two hundred to six hundred dollars for a first offense and from six hundred to one thousand dollars for a subsequent offense; P.A. 83-534 inserted new Subsecs. (a) and (d) re evading responsibility in an accident causing serious physical injury or death and the penalty therefor, redesignated the former Subsecs. and limited the former provisions re evading responsibility to accidents causing "physical injury as defined in section 53a-3" or injury or damage to property; P.A. 94-188 inserted new Subsecs. (d) and (e) re removal of vehicle from traveled portion of highway and redesignated the former Subsecs. (d) and (e) as (f) and (g); P.A. 97-291 amended Subsec. (f) to increase the maximum fine from five to ten thousand dollars and the maximum term of imprisonment from five to ten years.
See Secs. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See Sec. 14-111(b), (h), (k) re suspension or revocation of operator's license.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-112(a) re proof of financial responsibility.
See Sec. 14-226 re required reporting of injury to dog.
Failure to stop and assist is not actionable negligence. 123 C. 609. Cited. 136 C. 264; 145 C. 709. Cited. 203 C. 305, 315. Cited. 219 C. 371, 380. Cited. 227 C. 534, 543. Cited. 240 C. 639.
Cited. 13 CA 638, 639. Cited. 26 CA 145, 146, 148. Cited. 36 CA 710, 714. Cited. 38 CA 685, 706, 708. Cited. 42 CA 460.
Charge of evading responsibility dismissed where it could not be ascertained whether pedestrian was dead or alive at time of impact. 18 CS 367. To be convicted defendant must have been knowingly involved in an accident, and accident must have involved injury to some person other than defendant or damage to property other than his. 22 CS 317. Cited. 22 CS 361, 386. Only intention necessary for violation of this section is the doing of the acts prohibited. 23 CS 284. Cited. 23 CS 413, 421. An error in judgment or lack of intention is not an excuse for failure to follow the directives of the statute. 24 CS 374. Cited. 24 CS 397. Cited. 32 CS 650.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 19 et seq. Even with no communication between the parties, circumstances can indicate a competitive trial of speed where a conviction of racing will lie. Id., 75. If operator knew there was an accident, it is immaterial that he believed no damage resulted. Id., 236. Cited. Id., 503; 588. An error in judgment or lack of intention is not an excuse for failure to follow the directives and mandates of the statute. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 101. Where defendant who was involved in automobile accident stopped his car but failed to give the required information it was not error to find him guilty of evading responsibility and whether he was at fault is irrelevant. Id. Cited. Id., 229. Knowledge of damage caused by accident is not an element within terms of the statute. It is enough for state to prove defendant was knowingly involved in the accident and the accident caused damage to person or property of another. Id., 304, 305. To comply with this statute defendant must, after the accident, render such assistance as is needed and give his operator's license and registration numbers, as well as his name and address, to the other driver. Id., 305, 306. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 353; id., 461 (fn 1); 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 408. History of statute reviewed; intent is to punish evasion of responsibility whether accident occurs on private property or public highway. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 495. Statute applied where accident occurred in service station. Id. Defendant's admission he struck a living object he thought to be a dog and had not stopped established his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt in absence of other evidence. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 316. When violation of this section occurred, section 14- 107 made proof of registration in defendant's name of car involved prima facie evidence that he was operator and trial court could conclude defendant's unsupported alibi did not rebut presumption statute created. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 561. Slight damage to plaintiff's car was sufficient where the elements also existed to sustain defendant's conviction for evading responsibility. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 6. Defendant properly arrested in another precinct two hours after violation of this section where local officer acted on speedy information of two witnesses. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 55.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 222 C. 672, 675. Cited. 240 C. 639.
Cited. 12 CA 294, 295. Cited. 22 CA 142, 144. Cited. 26 CA 145, 146, 149. Cited. 42 CA 460. Cited. 45 CA 303.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 154 C. 23, 26. Cited. 176 C. 451, 459. Cited. 224 C. 911. Court concluded that to establish a violation of the statute the state is not required to prove the defendant knew that the accident in which he was involved caused injury or damage to property. 227 C. 534−536, 541−545. Cited. 234 C. 301, 303.
Cited. 28 CA 708, 709, 715, 717. Cited. 45 CA 303.
Although a race involves a trial of speed, a person can be found guilty of racing but not guilty of speeding. 24 CS 59. Total strangers can race on the spur of the moment. Id.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 38 CA 685, 686.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 222 C. 672, 675.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 26 CA 145, 146.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 240 C. 639.

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Sec. 14-225. Evading responsibility in operation of other vehicles. Any person riding on, propelling, driving or directing any vehicle, except a motor vehicle, on a public street or highway or on any parking area for ten cars or more or on any school property, who has knowledge of having caused injury to the person or property of another and neglects, at the time of the injury, to stop and ascertain the extent of the injury and to render assistance, or refuses to give his name and address, or gives a false name or address when the same is asked for by the person injured or by any other person in his behalf or by a police officer, motor vehicle inspector or constable, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than six months or both.
(1949 Rev., S. 2493; 1971, P.A. 356; P.A. 73-253, S. 3; P.A. 84-429, S. 39; P.A. 00-99, S. 51, 154.)
History: 1971 act included reference to parking areas for ten or more cars; P.A. 73-253 included reference to school property; P.A. 84-429 rephrased provisions and made other technical changes; P.A. 00-99 deleted reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff, effective December 1, 2000.
Violations not on public highway discussed. 16 CS 358.

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Sec. 14-225a. Operation of motor vehicles in parking areas. Section 14-225a is repealed.
(1969, P.A. 736, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-429, S. 78.)
See Sec. 14-212 for definition of "parking area".
See Secs. 14-224, 14-225 and 14-227a re operation of motor vehicles in parking areas.

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Sec. 14-226. Operator to report injury to dog. Any person who has knowledge of causing, by the operation of a motor vehicle, injury or death to a dog shall at once stop and render such assistance as may be possible, shall immediately report such injury or death to such dog's owner or such owner's representative and shall give his name, address and operator's license and registration numbers to such owner or representative or any witness or peace officer. If unable to ascertain and locate such owner or representative, such operator shall, at once, report the injury or death to a police officer, constable, state police officer or inspector of motor vehicles, to whom he shall give the location of such accident and a description of the dog. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction. No operator shall be convicted under the provisions of subsection (b) of section 14-224 when such operator has caused injury or death to a dog.
(1949 Rev., S. 2411; P.A. 75-577, S. 71, 126; P.A. 88-364, S. 25, 123.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for twenty-five dollar maximum fine with statement that violation deemed an infraction; P.A. 88-364 made technical change correcting reference to applicable subsection of Sec. 14-224 from Subsec. (a) to Subsec. (b).
See Sec. 22-351 re unlawful injury to or killing of dog.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-227. Operation while intoxicated. Section 14-227 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2412; 1963, P.A. 616, S. 3.)

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Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug, while having an elevated blood alcohol content or while impaired. (a) Operation while under the influence or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both. A person commits the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both if such person operates a motor vehicle on a public highway of this state or on any road of a district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or on any private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of section 14-218a, or in any parking area for ten or more cars or on any school property (1) while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both or (2) while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content. For the purposes of this section, "elevated blood alcohol content" means (A) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (B) if such person has been convicted of a violation of this subsection, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is seven-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.
(b) Operation while impaired. No person shall operate a motor vehicle on a public highway of this state or on any road of a district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or on any private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of section 14-218a, or in any parking area for ten or more cars or on any school property while such person's ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor. A person shall be deemed impaired when at the time of the alleged offense the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was more than seven-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol, by weight, but less than ten-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol, by weight.
(c) Admissibility of chemical analysis. Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, in any criminal prosecution for violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's breath, blood or urine shall be admissible and competent provided: (1) The defendant was afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and consented to the taking of the test upon which such analysis is made; (2) a true copy of the report of the test result was mailed to or personally delivered to the defendant within twenty-four hours or by the end of the next regular business day, after such result was known, whichever is later; (3) the test was performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Public Safety and was performed in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section; (4) the device used for such test was checked for accuracy in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section; (5) an additional chemical test of the same type was performed at least thirty minutes after the initial test was performed or, if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, an additional chemical test of a different type was performed to detect the presence of a drug or drugs other than or in addition to alcohol, provided the results of the initial test shall not be inadmissible under this subsection if reasonable efforts were made to have such additional test performed in accordance with the conditions set forth in this subsection and such additional test was not performed or was not performed within a reasonable time, or the results of such additional test are not admissible for failure to meet a condition set forth in this subsection; and (6) evidence is presented that the test was commenced within two hours of operation. In any prosecution under this section it shall be a rebuttable presumption that the results of such chemical analysis establish the ratio of alcohol in the blood of the defendant at the time of the alleged offense, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such defendant is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and the analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense.
(d) Evidence of blood alcohol content. In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, reliable evidence respecting the amount of alcohol in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's blood, breath or urine, otherwise admissible under subsection (c) of this section, shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant.
(e) Testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine. The Commissioner of Public Safety shall ascertain the reliability of each method and type of device offered for chemical testing and analysis purposes of blood, of breath and of urine and certify those methods and types which said commissioner finds suitable for use in testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine, respectively, in this state. The Commissioner of Public Safety, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples as said commissioner finds necessary to protect the health and safety of persons who submit to chemical tests and to insure reasonable accuracy in testing results. Such regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because such officer terminates such officer's employment with the law enforcement agency for which certification was originally issued and commences employment with another such agency.
(f) Evidence of refusal to submit to test. In any criminal prosecution for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, evidence that the defendant refused to submit to a blood, breath or urine test requested in accordance with section 14-227b shall be admissible provided the requirements of subsection (b) of said section have been satisfied. If a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section is tried to a jury, the court shall instruct the jury as to any inference that may or may not be drawn from the defendant's refusal to submit to a blood, breath or urine test.
(g) Reduction, nolle or dismissal prohibited. If a person is charged with a violation of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the charge may not be reduced, nolled or dismissed unless the prosecuting authority states in open court such prosecutor's reasons for the reduction, nolle or dismissal.
(h) Penalties for operation while under the influence. Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall: (1) For conviction of a first violation, (A) be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and (B) be (i) imprisoned not more than six months, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner or (ii) imprisoned not more than six months, with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely and a period of probation imposed requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for one year; (2) for conviction of a second violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than four thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than two years, one hundred twenty consecutive days of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for three years or until the date of such person's twenty- first birthday, whichever is longer; and (3) for conviction of a third and subsequent violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than two thousand dollars nor more than eight thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than three years, one year of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege permanently revoked upon such third offense. For purposes of the imposition of penalties for a second or third and subsequent offense pursuant to this subsection, a conviction under the provisions of subsection (a) of section 14-227a in effect on October 1, 1981, or as amended thereafter, a conviction under the provisions of either subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section, a conviction under the provisions of section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d, shall constitute a prior conviction for the same offense.
(i) Penalty for operation while impaired. Any person who violates subsection (b) of this section shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars.
(j) Suspension of operator's license or nonresident operating privilege. (1) Each court shall report each conviction under subsection (a) of this section to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of section 14-141. The commissioner shall suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of the person reported as convicted for the period of time required by subsection (h) of this section. (2) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who is under eighteen years of age shall be suspended by the commissioner for the period of time set forth in subsection (h) of this section, or until such person attains the age of eighteen years, whichever period is longer. (3) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who, at the time of the offense, was operating a motor vehicle in accordance with a special operator's permit issued pursuant to section 14-37a shall be suspended by the commissioner for twice the period of time set forth in subsection (h) of this section. (4) Whenever the motor vehicle operator's license of a person is suspended under subsection (h) of this section for conviction of a violation of subsection (a) of this section, the operator's license that is returned or reissued to such person by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles upon completion of the period of suspension shall indicate on its reverse side that such person is an at-risk operator. For purposes of this subdivision, an "at-risk operator" is a person who has been convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section. (5) If an appeal of any conviction under subsection (a) of this section is taken, the suspension of the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege by the commissioner, in accordance with this subsection, shall be stayed during the pendency of such appeal.
(k) Participation in alcohol education and treatment program. In addition to any fine or sentence imposed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, the court may order such person to participate in an alcohol education and treatment program.
(l) Seizure and admissibility of medical records of injured operator. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the blood or urine of an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who has suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, which evidence is derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by such person after such accident at the scene of the accident, while en route to a hospital or at a hospital, shall be competent evidence to establish probable cause for the arrest by warrant of such person for a violation of subsection (a) of this section and shall be admissible and competent in any subsequent prosecution thereof if: (1) The blood sample was taken or the urine sample was provided for the diagnosis and treatment of such injury; (2) if a blood sample was taken, the blood sample was taken in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section; (3) a police officer has demonstrated to the satisfaction of a judge of the Superior Court that such officer has reason to believe that such person was operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both and that the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample constitutes evidence of the commission of the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both in violation of subsection (a) of this section; and (4) such judge has issued a search warrant in accordance with section 54-33a authorizing the seizure of the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample. Such search warrant may also authorize the seizure of the medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury.
(1963, P.A. 616, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 219; 1967, P.A. 612, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 450, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 318; 741; P.A. 73-253, S. 4; P.A. 75-308, S. 1; P.A. 76-6, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-340, S. 8; 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 80-438, S. 2, 3; P.A. 81- 144, S. 1, 2; 81-446, S. 2; P.A. 82-408, S. 2; P.A. 83-63, S. 1−3; 83-534, S. 1; 83-571, S. 4; P.A. 84-198, S. 3, 7; 84-429, S. 40; 84-546, S. 43, 173; P.A. 85-387, S. 1; 85-596, S. 1; P.A. 86-345; P.A. 88-85; 88-302; P.A. 89-110, S. 4; 89-314, S. 2, 5; P.A. 90-230, S. 21, 101; P.A. 91-407, S. 9, 42; P.A. 93-271, S. 2, 3; 93-302, S. 1−3; 93-371, S. 2, 4, 5; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-60; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 18, 130; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-314, S. 1; P.A. 99-218, S. 3, 4, 16; 99-255, S. 1; P.A. 00-196, S. 49, 50.)
History: 1965 act added district roads to Subsec. (a); 1967 act prohibited operation of vehicle while under influence of both liquor and intoxicating drug in Subsec. (a); 1969 act included in prohibition operation of vehicle on private roads with established speed limits; 1971 acts included in prohibition operation of vehicle in parking area for ten or more cars, reduced alcohol in blood level from fifteen-hundredths to ten-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol and clarified evidential aspect of test results in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (c) and increased minimum fine from one hundred to one hundred fifty dollars; P.A. 73-253 included in prohibition of Subsec. (a) operation of vehicle on school property; P.A. 75-308 amended Subsec. (b)(4) to require testing of device at beginning and end of workday rather than within thirty days of test and immediately after test administered; P.A. 76-6 included reference to amount of drug in system under Subsec. (b) and to urine tests under Subsecs. (b) and (d); P.A. 77-340 replaced reference to Sec. 14-219 in Subsec. (a) with reference to Sec. 14-218a; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner and department of health with commissioner and department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-438 allowed administering of test by emergency medical technician II; P.A. 81-144 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the department of health services to certify individuals other than health services department personnel to check test devices for accuracy; P.A. 81-446 added the requirements that two tests be performed, with the second test performed not less than thirty or more than forty minutes after the first test, and that evidence be presented which demonstrates that the test results accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense in Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re participation in an alcohol education and treatment program in lieu of the two-day minimum mandatory sentence, and re violations charged to persons arrested for a second or subsequent violation of section, with a blood alcohol ratio of at least ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol at the time of the alleged offense; P.A. 82-408 eliminated two test requirement in Subsec. (b), added provision in Subsec. (e) re mandatory two day sentence if blood alcohol test indicates ratio of alcohol in blood was twenty-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol and changed two day minimum mandatory sentence for second offenders to thirty day sentence served by performing community service on fifteen weekends, such service to be approved by office of adult probation, amended Subsec. (f) by changing "in lieu of" to "in addition to" and eliminated consent and payment requirement for participation and added Subsec. (h) providing for twenty-four hour revocation of license by arresting police officer; P.A. 83-63 amended Subsec. (b) to allow test reports to be personally delivered to the defendant by the close of the next business day, if later than twenty-four hours and authorized the performance of such tests by persons recertified by persons certified by the commissioner of health services and amended Subsec. (d) to provide regulations for annual recertification of operators; P.A. 83-534 inserted a new Subsec. (b) re operation while impaired, amended Subsec. (c) to permit the test result to be "personally delivered" to the defendant within twenty-four hours "or by the end of the next regular business day", whichever is later, and to provide that the initial test results will not be excluded if the police made reasonable efforts to have an additional test performed but it was not performed within a reasonable time, amended Subsec. (d) to specify the blood alcohol content that constitutes impairment, inserted a new Subsec. (f) re the admissibility into evidence of a defendant's refusal to submit to a test, inserted a new Subsec. (g) re a prohibition on reducing, nolleing or dismissing the charge, inserted a new Subsec. (h) to replace former penalties for operation while under the influence with new penalties, inserted a new Subsec. (i) re the penalty for operating while impaired, inserted a new Subsec. (j) re the suspension of the operator's license of a person found guilty of operating while under the influence, and relettered the intervening and remaining subsections accordingly; P.A. 83-571 amended new Subsec. (h) to increase the period of license suspension provided in P.A. 83-534 from six months to one year for a first offense and from one year to two years for a second offense; P.A. 84- 198 amended Subsec. (f) by replacing "the case" with "a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section"; P.A. 84-429 rephrased provisions and made other technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b); P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (i); P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalty for a first violation by mandating a term of imprisonment, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced on any manner, or a term of one hundred hours of community service, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a second violation from forty-eight consecutive hours to ten days, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a third violation from thirty to one hundred twenty days, and to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within five years after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that person commits offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is ten- hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight", amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the defendant be afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and that the test be performed by or at the direction of a police officer, to make an additional test mandatory rather than optional, to insert "and the analysis thereof" in Subdiv. (6) and to delete the requirement that additional competent evidence be presented bearing on the question of whether or not the defendant was under the influence, amended Subsec. (d) to replace provisions concerning the weight to be given to evidence of certain percentages of blood-alcohol content with provision that in prosecution for violation of Subsec. (a)(1) such evidence shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant, and amended Subsec. (h) to provide that a conviction under either Subdiv. (1) or (2) of Subsec. (a) constitutes a prior offense; P.A. 86-345 added Subsec. (m) re the seizure, admissibility and competency of evidence derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from an injured operator at a hospital; P.A. 88-85 amended Subdiv. (4) of Subsec. (c) to require that the device be checked for accuracy immediately before and after the test was performed rather than at the beginning of each workday and no later than the end of each workday; P.A. 88-302 amended Subsec. (h) to provide that the performance of community service for conviction of a first violation is to be as a condition of probation imposed in connection with a sentence to a term of imprisonment of not more than six months with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely; P.A. 89-110 amended Subsec. (h) to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2) and to provide that for purposes of the penalty for a subsequent offense after a prior conviction for the same offense a conviction under Sec. 53a-56b or 53a-60d constitutes a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (h) to insert "consecutive" in Subdivs. (2) and (3) and deleted Subsec. (l) re the twenty-four hour revocation by the arresting police officer of the license of a person with a blood alcohol concentration of ten-hundredths of one per cent or more, and relettered the remaining Subsec. accordingly; P.A. 90-230 made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 91-407 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (l) by adding "a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state" and made technical change in Subdiv. (3); P.A. 93-271 amended Subsec. (e) to provide that regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because he transfers from one law enforcement agency to another, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 93-302 amended Subsecs. (c) and (l) by adding phlebotomists to the list of persons qualified to take blood samples and added Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist"; P.A. 93-371 amended Subsec. (c) to require in Subdiv. (6) that evidence be presented "that the test was commenced within two hours of operation" rather than that evidence be presented "which demonstrates that the test results and analysis thereof accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense" and to add provision establishing a rebuttable presumption that the results of the chemical analysis indicate the blood alcohol ratio at the time of the alleged offense and requiring additional evidence be presented when the results of the additional test indicate a blood alcohol ratio of twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less and is higher than the results of the first test and amended Subsec. (j) to add Subdiv. (3) re the period of suspension for a person who, at the time of the offense, was operating under a special operator's permit issued pursuant to Sec. 14-37a, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-60 amended Subsec. (l) to authorize the taking of a blood sample "at the scene of the accident" or "while en route to the hospital" rather than only "at a hospital", to delete the requirement in Subdiv. (1) that the blood sample be taken "in the regular course of business of the hospital" and to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2); May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical change, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-314 amended Subdiv. (5) of Subsec. (c) to allow an additional chemical test of a different type to be performed if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, amended Subsec. (d) to eliminate reference to drugs, and amended Subdivs. (2) to (4), inclusive, of Subsec. (h) to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within ten years, in lieu of five years, after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 99-218 amended Subsecs. (c) and (e) by replacing the Department and Commissioner of Public Health with the Department and Commissioner of Public Safety and by making technical changes, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-255 amended Subsec. (a) to replace the prohibition in Subdiv. (2) of operating a motor vehicle "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight" with "while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content" and added definition of "elevated blood alcohol content", amended Subsec. (c) to require in Subdiv. (3) that the test be performed "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section", replacing provisions that required the test be performed by persons certified or recertified by the Department of Public Health or recertified by persons certified as instructors by the commissioner of said department and that required a blood test be taken by a physician, phlebotomist, qualified laboratory technician, emergency medical technician II or registered nurse, and to require in Subdiv. (4) that the device was checked for accuracy "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "immediately before and after such test was performed by a person certified by the Department of Public Health", amended Subsec. (e) to make provisions applicable to methods and types of devices for the "analysis" of blood, breath and urine and to replace provision that required the Commissioner of Public Health to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, and the training, certification and annual recertification of operators of such devices" with provision that required the "Commissioner of Public Safety, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health" to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples", amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalties for a second violation by increasing the fine from not less than five hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars to not less than one thousand dollars nor more than four thousand dollars, increasing the term of imprisonment from a maximum of one year with a nonsuspendable period of ten consecutive days to a maximum of two years with a nonsuspendable period of one hundred twenty consecutive days, adding the requirement that the person perform one hundred hours of community service as a condition of probation, and increasing the license suspension from two years to "three years or until the date of such person's twenty-first birthday, whichever is longer", to increase the penalties for a third and subsequent violation by deleting former Subdiv. (3) that had specified penalties for a third violation, renumbering former Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (3), amending said Subdiv. (3) to make the penalties applicable to a "third and subsequent violation" rather than a "fourth and subsequent violation" and add requirement that the person perform one hundred hours of community service as a condition of probation, and to add provision that "a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or 53a-56b or 53a-60d" constitutes a prior conviction, amended Subsec. (i) to change the penalty from an infraction to a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, amended Subsec. (j) to replace provisions of Subdiv. (1) requiring that the suspension take effect immediately upon the expiration of the appeal period, providing that the suspension is stayed during the appeal and requiring the defendant to send his license or nonresident operating privilege to the department when the suspension takes effect, with new provisions requiring each court to report each conviction to the department and requiring the commissioner to suspend the license or nonresident operating privilege for the time period required by Subsec. (h), to add Subdiv. (4) requiring the license of a convicted person to indicate that such person is an at-risk operator and defining "at-risk operator" and to add Subdiv. (5) providing that the suspension by the commissioner is stayed during the pendency of an appeal of a conviction, amended Subsec. (l) to make provisions applicable to evidence from an analysis of a urine sample from the injured operator, to require in Subdiv. (2) that the blood sample was taken "in accordance with regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "by a person licensed to practice medicine in this state, a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state, a phlebotomist, a qualified laboratory technician, an emergency medical technician II or a registered nurse", and to add provision that the search warrant may also authorize the seizure of medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury, deleted former Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist", and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsecs. (h) and (l).
See Sec. 14-111(b), (h), (k) re suspension or revocation of operator's license.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-112(a) re proof of financial responsibility.
See Sec. 14-219b re limitation of municipal liability.
See Sec. 14-227b re implied consent to blood, breath or urine tests.
Annotations to former section:
That plaintiff was driving while intoxicated would not bar him from recovering damage for an injury caused by defendant's negligence. Such intoxication must have been a proximate cause of the injury. 89 C. 403. See also 93 C. 102; 108 C. 216. Certified copy of prior conviction for "driving under the influence of liquor or drugs," although in alternative, admissible to prove accused a second offender. 124 C. 664. Questions asked of lay witness as to whether accused was intoxicated, properly admitted. Id., 667. Questions asked of expert witnesses, while closely approximating test to determine if one is guilty of driving under influence, admissible as opinion as to accused's condition. Id., 668. Evidence only that defendant was intoxicated when found in middle of front seat of stationary car, insufficient to support conviction of driving under influence. 129 C. 483. But testimony by witness that he saw defendant operate is not essential if there is circumstantial evidence which affords basis of inference of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. 130 C. 563. Cited. 140 C. 39; 144 C. 241. On charge of operating while under the influence of liquor only applicable portion of the statute should be read to jury. 145 C. 304. Evidence that defendant was found intoxicated, sitting in stationary, damaged car, held insufficient to convict for driving under the influence of liquor. 147 C. 502. Cited. 149 C. 728. In civil action defendant driver's admission of intoxication does not preclude the possibility of his being liable for wanton misconduct. 151 C. 506.
Court required to impose sentence of sixty consecutive days; it cannot direct that sentence be served in instalment periods. 9 CS 460. Legislature intended statute to apply even though violation occurred elsewhere than on a public highway; history of section reviewed. 16 CS 357. Verdict of guilty on charge of operating under the influence sustained where proof wholly consistent with defendant's guilt and inconsistent with any other rational conclusion. 18 CS 367. One accused of being a second offender, in order to be given a heavier penalty, must be presented in an information in two parts, the first setting out the particular offense and the second the former conviction. 20 CS 105. Assumption of risk is not a defense where the injury allegedly arose from breach by defendant of statutory obligation not to operate motor vehicle while under influence of liquor. 22 CS 225. Cited. 23 CS 136, 272, 358; 24 CS 46, 236, 267, 319. Trial court may admit in evidence, to establish a prior conviction of defendant, a certified copy of his "operator's driving history." 24 CS 360.
Even if defendant's state was one of pathological intoxication, induced by a minute amount of alcohol, he could be found guilty. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 45. Cited. Id., 58. There can be conviction for operation in parking lot. Id., 79. Operation can be proved by circumstantial evidence. Id., 221. McDonough case, 129 C. 483, distinguished. Id. Cited. Id., 412. Drunkenness may be found from lay observations of defendant without clinical tests. Id., 481. Where police officer observed doctor examine defendant, his testimony regarding the examination is admissible since nonexpert evidence may rest on facts acquired through the use of witnesses' senses. Id., 499. Cited. Id., 569, 571. Operating a motor vehicle within the meaning of this statute includes the intentional doing of any act or making use of any mechanical or electrical agency which alone or in sequence will set in motion the motive power of the vehicle. Id., 606, 607. What constitutes "operation" of motor vehicle. Id., 661. An essential element of proof in affirmatively establishing defendant's guilt as a second offender is his identification as the person named in the record of prior conviction. Mere proof of identity of names is insufficient to establish prima facie the identification. Id., 692, 693. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 343. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 347; 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 500; id., 520. Proof defendant drove on public highway necessary for conviction under statute; testimony that defendant was only person near car after car crashed off public highway down embankment was sufficient. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 380. Where defendant was found by police officer asleep in his car with the motor running, held that, since circumstantial evidence which affords the basis for an inference of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt may be sufficient to convict, court correctly refused to charge jury that, if defendant was asleep when officer came upon him, jury could not find defendant was operating car within meaning of statute. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 475, 476. Competent evidence of any nature, in addition to a breath or blood test, may be relied on to prove insobriety. Id., 478, 479. Absence of clinical findings or chemical tests did not prevent the trial court from properly concluding, on the basis of testimony by witnesses, that the accused was intoxicated. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 514. For the results of a breath test to be admissible evidence, there must be reasonable assurance the sample analyzed was the one taken from the accused. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 121. Compliance with request to perform certain sobriety tests (not enumerated here) not an intrusion on constitutional rights, since no verbal act on defendant's part was involved. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 195.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 154 C. 100, 102. As a minor of sixteen may be held accountable under this statute for operating a motor vehicle while he is intoxicated, he will be held accountable for deciding to consume liquor also. 154 C. 648. Where defendant in intoxicated condition was found slumped over driving wheel of car stopped in middle of country road at night, jury could reasonably have concluded defendant was driver of car. 158 C. 117. Cited. 159 C. 547; 161 C. 200; 170 C. 140, 142; 174 C. 112, 115. Police officer's failure to enforce this statute discussed. 187 C. 147, 148, 149, 152, 154, 162 (Diss. Op.). Court held that amendments in public acts 85-387 and 85-596 entitled to concurrent effect. 199 C. 667 et seq. Cited. 200 C. 1, 7. Cited. Id., 102−105. Cited. Id., 615, 616. Cited. 203 C. 97, 98. Cited. 204 C. 507, 514. Phrase "may not be suspended or reduced in any manner" applies to actions of commissioner of correction as well as those of sentencing court. 207 C. 412−415, 417. Application of section to public parking area discussed. Judgment of appellate court in 11 CA 644 reversed. Id., 612, 614, 615, 618. Cited. 210 C. 446, 447, 451, 454, 456, 460. Cited. Id., 573, 575, 577−579. Cited. 213 C. 74, 76, 80. Corroboration role in relation to crime that is conduct oriented discussed. State v. Tillman corpus delicti rule not applicable. (152 C. 15, 20). 215 C. 189, 190, 193. Cited. 219 C. 752, 757. Cited. 222 C. 672, 674, 676. Cited. 224 C. 29, 37. Cited. Id., 730, 731, 734, 735, 737. Cited. 225 C. 921. Cited. 226 C. 191, 196, 199, 201. Cited. 228 C. 758, 760−762. Cited. 229 C. 31, 37. Cited. Id., 51, 56. Cited. Id., 228, 230, 242. Cited. 229 C. 824, 828. Cited. 230 C. 572, 573. Cited. 233 C. 524, 525. Cited. 235 C. 614, 615, 617. Cited. 236 C. 18, 24, 25.
Cited. 4 CA 461, 462. Cited. 9 CA 686, 699, 722−724. Cited. 10 CA 265, 266. Cited. 11 CA 122, 127, 131. Cited. Id., 338, 339. Cited. Id., 342−348. Cited. 12 CA 294, 298, 301, 302. Cited. Id., 338, 340. Cited. 16 CA 156, 158, 159, 161, 162. Cited. Id., 165−167. Cited. Id., 172, 174. Cited. Id., 358, 359, 361, 362, 365, 367, Cited. Id., 472, 477, 478. Cited. Id., 497, 507. Cited. 17 CA 100−102. Cited. Id., 376, 382. Cited. Id., 827. Cited. 18 CA 602, 603. Cited. 19 CA 594, 606. Cited. 20 CA 348, 349. Cited. Id., 691−693. Cited. 21 CA 138, 140. Cited. Id., 210, 212, 214. Statute constitutes a "criminal law" within meaning of conditions of probation. 22 CA 108−113. Cited. Id., 142, 159, 160. Cited. 25 CA 605, 606, 608, 609. Cited. 26 CA 101, 102; Id., 331, 335; Id., 716−719; Id., 805, 806, 808, 811. Cited. 27 CA 225, 232, 233, 238, 245; Id., 346, 348−351; Id., 370, 371, 373, 375. Cited. 28 CA 733, 736. Cited. 29 CA 512, 515; Id., 582, 583. Cited. 30 CA 36, 38; Id., 108, 110, 113, 118; Id., 428, 429, 437−439; Id., 917. Cited. 31 CA 669−672; Id., 797−800, 803−805. Cited. 32 CA 553, 555, 571. Cited. 33 CA 107, 114; Id., 242, 243, 246; Id., 501, 504, 507, 508. Cited. 34 CA 557, 559, 561; Id., 655, 663, 666. Cited. 36 CA 76, 94; Id., 710, 713, 714. Cited. 38 CA 8, 14; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 18 et seq.; Id., 661, 664. Cited. 39 CA 11, 17. Cited. 40 CA 359, 363, 364. Cited. 41 CA 874, 881. Cited. 44 CA 40. Cited. Id., 702. Cited. 45 CA 12. Cited. Id., 102. Cited. Id., 225. Cited. Id., 577. Cited. Id., 722. Cited. Id., 804. Court rejected defendant's claim that statute is void for vagueness because an ordinary person has no ascertainable method for measuring his or her own blood alcohol level. 48 CA 635. Because defendant was charged with violation of both Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a), intoxilyzer results are admissible without defendant's request and are necessary to prove a violation of Subsec. (a)(2) pursuant to Subsec. (c). 51 CA 4.
Where sample of blood was taken from defendant when he was unconscious in a hospital and could not consent, the results of the test of his blood are not admissible in evidence since such taking was in violation of his constitutional rights and was not authorized by this section or section 14-227b. 26 CS 40, 41. The word "test" refers to the chemical analysis of a sample of blood and not to a series of samples from different individuals. 32 CS 611. Cited. 33 CS 501. Cited. 33 CS 697. Cited. 34 CS 514. Cited. 35 CS 511, 514. Where information charging violation referred to former statute, incorrect reference was an amendable defect and defendant was not misled or prejudiced by the error or placed in double jeopardy by the granting of the amendment. Id., 282. Violation is crime for purposes of defendant's eligibility for pretrial accelerated rehabilitation. 36 CS 527−529, 531. Cited. Id. Cited. 37 CS 767, 768, 778, 783, 784; id., 834; id., 864, 865. Cited. 38 CS 675, 677; Id., 689−693. Cited. 39 CS 285, 286. Cited. 40 CS 505, 507. Cited. Id., 512, 513, 518. Cited. 42 CS 306−308; Id., 602, 603, 609, 614. Cited. 43 CS 77, 80.
Road controlled and maintained by town qualifies as a "public highway." 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 513. Where accused was found alone in his car with engine running and wheels spinning in loose gravel, trial court could correctly find he was "operating" the car. Id., 514. Instructions to the jury were not prejudicial to the defendant when correction concerning the testimony of the state toxicologist was made by a supplemental charge. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 578. Where the penalty imposed is within the limits fixed by statute, it will not be disturbed on appeal unless there was an abuse of discretion. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 228. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 130; 261; 263. The six conditions precedent apply only in cases of operation under influence of liquor and not drugs. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 303. State must prove that defendant charged with driving under the influence of liquor was exclusively under influence of liquor and not drug or drugs and liquor. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 364. Refusal to submit to a chemical sobriety test is inadmissible. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 470, 474, 475. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 503.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 179 C. 377, 379, 380. Cited. 199 C. 667, 668, 671. Cited. 200 C. 615, 619, 620, 622. Cited. 203 C. 305, 316. Cited. 204 C. 507, 513. Cited. Id., 521, 522. Cited. 207 C. 612−614, 617, 619. Cited. 209 C. 806. Cited. 210 C. 446, 448, 449, 451−454. Cited. Id., 573, 574. Cited. 211 C. 389−391. Cited. 216 C. 172, 174. Subdiv. (2) cited. 222 C. 672, 674. Cited. 224 C. 730, 731. Cited. 226 C. 191, 194. Cited. Id., 470, 472. Subdiv. (1) cited. 227 C. 534, 535. Cited. 228 C. 758, 759. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id. Cited. 229 C. 31, 37. Cited. Id., 51, 56. Cited. Id., 228, 245. Cited. Id., 824, 826, 827, 828. Subdiv. (1) cited. 231 C. 926; 233 C. 302−304. Administrative suspension of operator's license does not bar prosecution for violation of this section. 235 C. 614, 615, 617, 618, 628. Subdiv. (1) cited. 236 C. 18, 20. Cited. Id., 18, 26.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 11 CA 185, 186. Cited. Id., 644−646. Cited. 12 CA 294, 297, 298, 301. Cited. Id., 427, 428. Cited. 14 CA 216, 217, 221. Cited. 15 CA 58, 59, 64. Subdiv. (2) cited. 16 CA 156, 159. Cited. Id., 156, 160. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 165, 166. Cited. Id., 172, 175. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Cited. Id., 472, 477. Cited. 17 CA 100−102. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 209, 210. Cited. Id., 209, 210, 214. Cited. Id., 250, 252, 254, 255. Cited. Id., 376, 377. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 376, 385. Subdiv. (2) cited. 19 CA 594, 599. Cited. Id., 594, 604. Subdiv. (2) cited. 21 CA 138, 139. Cited. Id., 210, 212. State not required to prove that defendant intended to move vehicle in order to prove operation under the statute. 22 CA 88−90, 92, 93. Cited. Id., 142, 144. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 142, 144, 159, 166, 167, 169, 170. Intent to move a vehicle not an element of operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence in violation of section. 24 CA 467−469. Subdiv. (2) cited. 25 CA 282, 284; Id., 605, 607. Cited. Id., 605, 608. Cited. 27 CA 225, 227; Id., 461, 462. Subdiv. (1) cited. 28 CA 708, 709. Subdiv. (1) cited. 29 CA 455, 456. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Subdiv. (1) cited. 30 CA 36, 37, 39; Id., 108, 109, 125. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 428, 437. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 428, 437, 438, 441. Cited. Id., 428, 437, 440; Id., 742, 749. Cited. 31 CA 669, 670; Id., 797, 805. Cited. 32 CA 553, 555. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 553, 563, 572; 33 CA 107, 109. Cited. Id., 590, 591, 594; 34 CA 189−191; Id., 201, 203; Id., 557, 564. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 655, 659, 660, 662, 664−666. Subdiv. (1) cited. 35 CA 631, 632, 635. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Cited. 36 CA 76, 95. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 76, 77; Id., 463, 464. Cited. Id., 710, 714. Cited. 38 CA 8, 9, 12; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 18 et seq. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 8−10; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 18 et seq.; Id., 661−664, 670, 673, 679. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 661, 663, 664, 670, 671, 679. Cited. Id., 661, 666, 671, 679. Cited. 39 CA 11, 12. Cited. 40 CA 359, 361, 363; Id., 420−422, 429. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 359, 361. Subdiv. (1) cited. 41 CA 7, 8. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 874, 875, 877. Cited. Id., 874, 877. Cited. 42 CA 10. Cited. Id., 589. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Cited. 44 CA 40. Cited. 45 CA 225. Cited. 46 CA 633. Proof of operation on public highway is question of fact and defendant Commissioner of Motor Vehicles made reasonable factual finding of such operation in case in which plaintiff was found seated in the driver's seat with seat belt on in his car on the shoulder of an interstate highway and the engine of the car was running. 48 CA 552. A person operates a motor vehicle when in the vehicle he intentionally does any act or makes use of any mechanical or electrical agency which alone or in sequence will set in motion the motive power of the vehicle. 50 CA 34. Defendant who was found unconscious behind wheel of car while engine was running could be deemed to have operated the vehicle for purposes of sustaining a conviction under the section. 51 CA 782.
Cited. 35 CS 511, 513. Cited. 42 CS 306, 314. Cited. 43 CS 77, 78. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 200 C. 615, 619, 620, 628. Cited. 204 C. 507, 513. Cited. 208 C. 812. Cited. 210 C. 446−451, 453−456, 458, 460, 462. Cited. 211 C. 389, 391, 392. Cited. 229 C. 228, 245.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 699. Cited. 12 CA 294, 301. Court declined "to formulate or adopt a behavioral definition of driving while impaired". 14 CA 216, 217, 220−222. Cited. 15 CA 58, 59, 64, 65. Cited. Id., 58, 62, 63. Cited. 16 CA 156, 160. Cited. Id., 472, 477. Cited. 22 CA 142, 160. Cited. 25 CA 605, 608. Cited. 41 CA 7, 18. Cited. 45 CA 225.
Subdiv. (5) contains condition precedent to introduction of evidence concerning amount of alcohol in defendant's system as shown by chemical analysis of breath, i.e. that he be afforded additional chemical test. 34 CS 679, 682−684. Requirements of this subsection apply only to prosecutions for violations of subsection (a) of this section, not to prosecutions under section 53a-58a. 35 CS 511, 513. Cited. 37 CS 767, 783. Subdiv. (5) cited. 38 CS 689, 693.
Subdiv. (1): Defendant did not lack legal capacity to consent to the test merely because he was under a probate court conservatorship of his person and estate. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 47. Subdiv. (4): Defendant's claim that syringe used by physician to extract blood sample was a device used for the test and therefore had to be checked for accuracy had no merit. Id., 48. Subdiv. (4): Device referred to in subdiv. is analysis equipment and not equipment used to collect blood sample. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 326.
Subsec. (c):
Subdiv. (3) cited. 180 C. 252, 255. Cited. 199 C. 667, 671. Cited. 200 C. 615, 623. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id. Cited. 210 C. 446, 452, 453, 454. Subdiv. (7) cited. Id., 446, 453. Cited. 229 C. 31, 43.
Cited. 12 CA 294, 298−302. Cited. Id., 427, 431. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id. Subdiv. (4) cited. 16 CA 156, 159, 161, 163. Cited. Id., 156, 160. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id., 156, 163. Cited. Id., 165, 167. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id. Cited. Id., 172, 175. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 172, 179. Cited. Id., 472, 473, 477. Cited. 17 CA 209, 211, 212, 214. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id., 209, 213. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 209, 214, 215. Cited. Id., 250, 253. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id., 250, 254. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 250, 254, 256. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 376, 382. Cited. Id., 376, 383. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id., 376, 384. Cited. 20 CA 348, 352. Subdiv. (3) cited. 21 CA 210, 220, 221. Cited. Id., 210, 220, 225. Cited. 22 CA 142, 160. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id., 142, 164. Subdiv. (2) cited. 25 CA 605, 607. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id. Cited. Id., 605, 607, 608. Cited. 26 CA 805, 815. Cited. 30 CA 428, 437, 438, 440. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 428, 439. Cited. 32 CA 553, 563−566. Cited. 33 CA 242, 244, 245, 247. Cited. 34 CA 655, 659, 665. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id., 655, 665. Subdiv. (4) cited. 36 CA 76, 97. Subdiv. (6) cited. 41 CA 874, 875, 877. P.A. 93-371, Sec. 2 cited. Id. Rebuttable presumption as a permissive inference discussed. Id., 874, 876−881. P.A. 85-596 cited. Id. Subdiv. (5) cited. Id., 874, 877. Cited. 42 CA 10. Cited. Id., 589. Subdiv. (5) cited. Id. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id. Cited. 44 CA 40. "Rebuttable presumption" under statute defined as a "permissive inference". 48 CA 391. Based on the stipulated facts and inferences thereon, trial court reasonably concluded that the urine tests were commenced within two hours of operation as required by the section. 51 CA 790.
Cited. 34 CS 679, 684. Cited. 37 CS 864, 867. Cited. 42 CS 602, 609.
Subsec. (d):
Cited 199 C. 667, 671. Subdiv. (3) cited. 200 C. 615, 620, 628. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id., 615, 620, 621. Cited. 210 C. 446, 453, 454. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 446, 454. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id., 446, 461.
Cited. 12 CA 294, 295, 297−304. Subdiv. (3) cited. 14 CA 216, 221. Cited. 16 CA 472−475, 477. Cited. 30 CA 428, 437, 439, 440. Cited. 35 CA 631, 632, 637. Cited. 38 CA 661, 671, 673. Cited. 40 CA 359, 364.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 9 CA 686, 727. Cited. 16 CA 165, 167. Cited. 17 CA 376, 379. Cited. 32 CA 553, 564.
Cited. 36 CS 527, 528. Cited. 37 CS 767, 783.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 204 C. 507, 513. Cited. Id., 521, 522. Cited. 210 C. 446, 455, 456, 458.
Cited. 11 CA 338, 341. Cited. 14 CA 216, 223. Cited. 28 CA 708, 718. Cited. 30 CA 36, 42−44. Cited. 36 CA 76, 77, 95, 97. Not unconstitutionally vague under U.S. Constitution as applied to defendant. 41 CA 7, 9, 16, 17, 19.
Cited. 40 CS 512, 518.
Subsec. (h):
Cited. 199 C. 667, 668, 670, 671, 677. Cited. 200 C. 615, 624. Subdiv. (3) cited. 207 C. 412, 413, 415−418. Cited. 210 C. 573, 577−579. Subdiv. (3): Enhanced penalties apply to third conviction when only one of two prior convictions occurred within five years of the present conviction. Id., 573−578, 580. Cited. 221 C. 716, 718. Subdiv. (1) cited. 222 C. 672, 674. Subdiv. (1)(C) cited. 229 C. 824, 827, 828. Subdiv. (3) cited. 234 C. 918. Cited. 236 C. 18, 21, 25. Subdiv. (3) imposes enhanced penalties on those whose third violation of Sec. 14-227a(a) occurs within the five-year period, regardless of when that conviction occurs; judgment of appellate court in State v. Burns, 38 CA 8, reversed. 236 C. 18−27.
Cited. 7 CA 748, 753. Cited. 9 CA 686, 731. Person sentenced to mandatory minimum sentence not entitled to "good time credit" or "employment credit". 17 CA 827. Cited. 27 CA 225, 228. Cited. 31 CA 797, 802. Subdiv. (1)(C) cited. 36 CA 710, 714. Subdiv. (3) cited. 38 CA 8, 10−13; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 18 et seq. Cited. 45 CA 722. Administrative suspension of driver's license by Department of Motor Vehicles and prosecution by the court of underlying offense of driving while intoxicated does not violate separation of powers provision of state constitution. 51 CA 4.
Subdiv. (3): Five-year period to be calculated from prior conviction to
Cited. 200 C. 615, 619.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 699.
Subsec. (j):
Cited. 7 CA 748, 753.
Subsec. (l):
Cited. 30 CA 428, 439, 440. Cited. 32 CA 553, 554, 564−566. Cited. 33 CA 242, 244−247. Cited. 40 CA 359, 360, 361−364. Cited. 42 CA 589. Cited. 45 CA 804.
Subsec. (m):
Cited. 20 CA 348, 350−353. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 348, 351−353. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id.

