CHAPTER 223

REAL ESTATE CONVEYANCE TAX

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-494. Imposition of tax on conveyances of real property for consideration. One part payable to state and the other to municipality in which paid.

Sec. 12-494a. Deposit of portion of tax in municipal revenue sharing account.

Sec. 12-495. Payment of tax. Endorsement.

Sec. 12-496. Endorsement in cases of tax exemption.

Sec. 12-497. Payment of tax and filing of return condition precedent to recording. Prohibition re refusal to record deed.

Sec. 12-497a. Exemptions.

Sec. 12-498. Exempt transactions.

Sec. 12-499. Disposition of revenues.

Sec. 12-500. Allocation of tax among municipalities.

Secs. 12-501 and 12-502. False statement of tax prohibited. Penalty.

Sec. 12-502a. Administrative provisions. Penalties. Hearings and appeals.

Sec. 12-502b. Deficiency assessment.

Sec. 12-503. Recording without payment of tax as constructive notice.

Sec. 12-504. Effect of federal transfer tax.

Sec. 12-504a. Conveyance tax on sale or transfer of land classified as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land.

Sec. 12-504b. Payment of tax; land declassified; assessment change.

Sec. 12-504c. Excepted transfers.

Sec. 12-504d. Appeals.

Sec. 12-504e. Conveyance tax applicable on change of use or classification of land.

Sec. 12-504f. Classification of land classified as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land personal to owner. Certificate of classification.

Sec. 12-504g. Recording without payment of tax as constructive notice.

Sec. 12-504h. Termination of classification as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land.


Sec. 12-494. Imposition of tax on conveyances of real property for consideration. One part payable to state and the other to municipality in which paid. (a) There is imposed a tax on each deed, instrument or writing, whereby any lands, tenements or other realty is granted, assigned, transferred or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in, the purchaser, or any other person by such purchaser’s direction, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed equals or exceeds two thousand dollars, (1) subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, at the rate of three-quarters of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing, the revenue from which shall be remitted by the town clerk of the municipality in which such tax is paid, not later than ten days following receipt thereof, to the Commissioner of Revenue Services for deposit to the credit of the state General Fund, and (2) at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing, provided the amount imposed under this subdivision shall become part of the general revenue of the municipality in accordance with section 12-499.

(b) The rate of tax imposed under subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall, in lieu of the rate under said subdivision (1), be imposed on certain conveyances as follows: (1) In the case of any conveyance of real property which at the time of such conveyance is used for any purpose other than residential use, except unimproved land, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed at the rate of one and one-quarter per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed; (2) in the case of any conveyance in which the real property conveyed is a residential estate, including a primary dwelling and any auxiliary housing or structures, regardless of the number of deeds, instruments or writings used to convey such residential real estate, for which the consideration or aggregate consideration, as the case may be, in such conveyance is eight hundred thousand dollars or more, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed (A) at the rate of three-quarters of one per cent on that portion of such consideration up to and including the amount of eight hundred thousand dollars, and (B) at the rate of one and one-quarter per cent on that portion of such consideration in excess of eight hundred thousand dollars; and (3) in the case of any conveyance in which real property on which mortgage payments have been delinquent for not less than six months is conveyed to a financial institution or its subsidiary which holds such a delinquent mortgage on such property, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed at the rate of three-quarters of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed. For the purposes of subdivision (1) of this subsection, “unimproved land” includes land designated as farm, forest or open space land.

(c) In addition to the tax imposed under subsection (a) of this section, any targeted investment community, as defined in section 32-222, or any municipality in which properties designated as manufacturing plants under section 32-75c are located, may, on or after March 15, 2003, impose an additional tax on each deed, instrument or writing, whereby any lands, tenements or other realty is granted, assigned, transferred or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in, the purchaser, or any other person by his direction, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed equals or exceeds two thousand dollars, which additional tax shall be at a rate of up to one-fourth of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing. The revenue from such additional tax shall become part of the general revenue of the municipality in accordance with section 12-499.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 158, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 6, 15; P.A. 85-480, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-397, S. 8, 10; P.A. 89-205, S. 1; 89-251, S. 19, 203; P.A. 91-356, S. 1, 3; P.A. 92-57, S. 1, 2; P.A. 03-2, S. 40; P.A. 04-201, S. 4; 04-216, S. 51; P.A. 05-268, S. 1, 2; P.A. 07-154, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1, S. 128; June 11 Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 1; P.A. 11-6, S. 102.)

