CHAPTER 373*

NATUREOPATHY

*See Sec. 19a-88b re renewal of certain professional and occupational licenses, certificates, permits or registrations which become void while the holder is on active duty in the armed forces of the United States.

Cited. 207 C. 674; 242 C. 1.

Table of Contents

Sec. 20-34. Practice defined.

Sec. 20-35. Examining board.

Sec. 20-36. Meetings. Powers and duties of examining board.

Sec. 20-37. Licensure. Examination. Fees.

Sec. 20-37a. Students and faculty, licensure exemption. Curriculum training and procedures.

Sec. 20-37b. License by endorsement.

Sec. 20-38. Receipts to be credited to General Fund.

Sec. 20-39. Subjects of examination.

Sec. 20-39a. Professional liability insurance required, when. Amount of insurance. Reporting requirements.

Sec. 20-40. Refusal of license. Disciplinary grounds.

Sec. 20-41. Renewal of licenses. Fee.

Sec. 20-41a. Continuing education: Definitions; contact hours; attestation; record-keeping; exemptions, waivers and extensions; reinstatement of void licenses.

Sec. 20-42. Penalties.


Sec. 20-34. Practice defined. (a) The practice of natureopathy means the science, art and practice of healing by natural methods as recognized by the Council of Natureopathic Medical Education and approved by the State Board of Natureopathic Examiners, with the consent of the commissioner, and shall include (1) counseling and (2) the practice of the mechanical and material sciences of healing as follows: The mechanical sciences such as mechanotherapy, articular manipulation, corrective and orthopedic gymnastics, physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy and phototherapy; and the material sciences such as nutrition, dietetics, phytotherapy, treatment by natural substances and external applications.

(b) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, “natural substances” means substances which are not narcotic substances, as defined in subdivision (30) of section 21a-240, do not require the written or oral prescription of a licensed practitioner to be dispensed and are only administered orally.

(1949 Rev., S. 4394; P.A. 84-111, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-613, S. 53, 154; P.A. 05-288, S. 81.)

History: P.A. 84-111 redefined the practice of natureopathy and added auxiliary definition of “natural substances”; P.A. 85-613 made technical change; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 13, 2005.

To engage in natureopathy, one must hold oneself out as a natureopath either by a series of acts or by advertising as such. 130 C. 544.

Cited. 3 CA 707.

Sec. 20-35. Examining board. The State Board of Natureopathic Examiners shall continue to consist of three members, two of whom shall be practicing natureopathic physicians of this state and one of whom shall be a public member. The Governor shall appoint the members of said board subject to the provisions of section 4-9a. Said board shall meet at least once during each calendar quarter and at such other times as the chairman deems necessary. Special meetings shall be held on the request of a majority of the board after notice in accordance with the provisions of section 1-225. A majority of the members of the board shall constitute a quorum. Members shall not be compensated for their services. Any member who fails to attend three consecutive meetings or who fails to attend fifty per cent of all meetings held during any calendar year shall be deemed to have resigned from office. Minutes of all meetings shall be recorded by the board. No member shall participate in the affairs of the board during the pendency of any disciplinary proceedings by the board against such member. No professional member shall be an elected or appointed officer of a professional society of natureopathic physicians or have been such an officer during the year immediately preceding his appointment. Said board shall (1) hear and decide matters concerning suspension or revocation of licensure, (2) adjudicate complaints against practitioners and (3) impose sanctions where appropriate.

(1949 Rev., S. 4388; P.A. 77-614, S. 367, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 170, 174, 176; P.A. 81-471, S. 14, 71; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12, S. 17, 55; P.A. 98-143, S. 6, 24.)

History: P.A. 77-614 changed composition of board from three natureopathic physicians to two physicians and one public member and simplified statement of governor’s appointment powers, deleting reference to specific date of appointment and length of term; P.A. 80-484 deleted requirement that physician members have practiced continuously in state for three years, made appointments subject to Sec. 4-9a and added provisions re meetings, expense reimbursement, members’ attendance, duties, etc.; P.A. 81-471 changed “elected official” to “elected or appointed officer” as of July 1, 1981; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12 eliminated expense reimbursement for board members; P.A. 98-143 added quorum provision, effective July 1, 1998.

See Sec. 4-9a for definition of “public member”.

See Secs. 19a-8 to 19a-12, inclusive, re powers and duties of boards and commissions within Department of Public Health.

Cited. 220 C. 86.

Sec. 20-36. Meetings. Powers and duties of examining board. Section 20-36 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 4389, 4395; 1955, S. 2199d; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 12; P.A. 77-614, S. 73, 368, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 175, 176.)