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Sec. 14-227b. Implied consent to test operator's blood, breath or urine. Testing procedures. License suspension. Hearing. (a) Any person who operates a motor vehicle in this state shall be deemed to have given such person's consent to a chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath or urine and, if such person is a minor, such person's parent or parents or guardian shall also be deemed to have given their consent.
(b) If any such person, having been placed under arrest for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both or while such person's ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor, and thereafter, after being apprised of such person's constitutional rights, having been requested to submit to a blood, breath or urine test at the option of the police officer, having been afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of such test and having been informed that such person's license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this section if such person refuses to submit to such test or if such person submits to such test and the results of such test indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, and that evidence of any such refusal shall be admissible in accordance with subsection (f) of section 14-227a and may be used against such person in any criminal prosecution, refuses to submit to the designated test, the test shall not be given; provided, if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test, the police officer shall designate the breath or urine test as the test to be taken. The police officer shall make a notation upon the records of the police department that such officer informed the person that such person's license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended if such person refused to submit to such test or if such person submitted to such test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content.
(c) If the person arrested refuses to submit to such test or analysis or submits to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, acting on behalf of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall immediately revoke and take possession of the motor vehicle operator's license or, if such person is a nonresident, suspend the nonresident operating privilege of such person, for a twenty-four-hour period and shall issue a temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege to such person valid for the period commencing twenty- four hours after issuance and ending thirty days after the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer. The police officer shall prepare a written report of the incident and shall mail the report together with a copy of the completed temporary license form, any operator's license taken into possession and a copy of the results of any chemical test or analysis to the Department of Motor Vehicles within three business days. The report shall be made on a form approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement as provided in section 53a-157b by the arresting officer. If the person arrested refused to submit to such test or analysis, the report shall be endorsed by a third person who witnessed such refusal. The report shall set forth the grounds for the officer's belief that there was probable cause to arrest such person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both or while such person's ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor, and shall state that such person had refused to submit to such test or analysis when requested by such police officer to do so or that such person submitted to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content.
(d) If the person arrested submits to a blood or urine test at the request of the police officer, and the specimen requires laboratory analysis in order to obtain the test results, the police officer shall not take possession of the motor vehicle operator's license of such person or, except as provided in this subsection, follow the procedures subsequent to taking possession of the operator's license as set forth in subsection (c) of this section. If the test results indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, immediately upon receipt of the test results, shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner the written report required pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.
(e) Upon receipt of such report, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend any license or nonresident operating privilege of such person effective as of a date certain, which date shall be not later than thirty days after the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer. Any person whose license or operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subsection shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner to be held prior to the effective date of the suspension. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended as of a date certain and that such person is entitled to a hearing prior to the effective date of the suspension and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice.
(f) If such person does not contact the department to schedule a hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section.
(g) If such person contacts the department to schedule a hearing, the department shall assign a date, time and place for the hearing, which date shall be prior to the effective date of the suspension. At the request of such person or the hearing officer and upon a showing of good cause, the commissioner may grant one continuance for a period not to exceed fifteen days. If a continuance is granted, the commissioner shall extend the validity of the temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege issued pursuant to subsection (c) of this section for a period not to exceed the period of such continuance. The hearing shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Did the police officer have probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both or while such person's ability to operate such motor vehicle was impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor; (2) was such person placed under arrest; (3) did such person refuse to submit to such test or analysis or did such person submit to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (4) was such person operating the motor vehicle. In the hearing, the results of the test or analysis shall be sufficient to indicate the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person at the time of operation, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of operation. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases.
(h) If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall reinstate such license or operating privilege. If, after such hearing, the commissioner does not find on any one of the said issues in the negative or if such person fails to appear at such hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section. The commissioner shall render a decision at the conclusion of such hearing or send a notice of the decision by bulk certified mail to such person not later than thirty days or, if a continuance is granted, not later than forty-five days from the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer. The notice of such decision sent by certified mail to the address of such person as shown by the records of the commissioner shall be sufficient notice to such person that such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is reinstated or suspended, as the case may be. Unless a continuance of the hearing is granted pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, if the commissioner fails to render a decision within thirty days from the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer, the commissioner shall reinstate such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege, provided notwithstanding such reinstatement the commissioner may render a decision not later than two days thereafter suspending such operator's license or nonresident operating privilege.
(i) The commissioner shall suspend the operator's license or nonresident operating privilege, and revoke the temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege issued pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, of a person who did not contact the department to schedule a hearing, who failed to appear at a hearing or against whom, after a hearing, the commissioner held pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as of the effective date contained in the suspension notice or the date the commissioner renders a decision, whichever is later, for a period of: (1) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, ninety days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) one hundred twenty days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (C) six months if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis, (2) if such person has previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section, (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, nine months if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) ten months if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and (C) one year if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis, and (3) if such person has two or more times previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section, (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, two years if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) two and one-half years if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and (C) three years if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis.
(j) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, any police officer who obtains the results of a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner a written report if such results indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, and if such person was arrested for violation of section 14-227a in connection with such accident. The report shall be made on a form approved by the commissioner containing such information as the commissioner prescribes, and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53a-157b, by the police officer. The commissioner may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, which shall be conducted in accordance with chapter 54, suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of such person for a period of up to ninety days, or, if such person has previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section for a period of up to one year. Each hearing conducted under this subsection shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Whether the police officer had probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both or while the person's ability to operate the motor vehicle was impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor; (2) whether such person was placed under arrest; (3) whether such person was operating the motor vehicle; (4) whether the results of the analysis of the blood of such person indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (5) whether the blood sample was obtained in accordance with conditions for admissibility and competence as evidence as set forth in subsection (l) of section 14-227a. If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall not impose a suspension. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases, as provided in section 52-260.
(k) The provisions of this section shall apply with the same effect to the refusal by any person to submit to an additional chemical test as provided in subdivision (5) of subsection (c) of section 14-227a.
(l) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person whose physical condition is such that, according to competent medical advice, such test would be inadvisable.
(m) The state shall pay the reasonable charges of any physician who, at the request of a municipal police department, takes a blood sample for purposes of a test under the provisions of this section.
(n) For the purposes of this section, "elevated blood alcohol content" means (1) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, (2) if such person has been convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is seven-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (3) if such person is under twenty-one years of age, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.
(o) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to implement the provisions of this section.
(1963, P.A. 616, S. 2; February, 1965, P.A. 190; 1967, P.A. 656, S. 9; 721; P.A. 75-205; P.A. 80-438, S. 4; P.A. 81- 446, S. 3; P.A. 82-403, S. 4; 82-408, S. 4; P.A. 83-534, S. 2; P.A. 85-596, S. 2; P.A. 89-314, S. 1, 5; P.A. 90-263, S. 73, 74; P.A. 93-371, S. 1, 5; P.A. 94-189, S. 14; P.A. 95-279, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-182, S. 20, 22; P.A. 99-255, S. 2.)
History: 1965 act added provision re implied consent of parents or guardian of minor; 1967 acts required state to pay charges of physician who takes blood sample at police department's request, required arrested person to be informed of constitutional rights, required that three conditions be met for suspension or revocation of license rather than that single condition, i.e. that person was operating vehicle, be met and made provisions inapplicable if charge nolled or changed; P.A. 75-205 included reference to urine tests and to operation of vehicle under influence of drug or both drug and alcohol; P.A. 80-438 specified that judge rather than court or jury is responsible for making finding and added provision re finding in case where charge nolled or changed, allowed suspension or revocation for maximum of six months rather than upon terms and conditions of commissioner and deleted previous provision excluding nolled or changed charge; P.A. 81-446 added the provisions that the license of any person who refuses to submit to test shall be automatically suspended for ninety days, that police officer shall file a written report of such refusal, and that any person whose operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this section shall be entitled to an immediate hearing before the commissioner; P.A. 82-403 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing the provision that a license will be suspended "for a period of ninety days" with "in accordance with the provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of this section", amended Subsec. (c) by adding "resulting in erratic driving, a motor vehicle violation or a motor vehicle accident", amended Subsec. (d) by specifying its provisions concerned "a first" refusal, made Subsec. (e) a part of Subsec. (d) and added a new Subsec. (e) concerning the hearing procedure for license suspension upon a second or subsequent refusal and the period of such suspension; P.A. 82-408 added provisions re revocation of license for twenty-four hour period; P.A. 83-534 amended the section to make it applicable to a person arrested for operating a motor vehicle "while his ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor", amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the police officer to designate which test the arrested person shall take, to provide that if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test the police officer shall designate the breath or urine test, to require the police officer to inform the person that evidence of refusal to submit to a test will be admissible and may be used against him in a criminal prosecution and to require the police officer to make a record that he informed the person that refusal to take the test would cause suspension of his driver's license, amended Subsec. (d) to increase from ninety days to six months the period of license suspension upon a first refusal, and amended Subsec. (f) to change its applicability from a person who refuses to take a test for the "second or subsequent" time to a person whose license has previously been suspended for a refusal, who has previously been found guilty of operating under the influence or who has previously participated in the pretrial alcohol education system; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (b) to add requirement of affording an operator a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and inserted a new Subsec. (g) re the applicability of the provisions of the section to a refusal to submit to an additional test and relettered the remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 89-314 extensively revised section by making the provisions applicable to any person who is arrested for manslaughter in the second degree with a motor vehicle or assault in the second degree with a motor vehicle and to any person who submits to a test or analysis where the results of such test or analysis indicate that at the time of the alleged offense the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, by amending Subsec. (c) to require the arresting police officer "acting on behalf of the commissioner of motor vehicles" to "take possession" of the license or "suspend" the nonresident operating privilege for twenty-four hours, issue a temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege valid for the period commencing twenty-four hours after issuance and ending thirty-five days after the date such person received notice of his arrest, prepare a report of the incident and mail the report together with a copy of the completed temporary license form, any operator's license and a copy of the results of any chemical test or analysis to the department of motor vehicles within three business days, and require that the report be made by the police officer before whom such refusal was made "or who administered or caused to be administered such test or analysis", by amending Subsec. (d) to replace provisions requiring the commissioner upon receipt of a report of a first refusal to suspend a license for six months with provisions requiring the commissioner upon receipt of a report to suspend the license "effective as of a date certain, which date shall be not later than thirty-five days after the date such person received notice of his arrest by the police officer" and to add provisions requiring the commissioner to send the person a suspension notice and specifying the contents of such notice, by deleting Subsec. (e) re police procedure when a license is revoked for twenty-four hours, by deleting Subsec. (f) re the scheduling of a hearing, the issues at the hearing and the suspension for one year for a refusal and three years for a subsequent refusal of the license or privilege of a person whose license or privilege had previously been suspended for a refusal, who had previously been found guilty of operating while under the influence or who had previously participated in the pretrial alcohol education system, by adding a new Subsec. (e) to require the commissioner to affirm the suspension if the person does not schedule a hearing, by adding a new Subsec. (f) re the scheduling and holding of the hearing, the granting of a continuance, the extension of the validity of the temporary license and the issues to be determined at the hearing, formerly part of Subsec. (d), by designating the last sentence of Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (g) and adding provisions re affirmation of the suspension contained in the suspension notice if the commissioner does not find on any one of the said issues in the negative or if the person fails to appear at the hearing, time periods for rendering a decision and sending notice of such decision, and the reinstatement of the license if the commissioner fails to timely render a decision, by adding a new Subsec. (h) re the suspension by the commissioner of the license or privilege, the revocation by the commissioner of the temporary license or privilege, and the periods of license suspension, by redesignating Subsecs. (g), (h) and (i) as Subsecs. (i), (j) and (k), respectively, and by adding Subsec. (l) re regulations; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (f) to require that fees of witnesses summoned to appear at the hearing be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases; P.A. 93-371 eliminated the requirement that the test results indicate an elevated blood alcohol ratio "at the time of the alleged offense" by deleting that phrase where appearing, amended Subsec. (c) to require the test or analysis be commenced within two hours of the time of operation and require the report to be "subscribed" and sworn to under penalty of false statement by "the arresting officer" rather than by "the police officer before whom such refusal was made or who administered or caused to be administered such test or analysis", amended Subsec. (f) to authorize the granting of a continuance "at the request of such person or the hearing officer", provide in Subdiv. (3) that part of the issue to be determined is whether the test or analysis was commenced within two hours of the time of operation and added provision requiring evidence be presented that the test results and analysis thereof indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of operation when the additional test indicates the blood alcohol ratio is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less and is higher than the results of the first test, (towards the end of Subsec. (f) the phrase "twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less or alcohol, by weight," was changed editorially by the Revisors to "twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight,") amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the commissioner to send a notice of his decision by "bulk" certified mail and replace "Unless a continuance is granted to such person" with "Unless a continuance of the hearing is granted", effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-189 amended Subsec. (c) by decreasing the time period during which a temporary license or nonresident operating privilege is valid from thirty-five to thirty days after the date of receipt of notice of arrest, amended Subsec. (d) by changing the effective date of suspension from "not later than thirty-five" to "not later than thirty days" after the date of receipt of notice of arrest, amended Subsec. (f) by increasing the continuance period from "not to exceed ten days" to "not to exceed fifteen days", amended Subsec. (g) by decreasing the time period for rendering a decision or sending a notice of decision from thirty-five to thirty days and amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (h) by deleting "at the time of the alleged offense" before "the ratio of alcohol in the blood"; P.A. 95-279 amended Subsecs. (b), (c) and (f) to delete reference to manslaughter in the second degree with a motor vehicle or assault in the second degree with a motor vehicle, and amended Subsecs. (b) and (d) to make suspension of license discretionary rather than mandatory for refusal to submit to test or for submission to test and results indicating that ratio of alcohol in the blood of such operator was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or, in the case of Subsec. (d) upon receipt of report by commissioner, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 98-182 added a new Subsec. (d) re procedures for a police officer to take possession of a motor vehicle operator's license and added a new Subsec. (j) re submission of a chemical analysis of a blood sample of a motor vehicle operator and report to the commissioner, and hearing procedures re license suspension, effective January 1, 1999; P.A. 99-255 made provisions applicable when a person has "an elevated blood alcohol content" rather than when "the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight", amended Subsec. (i) to revise Subdiv. (1) by adding new Subpara. (B) to provide for a suspension period of "one hundred twenty days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight" and redesignating former Subpara. (B) as Subpara. (C), to revise Subdiv. (2) by replacing provision that specified a uniform suspension period of one year with provisions of Subparas. (A), (B) and (C) specifying a suspension period of nine months if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had an elevated blood alcohol content, ten months if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had a blood alcohol ratio of sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and one year if the person refused to submit to a test or analysis, respectively, and to revise Subdiv. (3) by replacing provision that specified a uniform suspension period of two years with provisions of Subparas. (A), (B) and (C) specifying a suspension period of two years if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had an elevated blood alcohol content, two and one-half years if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had a blood alcohol ratio of sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and three years if the person refused to submit to a test or analysis, respectively, added new Subsec. (n) defining "elevated blood alcohol content", redesignating former Subsec. (n) as Subsec. (o), and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality.
Cited. 200 C. 1, 2, 4, 7, 8. Cited. Id., 615, 619. Cited. 203 C. 97, 101. Cited. 204 C. 507, 508, 510, 512, 513, 515, 519, 520. Cited. Id., 521, 522. Cited. 210 C. 446, 447, 455, 459, 460. Cited. 224 C. 730, 734, 742, 743. Cited. 229 C. 31, 33, 41. Cited. Id., 51, 52. Cited. 230 C. 183, 199. Cited. 235 C. 614−616, 624−627.
Cited. 12 CA 427, 434. Cited. 14 CA 212, 213. Cited. 22 CA 142, 157. Cited. 26 CA 101; Id., 805, 809. Cited. 27 CA 346, 347, 351, 353. Cited. 28 CA 733, 735−737. Cited. Id., 911. Cited. 29 CA 576, 577, 580. Cited. 30 CA 108, 122. Cited. 31 CA 797, 799. Cited. 33 CA 501, 502, 505, 507, 508. Cited. 34 CA 189, Cited. Id., 201, 202. Cited. Id., 557, 559−564. Cited. Id., 655, 665. Cited. 36 CA 710, 711, 713−716. Cited. 43 CA 636. Cited. 44 CA 702. Cited. 45 CA 225. Cited. Id., 577. Finding that plaintiff refused to submit to breath analysis valid where plaintiff had provided sufficient breath for previous test and was warned his failure to blow would constitute a refusal. 47 CA 509. Without legislative action to enlarge the scope of a license suspension hearing beyond the four issues specified in Subsec. (f), noncompliance with Subsec. (b) is irrelevant in such a proceeding. Id., 839. Court rejected defendant's claim that the statute is void for vagueness because an ordinary person has no ascertainable method for measuring his or her own blood alcohol level. 48 CA 635. Where arrested person refuses to take breath test, statute requires presence of three persons: the arresting officer, person charged and a third party witness who may or may not be the same person who took the arresting officer's oath. 54 CA 62.
Prior to this act, refusal of accused, while in custody, to submit samples of body fluids, unaccompanied by words or acts in the nature of admissions by conduct, was held inadmissible. 22 CS 321. Where sample of blood was taken from defendant when he was unconscious in a hospital and could not give his consent, such taking was in violation of his constitutional rights and was not authorized by this section. 26 CS 41. Cited. 37 CS 767, 783, 784. Cited. 38 CS 675, 678; Id., 689, 691. Cited. 39 CS 285, 286. Cited. 40 CS 505−508, 510. At time of arrest, statute did not afford a statutory right to consult with counsel. 40 CS 512−514, 518. Cited. 41 CS 437, 438. Cited. 42 CS 1, 2. Cited. Id., 306, 314. Cited. Id., 599, 600. Cited. Id., 602, 603, 609. In hearing on motor vehicle license suspension, failure of police to indicate on form use of certified analytical device not required by statute. 45 CS 489.
Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 46; 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 347. Competent evidence of any nature, in addition to a breath or blood test, may be relied on to prove insobriety. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 478, 479. Finding of operation must be made by the trier of the facts. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 34, 46. State not empowered to request finding of operation after jury has been discharged and verdict has been accepted. Id. Circuit court's finding that defendant was operator of motor vehicle is a final judgment for purposes of section 51-265. Id. Applies only to cases involved with driving under the influence of alcohol and not drugs. Any test for drugs has no need for compliance with the relationship of time and arrest. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 303.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 200 C. 1, 5. Cited. 203 C. 97, 99, 100. Cited. 204 C. 507, 520.
Cited. 12 CA 427, 433, 434. Cited. 44 CA 702. Cited. 45 CA 577.
Cited. 39 CS 285, 287. Cited. 40 CS 505, 509. Cited. 41 CS 437, 438.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 200 C. 1, 8. Cited. 204 C. 507, 511, 512, 514, 516−518. Cited. Id., 521−523. Cited. 210 C. 446, 459. Cited. 224 C. 730, 735. Cited. 229 C. 31, 42.
Cited. 12 CA 338, 342. Cited. Id., 427, 429−433. Cited. 17 CA 250, 254, 256. Cited. 27 CA 346, 348. Cited. 28 CA 708, 718, 719. Cited. Id., 733, 736. Cited. Id., 911. Cited. 30 CA 36, 43. Cited. 41 CA 7, 16, 17. Cited. 44 CA 702. Driver did not have fifth amendment right to consult with counsel before deciding whether to take breath test and failure of statute to require police officer to inform driver that his Miranda rights did not extend to taking a breath test did not deprive him of due process under fourteenth amendment. 53 CA 391.
Cited. 39 CS 285, 287. Failure to warn completely as required by statute renders suspension of license contrary to law. 40 CS 505, 509−511. Reference to actual suspension period not required in warning to be given to operator. Id., 512, 516. Cited. 41 CS 437, 439, 442. Cited. 42 CS 306, 320.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 204 C. 507, 511, 517, 518. Cited. 210 C. 446, 459, 460. Written report required by this section may be admissible at administrative suspension hearing even if officer originating report was not currently certified to administer breath analysis tests. 229 C. 31, 37, 42, 43.
Cited. 26 CA 805, 810. Cited. 27 CA 346, 348. Cited. 28 CA 733, 735−738. Cited. 31 CA 350, 351. Cited. 34 CA 557, 559, 564−566. Cited. 43 CA 636. Cited. 44 CA 702. Cited. 45 CA 577.
Cited. 40 CS 505, 507, 511. Cited. 41 CS 437−439. Cited. 42 CS 1, 5, 6. Cited. Id., 306, 307, 320. Cited. Id., 602, 610, 611.
Subsec. (d):
Before suspending a license, commissioner is not required to find that subject understood consequences of refusal to submit to chemical testing. 200 C. 1, 6−8. License suspension hearing must be limited to the four issues set forth. 204 C. 507, 511, 512, 514−520. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 507, 520. Scope of administrative hearing clearly limited. Id., 521, 523. Cited. 210 C. 446, 459.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 15 CA 58, 62, 63. Cited. 27 CA 346, 348. Cited. 29 CA 576, 577. Cited. Id., 582. Cited. 30 CA 36, 39. Cited. 33 CA 501, 504. Cited. 34 CA 557, 566. Cited. 43 CA 636.
Cited. 39 CS 285, 287. Cited. 40 CS 505, 508. Cited. Id., 512, 513, 516. Cited. 42 CS 1, 3. Cited. Id., 306, 307, 320.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 15 CA 58, 62, 63.
Cited. 40 CS 512, 516.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 229 C. 31, 34, 37−39, 42. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 31, 42. Cited. Id., 51, 53, 56, 57, 59.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 730. Cited. 15 CA 58, 62, 63. Cited. 26 CA 101, 102. Cited. 27 CA 346, 348, 349. Cited. 28 CA 733, 735. Cited. Id., 911, 912. Cited. 29 CA 576, 577, 581. Cited. Id., 582. Subdiv. (3) cited. 30 CA 36, 44. Cited. 31 CA 350, 352. Cited. 33 CA 501, 504, 505. Cited. 34 CA 189. Cited. Id., 201, 202. Cited. Id., 557, 566. Cited. 43 CA 636. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id. Cited. 44 CA 702. Cited. 45 CA 577. Legislature created a "rebuttable presumption" that test results can be used in place of direct evidence. 48 CA 391. Re probable cause for traffic stop, an investigatory stop is authorized if the police officer had a reasonable and articulable suspicion that the person has committed or is about to commit a crime. 49 CA 481.
Cited. 40 CS 512, 516. Cited. 41 CS 437, 438. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 437, 443. Cited. 42 CS 1, 3. Cited. Id., 306, 307, 314, 315, 317, 322. Cited. Id., 599, 600. Cited. Id., 602, 606, 611. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 602, 616.
Subsec. (g):
Cited. 229 C. 31, 38.
Cited. 29 CA 576, 577. Cited. 31 CA 350−353. Cited. 44 CA 702. Probable cause not needed to make a lawful stop of a motor vehicle; investigative stops discussed. 47 CA 111. Trial court's findings relative to administrative hearing issues reviewed and affirmed. Id., 451.
Cited. 42 CS 306, 307.
Subsec. (h):
Cited. 229 C. 51, 58. Subdiv. (1)(A) cited. 235 C. 614, 617. Cited. Id., 614, 627.
Subdiv. (1)(B) cited. 30 CA 36, 39. Subdiv. (2) cited. 33 CA 501, 505. Subdiv. (1)(B) cited. 36 CA 710, 712. Subdiv. (3) cited. 43 CA 636. Cited. 45 CA 577. Administrative suspension of driver's license by Department of Motor Vehicles and prosecution by the court of underlying offense of driving while intoxicated does not violate separation of powers provision of state constitution. 51 CA 4.
Cited. 42 CS 1, 2. Cited. Id., 602.
Subsec. (l):
Cited. 42 CS 602, 611.