History: 1971 act substituted “consideration for the interest or property conveyed” for “consideration or value of the interest or property conveyed”; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 provided for imposition of a conveyance tax, payable to the state on each deed or other instrument conveying lands, tenements or other realty at the rate of 0.5% of the purchase price for the interest in real property conveyed and for continuation of the existing conveyance tax payable to the municipality at the rate of $1.10 for each $1,000 of purchase price, effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after said date; P.A. 85-480 amended the language of imposition so that the tax is imposed on the sale or transfer of real property and not upon the deed or instrument of conveyance; P.A. 86-397 reduced the rate of tax from .05% to .045% of the full purchase price for the interest in real property conveyed, effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to any conveyance of an interest in real property occurring on or after January 1, 1987; P.A. 89-205 made technical changes, including descriptions of the imposition of tax as applied to the deed in lieu of imposition on the sale or transfer of an interest in real property and of the rate of tax as being applied to the consideration for the interest conveyed in lieu of the full purchase price; P.A. 89-251 increased the tax under Subsec. (a)(1) from .045% to 0.5% of the consideration, changed the rate of tax in Subsec. (a)(2) from $1.10 for each $1,000 of full purchase price to 0.011% of the consideration and added Subsec. (b) providing for a higher rate of tax on conveyances for purposes other than residential and for residential property in the case of an estate for which the consideration exceeds $800,000; P.A. 91-356 added Subsec. (b)(3), re rate for certain transfers in lieu of foreclosure, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after said date; P.A. 92-57 amended Subsec. (b)(3) by including conveyances to the subsidiary of a financial institution holding a delinquent mortgage on the conveyed real property, effective July 1, 1992, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; P.A. 03-2 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and increase the municipal portion of the tax to 0.25% from March 15, 2003, until July 1, 2004, made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and added new Subsec. (c) re an additional tax which certain municipalities may impose during said period, effective March 15, 2003; P.A. 04-201 amended Subsec. (b) to add provisions re multiple instruments used to convey residential property, effective June 3, 2004; P.A. 04-216 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to extend the time period for the higher rate thereunder until July 1, 2005, and amended Subsec. (c) to delete sunset provision related to the tax imposed under that subsection, effective May 6, 2004; P.A. 05-268 amended Subsec. (a) to retain the rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2007, and amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change and add “up to” re additional tax rate, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 07-154 amended Subsec. (b) to define “unimproved land”, effective July 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain the rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2007; June 11 Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2010, effective June 16, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2011, and make a technical change, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-6 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing state portion of tax from 0.50% to 0.75% in Subdiv. (1) and deleting provision providing that municipal portion be lowered to 0.11% on July 1, 2011, in Subdiv. (2), and amended Subsec. (b) by increasing tax on non-residential property from 1% to 1.25% in Subdiv. (1), increasing tax on residential estate sold for more than $800,000 from .50% to .75% on the portion of sales price up to $800,000, and from 1% to 1.25% on the portion in excess of $800,000 in Subdiv. (2), and increasing tax on conveyance to a financial institution of a property with a delinquent mortgage from 0.50% to 0.75% in Subdiv. (3), effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date.

Cited. 208 C. 606. Transfer of property from an estate to a corporation, the sole shareholders of which are the transferors, held not to be a transfer for consideration subject to conveyance tax authorized by statute. 260 C. 406. Presence of a blockhouse shed on real property, regardless of purpose for which it is used, renders the property improved nonresidential land for purposes of levying conveyance tax under section. 261 C. 102. Land sellers cannot be assessed conveyance tax on property for which they did not receive, either directly or indirectly, any consideration and when there was a legitimate purpose for the structure of the transactions that resulted in consideration being paid to the home builders for the house. 279 C. 465.