Sec. 20-37. Licensure. Examination. Fees. No person shall engage in the practice of natureopathy in this state until he has obtained a license. No person shall receive a license until he has passed an examination prescribed by the department with the advice and consent of the board. The examination shall be administered by the Department of Public Health under the supervision of the board. Passing scores shall be established by the department with the consent of the board. Any person desiring to practice natureopathy shall make application to the department, upon such form as it adopts. Applications shall be in writing upon blanks furnished by said department, setting forth such facts concerning the applicant as said department requires and shall be signed by the applicant. Each applicant shall present to said department satisfactory evidence that he graduated from an approved high school, that he has completed a course of study of an academic year consisting of not less than thirty-two weeks’ duration, or, if he begins the study of natureopathy after September 1, 1963, not less than sixty-four weeks’ duration, in a college or scientific school approved by the board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health or possessed educational qualifications equivalent to those required for graduation from such school before beginning the study of natureopathy and that he is a graduate of a legally chartered, reputable school or college of natureopathy, approved by said board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health. Said department shall issue a license to each applicant who passes the examination and who has met all other requirements of this chapter and any regulations adopted hereunder. There shall be paid to the department by such applicant a fee of five hundred sixty-five dollars. Any person who has passed the prescribed examination shall receive from said department a license, which license shall include a statement that the person named therein is qualified to practice natureopathy. The secretary of said board shall file annually with the Department of Public Health a list of natureopathic colleges or institutions recognized by said board as legal and reputable.

(1949 Rev., S. 4390; 1949, S. 2198d; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 13; 1963, P.A. 241; 1969, P.A. 123, S. 1; June, 1971, P.A. 8, S. 45; P.A. 77-614, S. 369, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 23, 174, 176; P.A. 89-251, S. 76, 203; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-18; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 185.)

History: 1959 act doubled fee for certificate of operation, deleted requirement that $10 fee accompany application for same, and deleted $2 fee for certificate of registration as well as requirement that department pay recording fee out of this amount; 1963 act added requirement that study begun after September 1, 1963, be of not less than 64 weeks’ duration; 1969 act deleted references to duplicate certificates and statements and to disposition of duplicate to town clerk where physician resides or intends to reside; 1971 act increased certificate fee from $50 to $150; P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services, required health services commissioner’s consent for examinations and required that chapter and related regulations, rather than board, determine whether applicant receives certificate, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-484 replaced certificate of registration with license and essentially transferred powers re applications, examinations and licensure from board to department, retaining board in an advisory role and revising provisions as necessary, deleted requirement that application be sworn and that applicant be, or intends to become, a resident and added provision re department’s administration of examination and setting of passing scores; P.A. 89-251 increased the application fee from $150 to $450; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-18 eliminated requirements of four years’ residence and 36 weeks per year attendance at approved schools; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 increased fee from $450 to $565.

See Sec. 19a-88 re annual renewal of licenses.

See Sec. 19a-89 re notification of change in office or residence address.

Duty of commissioner in issuing certificate is ministerial and not discretionary. 133 C. 530. Revocation without notice or hearing is invalid. 136 C. 84.

Commissioner has no discretion in issuing certificate of registration. 14 CS 199. The courts cannot aid one who was certified through fraud. 15 CS 303. Authority to approve a school or college of natureopathy rests with the board itself. Id., 468.

Sec. 20-37a. Students and faculty, licensure exemption. Curriculum training and procedures. (a) For purposes of this section:

(1) “Council on Natureopathic Medical Education” or “council” means the Council on Natureopathic Medical Education or its successor organization; and

(2) “Licensed faculty members” means faculty members or instructors licensed in this or another jurisdiction in the area of practice in which they are providing clinical instruction.

(b) Notwithstanding the requirements of section 20-37, no license to practice natureopathic medicine is required of:

(1) Students enrolled in a college or program of natureopathic medicine if (A) the college or program is recognized by the Council on Natureopathic Medical Education or licensed or accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education, and (B) the practice that would otherwise require a license is pursuant to a course of instruction or assignments from an instructor and under the supervision of the instructor; or

(2) Licensed faculty members providing the didactic and clinical training necessary to meet the accreditation standards of the Council on Natureopathic Medical Education at a college or program recognized by the council or licensed or accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education.

(c) A college or program of natureopathic medicine approved pursuant to section 20-37 may include within its curriculum such didactic and clinical training as is necessary for such college or program to qualify for accreditation by the Council on Natureopathic Medical Education, including such training that is outside the scope of the practice of natureopathy, as defined in section 20-34. Students and licensed faculty members of such college or program may perform all procedures that are part of the curriculum of such college or program, provided such procedures are incidental to the course of study at such college or program and the student conducting such procedures is under the direct supervision of a faculty member who is licensed to perform such procedures in this state.