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Sec. 14-227c. Blood and breath samples following fatal accidents. As part of the investigation of any motor vehicle accident resulting in a fatality, the Chief Medical Examiner, Deputy Chief Medical Examiner, an associate medical examiner, a pathologist as specified in section 19a-405, or an authorized assistant medical examiner, as the case may be, shall order that a blood sample be taken from the body of any operator or pedestrian who dies as a result of such accident. Such blood samples shall be examined for the presence and concentration of alcohol by the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety or by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. To the extent provided by law, a blood or breath sample may also be obtained from any surviving operator whose motor vehicle is involved in such an accident. The test shall be performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Public Safety and shall be performed by a person certified or recertified for such purpose by said department or recertified by persons certified as instructors by the Commissioner of Public Safety. The equipment used for such test shall be checked for accuracy by a person certified by the Department of Public Safety immediately before and after such test is performed. If a blood test is performed, it shall be on a blood sample taken by a person licensed to practice medicine and surgery in this state, a qualified laboratory technician, an emergency medical technician II, a registered nurse or a phlebotomist, as defined in subsection (m) of section 14- 227a. The blood samples obtained from the surviving operator shall be examined for the presence and concentration of alcohol by the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety. Nothing in this section or section 19a-406 shall be construed as requiring such medical examiner to perform an autopsy in connection with obtaining such blood samples.
(1971, P.A. 328; P.A. 75-308, S. 2; P.A. 76-245; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 79-47, S. 4; P.A. 80-142, S. 1; 80-190, S. 3; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-314, S. 6; P.A. 99-218, S. 5, 16; P.A. 00-196, S. 11.)
History: P.A. 75-308 deleted four hour deadline for taking sample after death and required examination by health department toxicology lab or medical examiner's office; P.A. 76-245 added provision re autopsy; P.A. 77-614 replaced state department of health with department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-47 included references to deputy chief medical examiners, associate medical examiners and pathologists; P.A. 80-142 and 80-190 deleted reference to coroners; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-314 required that blood or breath test be performed by or at direction of police officer according to approved methods and with equipment checked for accuracy by certified personnel and provided if a blood test is performed, it shall be on a blood sample taken by specified medical personnel; P.A. 99-218 replaced toxicological laboratory of the Department of Public Health with Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety, and replaced Department and Commissioner of Public Health with Department and Commissioner of Public Safety, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-196 changed an incorrect internal reference to Sec. 14-227b to Sec. 14-227a.
Cited. 35 CS 511, 514, 516.

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Sec. 14-227d. Pilot program permitting issuance of warning to and twenty- four hour revocation of license of certain alleged offenders. Section 14-227d is repealed.
(P.A. 82-408, S. 3; P.A. 83-534, S. 11.)

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Sec. 14-227e. Community service for persons convicted of operation while under the influence of liquor or drug. As used in this section and subsection (h) of section 14-227a:
(a) (1) "Community service" means the placement of defendants in unpaid positions with nonprofit or tax-supported agencies for the performance of a specified number of hours of work or service within a given period of time.
(2) "Community service plan" means an agreement between the court and the defendant which specifies (A) the number of required community service hours, (B) the type of agency for placement, (C) the period of time in which the community service will be completed, (D) the tentative schedule, (E) a brief description of the responsibilities, (F) conditions and sanctions for failure to fulfill the plan, and (G) the supervisor of the plan.
(b) In sentencing a defendant to perform community service, the court shall fix the conditions and terms of such sentence and shall review the community service plan and, upon approval, sentence such defendant in accordance with such plan. No sentence of community service shall be imposed without the consent of the defendant.
(c) Any organization administering sentences of community service shall prepare and file with the court a copy of all community service plans and shall notify the court when a defendant has successfully completed such plan.
(d) Any organization administering sentences of community service shall prepare a written statement outlining noncompliance by a defendant and shall without unnecessary delay notify the state's attorney for that judicial district requesting that a hearing be held to determine whether the sentence of community service should be revoked.
(e) The court may at any time, for good cause shown, terminate the sentence of community service or modify or enlarge the terms or conditions or require the defendant to serve the original incarcerative sentence for violation of any of the conditions of the sentence of community service.
(P.A. 85-387, S. 3; 85-613, S. 137.)
History: P.A. 85-613 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting reference to community service plans "prepared by private not- for-profit community correction agencies" and deleted Subsec. (f) which required the department of correction to approve community service sentences.

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Sec. 14-227f. Alcohol and drug addiction treatment program. Waiver. Appeal. Regulations. (a) Any person whose motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended under subsection (h) of section 14-227a for a conviction of a second or subsequent violation of subsection (a) of said section or under section 14-227b for a second or subsequent time shall participate in a treatment program approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. The commissioner shall not reinstate the operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of any such person until such person submits evidence to the commissioner that he has satisfactorily completed the treatment program.
(b) The treatment program shall be designed by the commissioner, with the advice and assistance of the Motor Vehicle Operator's License Medical Advisory Board established pursuant to section 14-46b, any state agency or any other public or private entity engaged in the provision of responsible services for the treatment of alcohol and drug addiction as the commissioner may request. The program shall consist of intensive treatment and a phase of continuing aftercare supervision and monitoring on an individual basis. The program may be provided by one or more private organizations approved by the commissioner which meet qualifications established by him, provided the entire costs of the program shall be paid from fees charged to the participants, the amounts of which shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner.
(c) Upon receipt of notification from the commissioner of the requirement to participate in the program, such person may, within thirty days, petition the commissioner in writing for a waiver of such requirement on the following grounds: (1) The petitioner is presently undergoing a substantial treatment program for alcohol or drug addiction, or has completed such a program subsequent to his most recent arrest, either as a result of an order of the Superior Court or on a voluntary basis, and (2) the petitioner does not, in the opinion of a licensed physician based upon a personal examination, have a current addiction problem which affects his ability to operate a motor vehicle in a safe manner or pose a significant risk of having such a problem in the foreseeable future. In reviewing and determining whether to grant any such petition, the commissioner shall request and give due consideration to the advice of the Motor Vehicle Operator's License Medical Advisory Board. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the commissioner may appeal such decision in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.
(d) The commissioner shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to implement the provisions of this section.
(P.A. 95-314, S. 5.)

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Sec. 14-227g. Operation by person under twenty-one years of age while blood alcohol content exceeds two-hundredths of one per cent. Procedures. Penalties. (a) No person under twenty-one years of age shall operate a motor vehicle on a public highway of this state or on any road of a district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or on any private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of section 14-218a, or in any parking area for ten or more cars or on any school property while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.
(b) The fact that the operator of a motor vehicle appears to be sixteen years of age or over but under twenty-one years of age shall not constitute a reasonable and articulable suspicion that an offense has been or is being committed so as to justify an investigatory stop of such motor vehicle by a police officer.
(c) The provisions of subsections (c), (e), (g), (h), (j), (k) and (l) of section 14-227a, adapted accordingly, shall be applicable to a violation of subsection (a) of this section.
(P.A. 95-314, S. 2; P.A. 96-180, S. 135, 166; P.A. 99-255, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 96-180 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "over sixteen years of age" with "sixteen years of age or over", effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 99-255 substantially revised section by amending Subsec. (a) to delete provision that authorized a police officer who makes a custodial arrest of a motor vehicle operator under twenty-one years of age whom the officer reasonably believes has consumed alcoholic liquor and who exhibits some indicia of impairment to administer a blood, breath or urine test to such person, to add provision prohibiting any person under twenty-one years of age from operating a motor vehicle while the ratio of alcohol in the blood is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and to designate existing provisions re apparent age of operator not constituting a reasonable and articulable suspicion that an offense has been or is being committed as Subsec. (b), deleting former Subsec. (b) that required the police to report to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles the name and address of a person whose blood alcohol content is more than two- hundredths but less than ten-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol, by weight, that required the commissioner to provide notice and an opportunity for hearing within forty-five days of receipt of such report and that specified the issues to be determined at such hearing, deleting former Subsec. (c) that required the commissioner to suspend the license or nonresident operating privilege for ninety days if the commissioner does not find any one of the issues enumerated in former Subsec. (b) in the negative or the person fails to appear at the hearing, that established an exception to such suspension if the person proves that the blood alcohol content was the result of consumption of liquor delivered or given to him on order of a practicing physician or by a parent, guardian or spouse as authorized by Sec. 30-86, and that specified the procedure and deadline for rendering a decision and sending notice to the person, and adding new Subsec. (c) to make the provisions of Subsecs. (c), (e), (g), (h), (j), (k) and (l) of Sec. 14-227a, adapted accordingly, applicable to a violation of Subsec. (a).

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Sec. 14-227h. Impoundment of motor vehicle operated by certain persons arrested for operating while under the influence of liquor or drug. Any police officer who arrests a person for a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a during the period such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation shall cause the motor vehicle such person was operating at the time of the offense to be impounded for a period of forty-eight hours after such arrest. The owner of such motor vehicle may reclaim such motor vehicle after the expiration of such forty-eight-hour period upon payment of all towing and storage costs.
(P.A. 97-291, S. 2.)

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Sec. 14-227i. Records of police investigation of defendant re operation of motor vehicle while under influence of, or impaired by, intoxicating liquor or drugs. Copies. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, the investigating police department shall maintain any record of a defendant concerning the operation of a motor vehicle by such defendant while under the influence of, or impaired by the consumption of, intoxicating liquor or drugs for a period of not less than two years from the date such defendant was charged with a violation of section 14-227a.
(b) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, by making a written request to the investigating police department, a person injured in an accident caused by the alleged violation of section 14-227a by any such defendant, any party to a civil claim or proceeding arising out of such accident, or the legal representative of any such person or party may review and obtain regular or certified copies of any record concerning the operation of a motor vehicle by such defendant while under the influence of, or impaired by the consumption of, intoxicating liquor or drugs.
(2) The investigating police department shall furnish regular or certified copies of any such record to any person or the legal representative of such person, or to such party, not later than fifteen days following receipt of such request. The investigating police department shall charge a fee for such copies that shall not exceed the cost to such police department for providing such copies, but not more than fifty cents per page in accordance with section 1-212.
(P.A. 99-277, S. 1.)

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Sec. 14-228. Leaving motor vehicle without setting brake. Leaving any motor vehicle stationary on the highway without setting the brake in such manner as to prevent such vehicle from moving, unless it is occupied by a person able to control the same, shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2414; P.A. 75-577, S. 72, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for twenty dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction and substituted "Leaving" for "Any person who leaves".
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-229. Using motor vehicle without owner's permission. Section 14-229 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2417; P.A. 76-42, S. 1.)
See Sec. 14-111(b), (h), (k) re suspension or revocation of operator's license.
See chapter 952, part IX re larceny, robbery and related offenses.

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Sec. 14-230. Driving in right-hand lane. (a) Upon all highways, each vehicle, other than a vehicle described in subsection (c) of this section, shall be driven upon the right, except (1) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction, (2) when overtaking and passing pedestrians, parked vehicles, animals or obstructions on the right side of the highway, (3) when the right side of a highway is closed to traffic while under construction or repair, (4) on a highway divided into three or more marked lanes for traffic, or (5) on a highway designated and signposted for one- way traffic.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any vehicle proceeding at less than the normal speed of traffic shall be driven in the right-hand lane available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the highway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway.
(c) Any vehicle which exceeds the maximum width limitations specified in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 14-262 and operates on an interstate highway with a special permit issued by the Commissioner of Transportation under the provisions of section 14-270, shall be driven in the extreme right lane of such highway, except (1) when such special permit authorizes operation in a traffic lane other than the extreme right lane, (2) when overtaking and passing parked vehicles, animals or obstructions on the right side of such highway, (3) when the right side of such highway is closed to traffic while under construction or repair, or (4) at such locations where access to or egress from such highway is provided on the left.
(d) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1382d; 1957, P.A. 53; P.A. 75-577, S. 73, 126; P.A. 87-525, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 87-525 divided the section into Subsecs., inserting as Subsec. (c) provision requiring wide vehicles to be driven in extreme right lane of interstate highways.
See Sec. 14-99 re requirement that drivers of commercial vehicles drive at extreme right to allow others to pass.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
Defendant is not liable for accident unless he was negligent. 40 C. 560; 67 C. 47. Violation of law by plaintiff, to constitute a defense, must have contributed to cause collision. 59 C. 20; 63 C. 155; 89 C. 329; id., 701. Duty to drive on right side of road exists only when a person or vehicle approaches. 81 C. 499; 107 C. 710. One may drive to left side of road if he has business there, using ordinary and reasonable care to avoid collision. 67 C. 47. See also 63 C. 155; 81 C. 499; 90 C. 503. The "rule of the road" does not apply on established racetrack with special driving rules. 91 C. 341. High degree of care is required of one crossing line of traffic going in opposite direction. 109 C. 606. Charge concerning passing over to left of center of road approved. 111 C. 99. Right to drive on left is conditioned upon noninterference with approaching machines, upon proper use of left side, and upon reasonable care. 112 C. 606; 119 C. 180. Duty to turn to right when meeting another is conditioned on practicability. 112 C. 606. Turning to right may be "impracticable" because of situations created by the person met. 123 C. 127−134. Finding sustained that driving slightly to the left of center line was not proximate cause of collision. 116 C. 665. Not a violation when car crosses center line involuntarily and without fault of driver. 124 C. 226. "Traveled portion" includes only that portion intended for normal travel. 114 C. 336. Excludes shoulders. 114 C. 341; id., 651; 127 C. 340. Cited. 115 C. 116; 129 C. 379; 133 C. 554.
Annotations to present section:
Enumeration of exceptions to requirement that vehicles operate on the right should also include exception applicable when a vehicle is preparing for a left turn at an intersection in a case where an overtaking police vehicle has the right-of- way. 150 C. 349. Cited. 171 C. 35, 39, 40, 42. Cited. 179 C. 388, 390. Cited. 190 C. 285, 293. Cited. 193 C. 442, 445. Cited. 206 C. 608, 610, 612. Cited. 208 C. 94, 99.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453. Cited. 30 CA 810, 815. Cited. 33 CA 44, 47.
Cited. 32 CS 650.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 569. Defendant's plea of guilty to failure to drive on right-hand side of road was not conclusive of his liability in a civil action in which he pleaded the defense of the contributory negligence of the plaintiff and the trial court concluded both parties were negligent. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 123.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 235 C. 614, 617.

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Sec. 14-230a. Restricted use of left-hand lane on divided limited access highways. On any divided limited access highway which provides more than two lanes for traffic proceeding in the same direction, no operator of any motor vehicle with a commercial registration or motor bus or vehicle with trailer shall drive in the extreme left lane where the State Traffic Commission so designates, except on the direction of a police officer or except when access to or egress from such highway is provided on the left, in which latter case he shall drive in such left lane only for such period as is reasonably necessary to enter or leave such highway safely. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall have committed an infraction and shall be fined eighty- eight dollars.
(1967, P.A. 740; P.A. 75-577, S. 77, 126; P.A. 87-525, S. 1; P.A. 90-263, S. 68, 74.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 87-525 amended the penalty provision to require imposition of a fine of eighty-eight dollars; P.A. 90-263 substituted "motor vehicle with a commercial registration" for "commercial motor vehicle".
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 171 C. 35, 39. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-231. Vehicles in opposite directions to pass on right. Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall pass each other to the right, and upon highways having width for not more than one line of traffic in each direction each driver shall give to the other at least one-half of the main-traveled portion of the highway as nearly as possible. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1383d; P.A. 75-577, S. 74, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
Submission to jury in case involving parties proceeding in same direction held material error. 147 C. 638.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 159 C. 491. Not applicable to car making left turn across path of other car and should not have been submitted to jury. 170 C. 252, 257, 258. Cited in jury charge. 172 C. 29, 35. Cited. 173 C. 229. Cited. 193 C. 442, 445. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453. Cited. 30 CA 810, 815. Cited. 33 CA 44, 47.

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Sec. 14-232. Passing. Except as provided in sections 14-233 and 14-234, (1) the driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the highway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle; and (2) the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle and shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle. No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of the highway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless the left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering with the safe operation of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction or any vehicle overtaken. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1384d; P.A. 75-577, S. 75, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
Duty to pass overtaken car on left exists though there are two lines of traffic going the same way. 107 C. 634. No right to pass on right when approaching intersection. 117 C. 619; see 129 C. 455. But may pass on right in traffic lane when following directions on signal. 122 C. 519, 520. Operator attempting right turn has right to assume other operators will observe rule concerning passing to right until he sees or should see to the contrary. 128 C. 441. Rule concerning passing does not apply when car overtaken has not started onto traveled portion. 118 C. 706. Error to charge that a person is absolutely required to give overtaking car one-half of traveled portion. 121 C. 437. Duty of pedestrian to yield left side of road to overtaking vehicle. 133 C. 365. Vehicle passing parked car does so subject to right-of-way of vehicle approaching in opposite direction. 124 C. 159. Not necessary to clear parked car by twenty feet. 131 C. 250. Cited. 133 C. 581.
Operator traveling in opposite direction who is speeding is entitled to assume that the operator of a passing vehicle will heed the injunction of the statute and such speeding does not constitute negligence. 10 CS 132.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct., 19, 20.
Annotations to present section:
Giving way to the right is not the same as "to give the right-of-way". 154 C. 381, 384. Cited. 170 C. 184. Cited. 202 C. 629, 638. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.
Subdiv. (1):
Cited. 21 CA 496, 498.

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Sec. 14-233. Passing on right. The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle only when conditions permit such movement in safety and under the following conditions: (1) When the vehicle overtaken is making or has signified the intention to make a left turn; (2) when lines of vehicles traveling in the same direction in adjoining traffic lanes have come to a stop or have reduced their speed; (3) upon a one-way street free from obstructions and of sufficient width for two or more lines of moving vehicles; (4) upon a limited access highway or parkway free from obstructions with three or more lanes provided for traffic in one direction. Such movement shall not be made by driving off the pavement or main-traveled portion of the highway except where lane designations, signs, signals or markings provide for such movement. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1387d; 1957, P.A. 258; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 20; P.A. 75-577, S. 76, 126.)
History: 1965 act added exception re when driving off pavement or main-traveled portion of road permitted; P.A. 75- 577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 147 C. 638. A charge under this section that vehicle overtaking defendant could properly pass on his right only if defendant had given signal of his intention to turn left was incorrect, since it overlooked possibility, also contemplated by this section, that defendant was actually engaged in making a left turn. 150 C. 349. Cited. 166 C. 240. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.
Cited. 38 CS 482, 483.
Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 333.

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Sec. 14-234. Determination of no-passing zones. The State Traffic Commission is authorized to determine those portions of any state highway where overtaking and passing or driving to the left of the highway would be especially hazardous and may by appropriate signs or markings on the highway indicate the beginning and end of such zones. A local traffic authority, as defined in section 14-297, may, in accordance with standards approved by the State Traffic Commission, determine and designate such no- passing zones on highways under its jurisdiction. When such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to an ordinarily observant person, each driver of a vehicle shall obey the directions thereof. Violation of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1386d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 21; P.A. 82-223, S. 16.)
History: 1965 act deleted reference to state aid highway and allowed local traffic authorities to determine and designate no-passing zones on highways under their jurisdiction; P.A. 82-223 specified that violation of the section constituted an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
In absence of specific request to charge, error cannot be predicated on court's failure to charge on statute where proper and adequate guidance on issue was otherwise given. 149 C. 385. Cited. 154 C. 381, 386. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-235. Vehicle not to be driven on left side of highway on curve or upgrade. No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the highway (1) when approaching the crest of a grade or upon a curve or elsewhere in the highway where a free and unobstructed view of the highway ahead may not be had for a sufficient distance to insure driving with safety or (2) when approaching within one hundred feet of or crossing any intersection or railroad grade crossing. These limitations shall not apply on a one- way street or highway so designated by any traffic authority. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1385d; P.A. 75-577, S. 78, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 149 C. 385; 150 C. 356. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612. Cited. 208 C. 94, 99.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.
The only intent requisite to a conviction is the intent or purpose to do the prohibited act. Without that intent, however, no crime has been committed. 24 CS 214.
Where defendant contended that he was not aware of intersection, that there were no "no passing" signs and that he had no intent to commit prohibited act, held that affirmative proof of intent is not required. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 9, 10, 11. 24 CS 214 distinguished. Id.

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Sec. 14-236. Multiple-lane highways. When any highway has been divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for traffic, (1) a vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from such lane until the driver has ascertained that such movement can be made with safety and (2) the State Traffic Commission may erect, on state highways, and local traffic authorities, in accordance with standards approved by the State Traffic Commission, may erect on highways under their jurisdiction, signs directing slow-moving traffic to use a designated lane or, with signs, signals or markings, may designate those lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction regardless of the center of the highway, and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of each such sign, signal or marking. Violation of subdivision (1) of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1388d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 22; P.A. 75-577, S. 79, 126.)
History: 1965 act deleted reference to state aid highways and added provision re local traffic authorities; P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of Subdiv. (1) is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 161 C. 204. Whether defendant violated this section and such violation was the proximate cause of the plaintiff's damage are questions for the jury. 167 C. 533. Cited. 171 C. 35, 41. Cited in jury charge. 172 C. 29, 35. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612. Cited. 211 C. 690, 696.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453. Cited. 11 CA 11, 13, 15, 16. Cited. 29 CA 512, 515. Cited. 34 CA 189−191. Cited. 46 CA 633.
Cited. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 441; 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 695.

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Sec. 14-237. Driving on divided highways. When any highway has been divided into two roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or clearly indicated dividing section, each vehicle shall be driven only upon the right-hand roadway and no vehicle shall be driven over or across any such dividing space, barrier or section, except through an opening or at a crossover or intersection established by public authority. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1389d; P.A. 75-577, S. 80, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
To require affirmative proof of an intent to commit the act prohibited would import a requirement into the statute never contemplated by the legislature. Where the course of a motor vehicle is contrary to the statute, it is usually a permissible inference that the operator of the vehicle was the responsible agent in causing it to take that course. 150 C. 35. Cited. 161 C. 204. Cited. 191 C. 266, 274. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612. Cited. 234 C. 660, 678.
Cited. 1 CA 517, 518. Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.
An esplanade dividing northbound and southbound roadways is sufficient "intervening space." 23 CS 197. Knowledge or intention forms no element of the offense. The act alone, irrespective of its motive, constitutes the crime. Id. Cited. 38 CS 675, 677.

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Sec. 14-238. Controlled-access highways. No person shall drive a vehicle onto or from any controlled-access highway except at such entrances and exits as are established by public authority. Violation of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1390d; P.A. 75-577, S. 81, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of section is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 161 C. 204. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-238a. (Formerly Sec. 13a-59). Illegal entry on limited access highway. Entry upon a limited access highway at any place other than a highway intersection or designated point as provided in section 13b-27 shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2239; 1958 Rev., S. 13-120; 1963, P.A. 226, S. 59; 587; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 79; P.A. 75-577, S. 82, 126.)
History: 1963 acts restated previous provisions (See history to Title 13a) and added provision for twenty-five dollar maximum fine; Sec. 13a-59 transferred to Sec. 14-238a in 1969; 1969 act deleted provisions re powers of commissioner with respect to limited access highways; P.A. 75-577 replaced fine provision with statement that violation of section is an infraction and substituted "Entry upon" for "Any person who enters".
See Sec. 13b-27 re commissioner's authority to designate and regulate limited access highways.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-239. One-way streets. Rotaries. (a) The State Traffic Commission may designate any state highway and local traffic authorities may designate streets and highways under their jurisdiction for one-way traffic and shall erect signs, devices or markings conforming to State Traffic Commission standards giving notice thereof. Upon any highway so designated a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction indicated.
(b) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be driven only to the right of such island, unless otherwise directed by signs or unless the length of the vehicle makes such movement impracticable.
(c) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1391d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 23; P.A. 75-577, S. 83, 126.)
History: 1965 act deleted obsolete reference to state aid highways and added provisions re local traffic authorities and traffic commission standards in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (c).
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 159 C. 91. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-240. Vehicles to be driven reasonable distance apart. (a) No driver of a motor vehicle shall follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having regard for the speed of such vehicles, the traffic upon and the condition of the highway and weather conditions.
(b) No person shall drive a vehicle in such proximity to another vehicle as to obstruct or impede traffic.
(c) Motor vehicles being driven upon any highway in a caravan shall be so operated as to allow sufficient space between such vehicles or combination of vehicles to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to funeral processions or to motor vehicles under official escort or traveling under a special permit.
(d) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction, provided any person operating a commercial vehicle combination in violation of any such provision shall have committed a violation and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one hundred fifty dollars.
(1955, S. 1392d; P.A. 75-577, S. 84, 126; P.A. 84-372, S. 6, 9; P.A. 96-180, S. 42, 166.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (d); P.A. 84-372 established higher penalty for person operating a commercial vehicle combination; P.A. 96-180 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 3, 1996.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-260n for definition of "commercial vehicle combination".
Cited. 148 C. 266; 150 C. 217, 218, 219. Request to charge this statute must be made. 154 C. 381, 387. Cited. 160 C. 128, 131. Cited. 171 C. 303, 304. Cited. 180 C. 415, 417, 418, 421. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612. Cited. 217 C. 73, 76. Cited. 231 C. 930, 931. Statute is directed against practice of "tailgating". 234 C. 401−408. Cited. Id., 408−410.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453. Cited. 11 CA 122, 124. Cited. 17 CA 209, 210. Application of "following too closely" statute discussed; statute directed against practice of "tailgating"; legislature did not intend provisions of statute to apply in all rear-end collisions. 35 CA 464, 465, 468, 469, 472, 473.
Cited. 29 CS 21. Cited. 39 CS 228, 229.
Statute not limited to situations where car ahead is moving. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 487, 488. Cited. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 107; 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 697.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 166 C. 152. Cited. 185 C. 483, 487, 488, 490. Cited. 234 C. 401, 404.
Cited. 35 CA 464, 465, 467.

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Sec. 14-240a. Vehicles to be driven reasonable distance apart. Intent to harass or intimidate. (a) No person operating a motor vehicle shall follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having regard for the speed of such vehicles, the traffic upon and the condition of the roadway or highway and weather conditions, with the intent to harass or intimidate the operator of the preceding motor vehicle.
(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than three hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days or be both fined and imprisoned for the first offense and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned.
(P.A. 84-516, S. 6.)
See Sec. 14-111g operator's retraining program.
Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453. Cited. 9 CA 686, 731.