Cited. 31 CS 154; 34 CS 52; 44 CS 354; Id., 444.

Subsec. (a):

In transfer of real property from individual to limited liability company in which such individual was the sole member, no conveyance tax was due because there was no consideration for the transfer. 262 C. 659; Id., 680. In transfer of real property from individual to limited liability company in which such individual was the controlling member, no conveyance tax was due because there was no consideration for the transfer. Id., 674.

Sec. 12-494a. Deposit of portion of tax in municipal revenue sharing account. The Commissioner of Revenue Services shall deposit into the municipal revenue sharing account, established pursuant to section 4-66l, (1) thirty-three per cent of the amounts received pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 12-494, subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of said section 12-494, and subdivision (3) of subsection (b) of said section 12-494, and (2) twenty per cent of the amounts received pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of said section 12-494 and subparagraph (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of said section 12-494.

(P.A. 11-6, S. 103.)

History: P.A. 11-6 effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 12-495. Payment of tax. Endorsement. The tax imposed by this chapter shall be payable by the person conveying the property upon the recording of each such deed, instrument or writing. Such tax shall be paid to the town clerk of the town in which the real property or any part thereof is situated. Such town clerk shall endorse upon the face of each such deed, instrument or writing a receipt for the amount of the tax so paid in (a) hand stamp or (b) meter impression of a machine approved for such use by the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management in the following form:

“$ Conveyance Tax received.

....

Town Clerk of ....”.

Any deed, instrument or writing so endorsed shall thereafter be recorded by the town clerk. The record of such receipt shall be conclusive proof that the amount of tax stated thereon has been paid.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 2; P.A. 82-472, S. 35, 183.)

History: P.A. 82-472 required secretary of office of policy and management rather than tax commissioner to approve machine.

Cited. 215 C. 197. Tax is assessed on consideration received by transferor, not on total consideration paid by buyer, and therefore commissioner could assess against land sellers a tax only on the consideration they received, which was the payment for the lots. 279 C. 465.

Sec. 12-496. Endorsement in cases of tax exemption. Upon the presentation for recording of any instrument which is exempt by law from the payment of the tax provided for in this chapter, the town clerk shall stamp in bold letters on the face of such instrument the following legend:

“No Conveyance Tax collected.

....

Town Clerk of ....”,

and thereafter such instrument shall be recorded by said town clerk.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 3.)

Sec. 12-497. Payment of tax and filing of return condition precedent to recording. Prohibition re refusal to record deed. No deed, instrument or writing which is subject to tax under this chapter shall be recorded by any town clerk unless a return prescribed and furnished by the Commissioner of Revenue Services has been filed with such town clerk and the tax reported to be due thereon has been paid, provided no town clerk may refuse to record any such deed, instrument or writing if (1) the tax return accompanying any such deed, instrument or writing does not include Social Security account number information, or (2) an exemption is claimed under section 12-498 and there is a dispute as to the amount of tax due.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 4; P.A. 86-167; P.A. 91-236, S. 17, 25; P.A. 93-389, S. 5, 7.)

History: P.A. 86-167 added provision prohibiting town clerk to refuse to record deed for failure to provide Social Security information or as a result of dispute as to tax due; P.A. 91-236 provided that the tax be made on a return prescribed and furnished by the commissioner and deleted the provisions which prohibited the town clerk from refusing to record a document that is not accompanied by Social Security account number information or where there is a dispute as to the tax due because of an exemption claimed under Sec. 12-498, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to taxes due on or after that date; P.A. 93-389 restored provision that prohibits a town clerk refusing to record a document if the accompanying tax return does not include Social Security account number information or an exemption is claimed and there is a dispute as to the amount of tax due, effective July 1, 1993.