(P.A. 98-83, S. 1, 2; P.A. 00-52; P.A. 07-166, S. 2; P.A. 08-116, S. 4; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 53.)

History: P.A. 00-52 added new Subsec. (c) re curriculum training and procedures; P.A. 07-166 amended Subsec. (b)(1) and (2) to substitute “Board of Governors of Higher Education” for “Board of Governors for Higher Education”, effective June 19, 2007; P.A. 08-116 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective May 27, 2008; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to State Board of Education re accreditation, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 20-37b. License by endorsement. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 20-37, the Department of Public Health may grant a license by endorsement to a natureopathic physician who presents evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Public Health that the applicant is licensed or certified as a natureopathic physician, or as a person entitled to perform similar services under a different designation, in another state or jurisdiction whose requirements for practicing in such capacity are substantially similar to or higher than those of this state. The department may require such applicant to provide evidence satisfactory to the commissioner that the applicant understands Connecticut laws and regulations relating to the practice of natureopathy. The fee for such license shall be four hundred fifty dollars. No license shall be issued under this section to any applicant against whom professional disciplinary action is pending or who is the subject of an unresolved complaint.

(P.A. 03-252, S. 7.)

Sec. 20-38. Receipts to be credited to General Fund. Section 20-38 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 4395; 1955, S. 2199d; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 14; P.A. 80-484, S. 175, 176.)

Sec. 20-39. Subjects of examination. Each applicant for the certificate of registration provided for in section 20-37 shall take a written examination on the following subjects: Anatomy, physiology, histology, psychology, chemistry, hygiene, public health, dietetics, jurisprudence, natureopathic pathology, diagnosis and theory and practice of natureopathic therapeutics.

(1949 Rev., S. 4391; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 81-471, S. 15, 71.)

History: P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 81-471 eliminated requirement that examination questions and answers be retained for six years by the department of health services.

Cited. 15 CS 468.

Sec. 20-39a. Professional liability insurance required, when. Amount of insurance. Reporting requirements. (a) Each person licensed to practice natureopathy under the provisions of section 20-37 who provides direct patient care services shall maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity against liability for professional malpractice. The amount of insurance which each such person shall carry as insurance or indemnity against claims for injury or death for professional malpractice shall not be less than five hundred thousand dollars for one person, per occurrence, with an aggregate of not less than one million five hundred thousand dollars.

(b) Each insurance company which issues professional liability insurance, as defined in subdivisions (1), (6), (7), (8) and (9) of subsection (b) of section 38a-393, shall on and after January 1, 1995, render to the Commissioner of Public Health a true record of the names and addresses, according to classification, of cancellations of and refusals to renew professional liability insurance policies and the reasons for such cancellation or refusal to renew said policies for the year ending on the thirty-first day of December next preceding.

(P.A. 94-71, S. 4; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-180, S. 68, 166.)

History: P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-180 required addresses to be included with the record of names in Subsec. (b), effective June 3, 1996.

Sec. 20-40. Refusal of license. Disciplinary grounds. Said department may refuse to grant a license to practice natureopathy or may take any of the actions set forth in section 19a-17 for any of the following reasons: The employment of fraud or material deception in obtaining a license, habitual intemperance in the use of ardent spirits, narcotics or stimulants to such an extent as to incapacitate the user for the performance of professional duties, violations of the provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted hereunder, engaging in fraud or material deception in the course of professional services or activities, physical or mental illness, emotional disorder or loss of motor skill, including, but not limited to, deterioration through the aging process, illegal, incompetent or negligent conduct in his practice, failure to maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity against liability for professional malpractice as provided in subsection (a) of section 20-39a, or failure to provide information to the Department of Public Health required to complete a health care provider profile, as set forth in section 20-13j. Any applicant for a license to practice natureopathy or any practitioner against whom any of the foregoing grounds for refusing a license or action under said section 19a-17 are presented to said board shall be furnished with a copy of the complaint and shall have a hearing before said board in accordance with the regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Public Health. The Commissioner of Public Health may order a license holder to submit to a reasonable physical or mental examination if his physical or mental capacity to practice safely is the subject of an investigation. Said commissioner may petition the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to enforce such order or any action taken pursuant to section 19a-17.