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Sec. 14-241. Turns. (a) Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the highway.
(b) At any intersection where traffic is permitted to move in both directions on each highway entering the intersection, an approach for a left turn shall be made in that portion of the right half of the highway nearest the center line thereof and by passing to the right of such center line where it enters the intersection, and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the center line of the highway being entered.
(c) At any intersection where traffic is restricted to one direction on one or more of the highways, the driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach the intersection in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle, and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection, as nearly as practicable, in the left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in such direction upon the highway being entered.
(d) "Deceleration lane" means an added outside lane of a highway laned for traffic which immediately precedes an exit road from such highway, and "acceleration lane" means an added outside lane of a highway laned for traffic which immediately follows an entrance road into such highway. Where deceleration and acceleration lanes exist, all turns made to leave or enter the highway shall be made from or into such lanes.
(e) On any state highway the State Traffic Commission, and, on highways under their jurisdiction, local traffic authorities, may cause rotary traffic islands, signs or other devices conforming to the manual on uniform traffic control devices to be placed within or adjacent to intersections and thereby direct that a different course from that specified in this section be traveled by vehicles turning at an intersection, and when rotary traffic islands, signs or other devices are so placed, no driver shall turn a vehicle otherwise than as directed thereby.
(f) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1393d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 24; P.A. 75-577, S. 85, 126.)
History: 1965 act deleted reference to state aid highway and added references to local traffic authorities and the manual on uniform traffic control devices in Subsec. (e); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (f).
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
Mere signal by traffic officer to proceed does not excuse driver turning rapidly to left before reaching center of intersection. Effect of established custom to make short turn to left at the point. 98 C. 75. Negligence in passing to left of center of intersection when making left turn. 108 C. 185. Cited. 111 C. 729; 114 C. 404; 115 C. 296. Judgment showing defendant had pleaded guilty to information charging simply a violation of statute is not admissible as admission of negligence. 114 C. 388. Whether failure to slow down or to signal or to do both constitutes violation depends on what reasonable care requires. 116 C. 578. Under former statute impracticability of operation of bus to right of center of intersection was not a justification. 115 C. 466. Cited. 117 C. 522. Mere intention to pass to left of center is not a violation. 117 C. 609, 610. Cited. 118 C. 126. Contributory negligence in failing to keep to right of center while passing vehicle at intersection. 122 C. 6. Bicycle cutting corner. 122 C. 447; id., 611. What constitutes intersection when highway bounds are curved. 122 C. 202; see also 125 C. 553. Methods for determining center of highway and of dirt road. 126 C. 478. Passing to left of intersection is negligence per se. 125 C. 159. No exception in case of minor. 122 C. 448; but see section 52-217. Pedestrian is entitled to assume that vehicle will pass to right of center of intersection. 124 C. 692. Recovery not denied where plaintiff's failure to keep to right of center of intersection was not proximate cause of collision. 130 C. 176, 177. Under former statute requirement of keeping to right of center of intersection applied on one-way street. 133 C. 370. "Sign" at intersection includes lines on pavement for direction of traffic. 133 C. 453. Where plaintiff claimed defendant turned to left before reaching intersection, failure of court to charge that person turning to left should keep to right of center of intersection was harmful error. 134 C. 194. Violation is negligence per se but charge held adequate which stated that statute required a certain course of action. 146 C. 10. Where, in special defense of contributory negligence, defendants alleged failure to use care of reasonably prudent person, to keep proper lookout and to operate automobile in such manner as to prevent collision, reference by court in its charge to statute was proper. 149 C. 386. Cited. 163 C. 146, 147.
Cited. 14 CS 232.
Driver making right turn seven feet from curb held to have exercised due care in civil case. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 269. Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 695.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 149 C. 371; 150 C. 355. Cited. 154 C. 615, 618; 155 C. 409.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 147 C. 638.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-242. Turns restricted. Signals to be given before turning or stopping. U-turns. Left turns. Right turns when passing bicyclist. (a) No person shall turn a vehicle at an intersection unless the vehicle is in a proper position on the highway as required by section 14-241, or turn a vehicle to enter a private road or driveway or otherwise turn a vehicle from a direct course or move right or left upon a highway unless such movement can be made with reasonable safety. No person shall so turn any vehicle without giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided in section 14-244.
(b) A signal of intention to turn right or left shall be given continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet traveled by the vehicle before turning.
(c) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided in section 14-244 to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is opportunity to give such signal.
(d) No person shall turn a vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to, or near the crest of, a grade, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within five hundred feet, or at any location where signs prohibiting U-turns are posted by any traffic authority.
(e) The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into an alley, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or within the area formed by the extension of the lateral lines of the private alley, road or driveway across the full width of the public highway with which it intersects, or so close to such intersection of public highways or to the area formed by the extension of the lateral lines of said private alley, road or driveway across the full width of the public highway as to constitute an immediate hazard.
(f) No person operating a vehicle who overtakes and passes a person riding a bicycle and proceeding in the same direction shall make a right turn at any intersection or into any private road or driveway unless the turn can be made with reasonable safety and will not impede the travel of the person riding the bicycle.
(g) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1394d; 1963, P.A. 258; 1971, P.A. 66, S. 1; P.A. 75-577, S. 86, 126; P.A. 00-70.)
History: 1963 act removed qualification in Subsec. (a) that turn without signal should not be made "if any other traffic may be affected by such movement"; 1971 act added Subsec. (e); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (f); P.A. 00-70 added new Subsec. (f) to prohibit a person making a right turn in front of a bicyclist unless the turn can be made with reasonable safety and will not impede the travel of the bicyclist and redesignated former Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (g).
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Failure to signal is negligence as a matter of law but such negligence is a question of fact in determining proximate causation. 142 C. 142; 147 C. 187. Former statute cited. 145 C. 187. Violation is negligence per se but charge held adequate which stated that statute required a certain course of action. 146 C. 10. Where, in special defense of contributory negligence, defendants alleged failure to use care of reasonably prudent person, to keep proper lookout and to operate automobile in such manner as to prevent collision, reference by court in its charge to statute was proper. 149 C. 386. Cited. 163 C. 146. This statute places a duty of reasonable safety on a driver who wishes to turn left into a private alleyway. 165 C. 422, 432. Whether defendant violated this section and such violation was the proximate cause of the plaintiff's damage are questions for the jury. 167 C. 533. Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited 4 CA 451, 453−456. Cited. 22 CA 142, 144, 167, 168. Cited. 36 CA 710, 712. Cited. 43 CA 636.
Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 694.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 149 C. 371, 372; 150 C. 355. No exception to signal requirement exists merely because there is no risk of collision in making turn. 154 C. 620. Cited. 155 C. 409. Cited. 166 C. 240. Plaintiff stopped his vehicle at curb and then turned left into driveway without signalling. This was violation of this subsection not subsection (b). 168 C. 64.
Cited. 43 CA 636.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 149 C. 371, 372; 150 C. 355. See 154 C. 620 above. Cited. 155 C. 409. See 168 C. 64 above.
Cited. 30 CA 742, 750.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 179 C. 388, 389. Cited. 234 C. 660, 681.
Cited. 2 CA 164. Cited. 17 CA 471, 472. Cited. 22 CA 142, 167.

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Sec. 14-243. Starting or backing vehicle. (a) No person shall move a vehicle which is stopped, standing or parked unless such movement can be made with reasonable safety and without interfering with other traffic, nor without signalling as provided by section 14-244.
(b) No person shall back a vehicle unless such movement can be made with reasonable safety and without interfering with other traffic.
(c) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1396d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 25; P.A. 75-577, S. 87, 126.)
History: 1965 act added "and without interfering with other traffic" to Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (c).
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
In request to charge, party must employ greater specificity than mere paraphrase of certain portions of statute without hint of their applicability to, or operative effect on, the case. 149 C. 541.
Cited. 10 CS 68.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 3 CA 391.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 180 C. 137, 138.

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Sec. 14-244. Signals. Any stop or turn signal required by section 14-242 or 14- 243 may be given either by means of the hand and arm or by a signal lamp or lamps or mechanical signal device. Hand signals shall be as follows: (1) To stop or decrease speed: Hand and arm extended downward; (2) to turn left or to leave or draw away from a curb or the edge of the highway: Hand and arm extended horizontally with forefinger pointed; (3) to turn right: Hand and arm extended upward. Each operator of a motor vehicle who makes a turn signal by means of signal lamps or mechanical signal device shall turn in the direction indicated and return such signal to the nonoperating position immediately after completing the movement for which a signal has been given. Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1395d; 1957, P.A. 137; 1971, P.A. 23; P.A. 75-577, S. 88, 126.)
History: 1971 act changed hand signals for stopping or decreasing speed and for making right turn; P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Backing in highway without signal. 108 C. 562; 111 C. 364. Stopping without signal; duty of driver following to use reasonable care. 125 C. 472. Failing to signal intention of slackening and changing direction. 130 C. 381. Instructions to jury concerning change of direction. 121 C. 509. Failure to signal affords basis of recovery only if proximate cause of damage. 122 C. 262. Failure to signal as a substantial factor in producing accident. 127 C. 313. As not a substantial factor. 125 C. 75. Driver entitled to assume boy on bicycle would signal until he knew or should have known assumption was unwarranted. 125 C. 63. Statute is not limited to vehicles operated on traveled portion. 116 C. 253. Mere act of turning is not sufficient signal. 115 C. 468. Stoplight to be adequate signal must light up before stopping begins. 117 C. 615. Hand signal is not required in preference to mechanical signal. 122 C. 217; 127 C. 288. Cited. 114 C. 421; 129 C. 537. Jury could find that proper signals were given. 135 C. 627. Violation is negligence per se but charge held adequate which stated that statute required a certain course of action. 146 C. 10. Cited. 149 C. 371, 372. Where, in special defense of contributory negligence, defendants alleged failure to use care of reasonably prudent person, to keep proper lookout and to operate automobile in such manner as to prevent collision, reference by court in its charge to statute was proper. 149 C. 386. Cited. 154 C. 615, 618; 155 C. 409. Whether defendant violated this section and such violation was the proximate cause of the plaintiff's damage are questions for the jury. 167 C. 533.
Cited. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 694.

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Sec. 14-245. Intersection. Right-of-way. As used in this section and subsection (e) of section 14-242, "intersection" means the area common to two or more highways which cross each other. Each driver of a vehicle approaching an intersection shall grant the right-of-way at such intersection to any vehicle approaching from his right when such vehicles are arriving at such intersection at approximately the same time, unless otherwise directed by a traffic officer. Failure to grant the right-of-way as provided in this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1397d; 1971, P.A. 299, S. 1; P.A. 73-616, S. 11; P.A. 75-577, S. 89, 126.)
History: 1971 act defined "intersection"; P.A. 73-616 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 14-246 and referred instead to Subsec. (e) of Sec. 14-242; P.A. 75-577 stated that failure to grant right-of-way is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
"Intersection of a street" and "arriving at such intersection at approximately the same time" defined. That cars are approaching so as to arrive simultaneously is important element. 95 C. 701; 96 C. 19; id., 508; 101 C. 443, 444; 104 C. 737. Test is not time of arrival at entrance to intersection, but reasonable apprehension of collision on part of driver on left. 109 C. 33; id., 37; 127 C. 450; id., 651; 130 C. 645; 133 C. 431. One with right of way may assume other will yield it until as a reasonable man he is charged with knowledge to the contrary. 109 C. 33, 37; 127 C. 450, 651; 130 C. 651. Driver coming from right has right of way though traveling on left side of his road. 107 C. 710. But not if the other car had nearly passed the intersection when car from right reached it. 108 C. 604. Respective duties of motorman and chauffeur approaching at right angles. 100 C. 365. When vehicle which has entered intersection has right of way over vehicle on right. 117 C. 676; 118 C. 679; 130 C. 98; 132 C. 476. Rule at intersecting streets applies when one of two cars approaching each other on same street intends to make left turn. 109 C. 484; 111 C. 729. That car making turn enters intersection first does not necessarily give it right of way. 124 C. 264. One having right of way at intersection is bound to operate as would a reasonably prudent person having knowledge that he has right of way. 106 C. 146; 108 C. 12; 124 C. 264; 130 C. 204. One having right of way at intersection has precedence in passing through and right not to be obstructed and delayed by any person who could reasonably avoid doing so. 123 C. 298. Right of way and duty of driver approaching green light at intersection; section 14-299 applies, not this section. 114 C. 637. That cars came together outside intersection will not defeat recovery if collision was caused by failure to grant right of way at intersection. 124 C. 263. Operator of vehicle approaching intersection from right who complies with stop regulation has superior right of way if vehicles arrive at approximately same time. 130 C. 400; 133 C. 455. Rules which apply when operator does not see car approaching from right; 130 C. 646; where bus obscures vision of both operators. 130 C. 223. Statute regulating right of way does not apply when cars are approaching intersection on same street and from same direction. 135 C. 443. Test concerning right of way is not time of arrival at entrance to intersection but reasonable apprehension of collision on part of driver approaching from left. 135 C. 446. Cited. 135 C. 600. If by failure to use reasonable care plaintiff did not see approaching taxicab, knowledge of what such a lookout must have revealed is imputed to him. 136 C. 97. If an ordinarily prudent person in position of driver on the left would reasonably believe that if the two cars continued at speed at which they were then moving it would involve risk of collision, driver on left should yield right of way. 137 C. 600. Since finding determined that defendant's invasion of part of highway to his left was involuntary, statute is inapplicable. 137 C. 640. Arriving at intersection first is not a test of the right of way but a factor to be considered by the trier in deciding whether the cars are arriving at approximately the same time. 138 C. 183. Statute imposes no general prohibition against driving in the middle of road. 138 C. 313. Cited. 138 C. 355; 140 C. 376. Violation is negligence per se but charge held adequate which stated that statute required a certain course of action. 146 C. 10. One with statutory right of way can be found negligent. Id. Test of statutory right of way or common law right to proceed is not time of arrival at entrance to intersection. 147 C. 540. Cited. 154 C. 23, 26; id., 615, 620. Where plaintiff failed to grant right of way to defendant's automobile which had already entered street intersection at his right, his failure to do so constituted negligence which was a substantial factor in producing his injuries and judgment for plaintiff is set aside. 157 C. 139. Right-of-way rule is inapplicable to an intersection controlled by a stop sign. 165 C. 635.
Statute not applicable to pedestrians. 3 CS 220. Cited. 9 CS 98; 12 CS 237; 13 CS 293; 15 CS 93; 16 CS 398; 18 CS 489.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 19. Contributory negligence as a defense has no application in a criminal case. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 42. Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 652, (fn. 1).
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 206 C. 608, 612. Cited. 234 C. 660, 678, 681.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-246. Right-of-way at intersection turn. Section 14-246 is repealed.
(1955, S. 1398d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 26; 1971, P.A. 66, S. 2.)
See Sec. 14-242 (e).

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Sec. 14-246a. Right-of-way at junction of highways. The driver of any vehicle on a highway which joins but does not cross another highway shall, unless otherwise directed by a traffic officer, grant the right-of-way at the point where such highways join to any vehicle approaching on the other highway from either direction when such vehicles are arriving at approximately the same time at the area which would be common to both highways if they crossed each other. Failure to grant the right-of-way as provided by this section shall be an infraction.
(1971, P.A. 299, S. 2; P.A. 75-577, S. 90, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that failure to grant right-of-way is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-247. Right of way at driveway or private road. The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from a private road or driveway shall yield the right of way to all vehicles approaching on such highway. Failure to grant the right of way as provided by this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1399d; P.A. 75-577, S. 91, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 made failure to grant right-of-way an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-295 re assessment of double or treble damages.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Annotations to former section:
Rule denying right-of-way to user of private way is not merely an exception to rule that car on right has right-of-way at intersection. 110 C. 358. Duty of operator coming out of private way is to give vehicle on highway fair and reasonable opportunity to pass. Id. Cited. 117 C. 699. User of private way has no right to drive out when this involves danger of collision. 127 C. 374.
Cited. 9 CS 142. Entry onto public highway from a private driveway discussed. 10 CS 183.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 206 C. 608, 612.
Cited. 4 CA 451, 453.

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Sec. 14-247a. Right-of-way yielded by one emerging from alley, driveway or building. The driver of a vehicle within a business or residence area, emerging from an alley, driveway or building, shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across any alleyway or driveway, and shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian as may be necessary to avoid collision, and upon entering the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on such roadway. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 27; P.A. 75-577, S. 92, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-248. Cattle crossings. Section 14-248 is repealed.
(1955, S. 1400d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 44.)
See Sec. 14-248a.

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Sec. 14-248a. Cattle crossings. The Commissioner of Transportation, or the local traffic authority on highways under its jurisdiction, shall control the placing of cattle crossing signs within the limits of the traveled portion of the roadway of any public highway. No such cattle crossing sign shall be so placed without the securing of a permit from said commissioner or such traffic authority, as the case may be, which permit shall specify the size, color, wording and placement of such signs. Cattle crossing signs shall be so placed only when animals are actually crossing or are about to cross the roadway. When such signs are in position, the operator of any vehicle shall appropriately reduce speed or stop if necessary to avoid endangering or striking any animal crossing the roadway. Failure to reduce speed or stop in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 28; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 141; P.A. 75-577, S. 93, 126.)
History: 1969 act replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 75-577 stated that failure to reduce speed or stop as specified in section is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-249. Stopping at grade crossings. Any operator of a motor vehicle who fails to bring his motor vehicle to a full stop at a railroad grade crossing when warned of an approaching locomotive or a train by flashing lights erected at such grade crossing pursuant to an order of the Commissioner of Transportation and to refrain from passing over such crossing until the approaching locomotive or train has passed such crossing shall be fined one hundred fifty dollars.
(1955, S. 1401d; P.A. 75-486, S. 42, 69; 75-577, S. 94, 126; P.A. 77-614, S. 571, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; 78-372, S. 4, 5, 7; P.A. 87-449, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of section is an infraction and made technical grammatical change; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced public utilities control authority with commissioner of transportation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-372 expanded provisions by making failure "to refrain from passing over such crossing until the approaching locomotive or train shall have passed such crossing" an infraction; P.A. 87-449 increased penalty from an infraction to a one-hundred-fifty-dollar fine.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See Sec. 14-301(e) re stopping at stop signs posted at grade crossings.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-250. Certain motor vehicles to stop at railroad crossing. The operator of each commercial motor vehicle transporting passengers, motor bus, service bus or of each motor vehicle used for the transportation of school children and the operator of each commercial motor vehicle carrying hazardous materials, as defined in section 14- 1, whether loaded or empty, before crossing at grade any track or tracks of a railroad, shall stop such vehicle not less than ten feet nor more than fifty feet from the nearest rail of such track, and, while so stopped, shall listen and look in each direction along such track or tracks for approaching locomotives or trains before crossing such track or tracks; and such operator shall not, in any event, cross such track or tracks when warned by automatic signal, crossing gates, flagman or otherwise of the approach of a railroad locomotive or train. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2418; P.A. 76-381, S. 13; P.A. 87-449, S. 2; P.A. 90-263, S. 24, 74; P.A. 94-189, S. 15.)
History: P.A. 76-381 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine and/or thirty days' maximum imprisonment with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 87-449 changed penalty from an infraction to a fine ranging from one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty dollars; P.A. 90-263 deleted reference to public service motor vehicle, inserting commercial motor vehicle transporting passengers, taxicab, motor vehicle in livery service, motor bus and service bus in lieu thereof and substituted commercial motor vehicle carrying "hazardous materials as defined in section 14-1" for explosive substances or poisonous or compressed inflammable gases as cargo or used for the transportation of inflammable or corrosive liquids in bulk; P.A. 94-189 removed operators of taxicabs and motor vehicles in livery service from provisions of section.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Violation of statute is negligence as a matter of law. 140 C. 319, reversing 17 CS 492. Cited. 145 C. 714.
Where plaintiff failed to stop at railway crossing, contributory negligence not established as matter of law. 17 CS 492 (reversed 140 C. 319).

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Sec. 14-250a. Vehicles prohibited on sidewalks. No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon, nor shall any motor vehicle be left parked, standing or stopped on or across, any public sidewalk except to cross such sidewalk to enter or leave adjacent areas or to perform necessary sidewalk construction, maintenance or snow removal. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 18; P.A. 75-577, S. 95, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 made violation of provisions an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 30 CA 742, 750.

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Sec. 14-251. Parking vehicles. No vehicle shall be permitted to remain stationary within ten feet of any fire hydrant, or upon the traveled portion of any highway except upon the right-hand side of such highway in the direction in which such vehicle is headed; and, if such highway is curbed, such vehicle shall be so placed that its right-hand wheels, when stationary, shall, when safety will permit, be within a distance of twelve inches from the curb. No vehicle shall be permitted to remain parked within twenty-five feet of an intersection or a marked crosswalk thereat, or within twenty-five feet of a stop sign caused to be erected by the traffic authority in accordance with the provisions of section 14-301. No vehicle shall be permitted to remain stationary upon the traveled portion of any highway at any curve or turn or at the top of any grade where a clear view of such vehicle may not be had from a distance of at least one hundred and fifty feet in either direction. The Commissioner of Transportation may post signs upon any highway at any place where the keeping of a vehicle stationary is dangerous to traffic, and the keeping of any vehicle stationary contrary to the directions of such signs shall be a violation of this section. No vehicle shall be permitted to remain stationary upon the traveled portion of any highway within fifty feet of the point where another vehicle, which had previously stopped, continues to remain stationary on the opposite side of the traveled portion of the same highway. No vehicle shall be permitted to remain stationary within the limits of a public highway in such a manner as to constitute a traffic hazard or obstruct the free movement of traffic thereon, provided a vehicle which has become disabled to such an extent that it is impossible or impracticable to remove it may be permitted to so remain for a reasonable time for the purpose of making repairs thereto or of obtaining sufficient assistance to remove it. Nothing in this section shall be construed to apply to emergency vehicles and to maintenance vehicles displaying flashing lights or to prohibit a vehicle from stopping, or being held stationary by any officer, in an emergency to avoid accident or to give a right-of-way to any vehicle or pedestrian as provided in this chapter, or from stopping on any highway within the limits of an incorporated city, town or borough where the parking of vehicles is regulated by local ordinances. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2509; 1959, P.A. 283, S. 3; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 142; P.A. 75-577, S. 96, 126.)
History: 1959 act excepted emergency vehicles and maintenance vehicles displaying flashing lights from provisions of section; 1969 act replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 75-577 made violation of provisions an infraction.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See Sec. 14-307 re parking restrictions.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
See 108 C. 197. Shoulder is not part of "traveled portion" of highway. 114 C. 336; id., 651; 127 C. 340. Statute does not authorize parking on traveled portion without other precautions, if necessary, than those expressly required by it. 116 C. 574. Cited. 121 C. 439. What constitutes traveled portion is question of fact. 127 C. 341. Is not repealed by definition of "parked vehicle" in section 14-1 but is intended to be read with it. 142 C. 592. Violation of this section constitutes negligence as a matter of law; but for such negligence to be actionable, it must be proven to have been a proximate cause of decedent's injury. 153 C. 64. Cited. 162 C. 462, 465. Cited. 170 C. 74, 75, 77, 78. Cited. 174 C. 275, 277.
Cited. 17 CA 697−700, 702, 703.
Cited. 23 CS 211. Use of word "impracticable" as well as "impossible" in this section implies other factors besides mechanical condition of car are involved in deciding whether disabled car exception in this section applies. The word "disabled" in this section which prohibits stationary vehicles on highways except those which are disabled must be construed as applying not only to vehicles which cannot be moved under their own power but also to those which cannot be removed with reasonable safety and without creating danger greater than that which exists from their being stationary. 33 CS 49, 50. Cited. Id., 49−51. Court must find facts sufficient to support conclusion that plaintiff negligent because of his violation of the statute including facts negating the application of any statutory exceptions. 37 CS 574, 576 −578.
Cited. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 217.

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Sec. 14-252. Parking so as to obstruct driveway. No person shall park or leave stationary on a public highway any vehicle in front of or so as to obstruct or interfere with the ingress to or egress from any private driveway or alleyway, except with the permission of the owner of such private driveway or alleyway. Such parking or stationary position of any vehicle with such permission shall be subject to existing parking regulations. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2510; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 29; P.A. 75-577, S. 101, 126.)
History: 1965 act added provision requiring compliance with parking regulations when blocking drive or alley; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for twenty-five dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-253. Parking privileges of handicapped persons. Section 14-253 is repealed.
(1957, P.A. 415; P.A. 73-217; P.A. 76-427, S. 4.)

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Sec. 14-253a. Special license plates and removable windshield placards for blind persons and persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk. Parking spaces. Penalty. Regulations. (a) For the purposes of this section:
(1) "Special license plate" means a license plate displaying the international symbol of access in a size identical to that of the letters or numerals on the plate and in a color that contrasts with the background color of the plate;
(2) "Removable windshield placard" means a two-sided, hanger-style placard which bears on both of its sides: (A) The international symbol of access in a height of three inches or more centered on such placard and colored white on a blue background; (B) a unique identification number; (C) a date of expiration; and (D) a statement indicating that the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles issued such placard.
(3) "Temporary removable windshield placard" means a placard that is the same as a removable windshield placard except that the international symbol of access appears on a red background.
(b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall accept applications and renewal applications for special license plates and removable windshield placards from (1) any person who is blind, as defined in section 1-1f; (2) any person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, as defined in 23 CFR Part 1235.2; (3) any parent or guardian of any blind person or person with disabilities who is under eighteen years of age at the time of application; and (4) any organization which meets criteria established by the commissioner and which certifies to the commissioner's satisfaction that the vehicle for which a plate or placard is requested is primarily used to transport blind persons or persons with disabilities which limit or impair their ability to walk. Such applications shall be on a form prescribed by the commissioner and shall include certification of disability from a licensed physician or of blindness from an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. In the case of persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, the application shall also include certification from a licensed physician or a member of the handicapped driver training unit established pursuant to section 14-11b, that the applicant meets the definition of persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, as defined in 23 CFR Section 1235.2. The commissioner, in said commissioner's discretion, may accept the discharge papers of a disabled veteran, as defined in section 14-254, in lieu of such certification. The commissioner may require additional certification at the time of the original application or at any time thereafter. If a person who has been requested to submit additional certification fails to do so within thirty days of the request, or if such additional certification is deemed by the commissioner to be unfavorable to the applicant, the commissioner may refuse to issue or, if already issued, suspend or revoke such special license plate or removable windshield placard. The fee for the issuance of a temporary removable windshield placard shall be five dollars. Any person whose application has been denied or whose special license plate or removable windshield placard has been suspended or revoked shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.
(c) Any person who is eligible to obtain a special license plate pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and who has a motor vehicle registered in his name as a passenger vehicle, passenger and commercial vehicle or motorcycle shall be issued, upon approval of the application, number plates in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of section 14-21b, which shall bear letters or numerals or any combination thereof followed by the international access symbol. The registration of any motor vehicle for which a special license plate is issued shall expire and be renewed as provided in section 14-22 and be subject to the fee provisions of section 14-49. Any person eligible to obtain a special license plate pursuant to this section who transfers the expired registration of a motor vehicle owned by him and replaces his number plate with a special license plate shall be exempt from payment of any fee for such transfer or replacement. Any special license plate issued pursuant to this section shall be returned to the commissioner upon the subsequent change of residence to another state or death of the person to whom such special license plate was issued.
(d) Any removable windshield placard issued pursuant to this section shall be displayed by hanging it from the front windshield rearview mirror of the vehicle when utilizing a parking space reserved for persons with disabilities. If there is no rearview mirror in such vehicle, the placard shall be displayed in clear view on the dashboard of such vehicle. Upon request and payment of a fee prescribed by the commissioner, one additional placard shall be issued to applicants who do not have special license plates.
(e) Vehicles displaying a special license plate or a removable windshield placard issued pursuant to this section or by authorities of other states or countries for the purpose of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize parking spaces reserved for persons with disabilities which limit or impair their ability to walk or blind persons, shall be allowed to park in an area where parking is legally permissible, for an unlimited period of time without penalty, notwithstanding the period of time indicated as lawful by any (1) parking meter, or (2) sign erected and maintained in accordance with the provisions of chapter 249, provided the operator of or a passenger in such motor vehicle is a blind person or a person with disabilities. A removable windshield placard shall not be displayed on any motor vehicle when such vehicle is not being operated by or carrying as a passenger the blind person or a person with disabilities to whom the removable windshield placard was issued. Vehicles bearing a special license plate shall not utilize parking spaces reserved for persons with disabilities when such vehicles are not being operated by or carrying as a passenger the blind person or a person with disabilities to whom such special license plate was issued.
(f) Only those motor vehicles displaying a plate or placard issued pursuant to this section shall be authorized to park in public or private areas reserved for exclusive use by blind persons or persons with disabilities, except that any ambulance, as defined in section 19a-175, which is transporting a patient may park in such area for a period not to exceed fifteen minutes while assisting such patient. Any motor vehicle parked in violation of the provisions of this subsection for the third or subsequent time shall be subject to being towed from such designated area. Such vehicle shall be impounded until payment of any fines incurred is received. No person, firm or corporation engaged in the business of leasing or renting motor vehicles without drivers in this state may be held liable for any acts of the lessee constituting a violation of the provisions of this subsection.
(g) The State Traffic Commission, on any state highway, or local traffic authority, on any highway or street under its control, shall establish parking spaces in parking areas for twenty or more cars in which parking shall be prohibited to all motor vehicles except vehicles displaying a special license plate or a removable windshield placard issued pursuant to this section. Parking spaces in which parking shall be prohibited to all motor vehicles except vehicles displaying such special plate or placard shall be established in private parking areas for two hundred or more cars according to the following schedule:

Total Number of Parking Lot Spaces Number of Special Parking Spaces Required
0 − 200 Exempt
201 − 1000 1.0%
1001 − 2000 10 plus 0.8% of spaces over 1000
2001 − 3000 18 plus 0.6% of spaces over 2000
3001 − 4000 24 plus 0.4% of spaces over 3000
4001 or more 28 plus 0.2% of spaces over 4000

All such spaces shall be designated as reserved for exclusive use by handicapped persons and identified by the use of signs in accordance with subsection (h) of this section. Such parking spaces shall be adjacent to curb cuts or other unobstructed methods permitting sidewalk access to a blind or handicapped person and shall be fifteen feet wide, including three feet of cross hatch, or be parallel to a sidewalk. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply (1) in the event the State Building Code imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of the private parking area in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required or (2) in the event a municipal ordinance imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of existing private parking areas in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required.
(h) Parking spaces designated for the handicapped on or after October 1, 1979, shall be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and shall be fifteen feet wide including three feet of cross hatch, or parallel to a sidewalk on a public highway. Such spaces shall be designated by above grade signs with white lettering against a blue background and shall bear the words "handicapped parking permit required" and "violators will be fined". Such sign shall also bear the international symbol of access. When such a sign is replaced, repaired or erected it shall indicate the minimum fine for a violation of subsection (f) of this section. Such indicator may be in the form of a notice affixed to such a sign.
(i) Any public parking garage or terminal as defined in the state building code constructed on and after October 1, 1985, shall have nine feet six inches vertical clearance at a primary entrance and along the route to at least two parking spaces which conform with the requirements of subsection (h) of this section and which have nine feet six inches vertical clearance unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 29-269.
(j) The commissioner may suspend or revoke any plate or placard issued pursuant to this section when, after affording the person to whom such plate or placard was issued an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with chapter 54, the commissioner or his representative determines that such person has used or permitted the use of such plate or placard in a manner which violates the provisions of this section.
(k) Nothing in this section may be construed to allow a blind person or a person with disabilities who is a bona fide resident of the state to park in a public or private area reserved for the exclusive use of handicapped persons as provided in this section if such person does not display upon or within his vehicle a plate or placard issued pursuant to this section.
(l) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction, provided the fine for violation of the provisions of subsection (f) shall be not less than eighty-five dollars.
(m) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the provisions of this chapter and to establish a uniform system for the issuance, renewal and regulation of special license plates, removable windshield placards and temporary removable windshield placards. Such plates and placards shall be used only by persons to whom such plates and placards are issued.
(P.A. 76-427, S. 1−3; P.A. 77-366, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-144; P.A. 80-367, S. 1−3; 80-466, S. 23, 25; P.A. 81-172, S. 14; P.A. 82-420, S. 1, 4; P.A. 83-412, S. 2, 5; P.A. 84-377, S. 1, 4; 84-546, S. 44, 173; P.A. 85-206; P.A. 86-103; 86-388, S. 27, 31; P.A. 87-304, S. 3; P.A. 88-32, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-74, S. 2; P.A. 90-300, S. 1, 2, 8; P.A. 94-189, S. 16; P.A. 95-325, S. 12, 16; P.A. 99-268, S. 24, 25, 34, 44; P.A. 00-169, S. 18, 19, 22, 34, 36.)
History: P.A. 77-366 included reference to vehicles with special license plates in Subsec. (c) and clarified parking permission for vehicles with special plates in Subsec. (e); P.A. 79-144 greatly expanded provisions, revising Subsec. (a), inserting new Subsec. (b), revising former Subsec. (b) and redesignating it as (c), inserting new Subsec. (d), revising former Subsec. (c) and redesignating it as (e), deleting former Subsecs. (d) and (e), inserting new Subsecs. (f) to (i), replacing former provision for ninety-nine dollar maximum fine with statement that violation is an infraction in former Subsec. (f) and redesignating it as Subsec. (j); P.A. 80-367 amended Subsec. (c) to delete reference to plates in provision re display and to add provision prohibiting use of plate for special parking privileges when car not conveying handicapped person and amended Subsec. (e) to add provisions re parking spaces in parking areas for two hundred or more cars; P.A. 80-466 replaced references to set of plates in Subsec. (b) with reference to single plate; P.A. 81-172 amended Subsec. (a) by providing for a five-year, rather than one-year validity period for a special parking identification card; P.A. 82-420 allowed nonprofit organizations that transport handicapped persons to obtain special parking identification cards; P.A. 83-412 deleted all references to nonprofit organizations which transport handicapped persons, thereby eliminating their parking privileges, provided for the phase-out of the special "HP" license plate and its replacement by a special international symbol of access license plate and provided that the provisions of Subsec. (e) are not applicable where an ordinance or state building code specifies more stringent requirements re size of parking area or number of special parking spaces; P.A. 84-377 amended (1) Subsec. (a), providing for (A) a fee of two dollars for the original issuance and renewal of special parking identification cards, a period of validity of two, rather than five, years for such cards and requiring different colors for renewal cards; (B) specific information in the physician's certification of impairment of ability to walk; (C) authorization for commissioner to require additional certification; (D) submission of notorized statement or personal appearance by applicant to request identification and (E) issuance of temporary special parking identification cards, (2) Subsec. (b), providing that special license plates may bear letters or any combination of numerals or letters and that identification issued be returned upon death or change in legal residence to another state, (3) Subsec. (d), providing for towing of vehicles parked in violation of Subsec. (d) for third or subsequent time and impounding of such vehicles, (4) Subsec. (f), requiring a warning and the international symbol of access in above grade signs, and (5) Subsec. (g), inserting new language re required vertical clearance for parking garages or terminals constructed on and after October 1, 1985, relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (j); P.A. 85-206 amended Subsec. (g), requiring that parking spaces in garages or terminals conform with the requirements of Subsec. (f); P.A. 86-103 permitted the issuance of special parking identification cards to blind persons and permitted the issuance of special license plates to handicapped persons who own motorcycles; P.A. 86-388 amended Subsecs. (a) to (c), inclusive, substituting "number" plate for license plate and including reference to issuance of a set of plates in accordance with provisions of Sec. 14-21b(a); P.A. 87-304 amended Subsec. (b) to increase fee for issuance of special number plate from five to ten dollars and exempt any handicapped person who transfers an unexpired registration and replaces number plate with special plate from payment of fees for transfer or replacement; P.A. 88-32 amended Subsec. (a) to require M.D. certification of blindness or "permanent" impairment of ability to walk only at time of original application and amended Subsec. (k) to require that the fine for violation of Subsec. (d) be a minimum of eighty-five dollars; P.A. 89-74 amended Subsec. (a) to permit optometrists to certify blindness at the time of original application and to delete requirement that permanent impairment of walking ability be certified at time original application is made; P.A. 90-300 amended Subsec. (e) to add two subdivision designations in the last sentence re exceptions and to insert new language as Subdiv. (2) "in the event a municipal ordinance imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of existing private parking areas..." and amended Subsec. (g) to insert "public" before "parking garage or terminal" and "as defined in the state building code" thereafter, to require that vertical clearance be provided at a primary entrance and to add language concerning an exemption granted pursuant to Sec. 29-269(b); P.A. 94-189 substantially revised provisions of section deleting former Subsecs. (a), (b), (c) and (j) re special parking identification cards and license plates with new provisions, relettering former Subsecs. (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i) and (k) accordingly and making technical changes; P.A. 95-325 amended Subsec. (f) to specify when ambulances transporting patients may park in reserved area, effective July 13, 1995; P.A. 99-268 amended Subsec. (b) by allowing the commissioner to accept discharge papers of a disabled veteran for establishing that such veteran meets the definition of a person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, amended Subsec. (e) to revise provisions re parking without penalty in legally permissible parking areas for unlimited periods of time, notwithstanding periods indicated by parking meters or signs, and amended Subsec. (h) by increasing designated parking space size from fifteen feet wide, including three feet of cross hatch, to sixteen feet wide, including seven feet of cross hatch, and by requiring parking space signs to indicate the minimum fine for a violation of Subsec. (f); P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by removing provision stating a placard is valid for a period of five years from the date of issuance, Subsec. (b) by deleting reference to the five-dollar fee re applications and renewal applications for special license plates and removable windshield placards, and by adding a provision requiring a five-dollar fee for temporary removable windshield placard, effective October 1, 2000, and Subsec. (h) by changing parking space size requirements from "sixteen feet wide including seven feet of cross hatch" to "fifteen feet wide including three feet of cross hatch", effective June 1, 2000, and revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section.
See Sec. 14-325b re refueling privileges for handicapped persons.