See Sec. 12-503 re recording without payment of tax as constructive notice.

Sec. 12-497a. Exemptions. (a) The tax imposed by section 12-494 and the requirement of filing a return pursuant to section 12-497 shall not apply to the transfer of burial rights for a lot in a cemetery organized pursuant to chapter 368j.

(b) The requirement of filing a return pursuant to section 12-497 shall not apply to any deed, instrument or writing which is solely a grant of easement and to which this state or any of its political subdivisions or its or their respective agencies is a party.

(P.A. 95-62; P.A. 03-107, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 03-107 replaced former provisions with Subsec. (a) re transfer of burial rights for lots in certain cemeteries and Subsec. (b) re easements involving the state, effective June 18, 2003.

Sec. 12-498. Exempt transactions. (a) The tax imposed by section 12-494 shall not apply to: (1) Deeds which this state is prohibited from taxing under the Constitution or laws of the United States; (2) deeds which secure a debt or other obligation; (3) deeds to which this state or any of its political subdivisions or its or their respective agencies is a party; (4) tax deeds; (5) deeds of release of property which is security for a debt or other obligation; (6) deeds of partition; (7) deeds made pursuant to mergers of corporations; (8) deeds made by a subsidiary corporation to its parent corporation for no consideration other than the cancellation or surrender of the subsidiary’s stock; (9) deeds made pursuant to a decree of the Superior Court under section 46b-81, 49-24 or 52-495; (10) deeds, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed is less than two thousand dollars; (11) deeds between affiliated corporations, provided both of such corporations are exempt from taxation pursuant to paragraph (2), (3) or (25) of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended; (12) deeds made by a corporation which is exempt from taxation pursuant to paragraph (3) of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, to any corporation which is exempt from taxation pursuant to said paragraph (3) of said Section 501(c); (13) deeds made to any nonprofit organization which is organized for the purpose of holding undeveloped land in trust for conservation or recreation purposes; (14) deeds between spouses; (15) deeds of property for the Adriaen’s Landing site or the stadium facility site, for purposes of the overall project, each as defined in section 32-651; (16) land transfers made on or after July 1, 1998, to a water company, as defined in section 16-1, provided the land is classified as class I or class II land, as defined in section 25-37c, after such transfer; (17) transfers or conveyances to effectuate a mere change of identity or form of ownership or organization, where there is no change in beneficial ownership; (18) conveyances of residential property which occur not later than six months after the date on which the property was previously conveyed to the transferor if the transferor is (A) an employer which acquired the property from an employee pursuant to an employee relocation plan, or (B) an entity in the business of purchasing and selling residential property of employees who are being relocated pursuant to such a plan; (19) deeds in lieu of foreclosure that transfer the transferor’s principal residence; and (20) any instrument transferring a transferor’s principal residence where the gross purchase price is insufficient to pay the sum of (A) mortgages encumbering the property transferred, and (B) any real property taxes and municipal utility or other charges for which the municipality may place a lien on the property and which have priority over the mortgages encumbering the property transferred.

(b) The tax imposed by subdivision (1) of section 12-494 shall not apply to (1) deeds of the principal residence of any person approved for assistance under section 12-129b or 12-170aa for the current assessment year of the municipality in which such person resides or to any such transfer which occurs within fifteen months of the completion of any municipal assessment year for which such person qualified for such assistance; (2) deeds of property located in an area designated as an enterprise zone in accordance with section 32-70; (3) deeds of property located in an entertainment district designated under section 32-76 or established under section 2 of public act 93-311*.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 158, S. 1; P.A. 85-159, S. 10, 19; 85-469, S. 4–6; 85-480, S. 2, 3; P.A. 87-281, S. 1, 2; 87-586, S. 8, 12; P.A. 89-205, S. 2; P.A. 90-315, S. 4, 6; P.A. 91-403, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-311, S. 4, 8; 93-389, S. 6, 7; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 30, 35; P.A. 94-247, S. 3, 8; P.A. 98-157, S. 2, 15; 98-244, S. 22, 35; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 31, 43; P.A. 99-231, S. 1; 99-241, S. 55, 66; P.A. 00-140, S. 23, 40; P.A. 04-154, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 114; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 2.)