(1949 Rev., S. 4392; P.A. 77-614, S. 370, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 24, 176; P.A. 81-471, S. 16, 71; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-71, S. 10; P.A. 95-220, S. 4–6; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 08-109, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 77-614 allowed board to refuse license for violations of chapter and related regulations and replaced details of hearing procedure with statement that hearings be in accordance with regulations adopted by commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-484 transferred powers of board to department and extended applicability to actions of disciplinary nature, deleted actions for conviction of crime involving moral turpitude, added actions re fraud or deception in course of professional services or activities, physical or mental illness, emotional disorders, loss of motor skill or illegal, incompetent or negligent conduct of practitioner and added provisions re required physical or mental examinations and re petitions to court for enforcement of orders or actions; P.A. 81-471 made no substantive changes; P.A. 88-230 replaced “judicial district of Hartford-New Britain” with “judicial district of Hartford”, effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced commissioner of health services with commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-71 inserted new language concerning failure to maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity liability for professional malpractice; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 08-109 made a technical change and added failure to provide information for health care provider profile to list of grounds for refusal of license or disciplinary action, effective January 1, 2010.

Sec. 20-41. Renewal of licenses. Fee. Section 20-41 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 4393; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 15.)

Sec. 20-41a. Continuing education: Definitions; contact hours; attestation; record-keeping; exemptions, waivers and extensions; reinstatement of void licenses. (a) As used in this section:

(1) “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of Public Health;

(2) “Contact hour” means a minimum of fifty minutes of continuing education activity;

(3) “Department” means the Department of Public Health;

(4) “Licensee” means any person who receives a license from the department pursuant to chapter 373; and

(5) “Registration period” means the one-year period for which a license renewed in accordance with section 19a-88 is current and valid.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, for registration periods beginning on and after October 1, 2009, a licensee applying for license renewal shall earn a minimum of fifteen contact hours of continuing education within the preceding registration period. Such continuing education shall (1) be directly related to the practice of natureopathy; and (2) reflect the professional needs of the licensee in order to meet the health care needs of the public. Qualifying continuing education activities include, but are not limited to, courses, including on-line courses, offered or approved by the Association of Accredited Naturopathic Medical Colleges, regionally accredited institutions of higher education or a state or local health department.

(c) Each licensee applying for license renewal pursuant to section 19a-88 shall sign a statement attesting that he or she has satisfied the continuing education requirements of subsection (b) of this section on a form prescribed by the department. Each licensee shall retain records of attendance or certificates of completion that demonstrate compliance with the continuing education requirements of said subsection (b) for a minimum of five years following the year in which the continuing education activities were completed and shall submit such records to the department for inspection not later than forty-five days after a request by the department for such records.

(d) A licensee applying for the first time for license renewal pursuant to section 19a-88 is exempt from the continuing education requirements of this section.

(e) In individual cases involving medical disability or illness, the commissioner may, in the commissioner’s discretion, grant a waiver of the continuing education requirements or an extension of time within which to fulfill the continuing education requirements of this section to any licensee, provided the licensee submits to the department an application for waiver or extension of time on a form prescribed by the department, along with a certification by a licensed physician of the disability or illness and such other documentation as may be required by the commissioner. The commissioner may grant a waiver or extension for a period not to exceed one registration period, except that the commissioner may grant additional waivers or extensions if the medical disability or illness upon which a waiver or extension is granted continues beyond the period of the waiver or extension and the licensee applies for an additional waiver or extension.

(f) Any licensee whose license has become void pursuant to section 19a-88 and who applies to the department for reinstatement of such license pursuant to section 19a-14 shall submit evidence documenting successful completion of fifteen contact hours of continuing education within the one-year period immediately preceding application for reinstatement.

(P.A. 08-184, S. 12.)

Sec. 20-42. Penalties. Any person, except a licensed natureopath or a physician licensed to practice medicine as provided by chapter 370, who practices or attempts to practice natureopathy, or any person who buys, sells or fraudulently obtains any diploma or license to practice natureopathy whether recorded or not, or any person who uses the title “natureopath” or any word or title to induce the belief that he is engaged in the practice of natureopathy, without complying with the provisions of this chapter, or any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than five years or both. For the purposes of this section, each instance of patient contact or consultation which is in violation of any provision of this chapter shall constitute a separate offense. Failure to renew a license in a timely manner shall not constitute a violation for the purposes of this section.

(1949 Rev., S. 4397; P.A. 84-526, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 84-526 amended section by changing penalty for violation of any provision of chapter to a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment of not more than five years, and added provisions that each instance of patient contact or consultation shall constitute a separate offense and failure to renew license in timely manner is not a violation for purposes of section.

Complaint of a single treatment, standing alone, was not a violation of statute. 130 C. 546. Cited. 141 C. 288.