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Sec. 14-253b. Municipal police departments to report violations of handicapped parking laws. Section 14-253b is repealed.
(P.A. 84-377, S. 2, 4; P.A. 94-188, S. 29.)

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Sec. 14-254. Parking privileges of disabled veterans. "Disabled veteran", as used in this section, means any veteran who served in time of war, as defined by section 27-103, and one or both of whose legs or arms or parts thereof have been amputated or the use of which has been lost or who is blind, paraplegic or hemiplegic, such disability being certified as service-connected by the Veterans' Administration. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, upon application of any disabled veteran accompanied by such certificate of the Veterans' Administration, shall issue without charge a special number plate or set of plates in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of section 14-21b to be attached to a passenger motor vehicle owned or operated by such veteran and an identification card to be used in connection therewith. The card shall identify the veteran and the motor vehicle and shall state that he is a disabled veteran qualified to receive the card, that the card, plate or plates shall be returned to the commissioner if the registration of the motor vehicle is cancelled or transferred, that the card is for the exclusive use of the person to whom it is issued, is not transferable and will be revoked if presented by any other person or if any privilege granted under this section is abused. If not so revoked, the card shall be renewable every four years at the time of registration of motor vehicles. No penalty shall be imposed for the overtime parking of any motor vehicle bearing a number plate issued under this section when it has been so parked by the disabled veteran to whom the plate and an identification card were issued or by any person operating such vehicle when accompanied by such veteran, provided the length of time for which such vehicle may remain parked at any one location shall not exceed twenty-four hours. The surviving spouse of a disabled veteran issued such special registration may retain any such registration and number plates without charge for his or her lifetime or until such time as he or she remarries.
(1957, P.A. 164; 1959, P.A. 80, S. 1; P.A. 82-138, S. 1; P.A. 86-388, S. 28, 31; P.A. 97-236, S. 17, 27.)
History: 1959 act redefined disabled veteran to include person who has lost the use of his arms or legs; P.A. 82-138 changed the renewal period for the identification card from annually to every four years; P.A. 86-388 substituted "number" plate for identification plate and included reference to issuance of a set of plates in accordance with provisions of Sec. 14- 21b(a); P.A. 97-236 added provision to permit the surviving spouse of a disabled veteran to retain the special registration without charge for lifetime or until remarriage, effective June 24, 1997.

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Secs. 14-255 and 14-256. Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment. Following vehicle to dim lights. Sections 14-255 and 14-256 are repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2438; 1955, S. 1334d; 1957, P.A. 106; 1967, P.A. 834, S. 30.)
See Sec. 14-96u.

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Sec. 14-257. Crowded seats. Riders on outside of vehicle. Aisle seats. (a) No person shall operate any vehicle upon any public highway or other public place when the operator thereof is crowded or hampered by any person beside or in front of him or by reason of having in such vehicle more than the number of persons for whom reasonable and safe seating space is provided. No person shall operate any motor vehicle, except one in use by a fire or police department or in the regular conduct of business by any public utility or public or private refuse collection service or except a state or municipal maintenance vehicle, when any person is riding upon the running board, fender, hood or top of such vehicle.
(b) No person shall operate any motor vehicle used for the transportation of passengers for hire having seats placed in any aisle.
(c) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2426; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 30; P.A. 75-577, S. 102, 126; P.A. 84-292; P.A. 90-263, S. 51, 74.)
History: 1965 act deleted restriction of provisions to crowded "front" seats, deleted provision authorizing repairmen to ride outside vehicles, deleted graduated penalty schedule and added provisions re hampering the driver and public utility and municipal maintenance exceptions; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine in Subsec. (c) with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 84-292 amended Subsec. (a), permitting riders on the outside of public or private refuse collection vehicles; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute "motor vehicle used for the transportation of passengers for hire" for "public service motor vehicle or motor bus".
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Question of fact whether seating capacity of front seat is sufficient for three persons. 121 C. 96. See 123 C. 353.
Cited. 40 CA 495, 497.

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Secs. 14-258 and 14-259. Use of metal tires restricted. Use of radio telephones. Sections 14-258 and 14-259 are repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2495; 1949, 1955, S. 1338d; 1969, P.A. 446, S. 2; 768, S. 143; P.A. 73-544, S. 25; P.A. 75-577, S. 103, 126; P.A. 77-19, S. 1.)

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Sec. 14-260. Filling tanks. Placing gasoline or other fuel in the tank of any vehicle while the engine of such vehicle is running shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2511; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 31; P.A. 75-577, S. 97, 126.)
History: 1965 act deleted the word "motor" before the word "vehicle"; P.A. 75-577 replaced prohibition against filling tank while engine running with statement that doing so is an infraction.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Secs. 14-260a to 14-260m. Reserved for future use.

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Sec. 14-260n. Definitions. As used in this section and sections 14-219, 14-240, 14-261, 14-261a and 14-262:
(1) "Gross weight" means the light weight of a vehicle plus the weight of any load thereon, provided, in the case of a tractor-trailer unit, "gross weight" means the light weight of the tractor plus the light weight of the trailer or semitrailer plus the weight of the load thereon.
(2) "Semitrailer" means any vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a motor vehicle that some part of its own weight and load rests upon or is carried by another vehicle.
(3) "Trailer" means any rubber-tired vehicle without motive power drawn or propelled by a motor vehicle, including, but not limited to, a semitrailer.
(4) "Truck" means every motor vehicle designed, used or maintained primarily for the transportation of property.
(5) "Tractor" or "truck tractor" means a motor vehicle that is a non-cargo-carrying power unit used for drawing a trailer or two trailers for commercial purposes, except that a truck tractor and semitrailer engaged in the transportation of automobiles may transport motor vehicles on part of the power unit.
(6) "Tractor-trailer unit" means a combination of a tractor and trailer or a combination of a tractor and a semitrailer.
(7) "Converter dolly" means an axle to which is attached a hook engaged to an eye at the rear of a trailer and normally used in conjunction with the last trailer of a commercial vehicle combination.
(8) "Commercial vehicle combination" means a combination of vehicles consisting of a truck tractor and two trailers, with the length of each trailer being not more than twenty-eight feet, exclusive of safety and energy conservation devices, such as rear view mirrors, turn signal lamps, marker lamps, steps and handholds for entry and egress, flexible fender extensions, mudflaps and splash and spray suppressant devices, load- induced tire bulge, refrigeration units, air compressors or air shields and other devices, which the secretary of the federal Department of Transportation may interpret as necessary for the safe and efficient operation of such vehicles, provided no such device has by its design or use the capability to carry cargo.
(9) "Class 1 license" means a license designated class 1 by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles in accordance with the provisions of section 14-36a.
(10) "Commercial driver's license" or "CDL" means a license issued by a state which has enacted into law legislation in conformity with the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, Title XII, P.L. 99-570, which has been issued to an individual in accordance with the standards specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Part 383, as amended, and which authorizes such individual to operate a class of commercial motor vehicle.
(11) "CDL equivalent license" means a license issued by a state which has not enacted into law legislation in conformity with the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, Title XII, P.L. 99-570, but which, in the judgment of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, has been issued to an individual in accordance with standards no less stringent than those specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Part 383, as amended, with respect to the knowledge, skills and driving record necessary for the individual to safely operate a commercial vehicle combination.
(12) "Endorsement" means an authorization to the commercial driver's license required to permit the individual to operate a commercial vehicle combination pursuant to the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Section 383.93, as amended.
(13) "Endorsed commercial driver's license" or "endorsed CDL" means a commercial driver's license as defined in subdivision (10) of this section with an endorsement as defined in subdivision (12).
(14) "Person" means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, association, copartnership, company, firm or other aggregation of individuals.
(15) "Fullmount" means a combination of vehicles as defined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 23, Part 658, as amended.
(16) "Saddlemount" means a combination of vehicles as defined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 23, Part 658, as amended.
(17) "Dromedary box" means a cargo-carrying container mounted on the frame of a tractor and located behind the cab.
(P.A. 83-21, S. 1, 5; P.A. 84-372, S. 1, 9; P.A. 89-171, S. 2, 5; P.A. 93-307, S. 6, 34; P.A. 95-79, S. 41, 189; P.A. 97- 304, S. 26, 31.)
History: P.A. 84-372 excluded safety and energy conservation devices from consideration in determining length of trailers in Subdiv. (8); P.A. 89-171 added definitions of "class 1 license", "commercial driver's license", "CDL equivalent license", "endorsement" and "endorsed commercial driver's license"; P.A. 93-307 amended the section by adding new Subdivs. (15) and (16) defining "fullmount" and "saddlemount", effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 97-304 added definition of "dromedary box" in Subdiv. (17), effective July 8, 1997.

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Sec. 14-261. Towing and pushing of vehicles. Double trailers and semitrailers. (a) When any occupied vehicle is drawn or towed by another vehicle upon any public highway, the distance between the towing vehicle and the vehicle being towed shall not exceed twenty feet. A rigid tow bar shall be used when towing any vehicle on any limited access highway and when towing any unoccupied vehicle on any other public highway. Except as provided under section 14-261a, no person shall operate on any public highway any vehicle which draws or tows at the same time more than one vehicle, including, but not limited to, a trailer which is designed or constructed so that no part of its weight except the towing device rests upon the towing vehicle, a semitrailer or a semitrailer equipped with an auxiliary front axle, but excluding a pole trailer, except that such limitation shall not apply to (1) a vehicle, other than a tractor or truck tractor as defined in subdivision (5) of section 14-260n, which tows a non-cargo-carrying vehicle having a gross weight not exceeding five thousand pounds coupled to the towing vehicle by a towing device designed exclusively for the towing of another vehicle, provided the overall length of the two vehicles and the towing device does not exceed fifty-five feet, or (2) a combination of vehicles coupled together by a saddlemount device used to transport motor vehicles in drive-away service when no more than three saddlemounts and one fullmount are used, provided equipment used in such combination shall have been approved by regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles in accordance with the provisions of sections 4-166 to 4-174, inclusive, and shall comply with the safety regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, or (3) specialized equipment, as defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 23, Part 658, as amended. No occupied vehicle shall be pushed or otherwise propelled from the rear by another vehicle except for the purpose of obtaining emergency service to start the engine of such vehicle or to perform the immediate function of removing such vehicle from the travel lanes to a place of safety at the roadside.
(b) Any person pushing, propelling, drawing or towing a motor vehicle, except as authorized by the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have committed an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2513; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 32; 1969, P.A. 262; P.A. 73-272; P.A. 75-577, S. 98, 126; P.A. 81- 366, S. 1; P.A. 83-21, S. 2, 5; P.A. 84-17; 84-372, S. 2, 9; P.A. 88-317, S. 60, 107; P.A. 93-307, S. 7, 34.)
History: 1965 act deleted penalty provision and added limited access highway exception in first sentence, required wreckers to use rigid tow bars and added provision re pushing vehicles from the rear; 1969 act deleted exception re limited access highways and clarified requirement concerning rigid tow bars; P.A. 73-272 added exception re use of saddlemount devices; P.A. 75-577 made violation of provisions an infraction; P.A. 81-366 included specific vehicles in the general prohibition of towing more than one vehicle at a time; P.A. 83-21 divided section into Subsecs. and prohibited operation of commercial vehicle combinations and mandated fine and suspension of registration or license for such operation (Note: The U. S. District Court for the District of Connecticut granted the United States' motion for preliminary injunction enjoining the state from enforcing a prohibition on operation of commercial vehicle combinations on interstate highways and primary system highways designated pursuant to Section 411(e) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982. U.S. v. State of Conn., D.C. Conn. 1983, 566 F. Supp. 571, affirmed 742 F.2d 1443); P.A. 84-17 inserted Subdivs. in Subsec. (a) adding new language as Subdiv. (1) permitting the towing of two vehicles at the same time with an overall length restriction; P.A. 84-372 eliminated prohibition on, and penalties for, operation of a commercial vehicle combination; P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-166 to 4-174 in Subsec. (a) to include new section added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 93-307 in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) deleted the words "two saddlemounts" and inserted in lieu thereof the words, "three saddlemounts and one fullmount" and in Subdiv. (3) inserted a reference to "specialized equipment", effective June 29, 1993.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 145 C. 141.

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Sec. 14-261a. Regulation of commercial vehicle combinations. (a) A commercial vehicle combination may be operated, by any person who holds (1) an endorsed commercial driver's license, (2) a CDL equivalent license, (3) an endorsed class 1 license, or (4) an operator's license issued by another state authorizing such person to operate a commercial vehicle combination, together with an endorsement issued by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, on highways which are part of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways and those sections of the Federal-Aid Primary System which are divided highways with four or more lanes and full control of access, which highways and sections are designated by the Secretary of the federal Department of Transportation pursuant to the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, as amended, provided the Commissioner of Transportation shall impose reasonable restrictions consistent with federal law. The Commissioner of Transportation may permit the operation of a commercial vehicle combination, defined as "specialized equipment" in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 23, Part 658, as amended, by any person holding a license to operate a commercial vehicle combination as provided in this section and semitrailers, as described in subsection (c) of section 14-262, on any other highway in order to allow the vehicle reasonable access to terminals, facilities for food, fuel, repairs and rest, and points of loading and unloading for household goods carriers. If a commercial vehicle combination consists of two semitrailers or a trailer drawing a semitrailer, such trailers shall be coupled by a converter dolly or a type of dolly approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles.
(b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall establish an endorsement for persons who are eligible to operate a commercial vehicle combination but do not hold an endorsed commercial driver's license, a CDL equivalent license, or a class 1 license. To obtain such endorsement, the operator shall demonstrate personally to the commissioner, his deputy, a motor vehicle inspector or an agent of the commissioner that he (1) has held a license issued by another state for at least three years which permits him to operate a commercial vehicle combination, (2) has a level of motor vehicle operating experience satisfactory to the commissioner, including but not limited to, passing a commercial vehicle combination driving test conducted by the commissioner, and (3) has not violated any of the provisions of section 14-219, 14-222 or 14-224 or subsection (a) of section 14-227a, or any similar provisions of the laws of any other state or any territory, within a three-year period, or been convicted of, or forfeited any bond taken for appearance for, or had his case nolled upon payment of any sum of money in connection with, or received a suspended judgment or sentence for, a violation of any of said provisions within a three-year period, or a second violation within a twelve-month period of the provisions of sections 14-230 to 14-249, inclusive, or of any similar provisions of the laws of any other state or any territory, or been held or found criminally responsible in connection with any motor vehicle accident resulting in the death of any person, provided the commissioner may waive the requirement of a driving test under subdivision (2) of this subsection for any applicant for an endorsement who demonstrates to the commissioner that he has had at least three years experience in operating commercial vehicle combinations or that he held a valid class 1A license on June 1, 1989. Each person holding a valid class 1A license on June 1, 1989, shall, not later than December 31, 1989, surrender such license to the commissioner who shall thereupon issue an endorsement to such person.
(c) (1) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall establish a commercial vehicle combination safety inspection program under which each commercial vehicle combination subject to safety inspection shall be examined or tested with respect to the operation, condition or performance of its brakes, tires, wheels, mirrors, operating controls, glazing, lighting devices, suspension, steering, exhaust system and electrical system. After the initial inspection of each commercial vehicle combination, the commissioner shall provide for a system of staggered annual inspections for such vehicles.
(2) On and after July 14, 1984, no commercial vehicle combination shall be operated in the state unless it displays a currently valid certificate of inspection issued under this section or an equivalent certificate issued by another state, provided (A) any vehicle which is subject to registration and inspection in the state and which has been outside the state continuously for thirty days or more and which, at the time of reentering the state, does not bear a currently valid certificate of inspection may be operated in the state for a period of ten days after reentering the state, (B) any vehicle may be operated in the state for a period of ten days after its sale or resale, and (C) the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may allow commercial combination vehicles to operate while displaying a certificate of inspection on the tractor portion of such vehicle only, provided the person, firm, corporation or association which operates such vehicle has established a preventive maintenance program approved by the commissioner.
(d) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to carry out the purposes of this section.
(e) Any person operating a commercial vehicle combination or a semitrailer, as described in subsection (c) of section 14-262, in violation of any provision of subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section or any regulation adopted thereunder shall be fined one thousand dollars for each offense. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall also suspend, for sixty days, the motor vehicle registration certificate, privilege to operate or operator's license of any such person.
(P.A. 83-21, S. 3, 5; P.A. 84-372, S. 3, 9; 84-546, S. 45, 173; P.A. 85-254; 85-613, S. 134; P.A. 89-171, S. 3, 5; P.A. 93-307, S. 8, 34; P.A. 98-91, S. 3.)
History: (Note re P.A. 83-21, S. 3: The U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut granted the United States' motion for preliminary injunction enjoining the state from enforcing a prohibition on operation of commercial vehicle combinations on interstate highways and primary system highways designated pursuant to Section 411(e) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982. U.S. v. State of Conn., D.C. Conn. 1983, 566 F. Supp. 571, affirmed 742 F.2d 1443); P.A. 84-372 deleted provision making section applicable only upon court enjoining enforcement of commercial vehicle combination prohibition, deleted Subdivs. (2) to (5), inclusive, changed numbering of remaining Subsecs. to lettering, authorized permits for operation of commercial vehicle combinations to license testing site and to reasonable access points in Subsec. (a), modified class 1A license requirements in Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (c), (d), (e) and (f), concerning, respectively, safety inspections, reporting, regulations and penalties; P.A. 84-546 made technical amendments to former Subdivs. (2) and (3) which failed to take effect, those Subdivs. having been deleted by P.A. 84-372; P.A. 85- 254 amended Subsec. (b) by reducing the period during which an applicant must demonstrate he has not violated various traffic laws from five years to three years, inserted a new Subsec. (c) providing for recognition of reciprocal agreements governing licensing requirements and relettering the remaining subsections and amended Subdiv. (2) of the new Subsec. (d) by adding a Subpara. (C) allowing vehicles to operate with a certificate of inspection on the tractors only provided the operator of the vehicle has established a preventive maintenance program approved by the commissioner; P.A. 85-613 revised Subsec. (c) deleting former provision re recognition of reciprocal agreements between other states and adding language re issuance of Class 1A license to holder of license to operate a commercial vehicle combination issued by another state; P.A. 89-171 (1) eliminated all references throughout the section to the issuance and holding of a class 1A license and authorized the operation of a commercial vehicle combination by any person who holds an endorsed commercial driver's license, CDL equivalent license, endorsed class 1 license or an operator's license issued by another state authorizing operation of such vehicle with an endorsement issued by the commissioner, (2) required each person holding a valid class 1A license on June 1, 1989, to surrender such license to commissioner not later than December 31, 1989, who shall then issue an endorsement to such person, (3) deleted Subsecs. (c) and (e) in their entirety, relettering remaining Subsecs., (4) required the commissioner to adopt regulations to carry out purposes of this section and deleted reference to commissioner of transportation and (5) made all technical changes as necessary; P.A. 93-307 amended Subsec. (a) by providing that the commissioner of transportation may permit the operation of a commercial vehicle combination defined as "specialized equipment" in the Code of Federal Regulations, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 98-91 amended Subsecs. (a) and (e) to add references to semitrailers and increased fine in Subsec. (e) from five hundred to one thousand dollars.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 199 C. 667, 676.

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Sec. 14-261b. Drug and alcohol testing of drivers of certain vehicles, mechanics and forklift operators. (a) For the purposes of this section:
(1) "Driver" means an employee driver or a contract driver under contract for ninety days or more in a period of three hundred sixty-five days; and
(2) "Employer" means a person employing or contracting with a driver.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, (1) any person employing a driver of a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, operating in intrastate commerce in the state shall require such driver to submit to testing as provided by federal law pursuant to 49 USC 31306 and 49 CFR Parts 382 and 391, and (2) any person employing a driver of a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of ten thousand and one pounds or more but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds, a mechanic who repairs or services such a vehicle or a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, or a forklift operator may require such driver, mechanic or operator to submit to testing as provided by federal law pursuant to 49 USC 3102 and 49 CFR Parts 382 and 391.
(c) Any employer who fails to comply with the provisions of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of three hundred dollars which shall be imposed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles after notice and opportunity for a hearing pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54. The commissioner shall impose a civil penalty of one thousand dollars for any subsequent failure to comply by such employer.
(P.A. 91-316, S. 1, 2; 91-406, S. 24, 29; P.A. 94-189, S. 17; P.A. 95-140; P.A. 00-169, S. 28.)
History: P.A. 91-406 substituted reference to Subsec. (f) for (e) in Subsec. (a) and "or" for "and" between Subdivs. (3) and (4) in Subsec. (d); P.A. 94-189 amended Subsec. (a) by adding a reference to Secs. 31-51u and 31-51v, changing the vehicle weight rating from "over twenty-six thousand pounds" to "twenty-six thousand and one pounds or more" and adding Subsec. (g) concerning a civil penalty; P.A. 95-140 reversed the order of Subsecs. (a) and (b), eliminating the definition of "urinalysis drug test" in Subsec. (a) and inserting in Subsec. (b) provisions requiring that all drivers of commercial motor vehicles, as defined, submit to alcohol and drug testing and authorizing the testing of drivers of motor vehicles with a GVWR of ten thousand and one pounds or more but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds, mechanics who repair such vehicles or commercial motor vehicles and forklift operators and deleted Subsecs. (c) to (f), inclusive, re urinalysis drug tests, relettering the remaining Subsec. accordingly; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (b) by making a technical correction.

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Sec. 14-262. Width and length of vehicles. Exceptions. Permits. (a) The following vehicles shall not be operated upon any highway or bridge without a special written permit from the Commissioner of Transportation, as provided in section 14-270, specifying the conditions under which they may be so operated:
(1) A vehicle, combination of vehicle and trailer or commercial vehicle combination which is wider than one hundred two inches or its approximate metric equivalent of two and six-tenths meters or one hundred two and thirty-six-hundredths inches, including its load, but not including the following safety devices: Reasonably sized rear view mirrors, turn signals, steps and handholds for entry and egress, spray and splash suppressant devices, load-induced tire bulge and any other state-approved safety device which the Commissioner of Transportation determines is necessary for the safe and efficient operation of such a vehicle or combination, provided no such state-approved safety device protrudes more than three inches from each side of the vehicle or provided no such device has by its design or use the capability to carry cargo. Such permit shall not be required in the case of (A) farm equipment, (B) a vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer loaded with hay or straw, (C) a school bus equipped with a folding stop sign or exterior mirror, as approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, which results in a combined width of bus and sign or bus and mirror in excess of that established by this subsection, or (D) a trailer designed and used exclusively for transporting boats when the gross weight of such boats does not exceed four thousand pounds; and
(2) A combination of truck and trailer which is longer than sixty feet except (A) a combination of truck and trailer or tractor and semitrailer loaded with utility poles, both trailer and semitrailer having a maximum length of forty-eight feet, utility poles having a maximum length of fifty feet and the overall length not to exceed eighty feet, (B) a trailer designed and used exclusively for transporting boats when the gross weight of such boats does not exceed four thousand pounds, (C) a tractor-trailer unit, (D) a commercial vehicle combination, (E) combinations of vehicles considered as specialized equipment in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 23, Part 658.13(d), as amended, or (F) a tractor equipped with a dromedary box operated in combination with a semitrailer which tractor and semitrailer do not exceed seventy-five feet in overall length.
(b) A special written permit may not be issued by the Commissioner of Transportation for a combination of vehicles consisting of a vehicle drawing a combination of three or more trailers or semitrailers, except any such combination engaged in the transportation of an indivisible load.
(c) The maximum length of a single unit vehicle shall be forty-five feet and the maximum length of the semitrailer portion of a tractor-trailer unit shall be forty-eight feet. A trailer greater than forty-eight feet and less than or equal to fifty-three feet in length may be operated on the national system of interstate and defense highways and on state and local roads for up to one mile from the system, for access to terminals, facilities for food, fuel, repair and rest, and points of loading and unloading, provided the distance from the kingpin to the center of the rearmost axle may not exceed forty- three feet. The Commissioner of Transportation shall permit additional routes upon application of carriers or shippers provided the proposed additional routes meet the permit criteria of the Department of Transportation. Such length limitation shall be exclusive of safety and energy conservation devices, such as refrigeration units, air compressors or air shields and other devices, which the Secretary of the federal Department of Transportation may interpret as necessary for the safe and efficient operation of such vehicles, provided no such device has by its design or use the capability to carry cargo.
(d) Violation of any provision of this section shall be subject to a fine of five hundred dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2500; 1959, P.A. 542, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 429; 1967, P.A. 42; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 1; 768, S. 144; P.A. 74-153; P.A. 75-577, S. 99, 126; P.A. 76-342; P.A. 81-366, S. 2; P.A. 82-354; P.A. 84-372, S. 4, 9; P.A. 85-126, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-15; P.A. 93-307, S. 9, 34; P.A. 94-188, S. 10; P.A. 97-304, S. 27, 31; P.A. 99-181, S. 17, 18, 21, 40.)
History: 1959 act extended permissible length from forty-five to fifty feet, deleted exception in first sentence for combination of passenger motor vehicle and trailer for camping or living purposes (but see section 14-263) and substituted "piling or structural units" for "structural steel or iron"; 1965 act added provision re trailers exceeding forty feet and increased permissible length from fifty to fifty-five feet; 1967 act placed eighty-foot length limit on vehicle or vehicle and trailer loaded with poles, lumber, piling or structural units; 1969 acts made all limits applicable to combination of vehicle and trailer and replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 74-153 added exceptions re farm equipment and school buses; P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 76-342 exempted from permit requirement automobile trailers designed and used for transporting new or used vehicles; P.A. 81-366 clarified those types of vehicles which are prohibited on state highways without special permits and increased the maximum length of a vehicle not requiring a special permit to sixty feet provided that the trailer is no longer than forty-five feet; P.A. 82- 354 added Subsec. (b) providing for a special permit for vehicles towing trailers between forty-five and forty-eight feet in length; P.A. 84-372 made provisions of section consistent with federal law governing width and length of vehicles and rearranged provisions for clarity; P.A. 85-126 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) by changing the width of a vehicle from eight feet six inches to one hundred two inches or its metric equivalent not including various safety devices, amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by prohibiting vehicle combinations engaged in transporting automobiles from allowing such automobiles to overhang more than three feet from the front of the vehicle or more than four feet from the rear of the vehicle, and amended Subsec. (b) by deleting exclusions in computing the maximum length of a semitrailer for various safety devices; P.A. 91-15 added a new Subsec. (b) prohibiting the department from issuing a permit for vehicles drawing a combination of three or more trailers or semitrailers and relettered the remaining Subsecs.; P.A. 93-307 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by making the Subdiv. inapplicable to a single vehicle, deleting Subparas. (A), (D) and (E) in their entirety, relettering the remaining Subparas. (B) and (C) accordingly and adding a new Subpara. (C) re commercial vehicles defined as specialized equipment, amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the maximum length of "a single unit vehicle shall be forty-five feet and the maximum length of" the semitrailer portion of a tractor-trailer unit shall be forty-eight feet, adding provision permitting trailers "greater than forty-eight feet and less than or equal to fifty-three feet" to be operated on state and local roads for various reasons as long as the "distance from the kingpin to the center of the rearmost axle" does not exceed forty-one feet and providing that the commissioner of transportation "shall permit additional routes" upon the application of carriers or shippers provided the additional routes meet the permit criteria of the department of transportation, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 94-188 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by revising Subpara. (C) to read "commercial vehicle combination", adding Subpara. (D) and changing the citation to the Code of Federal Regulations from "Part 658" to "658.13(d)"; P.A. 97-304 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to add Subpara. (E) re tractors equipped with a dromedary box operated in combination with a semitrailer, effective July 8, 1997; P.A. 99-181 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by making the provisions of subdivision applicable to a combination of a "truck and trailer" in lieu of a "vehicle and trailer" and added a new Subpara. (A) re a combination of truck and trailer or trailer and semitrailer loaded with utility poles, relettering existing Subparas. accordingly, amended Subsec. (c) by changing the maximum allowed distance from the kingpin to the center of the rearmost axle from forty-one to forty-three feet and amended Subsec. (d) by changing penalty for violation from an infraction to a fine of five hundred dollars, effective June 23, 1999.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-262a. Removal of disabled trucks and trailers from highways. Licensed repair tow trucks may, without regard to the limitations of length contained in section 14-262, tow disabled trucks and trailers from highways to the nearest garage where such disabled vehicle can be properly repaired, but not more than twenty-five miles. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 563; P.A. 75-577, S. 100, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 made violation of provisions an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-263. Length of camp trailers. Section 14-263 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2498; 1955, S. 1380d; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 2; 768, S. 145.)

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Sec. 14-264. Special permits for vehicles of excessive height. No vehicle, except a vehicle loaded with loose hay or straw, whose height, with its load, exceeds thirteen feet six inches, shall be operated upon any highway or bridge without a special written permit from the Commissioner of Transportation as provided in section 14-270, specifying the period for which and the other conditions under which such vehicle shall be permitted to be so operated. Violation of the provision of this section shall be subject to a fine of one thousand five hundred dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2501; 1967, P.A. 153, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 3; 768, S. 146; P.A. 75-577, S. 104, 126; P.A. 99-181, S. 22, 40.)
History: 1967 act increased maximum height from twelve feet six inches to thirteen feet six inches; 1969 acts deleted "commercial" with reference to vehicles, thus broadening applicability, added reference to Sec. 14-270 and replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for maximum fine of twenty- five dollars with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 99-181 changed penalty for violation from an infraction to a fine of one thousand five hundred dollars, effective June 23, 1999.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Violation constitutes negligence but to constitute contributory negligence it must be a proximate cause or substantial factor in bringing about the injuries. 145 C. 714.

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Sec. 14-265. Special permits for trailers. Section 14-265 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2502; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 4; 768, S. 147; P.A. 82-223, S. 17; P.A. 83-577, S. 22; P.A. 91-216, S. 3.)

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Sec. 14-266. Operating vehicles of over four tons' capacity on restricted highways. The Commissioner of Transportation may restrict the use of motor vehicles of over four tons' capacity on any state highway or portion thereof which, in his opinion, would be seriously injured by such use. No person shall operate any such motor vehicle on any such restricted highway or portion thereof. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2499; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 148; P.A. 90-263, S. 25, 74.)
History: 1969 act replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 90-263 deleted reference to commercial motor vehicles.
Cited. 22 CS 489.

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Sec. 14-267. Operating overweight commercial vehicles. Highway weighing required. Penalty. Section 14-267 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2422; 1953, S. 1317d; February, 1965, P.A. 240; 1969,P.A. 446, S. 3; 768, S. 149; 1971, P.A. 506; P.A. 75-194, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-188, S. 9, 10.)