*Note: Section 2 of public act 93-311 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.

History: 1971 act deleted Subdivs. (4) and (5) exempting deeds which confirm, correct, modify or supplement previously recorded deed and deeds between husband and wife or parent and child, renumbering subsequent subdivisions accordingly; P.A. 85-159 added Subsec. (b) re exemption from the state portion of the tax for certain transfers by elderly person approved under state property tax relief programs, effective May 16, 1985, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-469 added Subsec. (a)(9) to (13), inclusive, exempting conveyances of interest in property pursuant to court order, certificates of devise or distribution and certain transfers or assignments of interest with no consideration from tax and changed effective date of P.A. 85-159 but without affecting this section; P.A. 85-480 added the following language before the colon, “any sale or transfer of an interest in real property under any of the following instruments of conveyance”; P.A. 87-281 added Subsec. (c) providing for exemption from conveyance tax with respect to any transfer of an interest in real property in which the purchase price for the interest conveyed is less than $2,000, effective June 9, 1987, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after July 1, 1987; P.A. 87-586 inserted a technical change in Subsec. (b) by replacing the reference to repealed Sec. 12-170a with reference to Sec. 12-170aa; P.A. 89-205 made technical changes, including elimination of the reference to exemption from tax for deeds recorded prior to January 1, 1968, which date was applicable upon the initial imposition of tax and is now redundant and revision of the description of exempt transfers involving governmental entities, and deleted former Subsec. (c) re exemption for transfer in which the purchase price is less than $2,000; P.A. 90-315 added Subsec. (a)(14) providing exemption from tax with respect to transfers by a corporation affiliated with the corporation to which such transfer is made, provided both corporations are exempt under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and either corporation owns or controls 100% of the capital stock of the other corporation, effective June 12, 1990, and applicable to conveyances of real property occurring on or after July 1, 1990; P.A. 91-403 amended Subsec. (a)(14), re transfers between affiliated 501(c) corporations, to expand coverage of exemption to paragraphs (2) and (25), as well as paragraph (3), corporations and added Subsecs. (15) and (16) re transfers between 501(c) corporations and re transfers to land trust organizations, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; P.A. 93-311 added Subsec. (b)(3) exempting deeds of property located in an entertainment district, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-389 amended Subsec. (a)(11) by deleting exemption for transfers for no consideration between spouses and added Subsec. (a)(17) to exempt all transfers between spouses, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to conveyances of real property on or after that date; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1 added Subsec. (a)(18) to exempt all transfers for the stadium facility site or the practice facility site, effective September 28, 1993; P.A. 94-247 amended Subsec. (b) to apply exemption to transfers of property in entertainment districts established pursuant to Sec. 2 of public act 93-311, effective June 9, 1994; P.A. 98-157 amended Subsec. (a) to add an exemption for certain land transfers to water companies, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-244 amended section to remove filing requirement when matters that are not deeds, instruments or writings are assigned, transferred or conveyed and when deeds, instruments or writings are conveyed for no consideration; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to add site of NFL pavilion and training facility, effective January 12, 1999; P.A. 99-231 added new Subsec. (a)(17) re transfers which effectuate a mere change of identity or form of ownership or organization with no change in beneficial ownership, effective October 1, 1999, and applicable to transfers made on or after said date; P.A. 99-241 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to delete stadium facility site, the site of the NFL pavilion and training facility site and add convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-140 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to delete references to former convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site and add references to the Adriaen’s Landing site and the stadium facility site, effective May 2, 2000; P.A. 04-154 added Subsec. (a)(18) re exemption for conveyances pursuant to employee relocations, effective July 1, 2004, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (a)(9) by deleting exemption from tax for deeds made pursuant to decree under Sec. 49-24, effective January 1, 2010, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsec. (a) to include in Subdiv. (9) deeds made pursuant to Sec. 49-24, and to add Subdiv. (19) re deeds in lieu of foreclosure and Subdiv. (20) re transfers of principal residence where price insufficient to pay mortgages and liens.