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Sec. 14-267a. Weight restrictions for vehicles, trailers or other objects. Highway weighing procedure. Penalties for overweight violations. Fines for failure to comply. Regulations. (a) A vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or semitrailer or any other object may be operated upon any highway or bridge, subject to the provisions of section 13a-151, provided such vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or semitrailer or other object meets all the applicable requirements of this section or has been granted a permit under section 14-270.
(b) The axle weight on any axle and the gross weight of any vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer or any other object, including its load, may not exceed the manufacturer's axle weight rating, the gross vehicle weight rating or the following gross weight limits: (1) A two-axle vehicle equipped with pneumatic tires, a gross weight of thirty-two thousand pounds; (2) a two-axle vehicle equipped with solid or pneumatic tires, the weight on any single axle not to exceed eighteen thousand pounds, a gross weight of thirty-six thousand pounds; (3) a three-axle vehicle equipped with pneumatic tires, the weight on any single axle not to exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds, gross vehicle weight of fifty-three thousand eight hundred pounds; (4) a three-axle combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer, the weight on any single axle not to exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds, a gross vehicle weight of fifty-eight thousand four hundred pounds; (5) a four-or-more-axle vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer equipped with pneumatic tires, the weight on any single axle not to exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds, a gross vehicle weight of sixty-seven thousand four hundred pounds; (6) a four- or-more-axle vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer where the distance between the first and last axle is not less than twenty-eight feet, the weight on any single axle not to exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds, a gross vehicle weight of seventy-three thousand pounds; provided in no event shall the gross vehicle weight exceed seventy-three thousand pounds; (7) notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, a vehicle or combination of vehicle and semitrailer equipped with pneumatic tires may be operated on any highway or bridge without a written permit, provided the weight on any single axle does not exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds, and provided such vehicle or combination is in compliance with the federal-aid highway amendments of 1974, 88 Stat. 2281, 23 USC 101 et seq., as amended from time to time, including the gross vehicle weight limit of eighty thousand pounds and the following weight distribution formula:

Where W = overall gross weight on any group of two or more consecutive axles to the nearest five hundred pounds, L = distance in feet between the extreme of any group of two or more consecutive axles, and N = number of axles in group under consideration, except that two consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry a gross load of sixty-eight thousand pounds, provided the overall distance between the first and last axles of such consecutive sets of tandem axles is thirty-six feet or more.
(c) The weight per inch width of tire on any single vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with pneumatic tires, when loaded, shall be not more than six hundred pounds. The sum of the widths of all the tires on a wheel or combination of wheels shall be taken in determining tire width. For the purposes of this section, the width of pneumatic tires shall be determined in conformity with the manufacturer's designated width on the tire. A vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with any solid rubber tires shall not have weights more than eighty per cent of those permitted in this section for pneumatic tires. The width of solid rubber tires shall be ascertained by measuring the width of the tire base channel or between the flanges of the metal rim. No vehicle equipped with solid tires which have at any point less than one inch of rubber above the top or beyond the flange or rim shall be operated upon a public highway.
(d) The owner of any vehicle or other object operated or moved over any highway or bridge in violation of any provision of this section shall be liable for all damages to such highway or bridge resulting from such violation and such damages may be recovered in an action at law by the authority in charge of the maintenance of such highway or bridge.
(e) No person shall operate any commercial motor vehicle, nor shall the owner or lessee of any commercial motor vehicle allow such motor vehicle to be operated, on any public highway or bridge, when the combined weight of vehicle and load exceeds the gross weight, as registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles, the tire capacity or the axle load, except that the gross vehicle weight shall not exceed eighty thousand pounds, or as provided by statute, or, in the case of a vehicle registered in any other state or country, as so registered or provided in such state or country or as designated as legal for a like motor vehicle of Connecticut registration, whichever is the lesser, without a written permit from the Commissioner of Transportation, which shall prescribe the condition under which such vehicle shall be operated.
(f) (1) The penalties provided for in this subsection shall be assessed against the owner of a commercial motor vehicle when the owner, his agent or employee is the operator, or against the lessee of such vehicle when the lessee, his agent or employee is the operator of a leased or rented commercial motor vehicle.
(2) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be subject to the following penalties: (A) For an overweight violation of not more than five per cent of the gross weight or axle weight limits in subsection (b) of this section, a fine of three dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight; (B) for an overweight violation of more than five per cent and not more than ten per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of five dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of fifty dollars; (C) for an overweight violation of more than ten per cent but not more than fifteen per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of six dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of one hundred dollars; (D) for an overweight violation of more than fifteen per cent but not more than twenty per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of seven dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of two hundred dollars; (E) for an overweight violation of more than twenty per cent but not more than twenty-five per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of ten dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of three hundred dollars; (F) for an overweight violation of more than twenty-five per cent but not more than thirty per cent of either such overweight limit, a fine of twelve dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of five hundred dollars; and (G) for an overweight violation of more than thirty per cent of either such overweight limit, a fine of fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of one thousand dollars.
(3) The court shall note on the record any conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear for an overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of the gross weight limits in subsection (b) of this section with respect to any vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of eighteen thousand pounds or more. In such cases, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall (A) demand of an out-of-state owner or lessee of such motor vehicle a bond, with sufficient surety, to the state, in the sum of two thousand dollars, which bond shall be forfeited to the state upon a second conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear for such violation, or (B) fine an in-state owner or lessee of such motor vehicle two thousand dollars upon a second conviction. In addition, the commissioner may revoke the registration, for a period of thirty days, of any commercial motor vehicle so operated and may refuse to issue a registration for such motor vehicle during such further time as the commissioner deems reasonable. For any subsequent conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear, the commissioner shall revoke the registration for a period of thirty days. A bond posted pursuant to the provisions of this subdivision shall be held for a period of not more than one year from its posting. Where there is no second conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear for violation of the limits in subsection (b) of this section during that time, the bond shall be returned to such owner or lessee, as the case may be.
(4) Upon the third conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear for overweight violations of subsection (b) of this section with respect to a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of less than eighteen thousand pounds, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall revoke the registration, for a period of thirty days, of any commercial motor vehicle so operated.
(5) An owner or lessee who is assessed penalties pursuant to this subsection or forfeits a bond for failure to appear for an overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of the gross weight limits in subsection (b) of this section four times during any calendar year shall be assessed by the court an additional ten thousand dollars for the fourth violation and an additional five thousand dollars for each subsequent overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of such limits in such calendar year.
(6) No more than twenty-five per cent of any fine imposed pursuant to this subsection may be remitted unless the court determines that there are mitigating circumstances and specifically states such circumstances for the record.
(g) For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this section, any state police officer, Department of Public Safety employee designated by the Commissioner of Public Safety, local police officer, Department of Motor Vehicles inspector, or state Department of Transportation employee designated by the Commissioner of Transportation, may require the driver to stop and submit to a weighing by means of either portable or stationary scales and may require that such vehicle be driven to a scale or safety inspection site.
(h) Whenever signs are displayed on a public highway, indicating that a scale is in operation and directing the driver of a commercial vehicle to stop at the weighing area, the driver shall stop and, in accordance with the directions of any state police officer, Department of Public Safety employee designated by the Commissioner of Public Safety, local police officer, Department of Motor Vehicles inspector, or state Department of Transportation employee designated by the Commissioner of Transportation, allow his vehicle to be weighed or inspected.
(i) The driver of a vehicle which is weighed may remove from such vehicle any material, including, but not limited to, sand, debris, ice or snow, which may have accumulated on the outside of such vehicle, before any such official determines that the weight of such vehicle is unlawful.
(j) Whenever such an official, upon weighing a vehicle and load, determines that the weight is unlawful, such official may require the driver to remove from the vehicle that portion of the load that may be necessary to reduce the gross or axle weight of such vehicle to the limit permitted under this chapter, provided if the vehicle is in violation of an axle weight limit in subsection (b) of this section but not a gross weight limit under said subsection, such official shall allow the driver to manually shift the load in order to comply with such axle weight limit without penalty.
(k) (1) Any driver of a vehicle who fails or refuses when directed by such official, upon a weighing of the vehicle, to comply with his directions shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than two hundred dollars for the first offense and not less than two hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each subsequent offense. (2) Any driver of a vehicle who (A) exits a limited access highway on which a scale or safety inspection site is in operation with intent to circumvent the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, without a bona fide business purpose, or (B) fails to comply with the provisions of subsection (h) shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for the first offense and not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars for each subsequent offense.
(l) The Commissioner of Transportation may adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 necessary to implement the purposes of this section. The Commissioner of Transportation, after consultation with the Commissioner of Public Safety and the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 defining safety standards and inspection procedures to assure compliance with the safety requirements of 10 CFR 71 and 49 CFR 100 through 199 and the fines for noncompliance. The Department of Transportation shall coordinate development of state policy and regulations concerning the trucking industry.
(P.A. 79-188, S. 1, 10; P.A. 80-71, S. 22, 30; P.A. 81-472, S. 23, 159; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 1, 4; P.A. 84-516, S. 2−4, 7; P.A. 85-198; 85-533, S. 1; P.A. 86-403, S. 30, 132; P.A. 88-320, S. 1; P.A. 94-188, S. 11.)
History: P.A. 80-71 amended Subsec. (b) to include provisions re weight distribution formula, raised maximum weight in Subsec. (e) from seventy-three thousand to eighty thousand pounds, completely changed fine provisions of Subsec. (f), made technical corrections in Subsecs. (g) and (h) and expanded regulation powers in Subsec. (k); P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 entirely replaced Subsec. (f) provisions re penalties with new provisions; P.A. 84-516 deleted Subdiv. (9) in Subsec. (b), which required use of the federal bridge formula in computing gross weight for all commercial vehicles on and after January 1, 1990, completely changed the fines in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (f), limited the applicability of Subdivs. (3) and (5) of Subsec. (f) to violations of gross weight limits and added the provision in Subsec. (i) re shifting of loads; P.A. 85-198 inserted a new Subsec. (i) which allows drivers to remove material which may have accumulated on the outside of a vehicle before such vehicle is weighed and relettered former Subsecs. (i) to (k) accordingly; P.A. 85-533 amended Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (f) by requiring a bond of an out-of-state owner or lessee of a motor vehicle and requiring a fine of two thousand dollars of an in-state owner or lessee upon a second conviction; P.A. 86-403 replaced numeric Subpara. indicators with alphabetic Subpara. indicators in Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (f); P.A. 88-320 added Subdiv. (2) in Subsec. (k) to require a penalty for any driver of a vehicle who attempts to avoid a scale or safety inspection site or fails to comply with the provisions of Subsec. (h); P.A. 94-188 amended Subsec. (b) by eliminating the two per cent tolerance in the weight calculation formula, providing that axle weight and gross weight, including load weight, may not "exceed the manufacturer's axle weight rating, the gross vehicle weight rating or the following gross weight limits", amended Subdiv. (1) by deleting language concerning a twenty-six thousand pound weight limit for a two-axle vehicle equipped with solid tires, and making what was formerly Subdiv. (2) the new Subdiv. (1), renumbering the remaining Subdivs., eliminating language concerning "all enforcement tolerances", and increasing the gross load that two consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry from thirty-four thousand pounds each to sixty-eight thousand pounds. Further, the act amended Subsec. (e) by eliminating the two per cent tolerance in the weight calculation formula and revising Subsec. (j) to provide that the driver be allowed to shift the load manually; (Revisor's note: In 1997 references in Subsecs. (g) and (h) to "Motor Vehicles Department" and "Transportation Department" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Motor Vehicles" and "Department of Transportation" for consistency with customary statutory usage).
Cited. 25 CA 217, 222. Trial under this section was not a "criminal prosecution" as term is used in sixth amendment to federal constitution. Defendant is therefore not entitled to a jury trial under the federal constitution. 41 CA 454, 455, 458−476.
Subsec. (f):
Subdiv. (1) cited. 41 CA 454, 458. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 454, 465.

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Sec. 14-267b. Weight restrictions for motor buses. Penalties. (a) The provisions of subdivisions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (7) of subsection (b) of section 14a-267a shall not apply to any motor bus, as defined in subdivision (44) of subsection (a) of section 14- 1, if such motor bus complies with the weight limits specified in 23 CFR 658.17.
(b) A person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the penalties set forth in subsection (f) of section 14-267a.
(P.A. 99-181, S. 38, 40.)
History: P.A. 99-181 effective June 23, 1999.

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Sec. 14-268. Weight of vehicles and trailers restricted. Section 14-268 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2496; 1949, S. 1376d; 1963, P.A. 488; 1967, P.A. 699; 1969, P.A. 446, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 515; P.A. 79- 188, S. 9, 10.)

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Sec. 14-269. Weight of vehicles and trailers engaged in construction work. (a) The provisions of section 14-267a shall not apply to any four-wheeled motor vehicle equipped with pneumatic tires which is engaged in construction work or in supplying or transporting materials or equipment for public or private construction projects and which is operating upon a highway or bridge within twenty-five miles of such construction project.
(b) No such motor vehicle may be operated upon any highway or bridge if its gross weight, including its load, exceeds forty thousand pounds.
(c) The gross vehicle weight and wheel base limitations of section 14-267a shall not apply to any four-axled motor vehicle equipped with pneumatic tires which is engaged in construction work or in supplying or transporting materials or equipment for public or private construction projects, provided the Commissioner of Transportation may restrict or prohibit by signs, legal notices or direct notice the highways or bridges which may be used by such vehicles.
(d) No such four-axled motor vehicle may be operated upon any highway or bridge if its gross weight, including its load, exceeds seventy-three thousand pounds.
(e) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (b) or (d) of this section shall be subject to the penalties set forth in subsection (f) of section 14-267a.
(f) The owner of any such vehicle operated over any highway or bridge in violation of any provision of this section or of section 13a-151 shall be liable for all damages which such highway or bridge may sustain as a result of such violation, and such damages may be recovered in an action at law by the authority in charge of the maintenance of such highway or bridge.
(g) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may require a special registration and may issue special and distinguishing number plates for each motor vehicle which is subject to the provisions of this section.
(1953, S. 1377d; February, 1965, P.A. 574, S. 20; 1969, P.A. 446, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 546; P.A. 79-188, S. 7, 10; P.A. 80- 71, S. 26, 30; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 2, 4.)
History: 1965 act corrected obsolete statutory reference in Subsec. (c); 1969 act deleted references to combinations of motor vehicle and trailer or semitrailer, making provision applicable instead to four-wheeled vehicles with pneumatic tires and replaced various limits in Subsec. (b) with single weight limit of forty thousand pounds; 1971 act inserted new Subsecs. (c) and (d) providing exception for vehicles used in construction work and placing absolute weight limit of seventy-three thousand pounds and redesignated former Subsecs. (c) and (d) as (e) and (f); P.A. 79-188 replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-268 with reference to Sec. 14-267a; P.A. 80-71 added reference to wheel base limitations in Subsec. (c) and replaced "four-or-more axled" vehicles with "four axled" vehicles in Subsecs. (c) and (d); Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 inserted new Subsec. (e) re penalty for violation of Subsec. (b) or (d), relettering former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f).
Cited. 22 CS 489.

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Sec. 14-269a. Weight of refuse vehicles. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 14-267a, a motor vehicle which is owned or operated by any person, firm or corporation engaged in the business of collecting refuse and which is operated for the purpose of collecting such refuse or which is owned and operated by any town or municipality for such purpose, may be operated on any road or highway, if the axle weight on the rear axle or axles of such vehicle does not exceed the weight limits established pursuant to section 14-267a by more than seven thousand pounds and if the combined weight on the rear axles does not exceed forty-four thousand five hundred pounds. This exemption shall not apply to any such motor vehicle operated on any road or highway which is a part of the interstate highway system.
(P.A. 86-125.)

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Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties. (a) The Commissioner of Transportation or other authority having charge of the repair or maintenance of any highway or bridge is authorized to grant permits for transporting vehicles or combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load, or other objects not conforming to the provisions of sections 14-98, 14-262, 14-264, 14-267a and 14-269 but, in the case of motor vehicles, only the Commissioner of Transportation shall be authorized to issue such permits. Such permits shall be written, and may limit the highways or bridges which may be used, the time of such use and the maximum rate of speed at which such vehicles or objects may be operated, and may contain any other condition considered necessary by the authority granting the same, provided the Department of Transportation shall not suffer any loss of revenue granted or to be granted from any agency or department of the federal government for the federal interstate highway system or any other highway system.
(b) Any permit issued in respect to any vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer on account of its excessive weight shall be limited to the gross weight shown or to be shown on the registration certificate.
(c) Any permit issued under this section or a legible copy or facsimile shall be retained in the possession of the operator of the vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer for which such permit was issued, except that a telegraphic confirmation of the existence of such permit or the use of the special number plates described in section 14-24 and any regulations adopted thereunder shall be sufficient to fulfill the requirements of this section.
(d) (1) The owner or lessee of any vehicle may pay either a fee of twenty-three dollars for each permit issued for such vehicle under this section or a fee as described in subdivision (3) for such vehicle, payable to the Department of Transportation. (2) An additional transmittal fee of three dollars shall be charged for each permit issued under this section and transmitted via transceiver or facsimile equipment. (3) The commissioner may issue an annual permit for any vehicle transporting (A) a divisible load, (B) an overweight or oversized-overweight indivisible load, or (C) an oversize indivisible load. The owner or lessee shall pay an annual fee of seven dollars per thousand pounds or fraction thereof for each such vehicle. A permit may be issued in any increment up to one year, provided the owner or lessee shall pay a fee of one-tenth of the annual fee for such vehicle for each month or fraction thereof. (4) The annual permit fee for any vehicle transporting an oversize indivisible load shall not be less than five hundred dollars.
(e) The Commissioner of Transportation shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 prescribing standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with divisible or indivisible loads not conforming to the provisions of section 14-267a.
(f) The provisions of subsection (d) of this section shall not apply to the federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments.
(g) Any person who violates the provisions of any permit issued under this section or fails to obtain such a permit, when operating a commercial motor vehicle under the provisions of section 14-163c, shall be subject to the following penalties:
(1) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the weight specified in such permit shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the permitted weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;
(2) A person who fails to obtain a permit issued under section 14-262 or 14-264 and who is operating a vehicle at a weight that exceeds the statutory limit for weight shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory limit for weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;
(3) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the length specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;
(4) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the width specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;
(5) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the height specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of one thousand dollars;
(6) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section on routes not specified in such permit, shall be fined (A) one thousand five hundred dollars for each violation of the statutory limit for length, width, height or weight, and (B) shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory weight limit of subsection (b) of section 14-267a from the actual vehicle weight and such weight difference shall be fined at the rate provided for in subparagraph (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of section 14-267a; or
(7) A person (A) operating a vehicle with an indivisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to obtain a permit, or (B) operating a vehicle with a divisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to be off loaded to the permit limit.
(h) (1) If the origin, destination, load description, tractor registration, trailer registration, hours of travel, number of escorts, signs or flags of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or required by regulations adopted pursuant to this section, a minimum fine of two hundred dollars shall be assessed for each such violation.
(2) If the days of travel of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or the vehicle is operated under a false or fraudulent permit, a minimum fine of one thousand five hundred dollars shall be assessed for such violation in addition to any other penalties assessed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2497; 1951, 1955, S. 1378d; 1957, P.A. 514; 1959, P.A. 467; 1961, P.A. 361; 1963, P.A. 420; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 5; 768, S. 150; P.A. 79-188, S. 8, 10; P.A. 80-71, S. 27, 30; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 3, 4; P.A. 84-516, S. 5, 7; P.A. 92-177, S. 11, 12; P.A. 94-188, S. 12; P.A. 98-196, S. 1; P.A. 99-181, S. 19, 20, 40; P.A. 00-169, S. 12.)
History: Public acts of 1959, 1961 and 1963 each extended effective period of permits in effect April 30, 1947; 1969 acts added Subsecs. (b) to (d), deleted provisions re extensions of permits, made provisions applicable to "combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load", deleted requirement for written application, added reference to Secs. 14-98, 14-262, 14- 264 and 14-265 and replaced highway commissioner and department with commissioner and department of transportation; P.A. 79-188 replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-268 with reference to Sec. 14-267a; P.A. 80-71 inserted new Subsec. (d) re fees and relettered former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e); Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 inserted new Subsec. (e) requiring transportation commissioner to adopt regulations re standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with loads not conforming to provisions of Sec. 14-267a, relettering former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f); P.A. 84-516 applied penalties in Sec. 14-267a to permit violations, in Subsec. (f), where previously violators were "deemed to have no permit"; P.A. 92-177 amended (1) Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 14-269 and to delete reference to Sec. 14-265, (2) Subsec. (c) to add phrase "and any regulations adopted thereunder" after Sec. 14-24, (3) Subsec. (d)(1) to increase permit fee from fifteen to twenty-three dollars and to substitute a fee as described in Subdiv. (3) for an annual fee in amount equal to thirty per cent of registration fee for such vehicle, (4) Subsec. (d)(2) to eliminate requirement that owner of out-of-state vehicle pay fifteen-dollar fee per permit and to increase additional fee from two to three dollars, designating it as an additional transmittal fee, (5) Subsec. (d) to add new Subdiv. (3), authorizing commissioner to issue annual permits for vehicles transporting various loads and requiring owner or lessee to pay annual fee for each such vehicle, and to add Subdiv. (4), requiring that annual permit fee for vehicle transporting oversize indivisible load be a minimum of five hundred dollars, (6) Subsec. (e) to delete obsolete phrase; P.A. 94-188 inserted a new Subsec. (f) re inapplicability of Subsec. (d) to federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments, and relettered the remaining Subsec.; P.A. 98-196 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing penalties under Subsec. (f) of Sec. 14-267a with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive; P.A. 99-181 amended Subsec. (g) by making provisions applicable to a person who fails to obtain a permit, by adding new Subpara. (2) re penalty for exceeding the statutory limit for weight, by adding new Subpara. (4) re penalty for exceeding width specified in permit, by adding new Subpara. (7) re requirements for permit on off loading, by changing the formula for the penalty for a person operating a vehicle on a route not specified in the vehicle's permit in Subpara. (6) (formerly (4)) and by renumbering existing Subparas. and making other technical changes and added Subsec. (h), effective June 23, 1999; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (c) to allow a permit issued to be retained in the form of a "legible copy or facsimile" in the possession of the vehicle operator.
Cited. 22 CS 489.

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Sec. 14-270a. Portable truck weight scales. The Department of Transportation shall purchase a sufficient number of portable scales to implement a concentrated program of truck weight enforcement to comply with federal requirements in order to continue to qualify for federal highway funds. In no event shall the number of scales purchased in accordance with the provisions of this section be less than ten.
(P.A. 78-356, S. 2, 5.)

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Sec. 14-270b. Truck weight enforcement program. The Department of Transportation shall implement a consistent program of truck weight enforcement on that portion of Route I-84 lying within the town of Danbury not later than July 1, 1978.
(P.A. 78-356, S. 3, 5.)

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Sec. 14-270c. Official weighing areas. Staffing requirements. (a) The Commissioners of Public Safety and Motor Vehicles shall staff the official weighing areas as follows:
(1) Greenwich: Eight work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday. No such shifts shall be worked consecutively, except that two shifts may be worked consecutively on not more than three days;
(2) Danbury: Three work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday. The Commissioner of Public Safety shall, whenever possible, coordinate coverage between this official weighing area and the official weighing area in Greenwich in order to ensure concurrent coverage;
(3) Union: Between five and eight work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall coordinate the hours of operation of this official weighing area; and
(4) Portable scale locations: Ten shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday which shall be staggered throughout the four geographical areas established by the Commissioner of Public Safety with concentration in areas that have fewer hours of operation for the permanent weighing areas.
(b) The Commissioners of Public Safety and Motor Vehicles shall adjust the work shifts required in subsection (a) of this section on a daily basis in order to effectuate an unpredictable schedule.
(c) The Commissioner of Public Safety may assign any remaining personnel in the traffic unit to the permanent weighing areas in Waterford and Middletown or to the portable scale operations.
(d) The Commissioner of Public Safety shall assign personnel from the traffic unit to work between nine and twelve shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday to patrol and enforce laws relative to the safe movement of all vehicles on the highways of the state.
(e) Nothing in this section shall prohibit the Commissioner of Public Safety from reassigning personnel in the traffic unit as he deems necessary in order to ensure public safety.
(P.A. 98-248, S. 1.)

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Sec. 14-270d. Temporary closing of weigh stations. The Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety shall temporarily close any weigh station located within the state that develops a backlog of traffic entering said weigh station and therefore creates a traffic hazard.
(P.A. 98-248, S. 3.)
History: (Revisor's note: In codifying P.A. 98-248, the Revisors editorially changed the phrase "... and therefor creates a traffic hazard." to "... and therefore creates a traffic hazard.")

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Sec. 14-271. Securing of loads. (a) No vehicle shall be driven or moved on any highway unless such vehicle is so constructed or loaded as to prevent any of its load from dropping, sifting, leaking or otherwise escaping therefrom in such manner or quantity as to constitute a hazard or nuisance to other users of the highway, except that sand may be dropped for the purpose of securing traction, or water or other substance may be sprinkled on a roadway in cleaning or maintaining such roadway.
(b) No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle with any load unless such load and any covering thereon is securely fastened so as to prevent such covering or load from becoming loose, detached or in any manner a hazard to other users of the highway.
(c) No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle having a gross weight of five thousand pounds or more which is designed and used exclusively for the collection and transportation of refuse and which has a separable container with an open top unless the contents of such container are secured by the use of a screen or other material having perforations of a size not greater than two square inches when such container is attached to such vehicle.
(d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to motor vehicles registered as farm motor vehicles or vehicles used for farming purposes.
(e) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction for each offense.
(1957, P.A. 156, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 513; P.A. 75-577, S. 105, 126; P.A. 85-218.)
History: 1965 act added hazard or nuisance qualification to Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation is an infraction in Subsec. (d); P.A. 85-218 inserted new Subsec. (c) requiring the securing of containers attached to refuse collection vehicles and relettered remaining Subsecs. accordingly.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-271a. Limits for weakening of vehicle frames. Regulations. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, specifying limits for weakening of vehicle frames or equivalent structures, including weakening through loading, damage or corrosion or any combination thereof.
(P.A. 99-268, S. 6; P.A. 00-169, S. 22.)
History: P.A. 00-169 revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section.

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Sec. 14-272. Projecting loads. Carrying of animals. Section 14-272 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2512; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 34; 1967, P.A. 834, S. 30.)
See Sec. 14-96k.

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Sec. 14-272a. Carrying of children in pickup trucks or open-bed vehicles. Restrictions. (a) No person may operate on any public highway any truck type motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating not exceeding seventy-five hundred pounds having an open rear section or any motor vehicle having an open bed when a child under the age of sixteen years is in such open rear section or open bed unless such child wears a properly adjusted and fastened safety belt which conforms to the provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Section 571.209, as amended from time to time. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any person who operates such a vehicle (1) in a parade authorized by the municipality or municipalities in which such parade is conducted, (2) used for farming purposes or registered pursuant to subsection (q) of section 14-49 or (3) in a recreational hayride conducted between the months of August and December.
(b) Violation of any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be an infraction.
(P.A. 93-116.)

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Sec. 14-273. Operation of motor vehicles requiring a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement. (a) No person operating a motor vehicle for which a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement is required shall carry any person upon the running board, mudguard, hood, roof or any exterior portion of such vehicle. No motor bus shall carry more passengers than the seating capacity thereof, except that, upon application to the Department of Transportation, said department may, after examination of such motor bus, issue to the owner thereof a license to carry such number of passengers in excess of the seating capacity of such bus as said department deems reasonable, which license may be issued upon such conditions and for such additional fee, payable to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, as said department prescribes. Any such license issued by the Division of Public Utility Control within the Department of Business Regulation prior to October 1, 1979, shall remain valid as long as the licensee meets the conditions prescribed by the Department of Transportation. The total number of persons carried at any time by any motor vehicle for which a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement is required, other than a motor bus, shall not exceed the number specified in the certificate of registration. No motor vehicle used for the transportation of school children shall carry any number of passengers in excess of the seating capacity specified by the manufacturer of such vehicle. No motor vehicle used for the transportation of school children shall be equipped with a longitudinal center seat. The commissioner may suspend the registration of any such motor vehicle for a violation of any provision of this section until such time as the requirements hereof have been complied with.
(b) Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be deemed to have committed an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2423; 1955, S. 1318d; 1957, P.A. 264, S. 1; P.A. 75-486, 43, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 79-610, S. 6; P.A. 80-25, S. 1; P.A. 82-223, S. 18; P.A. 83-577, S. 23; P.A. 86-85, S. 2, 3; P.A. 90-263, S. 26, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 23, 38; P.A. 94-189, S. 18, 34.)
History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-610 replaced division of public utility control with department of transportation and deleted reference to disbanded department of business regulation; P.A. 80-25 added provision in Subsec. (a) validating licenses issued by division of public utility control; P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (c) by specifying that violation of Subsec. (a) constituted an infraction and changing the fine from not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars to twenty-five dollars; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (c) by increasing the fine from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars; P.A. 86-85 eliminated seventy-two person limit on seating capacity for school buses and prohibited the carrying of passengers in excess of manufacturer's specifications; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute "person operating a motor vehicle for which a public passenger transportation permit is required" for public service motor vehicle and to add "roof or any exterior portion of such vehicle" after "hood", deleted provisions of Subsec. (b) re public service motor vehicles in entirety, relettering remaining Subsec. as (b) and amended Subsec. (b), formerly (c), to delete fine of thirty-five dollars for each offense; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing reference to public passenger transportation permits with reference to passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 94-189 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting the reference to "public passenger transportation permit" and inserting "passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement" in lieu thereof, effective July 1, 1994.
See Sec. 14-250 re required stopping at railroad crossing.

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Sec. 14-274. Hours of operators of motor vehicles with commercial registration or requiring a passenger endorsement or a passenger and school endorsement. (a) No person shall operate, nor shall the owner require or permit any person to operate, any motor vehicle with a commercial registration or a motor vehicle for which a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement is required on the highways of this state, when such operator has been continuously on duty for more than twelve hours, and, after a driver has been continuously on duty for twelve hours, he shall not operate, nor shall the owner require or permit him to operate, any such motor vehicle on the highways of this state until he has had at least eight consecutive hours off duty.
(b) No person shall operate, nor shall the owner require or permit any person to operate, any motor vehicle with a commercial registration or a motor vehicle for which a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement is required on the highways of this state, when such operator has been on duty more than sixteen hours in the aggregate in any twenty-four-hour period, and, when an operator has been on duty sixteen hours in any twenty-four-hour period, he shall not operate, nor shall the owner require or permit him to operate, a motor vehicle with a commercial registration or a motor vehicle for which a passenger endorsement or passenger and school endorsement is required on the highways of this state, until he has had at least ten consecutive hours off duty. The periods of release from duty herein required shall be given at such places and under such circumstances that rest and relaxation from the strain of the duties of employment may be obtained. No period off duty shall be deemed to break the continuity of service unless it is for at least three consecutive hours at a place where there is opportunity for rest. In case of an unforeseen emergency, the driver may complete his run or tour of duty if such run or tour of duty, but for the delay caused by such emergency, would reasonably have been completed without a violation of the provisions of this section. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may make such regulations as he deems advisable to insure proper enforcement of this section.
(c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any public service company vehicle with a commercial registration when such vehicle is used to transport passengers or property to or from any portion of the state for the purpose of relief or assistance in the case of major loss of utility service, a disaster or other state of emergency declared by the Governor. For the purposes of this subsection "disaster" shall include, but not be limited to, a hurricane, snowstorm, ice storm, flood, fire or earthquake.
(d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2425; P.A. 82-223, S. 19; P.A. 83-577, S. 24; P.A. 90-263, S. 27, 74; P.A. 92-131, S. 1; P.A. 93-341, S. 24, 38.)
History: P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (c) by specifying that the commission of a first offense constituted an infraction and lowering the maximum fine therefor from one hundred to ninety dollars; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting the provision specifying the fine for an infraction is "not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars"; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to substitute "motor vehicle with a commercial registration or a motor vehicle for which a public passenger transportation permit is required" for "commercial motor vehicle or public service motor vehicle"; P.A. 92-131 added new language as Subsec. (c), exempting public service company vehicles operating in the case of major loss of utility service, disaster or other declared state of emergency from provisions of this section and relettered former Subsec. (c) accordingly; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by replacing references to public passenger transportation permits with references to passenger endorsements and passenger and school endorsements, effective July 1, 1994.
Cited. 144 C. 659; 152 C. 496.

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Sec. 14-275. Equipment and color of school buses. (a) The term "school bus" means any motor bus painted, constructed, equipped and registered as hereinafter provided, which is regularly used for transporting school children to and from school or school activities whether or not for compensation or under contract to provide such service. No vehicle shall be registered as a school bus unless it complies with all requirements of sections 14-275 to 14-281, inclusive, as to color, markings, equipment and inspection, and each such vehicle shall be inspected prior to such registration in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. The commissioner or the commissioner's designee may also conduct random, unannounced inspections of any registered school bus. The provisions of said sections requiring other vehicles to stop at the signal of the operator of a registered school bus shall not apply to a signal by the operator of any vehicle not registered as a school bus and not complying with all requirements for such registration.
(b) Each school bus shall be painted a uniform yellow color known as "National School Bus Glossy Yellow", except for the fenders and trim which may be painted black and the roof which may be painted white, and shall have conspicuously painted on the rear and on the front thereof, in black lettering of a size to be determined by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, the words "School BusÁStop on Signal", except that each school bus equipped with an eight-light warning system shall have the words "School Bus" painted on the rear and on the front thereof in such lettering. The sides of such vehicles may be inscribed with the words "School Bus", the school name or such other legend or device as may be necessary for purposes of identification or safety.
(c) Each school bus shall be equipped with special automatic, electrically-operated flashing stop signals, which shall be independent and separate from the braking, stop and tail lights of standard equipment. Such flashing lights may include automatic traffic signalling devices showing red and amber lights and shall be so located that adequate warning will be afforded to both oncoming and overtaking traffic, except that each school bus manufactured on and after October 1, 1984, and registered for use in this state shall be equipped with an eight-light warning system, showing two red flashing stop signals and two amber flashing warning signals on the front and rear of the bus, and a stop semaphore. The commissioner may adopt standards for an eight-light warning system and standards and specifications for the construction of school buses and for equipment to be maintained on school buses consistent with the provisions of sections 14-275 to 14-281, inclusive. Both public and private owners of school buses shall maintain a record of such kinds of repairs made to such buses as the commissioner may require and such work record shall be available at all times to the commissioner and the commissioner's designated assistants. All such maintenance records shall be retained for a period of two years. Each school bus shall be equipped with emergency lighting equipment as provided by section 14-97a, with a defrosting device as provided by section 14-97, with a system of mirrors as provided in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Section 571.111, as amended, or with an outside mirror as provided by section 14- 99 and a system of crossover mirrors designed and mounted so as to give the driver a view of the road from the front bumper forward to a point where direct observation is possible and along the left and right sides of the bus, with a signalling device as provided by section 14-101, and with chain nonskid devices for immediate use on at least one outside or inside rear tire on each side or tires designed to prevent skidding on all rear wheels when weather and highway conditions require such use. Commencing February 1, 1974, each new school bus with a vehicle air brake system shall be so equipped that the brake system is operated from a separate air reservoir tank other than the air reservoir tank used to operate any other compressed air or vacuum operated devices with which the school bus may be equipped. The seating requirements of section 14-273 shall be observed. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 14-98, school buses may be equipped with tires incorporating a metal nonskid device during the period from October fifteenth to April thirtieth, inclusive.
(d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(1955, S. 1319d; 1957, P.A. 481; 1959, P.A. 62, S. 8; 1961, P.A. 279; 1967, P.A. 395; 661; 1969, P.A. 639, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 149; 1972, P.A. 286, S. 1; P.A. 73-150; P.A. 75-161, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-108; P.A. 81-182; 81-256, S. 2; S.A. 81-57, S. 4, 5; P.A. 82-223, S. 20; P.A. 83-577, S. 25; P.A. 84-18, S. 1, 3; P.A. 85-118; P.A. 87-169; P.A. 91-272, S. 3, 8; 91-272, S. 3, 8; P.A. 92-47; P.A. 93-341, S. 25, 38; P.A. 96-167, S. 37, 44, 49; P.A. 00-169, S. 9.)
History: 1959 act amended Subsec. (c) by removing provision for approval by the commissioner of stop signs and signals; 1961 act deleted authority for manually or mechanically operated stop signs in lieu of automatic signals; 1967 acts required school buses to have at least one convex mirror in Subsec. (c) and required maintenance of repair record on school buses; 1969 act replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-95 with reference to Sec. 14-97a in Subsec. (c); 1971 act clarified requirement re chains and alternatively allowed use of studded tires in Subsec. (c); 1972 act replaced "applicable to lighting equipment on, and special warning devices to be carried by" with "for the construction of school buses and for equipment to be maintained on" school buses in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-150 amended Subsec. (c) to require air brake systems operated by separate air reservoir tanks as of February 1, 1974; P.A. 75-161 amended Subsec. (a) to require inspection of buses before registration; P.A. 77-108 allowed use of studded tires on school buses regardless of any general prohibition against their use; P.A. 81-182 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the commissioner to conduct random, unannounced inspections of registered school buses; P.A. 81-256 added provision to Subsec. (c) prohibiting the commissioner from adopting or enforcing minimum seating width requirements for school children; S.A. 81-57 changed effective date of P.A. 81-256 from October 1, 1981, to its date of passage, June 2, 1981; P.A. 82-223 added Subsec. (d) concerning fines for violations of the section; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting the provision specifying the fine for an infraction is "not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars"; P.A. 84-18 amended Subsec. (c), requiring that school buses manufactured on and after October 1, 1984, be equipped with an eight light warning system and a stop semaphore and also deleted an obsolete reference to green flashing lights; P.A. 85-118 amended Subsec. (b), requiring that school buses with eight-light warning systems have the words "School Bus" painted thereon; P.A. 87-169 amended Subsec. (c) to permit the use of tire chains on the inside rear tires; P.A. 91-272 amended Subsec. (c) to require each school bus to be equipped with a system of crossover mirrors to give driver a view of the road from front bumper forward to a point where direct observation is possible and along left and right sides of the bus; P.A. 92-47 amended Subsec. (c) to authorize the use of tires designed to prevent skidding on rear wheels in lieu of studded snow tires; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsec. (a) to delete conditional definitions of "registered school bus" and "registered as a school bus", effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-167 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the roof to be painted white, effective July 1, 1996, and amended Subsec. (c) to require each school bus to be equipped with a system of mirrors as provided in CFR Title 49, Sec. 571.111 as an alternative to an outside mirror as provided by Sec. 14-99, effective October 1, 1996; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (b) to change the required color of school buses from "National School Bus Chrome" to "National School Bus Glossy Yellow", Subsec. (c) to delete provision prohibiting commissioner from adopting or enforcing any standard or specification re seating width, and to require maintenance records be retained for a period of two years, and made technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
Subsec. (a):
State is not limited to proving a vehicle is a registered school bus by a certified copy of registration prepared by motor vehicle commissioner. It could prove this element by such other evidence as it sees fit. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 5, 6.

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Sec. 14-275a. Use of standard school bus required, when. Use of mass transportation permitted, when. Use of certain motor vehicles prohibited. (a) No town or regional school district shall transport or enter into a contract for the transportation of students under the age of twenty-one years to and from school in any motor vehicle accommodating more than fifteen students other than a school bus conforming to the provisions of section 14-275.
(b) On and after July 1, 1990, no motor vehicle with a seating capacity of more than ten passengers other than a school bus conforming to the provisions of section 14-275 may be initially registered for use in this state for the transportation of students under the age of twenty-one years to and from school. On and after July 1, 1994, no motor vehicle with a seating capacity of more than ten passengers other than a school bus conforming to the provisions of section 14-275 may be used for the transportation of such students to and from school.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, a town, regional school district, public, private or religious school may use the services of any mass transportation system to transport such students to and from school.
(d) No motor vehicle having (1) on and after July 1, 1992, a wheel base of less than one hundred and one inches, or (2) on and after July 1, 1991, a convertible top or an open body may be used by a carrier for the transportation of students under the age of twenty-one years to and from school.
(1972, P.A. 286, S. 2; P.A. 80-237, S. 2; P.A. 82-205; P.A. 89-320, S. 3, 12; P.A. 90-112, S. 4, 14; P.A. 91-272, S. 6, 8.)
History: 1972 act effective September 1, 1974, but section not applicable to any contract for the transportation of students which existed prior to May 26, 1972; P.A. 80-237 added exception re use of mass transportation system to convey students to and from school; P.A. 82-205 increased from nine to fifteen the maximum number of students that may be transported in a motor vehicle other than a school bus; P.A. 89-320 subdivided the section into Subsecs. and inserted new language in (1) Subsec. (b) to prohibit initial registration of vans for the transportation of students under twenty-one to and from school on and after July 1, 1990, and on and after July 1, 1994, to prohibit use of such vans for the transportation of such students and (2) Subsec. (c) to permit towns, regional school districts and schools to use services of mass transportation system to transport students to and from school; P.A. 90-112 added Subsec. (d), prohibiting use of certain motor vehicles by carriers for transportation of students under age twenty-one to and from school; P.A. 91-272 amended Subsec. (d)(1) and (2) to specify different effective dates for each Subdiv., deleting July 1, 1991, effective date applicable to both Subdivs.

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Sec. 14-275b. Transportation of mobility impaired students. The provisions of section 14-275 and subsection (b) of section 14-275a shall not apply to any motor vehicle when used exclusively for the transportation of mobility impaired students under the age of twenty-one, provided such motor vehicle has been approved for such purpose by the commissioner.
(1972, P.A. 286, S. 3; P.A. 78-10; P.A. 83-412, S. 4, 5; P.A. 89-320, S. 4, 12.
History: 1972 act effective September 1, 1974, but section not applicable to any contract for the transportation of students which existed prior to May 26, 1972; P.A. 78-10 deleted "physically" in phrase "physically handicapped students"; P.A. 83-412 provided that a town or school district shall not use any motor vehicle accommodating more than fifteen students (increased from nine), other than a school bus, for the transportation of handicapped students; P.A. 89-320 provided Sec. 14-275a(b) is applicable to motor vehicles used exclusively for transportation of mobility impaired students and deleted prohibition in proviso re use of motor vehicles accommodating more than fifteen students, other than school buses, for transportation of handicapped students.

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Sec. 14-275c. Regulations re school buses and motor vehicles used to transport special education students. Operators age seventy or older. Penalties. (a) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, make, alter or repeal regulations governing the inspection, registration, operation and maintenance of school buses and the licensing of the operators of such vehicles.
(b) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, governing (1) the inspection, registration, operation and maintenance of motor vehicles used by any carrier to transport children requiring special education, and (2) the licensing of operators of such vehicles. A person who has attained the age of seventy shall be allowed to hold a license endorsement for the purpose of operating a motor vehicle to transport children requiring special education provided he meets the minimum physical requirements set by the commissioner and agrees to submit to a physical examination at least twice a year or when requested to do so by the superintendent of the school system in which he intends to operate such vehicle.
(c) Any person who violates any provision of any regulation adopted pursuant to this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(P.A. 74-119; P.A. 80-237, S. 1; P.A. 83-340, S. 3, 4; P.A. 90-112, S. 10, 14; 90-263, S. 28, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 26, 38; P.A. 00-169, S. 10.)
History: P.A. 80-237 extended regulation power to cover vehicles used to transport children requiring special education and the operators of such vehicles; P.A. 83-340 divided section into Subsecs. and added a provision allowing a person age seventy or older to operate a motor vehicle to transport children requiring special education provided he meets physical requirements set by the commissioner and agrees to take a physical examination at least twice a year; P.A. 90-112 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute "carrier" for "local or regional board of education" in Subdiv. (1); P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute public passenger transportation permit for public service operator's license; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsec. (b) to replace reference to public passenger transportation permit with reference to license endorsement, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 00-169 added Subsec. (c) re penalties.

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Sec. 14-276. School bus operators to hold valid passenger and school endorsement. Names of suspended or revoked licensees furnished upon request. (a) Registered school buses while transporting school children shall be operated by holders of a valid passenger and school endorsement issued in accordance with section 14-44. Such endorsement shall be held in addition to the commercial driver's license required for the operation of such motor vehicles. A person who has attained the age of seventy shall be allowed to hold a passenger and school endorsement for the purpose of operating a school bus, provided he meets the minimum physical requirements set by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and agrees to submit to a physical examination at least twice a year or when requested to do so by the superintendent of the school system in which he intends to operate a school bus. Any person to whom a town has awarded a contract for the transportation of school children who permits the operation of a registered school bus while transporting school children by any person who does not hold a passenger and school endorsement shall be fined not less than thirty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars.
(b) Upon the request of any board of education or person to whom a town has awarded a contract for the transportation of school children, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall furnish, on a bimonthly basis, the names of those persons whose passenger and school endorsement has been suspended or revoked in accordance with section 14-44.
(c) Violation of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1320d; 1967, P.A. 859; 1969, P.A. 110, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 21; P.A. 81-256, S. 1; S.A. 81-57, S. 4, 5; P.A. 82-223, S. 21; P.A. 83-340, S. 1, 4; 83-577, S. 26; P.A. 90-263, S. 29, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 27, 38; P.A. 94-189, S. 19, 34.)
History: 1967 act prohibited persons seventy or older from holding license to operate school bus; 1969 act required minimum age of nineteen for holding license to operate school bus; 1972 act deleted minimum age requirement; P.A. 81- 256 removed provision which had made board of education members subject to fine for permitting unlicensed person to transport children and added Subsec. (b) requiring commissioner to furnish names of those whose licenses are suspended or revoked upon request; S.A. 81-57 revised effective date of P.A. 81-256 but did not change October 1, 1981, effective date of amendments to this section; P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (a) by lowering the maximum fine from one hundred to ninety dollars and added Subsec. (c) to specify that violation of the section is an infraction; P.A. 83-340 amended Subsec. (a) to allow a person age seventy or older to operate a school bus provided he meets physical requirements set by the commissioner and agrees to take a physical examination at least twice a year, where previously operation of bus by person seventy or older was prohibited; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the minimum fine from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to substitute public passenger transportation permits for public service operators' licenses and to insert commercial driver's license in lieu of regular operator's license in Subsec. (a); P.A. 93-341 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to replace references to public passenger transportation permits with references to passenger and school endorsements, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 94-189 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1994.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.

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Sec. 14-276a. Regulations re school bus operators and operators of student transportation vehicles; qualifications; training. Preemployment drug test required for operators. (a) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 establishing a procedure for the physical examination and safety training of school bus operators and operators of student transportation vehicles. Such regulations shall provide for minimum physical requirements for such operators and for minimum proficiency requirements for school bus operators. The safety training administered by the commissioner shall conform to the minimum requirements of number 17 of the National Highway Safety Standards. Such safety training shall include instruction relative to the location, contents and use of the first aid kit in the motor vehicle.
(b) No person shall operate a school bus as defined in section 14-275 or a student transportation vehicle as defined in section 14-212, for the purpose of transporting school children unless such person has prior to the issuance or renewal of his license endorsement: (1) Furnished evidence to the satisfaction of the commissioner that he meets the minimum physical requirements set by the commissioner for operation of a school bus or a student transportation vehicle; (2) successfully completed a course in safety training administered by the commissioner and, in the case of school bus operators, passed an examination in proficiency in school bus operation given by the commissioner. Such proficiency examination shall include a road test administered in either a type I school bus having a gross vehicle weight exceeding ten thousand pounds or a type II school bus having a gross vehicle weight of ten thousand pounds or less. Any operator administered a road test in a type II school bus only shall not be eligible for a license to operate a type I school bus. Any person who violates any provision of this subsection shall be deemed to have committed an infraction.
(c) Any town or regional school district may require its school bus operators to have completed a safety training course in the operation of school buses, consisting of a minimum of ten hours of behind-the-wheel instruction and three hours of classroom instruction.
(d) A carrier shall require each person whom it intends to employ to operate a school bus, as defined in section 14-275, or a student transportation vehicle, as defined in section 14-212, to submit to a urinalysis drug test in accordance with the provisions of sections 31-51v and 31-51w. No carrier may employ any person who has received a positive test result for such test which was confirmed as provided in subdivisions (2) and (3) of section 31-51u. The commissioner may, after notice and hearing, impose a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each offense on any carrier which violates any provision of this subsection.
(P.A. 73-503, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-302, S. 1; P.A. 80-277, S. 1; P.A. 82-223, S. 22; P.A. 83-577, S. 27; P.A. 87-585, S. 2, 3; P.A. 88-317, S. 61, 107; P.A. 89-320, S. 6, 7, 12; P.A. 90-112, S. 5, 14; 90-263, S. 71, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 28, 38; P.A. 96-167, S. 38.)
History: P.A. 79-302 deleted Subsec. (d) re appropriation to carry out purposes of section; P.A. 80-277 inserted new Subsec. (c) re safety training courses and relettered former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (d) by specifying that violation of the section constituted an infraction, establishing a minimum fine of twenty-five dollars and lowering the maximum fine from one hundred to ninety dollars; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting the provision specifying a fine of "not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars"; P.A. 87-585 amended Subsec. (b), requiring examination re school bus operation to include a road test administered in either a type I or type II school bus; P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-166 to 4-174 in Subsec. (a) to include new section added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 89-320 amended Subsec. (a) to require (1) commissioner to adopt regulations re physical examination and safety training of operators of motor vehicles owned by or under contract to towns, regional school districts and schools and (2) safety training to include instruction re location, contents and use of first aid kit, and amended Subsec. (b) to (1) prohibit persons from operating other school transportation vehicles unless such persons have satisfied the requirements in Subdivs. (1) and (2) prior to issuance or renewal of their public service operators' licenses, and (2) delete the definition of "school year", making technical changes as necessary, effective July 1, 1990; P.A. 90-112 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to substitute "student transportation vehicles" for references to motor vehicles owned by or under contract to a town, regional school district, public, private or religious school and used to transport students to and from school and inserted new Subsec. (d) requiring preemployment drug testing for prospective school bus operators and operators of student transportation vehicles, relettering former Subsec. (d) accordingly; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute public passenger transportation permit for public service operator's license; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsec. (b) to replace reference to public passenger transportation permits and with reference to license endorsements, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-167 eliminated Subsec. (e), imposing infraction as penalty for violation of any provision of section, and added in Subsec. (b) infraction as penalty and in Subsec. (d) provision authorizing commissioner to impose civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each offense on any carrier which violates provision of subsection.

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Sec. 14-277. Operator's duties on stopping bus. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) to (c), inclusive, of section 14-242, the operator of any school bus, when about to bring his bus to a stop to receive or discharge passengers, shall signal his intention to do so by causing the flashing signal lights to be displayed for not less than fifty feet before he brings the bus to a stop so as to be clearly visible to the operator of any oncoming or overtaking vehicle or motor vehicle, except that the operator of any school bus equipped with amber flashing signal lights shall signal such intention by causing the amber flashing signal lights to be displayed for not less than one hundred feet before he brings the bus to a stop. The operator of any school bus, having brought his vehicle to a stop, shall not open the door to receive or discharge passengers until all vehicles approaching from the front and overtaking from the rear have stopped in compliance with the indicated signal to stop. The operator of any school bus equipped with amber flashing signal lights and a stop semaphore, having brought his vehicle to a stop, shall cause the red flashing signal lights to be displayed and the stop semaphore to be extended and shall not open the door until all vehicles approaching from the front and overtaking from the rear have stopped in compliance with the indicated signal to stop. After all passengers are safely aboard or discharged and safely off the highway, the operator shall extinguish the stop lights and the operator of any school bus equipped with a stop semaphore shall withdraw the stop semaphore. He may then permit all standing traffic to pass before resuming forward progress. While such school bus is in motion the doors shall remain closed at all times and all passengers shall be required to remain seated. No operator of any school bus shall stop his vehicle on the main traveled portion of the highway to receive or discharge passengers when existing highway shoulders or adequate highway width is available or where curbs, bus stops or special facilities exist. No such operator may receive or discharge any passenger on a highway with separate roadways unless (1) a boarding passenger may reach the bus stop and a discharged passenger may reach his residence or other destination without crossing such highway or (2) he stops the bus at a location having a traffic control signal or crossing guard. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(1955, S. 1321d; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 12; 1971, P.A. 467, S. 1; P.A. 82-223, S. 23; P.A. 83-577, S. 28; P.A. 84-18, S. 2, 3; P.A. 85-212; P.A. 96-167, S. 39.)
History: 1963 act deleted references to use of stop signs in lieu of signals; 1971 act required use of "flashing" signal lights "for not less than fifty feet before he brings the bus to a stop" by bus driver rather than requiring that driver "immediately" signal intention to stop; P.A. 82-223 specified the penalties for a first and subsequent violation of the section; P.A. 83-577 deleted provision specifying the fine for an infraction is "not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars"; P.A. 84-18 specified operator's duties re stopping a bus equipped with amber flashing signal lights and a stop semaphore; P.A. 85-212 specified operator's duties re receipt and discharge of passengers on highways with separate roadways; P.A. 96-167 added phrase "Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) to (c), inclusive, of section 14- 242,".
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.
See Sec. 14-281d re permitted locations for boarding and discharge of school children.
Evidences legislative intent to create a safety zone for children alighting from a school bus. Defendant satisfied duty of care by complying with statute. 180 C. 302, 307, 308.

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Sec. 14-278. Hours of operation. Placement of seats. No extra exemption or authority for operators. The provisions of section 14-274 as to hours of operation of such motor vehicles and of section 14-257 as to placement of seats in such motor vehicles shall apply to the operation of school buses. Nothing in sections 14-275 to 14-281, inclusive, shall exempt the operator of any school bus from compliance with all laws governing the operation of motor vehicles upon the public highway, including the passing of other school buses similarly engaged. Nothing in said sections shall be construed as giving the operator of any school bus the authority to control traffic manually or by any other means than those specifically stated herein.
(1955, S. 1322d; P.A. 90-263, S. 52, 74.)
History: P.A. 90-263 deleted references to public service motor vehicles.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.

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Sec. 14-279. Vehicles to stop for school bus. Penalties. Written warning or summons. (a) The operator of any vehicle or motor vehicle shall immediately bring his vehicle to a stop not less than ten feet from the front when approaching and not less than ten feet from the rear when overtaking or following any registered school bus on any highway or private road or in any parking area or on any school property when such bus is displaying flashing red signal lights, except at the specific direction of a traffic officer. Vehicles so stopped for a school bus shall not proceed until such bus no longer displays flashing red signal lights. At the intersection of two or more highways vehicular turns toward a school bus receiving or discharging passengers are prohibited. The operator of a vehicle upon a highway with separate roadways need not stop upon meeting or passing a school bus which is on a different roadway.
(b) Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for the first offense and for each subsequent offense, not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days or both.
(c) Upon receipt of a written report from any school bus operator specifying the license plate number, color and type of any vehicle observed violating any provision of subsection (a) and the date, approximate time and location of such violation, a police officer shall issue a written warning or a summons to the owner of any such vehicle.
(1955, S. 1323d; February, 1965, P.A. 574, S. 21; 1967, P.A. 380; P.A. 80-245; P.A. 85-71; P.A. 86-155.)
History: 1965 act deleted "stop signal" as alternative to signal lights on school buses; 1967 act prohibited vehicle's moving until bus no longer displays "flashing" lights; P.A. 80-245 added Subsec. (b) re penalties for violation of provisions; P.A. 85-71 amended Subsec. (a) to include reference to flashing "red" signal lights and added Subsec. (c), providing for the issuance of a written warning to the owner of a vehicle violating Subsec. (a) upon receipt of a written report; P.A. 86- 155 amended Subsec. (a) to require vehicle operator to stop when overtaking or following a school bus on any highway, private road or in any parking area or on school property when bus is displaying flashing red lights, and amended Subsec. (c) to eliminate reference to "other person eighteen years of age or older" making written report and to require police officer to issue written warning or summons upon receipt of written report.
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
Evidences a legislative intent to create a safety zone within which school children can safely cross a street after alighting from a school bus. 180 C. 302, 308.
State is not limited to proving a vehicle is a registered school bus by a certified copy of registration prepared by motor vehicle commissioner. It could prove this element by such other evidence as it sees fit. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 5, 6.

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Sec. 14-280. Letters and signals to be concealed when not used in transporting children. Signs on other vehicles. (a) When used for any purpose other than the transportation of children to and from schools or school activities, private or public camps or any other activities concerning the transportation of groups of children, all lettering indicating the identity of school buses shall be covered and the special signals normally used when so engaged shall be left unused or disconnected. Any student transportation vehicle when used for the transportation of children to and from private or public camps or for the transportation exclusively of children and any person or persons having charge of such children to any activities, except school activities, when engaged in such transportation, may display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any motor vehicle, other than a registered school bus, not owned by a public, private or religious school, or under contract to such school, when engaged in the transportation of school children to and from school or school activities, may display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any student transportation vehicle, when engaged in the transportation of school children to and from school or school activities, shall display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any signs permitted or required under this section shall be removed or covered when the vehicle is not being used for the purposes requiring or allowing the use of such signs as specified in this section.
(b) The sign or signs permitted or required under subsection (a) of this section may be portable signs securely mounted on the roof or decal or painted signs, either of which shall be placed at a height of at least four feet and shall display the wording "CARRYING SCHOOL CHILDREN" in black lettering at least three inches high on yellow background visible to operators of vehicles approaching from front and rear. The words "Stop" or "Stop on signal" shall not be used. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 establishing standards for the construction and attachment of such portable signs.
(c) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(1955, S. 1324d; 1959, P.A. 418, S. 1; P.A. 79-331, S. 1, 2; P.A. 81-172, S. 15; P.A. 82-223, S. 24; P.A. 83-577, S. 29; P.A. 89-320, S. 5, 12; P.A. 90-112, S. 6, 14.)
History: 1959 act included transportation of children to other than school activities; P.A. 79-331 divided section into subsections, clarified provisions re use of portable signs and specified wording of signs; P.A. 81-172 allowed for decal or painted signs on vehicles transporting school children in addition to portable signs mounted on the roof and reduced required size of lettering "CARRYING SCHOOL CHILDREN" from four to three inches; P.A. 82-223 added Subsec. (c) specifying the penalties for a first and subsequent violation; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting the provision specifying the fine for an infraction is "not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than ninety dollars"; P.A. 89-320 amended Subsec. (b) to require (1) portable signs to be securely mounted on roof, and (2) commissioner to adopt regulations establishing standards for construction and attachment of portable signs; P.A. 90-112 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute "student transportation vehicle" for reference to motor vehicle, other than a registered school bus.
See Sec. 14-107 re liability of owner, operator or lessee of vehicle.

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Sec. 14-281. Penalties. Any person who violates any provision of sections 14-275 to 14-280, inclusive, for which no other penalty is provided shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars for the first offense, and not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each subsequent offense.
(1955, S. 1325d.)

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Sec. 14-281a. Speed of school buses. Display of head lamps. (a) Every school bus shall be operated at a safe rate of speed, consistent with the volume of traffic, intersections, curves, railway crossings and any other condition requiring special caution. The maximum speed shall not exceed fifty miles per hour on divided limited access highways and forty miles per hour on all other highways or, where highway signs indicate lower speeds, shall not exceed such posted speed limits.
(b) Each school bus and student transportation vehicle shall display lighted head lamps while transporting school children.
(c) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1967, P.A. 324; P.A. 75-577, S. 106, 126; P.A. 90-112, S. 7, 14.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 90-112 divided section into Subsecs. and inserted new language as Subsec. (b), requiring school buses and student transportation vehicles to display lighted head lamps while transporting school children.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-281b. Summons issued to holder of license endorsement while operating school bus or student transportation vehicles; copy to be sent to employer and local board of education; notification of disposition of case. (a) Within two days after a summons is issued to a holder of a license endorsement while the holder is operating a school bus or student transportation vehicle, a copy of the summons shall be transmitted to the employer of the license endorsement holder and the board of education for which such school bus or student transportation vehicle is performing contract services.
(b) Within five days of the conviction, forfeiture, nolle or other disposition of a holder of a license endorsement for any violation while operating a school bus or student transportation vehicle, a report of the conviction, forfeiture, nolle or other disposition shall be transmitted by the court to the employer of the license endorsement holder and the board of education for which such school bus or student transportation vehicle is performing contract services.
(P.A. 80-277, S. 2, 3; P.A. 90-263, S. 30, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 29, 38.)
History: P.A. 90-263 substituted public passenger transportation permit for public service operator's license, inserted "student transportation vehicle" after "school bus" and required copy of summons and report of disposition to be furnished to board of education for which school bus or student transportation vehicle is performing contract services in lieu of town in which summons was issued; P.A. 93-341 replaced references to public passenger transportation permits with references to license endorsements, effective July 1, 1994.

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Sec. 14-281c. Report of serious accidents involving school buses or student transportation vehicles. In each serious accident involving a school bus or a student transportation vehicle as defined in section 14-212, the police officer who, in the regular course of duty, investigates such accident, shall immediately report such accident by telephone or otherwise to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. In the event of any accident in which an occupant of a school bus or student transportation vehicle is injured resulting in admission of such occupant to a hospital overnight, the police officer investigating the accident shall report such accident to the commissioner within twenty-four hours thereafter. For the purposes of this section, the term "serious accident" means any accident in which (1) any occupant of the school bus or student transportation vehicle is killed, or (2) a fire occurs in, or there is a roll-over of, the school bus or student transportation vehicle.
(P.A. 90-112, S. 1, 14.)
See Sec. 14-277 re operator's duties on stopping bus.

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Sec. 14-281d. Duties of operators of student transportation vehicles re receipt or discharge of school children. No operator of a student transportation vehicle, as defined in section 14-212, while engaged in the transportation of school children to and from school or school activities may receive or discharge any child in a location where such child may cross any highway to board the vehicle or to reach his residence or other destination, except as approved by the Commissioner of Education.
(P.A. 89-320, S. 10, 12; P.A. 90-112, S. 9, 14.)
History: P.A. 90-112 substituted "student transportation vehicle" for "motor vehicle, other than a registered school bus, owned by or under contract to a town, regional school district, public, private or religious school".

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Sec. 14-282. Vehicle formerly used as school bus to be repainted. Inspection of other vehicles. (a) Any person who is the owner or becomes the owner of a motor vehicle formerly used as a school bus who discontinues the use of such vehicle for the transportation of school children as stated in sections 14-275 and 14-280 shall cause the same to be painted another color, readily distinguishable from "National School Bus Chrome". On and after July 1, 1990, each such motor vehicle ten years old or older shall be presented for inspection every two years at any state Department of Motor Vehicles office.
(b) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1955, S. 1326d; 1957, P.A. 418; P.A. 75-577, S. 107, 126; P.A. 89-320, S. 8, 12.)
History: P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 89-320 subdivided the section into Subsecs. and required each former school bus ten years old or older to be inspected every two years at the motor vehicle department on and after July 1, 1990; (Revisor's note: In 1997 references throughout the general statutes to "Motor Vehicle(s) Commissioner" and "Motor Vehicle(s) Department" were replaced editorially by the Revisors with "Commissioner of Motor Vehicles" or "Department of Motor Vehicles", as the case may be, for consistency with customary statutory usage).
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-282a. Inspection districts for school buses and student transportation vehicles. (a) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall establish eight inspection districts for the purpose of maintaining a system of continuing inspection of school buses and student transportation vehicles, investigation of accidents involving school buses and student transportation vehicles and investigation of complaints against the owners and drivers of school buses and student transportation vehicles, and to coordinate the various school bus safety programs.
(b) The commissioner is authorized to add six inspectors to the present staff in order to carry out the provisions of this section.
(1967, P.A. 608, S. 1, 2; P.A. 90-112, S. 11, 14.)
History: P.A. 90-112 amended Subsec. (a) to require commissioner to establish inspection districts for maintaining a system of continuing inspection of student transportation vehicles.

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Sec. 14-283. Rights of emergency vehicles. Obstruction of. (a) "Emergency vehicle", as used in this section, means any ambulance or emergency medical service organization vehicle responding to an emergency call, any vehicle used by a fire department or by any officer of a fire department while on the way to a fire or while responding to an emergency call but not while returning from a fire or emergency call, or any state or local police vehicle operated by a police officer or inspector of the Department of Motor Vehicles answering an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators.
(b) The operator of any emergency vehicle may (1) park or stand such vehicle, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter, (2) proceed past any red light or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down or stopping to the extent necessary for the safe operation of such vehicle, (3) exceed the posted speed limits or other speed limits imposed by or pursuant to section 14-218a or 14-219 as long as he does not endanger life or property by so doing, and (4) disregard statutes, ordinances or regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specific directions.
(c) The exemptions herein granted shall apply only when an emergency vehicle is making use of an audible warning signal device, including but not limited to a siren, whistle or bell which meets the requirements of subsection (f) of section 14-80, and visible flashing or revolving lights which meet the requirements of sections 14-96p and 14-96q, and to any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only.
(d) The provisions of this section shall not relieve the operator of an emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property.
(e) Upon the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle making use of such an audible warning signal device and such visible flashing or revolving lights or of any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only, the operator of every other vehicle in the immediate vicinity shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in such position until the emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise directed by a state or local police officer or fireman as provided in section 7-313a.
(f) Any officer of a fire department may remove, or cause to be removed, any vehicle upon any public or private way which obstructs or retards any fire department, or any officer thereof, in controlling or extinguishing any fire.
(g) Any person who wilfully or negligently obstructs or retards any ambulance or emergency medical service organization vehicle while answering any emergency call or taking a patient to a hospital, or any vehicle used by a fire department or any officer or member of a fire department while on the way to a fire, or while responding to an emergency call, or any vehicle used by the state police or any local police department, or any officer of the Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety or any local police department while on the way to an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators, shall be fined not more than fifty dollars or imprisoned not more than seven days or both.
(h) Nothing in this section shall be construed as permitting the use of a siren upon any motor vehicle other than an emergency vehicle, as defined in subsection (a) of this section, or a rescue service vehicle which is registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to section 19a-181.
(1949 Rev., S. 2424; 1957, P.A. 542, S. 1, 2; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 7; 1963, P.A. 112; 1969, P.A. 452, S. 7; 1971, P.A. 538; P.A. 77-340, S. 9; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-3; P.A. 80-483, S. 64, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 66; P.A. 85-217, S. 3; P.A. 00-169, S. 11.)
History: 1963 act included fire department vehicles responding to emergency calls; 1969 act increased fine from fifty to five hundred dollar maximum and imprisonment from seven days to one year maximum in Subsec. (c); 1971 act replaced previous provisions with new provisions re right-of-way granted to emergency vehicles; P.A. 77-340 added reference to Sec. 14-218a in Subsec. (b); P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 made state police department a division within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-3 replaced reference to ambulances and vehicles used by police and fire departments with reference to emergency vehicles and rescue service vehicles in Subsec. (h); P.A. 80-483 replaced reference to Sec. 14-96g with reference to Sec. 14-96q in Subsec. (c); P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; P.A. 85-217 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g), including emergency medical service organization vehicles in the definition of "emergency vehicle" and imposing a fine on persons who obstruct such vehicles while answering emergency calls; P.A. 00-169 redefined "emergency vehicle" to include vehicles operated by inspectors of the Department of Motor Vehicles.
See Sec. 14-80(f) re use of sirens, whistles or bills as warning signal devices.
The provisions of this section create an exception to section 14-299(b) concerning traffic lights at intersections. 114 C. 400. If a person is preparing for a left turn at an intersection, it may not be practicable to drive to the right-hand side and a jury should be so charged. Under this section sounding of the siren of the cruiser is essential to its right-of-way. 150 C. 349. Cited. 189 C. 601, 608. Effect of statute is merely to displace the conclusive presumption of negligence that ordinarily arises from the violation of traffic rules. Id., 601, 608, 610.
Cited. 41 CA 476, 481.
Though ambulance had right-of-way, driver still had duty to look to right on entering intersection. 15 CS 232. Fact that police officer in answering an emergency call had right-of-way did not excuse him from operating his car with reasonable care. 19 CS 32. Cited. 38 CS 377, 382.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 189 C. 601, 608.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 189 C. 601, 609.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 38 CS 377, 382−384.
Subsec. (g):
Cited. 38 CS 377, 383.
Subsec. (h):
Cited. 34 CS 555.

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Sec. 14-283a. Adoption of state-wide policy for pursuits by police officers. (a) As used in this section, "police officer" means a sworn member of an organized local police department or a state police officer, which member or officer is assigned to patrol duties on public streets or highways, and "pursuit" means an attempt by a police officer in an authorized emergency vehicle to apprehend any occupant of another moving motor vehicle, when the driver of the fleeing vehicle is attempting to avoid apprehension by maintaining or increasing the speed of such vehicle or by ignoring the police officer's attempt to stop such vehicle.
(b) Not later than January 1, 2000, the Commissioner of Public Safety, in conjunction with the Chief State's Attorney, the Police Officer Standards and Training Council, the Connecticut Police Chiefs Association and the Connecticut Coalition of Police and Correctional Officers, shall adopt in accordance with chapter 54 a uniform, state-wide policy for handling pursuits by police officers. Such policy shall specify: (1) The conditions under which a police officer may engage in a pursuit and discontinue a pursuit, (2) alternative measures to be employed by any such police officer in order to apprehend any occupant of the fleeing motor vehicle or to impede the movement of such motor vehicle, (3) the coordination and responsibility, including control over the pursuit, of supervisory personnel and the police officer engaged in such pursuit, (4) in the case of a pursuit that may proceed and continue into another municipality, (A) the requirement to notify and the procedures to be used to notify the police department in such other municipality or, if there is no organized police department in such other municipality, the officers responsible for law enforcement in such other municipality, that there is a pursuit in progress, and (B) the coordination and responsibility of supervisory personnel in each such municipality and the police officer engaged in such pursuit, (5) the type and amount of training in pursuits, that each police officer shall undergo, which may include training in vehicle simulators, if vehicle simulator training is determined to be necessary, and (6) that a police officer immediately notify supervisory personnel or the officer in charge after the police officer begins a pursuit. The chief of police or Commissioner of Public Safety, as the case may be, shall inform each officer within such chief's or said commissioner's department and each officer responsible for law enforcement in a municipality in which there is no such department of the existence of the policy of pursuit to be employed by any such officer and shall take whatever measures that are necessary to assure that each such officer understands the pursuit policy established.
(P.A. 78-372, S. 1, 2, 7; P.A. 99-171, S. 1, 5.)
History: P.A. 99-171 defined "police officer" in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (b) by changing the requirement that each police department adopt a pursuit policy to a requirement that a uniform, state-wide pursuit policy be adopted, adding Subdivs. (1) to (6), inclusive, and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1999.
Cited. 208 C. 94, 101.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 31 CA 669, 674.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 208 C. 94, 101, 103.

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Sec. 14-284. Use of restricted highway by livery service vehicles. The restriction of any highway to use by passenger motor vehicles shall not prohibit the use thereof by motor vehicles in livery service as defined in chapter 244b when such vehicles have a maximum capacity of seven passengers.
(1955, S. 1402d; 1957, P.A. 109.)

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Sec. 14-285. Use of mirrors by vehicles other than motor vehicles. Each vehicle, except a motor vehicle, which is so constructed or which is so loaded that the driver is prevented from having a free and unobstructed view of the highway immediately to the rear and at the sides of the same, shall be equipped with a mirror or reflector attached to and so located and adjusted on such vehicle as to give the operator thereof a clear reflected view of the highway directly to the rear on a line parallel to the side of the body of such vehicle. Any person operating such a vehicle shall make observations for the approach of vehicles from the rear and, when so approached, shall drive to the right of the center line of the traveled way as promptly as safety will permit, giving the vehicle approaching from the rear opportunity to pass in safety. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be deemed to have committed an infraction and be fined not less than thirty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars for each offense.
(1949 Rev., S. 2503; P.A. 82-223, S. 25; P.A. 83-577, S. 30.)
History: P.A. 82-223 specified that violation of the section constituted an infraction and increased the minimum fine from ten to twenty-five dollars; P.A. 83-577 increased the minimum fine from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars.
See Sec. 14-99 re mirror requirement.

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Sec. 14-286. Use of bicycles and bicycles with helper motors. Regulations re bicycles on bridges. Use of high-mileage vehicles. (a) Each person operating a bicycle upon and along a sidewalk or across any roadway upon and along a crosswalk shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and shall give an audible signal within a reasonable distance before overtaking and passing a pedestrian. Each person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall within a reasonable distance give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a pedestrian or another bicycle operator. No person shall operate a bicycle upon or along a sidewalk or across a roadway upon and along a crosswalk if such operation is prohibited by any ordinance of any city, town or borough or by any regulation of the State Traffic Commission issued or adopted pursuant to the provisions of section 14-298.
(b) No person shall ride a bicycle with a helper motor unless that person holds a valid motor vehicle operator's license or motorcycle operator's license. No person shall operate a bicycle with a helper motor at a rate of speed exceeding thirty miles per hour; nor shall any bicycle with a helper motor be operated on any sidewalk, limited access highway or turnpike.
(c) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may issue to a person who does not hold a valid operator's license a special permit that authorizes such person to ride a bicycle with a helper motor if (A) such person presents to the commissioner a certificate by a physician licensed to practice medicine in this state that such person is physically disabled, as defined in section 1-1f, other than blind, and that, in the physician's opinion, such person is capable of riding a bicycle with a helper motor, and (B) such person demonstrates to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles that he is able to ride a bicycle (i) without a helper motor on level terrain, and (ii) with a helper motor. (2) Such permit may contain limitations that the commissioner deems advisable for the safety of such person and for the public safety, including, but not limited to, the maximum speed of the helper motor such person may use. No person who holds a valid special permit under this subsection shall operate a bicycle with a helper motor in violation of any limitations imposed in the permit. Any person to whom a special permit is issued shall carry the permit at all times while operating the bicycle with a helper motor. Each permit issued under this subsection shall expire one year from the date of issuance.
(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of any statute or regulation to the contrary, the State Traffic Commission shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 determining the conditions and circumstances under which bicycle traffic may be permitted on those bridges in the state on limited access highways which it designates to be safe for bicycle traffic. Bicycle traffic shall not be prohibited on any such bridges under such conditions and circumstances.
(e) As used in this section: (1) "Sidewalk" means any sidewalk laid out as such by any town, city or borough, and any walk which is reserved by custom for the use of pedestrians, or which has been specially prepared for their use. "Sidewalk" does not include crosswalks and does not include footpaths on portions of public highways outside thickly settled parts of towns, cities and boroughs, which are worn only by travel and are not improved by such towns, cities or boroughs or by abutters; (2) "bicycle" includes all vehicles propelled by the person riding the same by foot or hand power or a helper motor; and (3) "helper motor" means a motor having a capacity of less than fifty cubic centimeters piston displacement, rated not more than two brake horsepower, capable of a maximum speed of no more than thirty miles per hour and equipped with automatic transmission.
(f) Any person who pleads not guilty of violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be prosecuted within fifteen days of such plea.
(g) No person may operate a high-mileage vehicle as defined in section 14-1 on any sidewalk, limited access highway or turnpike.
(h) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2505; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 75; 1971, P.A. 119; P.A. 75-577, S. 108, 126; P.A. 76-250, S. 1, 4; 76-381, S. 5; P.A. 77-375, S. 1; P.A. 81-394, S. 6; P.A. 82-88; P.A. 96-167, S. 46, 49; P.A. 97-321, S. 2.)
History: 1971 act clarified ban on use of bicycles and tricycles on sidewalks; P.A. 75-577 deleted provision requiring that prosecutions for violations be instituted within fifteen days after offense committed and added statement that violation is infraction unless not guilty plea made in which case prosecution to be made within fifteen days; P.A. 76-250 added provisions re bicycles with helper motors; P.A. 76-381 replaced provision for twenty dollar maximum fine with statement that violator deemed to have committed an infraction and deleted the later provision re commission of infraction now rendered redundant; P.A. 77-375 excluded tricycles from consideration under provisions, restated rules governing operation of bicycles, deleting ten m.p.h. speed limit and allowing operation on sidewalks if allowed by ordinance or state traffic commission regulation, deleted definition of "park" and "square" and placed statement re violation as infraction in separate Subsec. (b); P.A. 81-394 inserted new Subsec. (b) limiting the operation of high-mileage vehicles and relettered former Subsec. (b) accordingly; P.A. 82-88 included provision regarding the adoption of regulations concerning bicycles on bridges; P.A. 96-167 amended Subsec. (a), deleting requirement of operable pedals in definition of "bicycle", effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-321 reorganized Subsec. divisions, inserted new Subsec. (c) re issuance of special permit to ride bicycle with helper motor and amended Subsec. (e) clarifying definition of "sidewalk" and "helper motor" (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (c) references to "helper's motor" were replaced editorially by the Revisors with "helper motor" to conform language with existing references).
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Care required of a bicycle rider. 90 C. 710.
Cited. 9 CA 686, 691.

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Sec. 14-286a. Rights, duties and regulation of cyclists. (a) Every person riding a bicycle, as defined by section 14-286, upon the traveled portion of a highway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of any vehicle subject to the requirements of the statutes relating to motor vehicles, except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application and except that each town, city or borough and the State Traffic Commission within its jurisdiction as provided in section 14-298 shall have authority to regulate bicycles as provided in section 14-289 and said section 14-298, and except as provided by section 14-286c. No parent of any child and no guardian of any ward shall authorize or knowingly permit any such child or ward to violate any provision of the general statutes or ordinances enacted under section 14-289 relating to bicycles.
(b) Every person operating a bicycle solely by hand or foot power upon and along any sidewalk or across any roadway upon and along any crosswalk shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to pedestrians walking in such areas as provided by the general statutes, except as provided otherwise by any ordinance of any city, town or borough or any regulation of the State Traffic Commission issued or adopted pursuant to the provisions of section 14-289.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 37; P.A. 77-375, S. 2; P.A. 78-331, S. 11, 58.)
History: P.A. 77-375 deleted references to tricycles, included reference to regulations imposed by state traffic commission and added Subsec. (b) re rights of cyclists operating bicycle solely by hand or foot power; P.A. 78-331 made technical changes.

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Sec. 14-286b. Operation of bicycles; attaching to moving vehicle prohibited; carrying of passengers, packages, bundles and other articles restricted; at least one hand to be kept on handle bars. Operators of roller skates, sleds, skateboards, coasters and toy vehicles prohibited from attaching to moving vehicle. Penalty. (a) Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as practicable, except when (1) making a left turn pursuant to subsection (b) of section 14-241, (2) overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction, (3) overtaking and passing pedestrians, parked vehicles, animals or obstructions on the right side of the highway, and (4) when the right side of the highway is closed to traffic while under construction or repair.
(b) Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles. Persons riding two abreast, as provided in this subsection, shall not impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, and, on a laned roadway, shall ride within a single lane.
(c) No person riding upon any bicycle, roller skates, sled, skateboard, coaster or toy vehicle shall attach the same or himself to any vehicle moving or about to move on a public roadway nor shall the operator of such vehicle knowingly permit any person riding a bicycle, roller skates, skateboard, coaster, sled or toy vehicle to attach the same or himself to such vehicle so operated or about to be operated, provided any person operating a bicycle solely by foot or hand power may attach a bicycle trailer or semitrailer thereto, provided such trailer or semitrailer is designed for such attachment.
(d) No person operating a bicycle, as defined by section 14-286, upon a roadway, path or part of roadway set aside for exclusive use of bicycles shall carry on such bicycle a passenger unless such bicycle is equipped or designed to carry passengers, provided any person who has attained the age of eighteen years may carry any child while such person is operating a bicycle propelled solely by foot or hand power, provided such child is securely attached to his person by means of a back pack, sling or other similar device. The term "child", as used in this subsection, means any person who has not attained the age of four years.
(e) No person operating a bicycle, as defined by section 14-286, shall carry any package, bundle or other article which prevents such person from using both hands in the operation of such bicycle. Each person operating such bicycle shall keep at least one hand on the handlebars thereof when such bicycle is in motion.
(f) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 38; P.A. 75-577, S. 109, 126; P.A. 77-375, S. 3; P.A. 98-165, S. 3.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (e); P.A. 77-375 added provisions re riding two abreast in Subsec. (b), deleted Subsec. (c), relettered former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (c), including under its provisions skateboards and coasters and adding proviso re attachment of bicycle trailers and semitrailers, replaced former Subsec. (e) with new provisions re carrying passengers (now Subsec. (d)), added new Subsec. (e) re carrying bundles and added new Subsec. (f) containing provision re violation formerly found in Subsec. (d); P.A. 98-165 amended Subsec. (a) to replace provision requiring bicyclist to exercise due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive, specifying exceptions to requirement of riding as near to the right side of roadway as practicable.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-286c. Left and right turns. (a) Each person riding a bicycle upon the traveled portion of a highway and intending to make a left turn after proceeding pursuant to the provisions of section 14-244 or subsection (b) of this section, may in lieu of the procedure prescribed by section 14-241, approach as close as practicable to the right- hand curb or edge of the highway, proceed across the intersecting roadway and make such turn as close as practicable to the curb or edge of the highway on the far side of the intersection, provided such procedure is not prohibited by any regulation issued by any town, city, borough or the State Traffic Commission.
(b) Each person riding a bicycle upon the traveled portion of a highway and intending to make a right turn may in lieu of the procedure prescribed by section 14-244, before turning and while in motion or if stopped while waiting to turn signal such turn by extending his right hand and arm horizontally with forefinger extended.
(c) No person operating a bicycle upon the traveled portion of a highway and intending to make a right or left turn shall be required when making a signal of such intention to make such signal continuously.
(P.A. 77-375, S. 4.)

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Sec. 14-286d. Bicycle helmets. Children. Renting bicycles. Public awareness campaign. (a) For the purposes of this section and section 14-286e, "bicycle" means any vehicle propelled by the person riding the same by foot or hand power.
(b) No child fifteen years of age or under shall operate a bicycle on the traveled portion of any highway unless such child is wearing protective headgear which conforms to the minimum specifications established by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation's Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling. Failure to comply with this section shall not be a violation or an offense. Failure to wear protective headgear as required by this subsection shall not be considered to be contributory negligence on the part of the parent or the child nor shall such failure be admissible in any civil action.
(c) A law enforcement officer may issue a verbal warning to the parent or guardian of a child that such child has failed to comply with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.
(d) A person, firm or corporation engaged in the business of renting bicycles shall provide a bicycle helmet conforming to the minimum specifications established by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation's Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling to any person under sixteen years of age who will operate the bicycle if such person does not have a helmet in his possession. A fee may be charged for the helmet rental. Violation of any of the provisions of this subsection shall be an infraction.
(e) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may establish, within available appropriations, a public awareness campaign to educate the public concerning the dangers of riding bicycles without helmets and to promote the use of safety helmets while riding bicycles.
(P.A. 93-286, S. 2; 93-292, S. 1−4; P.A. 96-180, S. 43, 166; P.A. 97-46; P.A. 00-196, S. 12.)
History: P.A. 93-286 added provision to Subsec. (b) specifying that failure to wear headgear shall not be considered contributory negligence on part of parent or child nor shall failure be admissible in any civil action; P.A. 96-180 amended Subsec. (b) to add "Snell Memorial Foundation's Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling" as alternative organization establishing specifications for protective headgear, effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 97-46 amended Subsec. (b) to require children fifteen years of age and under to wear protective headgear and to delete "under twelve" re age of child; P.A. 00-196 added reference to Sec. 14-286e in Subsec. (a).

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Sec. 14-286e. Police officers on bicycles. (a) A police officer operating a bicycle in response to an emergency call or while engaged in rescue operations or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law shall be exempt from the provisions of sections 14-286, 14-286a, 14-286b, 14-286c and 14-289 provided (1) the police officer is wearing a distinctive uniform and (2) the police officer has completed a course of instruction in basic police bicycle patrol certified by the Police Officer Standards and Training Council or an equivalent course of instruction.
(b) The exemptions granted in subsection (a) of this section shall apply only when such bicycle is making use of an audible warning signal device, including, but not limited to a siren, whistle or bell.
(c) The provisions of this section shall not relieve the operator of a bicycle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property.
(P.A. 93-292, S. 6; P.A. 95-108, S. 12.)
History: P.A. 95-108 amended Subsec. (a) to rename Municipal Police Training Council as Police Officer Standards and Training Council.
See Sec. 14-286d re definition of "bicycle".

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Sec. 14-287. Carrying person other than operator on bicycle. Section 14-287 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2506; P.A. 75-577, S. 110, 126; P.A. 77-375, S. 8.)

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Sec. 14-288. Lights, reflectors and brakes on bicycles. Whistle emitting devices prohibited. (a) Each bicycle operated upon the public highway, during the times or under the conditions as provided in subsection (a) of section 14-96a, shall display a lighted lamp upon the forward part of such bicycle. Such lamp shall, when lighted, emit a white light which in clear weather shall be visible at a distance of not less than five hundred feet in the direction in which such bicycle is proceeding. Each bicycle shall also, at all times, be equipped with a reflector or reflecting tail light lens, which reflector or lens shall be attached to the rear of such bicycle in such manner as to reflect rays of light thrown upon the same, and such reflector or reflecting tail shall be visible at a distance of not less than six hundred feet from the rear when illuminated by the head lamps of a motor vehicle. Such bicycle shall also be equipped with reflective material so placed and of sufficient size and reflectivity to be visible from both sides of such bicycle at a distance of not less than six hundred feet when illuminated by the head lamps of a motor vehicle. Each bicycle shall also, at all times, be equipped with a braking device sufficient to enable the operator thereof to stop within twenty-five feet on dry, level and clean pavement when moving at a speed of ten miles per hour. No person shall equip a bicycle with a siren or device which emits a whistle or use a siren or device which emits a whistle while operating a bicycle.
(b) Operation of a bicycle in conflict with any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(1949 Rev., S. 2507; 1955, S. 1381d; 1959, P.A. 62, S. 9; P.A. 75-577, S. 111, 126; P.A. 77-375, S. 5.)
History: 1959 act removed requirement that reflector be of a type approved by the commissioner; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for five dollar maximum fine in Subsec. (b) with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 77- 375 replaced general requirements that bicycle have rear reflector and brakes with specifications for required equipment, required that headlight be visible from five hundred rather than four hundred feet and replaced reference to operation half- hour after sunset and before sunrise with reference to operation during times or under conditions specified in Sec. 14-96a(a).
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 189 C. 611, 616.

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Sec. 14-289. Regulation of use of bicycles by municipality. Each town, city and borough shall have authority to make any ordinance not inconsistent with section 14- 286 or 14-288 or any regulation of the State Traffic Commission issued pursuant to section 14-298, respecting governing and controlling the use of bicycles within such town, city or borough, with appropriate penalties for violation thereof, which ordinances may include provisions requiring annual licensing of bicycles and providing for registration of any sale of, or change of ownership in, a bicycle.
(1949 Rev., S. 2508; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 76; P.A. 77-375, S. 7.)
History: P.A. 77-375 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 14-287 and included reference to regulations of state traffic commission.

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Sec. 14-289a. Riding on motorcycle. Carrying of passenger. A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle unless such motorcycle is properly equipped to carry more than one person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the rear or side of the operator. No operator of a motorcycle who has not held a license to operate a motorcycle for a period of three months shall carry any other person on such motorcycle. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 17; 1967, P.A. 728; P.A. 75-577, S. 112, 126.)
History: 1967 act prohibited persons licensed to operate motorcycle for less than three months from carrying passengers; P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-289b. Operation of motorcycles. (a) The operator of a motorcycle shall be entitled to the full use of any single traffic lane, but the operation of more than two motorcycles abreast in any single traffic lane is prohibited.
(b) The operator of a motorcycle shall not (1) overtake and pass, in the same single traffic lane occupied by such motorcycle, any motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or (2) operate a motorcycle between lanes of traffic.
(c) Any person operating a motorcycle manufactured after January 1, 1980, on a highway, shall illuminate the head lamp of such motorcycle at all times it is being operated.
(d) No provision of this section shall apply to a police officer during the performance of his official duties.
(e) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall have committed an infraction.
(1967, P.A. 396, S. 1; P.A. 75-577, S. 113, 126; P.A. 79-590; P.A. 84-429, S. 41.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of section is an infraction; P.A. 79-590 replaced previous provisions; P.A. 84-429 rephrased provisions and made other technical changes in Subsec. (c).
See Sec. 14-111g re operator's retraining program.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 194 C. 129, 136.

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Sec. 14-289c. Riding motorcycle sidesaddle; carrying of passenger on motorcycle not so designed. Any person who rides sidesaddle on a motorcycle and any operator of a motorcycle who permits such riding or who carries a passenger on any motorcycle not designed for passengers shall have committed an infraction.
(1967, P.A. 396, S. 2; P.A. 75-577, S. 115, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-289d. Vision-protecting devices for motorcyclists. (a) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall issue regulations, in accordance with nationally accepted standards, concerning specifications for vision-protecting devices, including but not limited to goggles, glasses, face shields, windshields and wind screens for use by operators of motorcycles.
(b) Failure to wear either goggles, glasses or a face shield of a type which conforms to the minimum specifications as called for by such regulations shall be an infraction. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to operators of motorcycles equipped with a wind screen or windshield which conforms to the minimum specifications called for by such regulations.
(1967, P.A. 375, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-577, S. 114, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine in Subsec. (b) with statement that failure to wear goggles, glasses or face shield is an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.
Cited. 194 C. 129, 136.

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Sec. 14-289e. Headgear for motorcyclists and passengers. Section 14-289e is repealed.
(1967, P.A. 376, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-369; P.A. 76-326, S. 1, 2.)

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Sec. 14-289f. Liability insurance required for motorcycles. No owner of any motorcycle, as defined in section 14-1, registered in this state may operate or permit the operation of such motorcycle unless it has been insured for the amounts required by section 14-112 with an exclusion in personal injury coverage for passengers. Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(P.A. 84-291, S. 1; 84-546, S. 155, 173.)
History: P.A. 84-546 made technical change for statutory consistency.
See Sec. 14-12(f)(5) re proof of insurance requirement prior to registration.

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Sec. 14-289g. Protective headgear for motorcyclists and passengers under eighteen years old. Regulations. Penalty. (a) On and after January 1, 1990, no person under eighteen years of age may operate a motorcycle, as defined in section 14-1, and no person under the age of eighteen may be a passenger on a motorcycle, unless such person is wearing protective headgear of a type which conforms to the minimum specifications established by regulations adopted under subsection (b) of this section.
(b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 and the provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Section 571.218, as amended, establishing specifications for protective headgear for use by operators and passengers of motorcycles.
(c) Any person subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section who fails to wear protective headgear which conforms to the minimum specifications established by such regulations shall have committed an infraction and shall be fined not less than ninety dollars.
(P.A. 89-242, S. 3, 7.)

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Sec. 14-290. Exemptions from motor vehicle laws. (a) Motor vehicles in the custody and use of officers in the performance of their duties shall be exempt from any traffic regulations of any town, city or borough, and from the provisions of this chapter and of chapter 246, so far as such exemption is necessary for the effective enforcement of any of the provisions of the statutes.
(b) The following provisions of the general statutes shall not apply to operators of maintenance vehicles or equipment of any governmental agency or agent thereof or to vehicles or equipment of any governmental agency or agent thereof, so far as such exemption is necessary, while such operators and equipment are engaged in or are preparing to engage in or are departing from highway maintenance operations on any highway, road or street, provided the state Department of Transportation shall not by reason of such exemption suffer any loss of revenue granted from any agency or department of the federal government for the federal Interstate Highway System or any other highway system: Sections 14-216, 14-230 to 14-233, inclusive, 14-235 to 14-242, inclusive, 14- 244 to 14-247, inclusive, 14-250a to 14-252, inclusive, 14-261, 14-262, 14-264 to 14- 271, inclusive, 14-299, 14-301 to 14-308, inclusive.
(c) Any wrecker, as defined in subdivision (90) of section 14-1, shall be exempt from the provisions of section 14-267a, provided such wrecker is in the course of towing or hauling a disabled motor vehicle from the point where such vehicle became disabled and does not exceed any of the weight limits provided in section 14-267a by more than twenty per cent.
(1949 Rev., S. 2427; 1969, P.A. 507, S. 1; P.A. 77-11; 77-604, S. 47, 84; P.A. 85-223, S. 2; P.A. 91-192, S. 1.)
History: 1969 act added Subsec. (b) exempting operators of maintenance vehicles or equipment of governmental agencies from specified sections of statutes; P.A. 77-11 replaced highway department with department of transportation; P.A. 77-604 deleted references to repealed Secs. 14-229, 14-258 and 14-272 and added references to Secs. 14-230 and 14-271 in Subsec. (b); P.A. 85-223 added Subsec. (c) which exempts wreckers from the provisions of Sec. 14-267a, concerning fines for overweight vehicles, with certain limitations; P.A. 91-192 amended Subsec. (b) to extend exemption to operators and equipment preparing to engage in or departing from highway maintenance operations, and in Subsec. (c), subdivision "(90)" was substituted for "(65)" editorially to correct the reference.
See 108 C. 183.
Cited. 28 CA 283, 285.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 38 CA 322, 328.

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Sec. 14-291. Traffic regulations for special occasions. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, or the Commissioner of Public Safety, their deputies or any inspector or police officer authorized by said commissioners, may make and provide for the enforcement of traffic regulations for such time or times as unusually heavy traffic conditions may be anticipated upon any highway, provided such traffic regulations shall not apply to or be enforced in the streets of any incorporated city regularly employing a police force of more than fifteen men.
(1949 Rev., S. 2514; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 39; P.A. 77-614, S. 486, 610.)
History: 1965 act added reference to state police commissioner and changed "any person authorized" to "police officer authorized;" P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of state police with commissioner of public safety, effective January 1, 1979.

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Sec. 14-292. Marking of vehicle operated by student driver. When any motor vehicle is in use on any highway of this state for the purpose of instructing any person in the operation of a motor vehicle, for compensation or as a part of any school program, the person giving such instruction shall cause to be displayed in a conspicuous place on the front and rear thereof a distinctive marker, not less than twelve inches long nor six inches high, in such form as the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles prescribes, and bearing the inscription "Student Driver". Failure to display the distinctive markers required by this section shall be an infraction.
(1957, P.A. 530; P.A. 75-577, S. 116, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 made failure to display markers an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-293. Vehicles and persons driving or leading animals to display lights. Section 14-293 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2490; 1967, P.A. 834, S. 30.)
See Sec. 14-96n re general lighting requirements.

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Sec. 14-293a. Riding animals on highways. Any person who rides any horse or other animal upon a public highway shall conform to the provisions of this chapter and chapter 249, unless such provisions clearly do not apply from the language or context or such application would be inconsistent with the manifest intention of the statutes. The fines established in accordance with section 51-164m for violations of the provisions of this chapter and chapter 249, with respect to a motor vehicle, shall apply if the same violation of a provision is committed in the riding of a horse or other animal.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 19; P.A. 75-577, S. 117, 126; P.A. 76-435, S. 5, 82.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added provision re fines; P.A. 76-435 replaced invalid section reference.

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Sec. 14-293b. Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators when approaching equestrians. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 specifying the responsibilities of an operator of a vehicle when approaching a person riding a horse on a public highway, which responsibilities shall include, but not be limited to, the obligation to reduce speed appropriately or to stop, if necessary, to avoid endangering the equestrian or frightening or striking the horse. A statement concerning such responsibilities shall be printed in the instruction manual for motor vehicle operation at the time of the next revision of such manual.
(P.A. 85-75.)

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Sec. 14-294. Security for appearance of accused. Section 14-294 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2491; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 120.)

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Sec. 14-295. Double or treble damages for persons injured as a result of certain traffic violations. In any civil action to recover damages resulting from personal injury, wrongful death or damage to property, the trier of fact may award double or treble damages if the injured party has specifically pleaded that another party has deliberately or with reckless disregard operated a motor vehicle in violation of section 14-218a, 14-219, 14-222, 14-227a, 14-230, 14-234, 14-237, 14-239 or 14-240a, and that such violation was a substantial factor in causing such injury, death or damage to property.
(1949 Rev., S. 2492; P.A. 76-435, S. 1, 82; P.A. 77-604, S. 7, 84; P.A. 85-122; P.A. 88-229.)
History: P.A. 76-435 deleted references to repealed Secs. 14-246 and 14-293; P.A. 77-604 replaced reference to Sec. 14-232 with reference to Sec. 14-242; P.A. 85-122 made provisions of section inapplicable to person licensed under Sec. 14-15; P.A. 88-229 entirely replaced prior provisions re the liability for double or treble damages of each person who, by neglecting to conform to any provision of Secs. 14-230 to 14-242, inclusive, or Sec. 14-245 or 14-247, causes injury to the person or property of another if the court, in its discretion, determines that double or treble damages are just with provisions authorizing the trier of fact to award double or treble damages if the injured party has specifically pleaded that another party has deliberately or with reckless disregard operated a motor vehicle in violation of certain enumerated statutes and that such violation was a substantial factor in causing the injury, death or damage to property.
Treble damages were originally mandatory; they were made discretionary in 1909. The jury should find the actual damages and the court multiply them. 59 C. 1. The statute is to be strictly construed. If the complaint omits any element of the statute; 66 C. 570; 75 C. 124; or alleges other tortious acts, so that the verdict does not necessarily establish violation of the statute; 59 C. 1; 84 C. 52; 87 C. 256; multiple damages cannot be awarded. Multiple damages should be claimed in the demand for relief. 84 C. 52; 87 C. 257. Cited. 111 C. 729. Additional damages are penal and are not recoverable from insurer. 127 C. 533. Cited. 134 C. 599. Cited. 192 C. 280, 282, 283, 286, 287, 290, 296; Id., 301, 304. Cited. 196 C. 494− 498. Cited. 203 C. 667−674. Unconstitutionally deprives defendant of jury trial, statute does not purport to authorize jury determination of multiple damages. 206 C. 608−621. Cited. 211 C. 133, 143. Cited. 216 C. 40, 60, 61.
Judicially created standard "precludes unlimited and arbitrary discretion by the court in its application of statute." 4 CA 451−456, 458. Cited. 8 CA 254, 268. Cited. 31 CA 781−786, 788. Cited. 43 CA 1.
Cited. 39 CS 228, 229.
Double or treble damages may be claimed in complaint alleging both common-law and statutory negligence, provided facts which bring case within statute are clearly stated. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 462, 463, 464.

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Sec. 14-296. General penalty. Any person who violates any provision of this chapter for which no other penalty is provided or is not designated an infraction shall be fined not more than fifty dollars.
(1949 Rev., S. 2515; 1971, P.A. 870, S. 129; P.A. 75-577, S. 122, 126.)
History: 1971 act reduced fine from one hundred to fifty dollar maximum; P.A. 75-577 made fine applicable to violations which are not designated as infractions.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-296a. House trailer not to be occupied when on highway. No person or persons shall occupy a house trailer while it is being moved upon a public highway. Violation of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 33; P.A. 75-577, S. 118, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 made violation of section an infraction.
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-296b. Following or parking near fire apparatus, driving over hose prohibited. (a) No driver of a vehicle other than one on official business relating to the emergency shall follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a fire alarm closer than five hundred feet or park such vehicle within the block where fire apparatus has stopped in answer to a fire alarm.
(b) No vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a fire department when laid down on any street or private driveway to be used at any fire or alarm of fire, without the consent of the fire department official in command.
(c) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.
(February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 35, 36; P.A. 75-577, S. 119, 126.)
History: P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (c).
See chapter 881b re infractions of the law.

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Sec. 14-296c. Reserved for future use.

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Sec. 14-296d. Moving violation defined. Motor vehicle operator's retraining program for operators eighteen years of age or over. Fee. Hearing. Possible license suspension. Regulations. Section 14-296d is repealed, effective July 1, 1998.
(P.A. 93-341, S. 36, 38; P.A. 98-182, S. 21, 22.)
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