Cited. 31 CS 154.

Subsec. (a):

Subdivs. (14) and (15) cited. 228 C. 375.

Sec. 12-499. Disposition of revenues. The tax imposed by section 12-494 and the revenues produced thereby shall, after remitting the portion thereof payable to the Commissioner of Revenue Services as provided in said section 12-494, become part of the general revenue of the municipality in which the tax is paid except that, in municipalities where the town clerk is paid from fees, such town clerk shall retain one dollar of the tax for each deed, instrument or writing recorded, the value of the property or interest of which is two thousand dollars or more. Each town clerk shall remit at least monthly all revenues due to the municipality under this chapter.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 7, 15.)

History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 added reference to the portion of total conveyance tax imposed under chapter 223 payable to commissioner of revenue services as provided in Sec. 12-494, effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after said date.

Sec. 12-500. Allocation of tax among municipalities. If the real property or interest therein conveyed is located in more than one municipality, the tax shall be allocated between or among the municipalities in proportions to the assessed value of the real property located in each municipality.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 7.)

Secs. 12-501 and 12-502. False statement of tax prohibited. Penalty. Sections 12-501 and 12-502 are repealed effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to taxes due on or after that date.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 8, 9; P.A. 91-236, S. 24, 25.)

Sec. 12-502a. Administrative provisions. Penalties. Hearings and appeals. The provisions of sections 12-548 to 12-554, inclusive, and section 12-555a shall apply to the provisions of sections 12-494 to 12-504, inclusive, in the same manner and with the same force and effect as if the language of said sections 12-548 to 12-554, inclusive, and section 12-555a had been incorporated in full into said sections and had expressly referred to the tax imposed under said sections, except to the extent that any such provision is inconsistent with a provision of said sections.

(P.A. 91-236, S. 16, 25.)

History: P.A. 91-236, S. 16 effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to taxes due on or after that date.

Cited. 44 CS 444.

Sec. 12-502b. Deficiency assessment. When the Commissioner of Revenue Services makes a deficiency assessment for any taxes payable under this chapter to the state, the commissioner is authorized to make a deficiency assessment for any taxes payable under this chapter to a municipality and to hold a hearing, when requested in writing by any person aggrieved by the action of the commissioner or his authorized agent in fixing the amount of any tax, penalty or interest provided for by this chapter on or before the sixtieth day after notice of such action is delivered or mailed to such person. The deficiency assessment for any taxes payable under this chapter to a municipality shall bear interest at the rate of one per cent per month or fraction thereof from the date when the original tax was due and payable. When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to negligence or intentional disregard of the provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted under this chapter, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to ten per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment, or fifty dollars, whichever is greater. When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to fraud or intent to evade the provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted under this chapter, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to twenty-five per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment. No taxpayer shall be subject to more than one penalty under this section in relation to the same tax period. Once a deficiency assessment for any taxes payable under this chapter to a municipality is no longer the subject of a timely filed administrative appeal to the commissioner or of a timely filed appeal pending before any court of competent jurisdiction, the commissioner may collect, on behalf of such municipality, such taxes, and all interest and penalties added thereto by law, under the provisions of section 12-35 as if such taxes, penalties or interest due such municipality were “tax due the state”, as such term is defined in said section 12-35, and as if such term expressly included taxes, penalties or interest due to such municipality. Such taxes, and all interest and penalties added thereto by law, shall be treated, for purposes of subsection (a) of section 12-39g and for purposes of subsection (a) of section 12-739 as if they were taxes due to the state.

(P.A. 98-244, S. 23.)

Sec. 12-503. Recording without payment of tax as constructive notice. The recording of any deed, instrument or writing without the payment of the tax shall not prevent such recording from constituting constructive notice of such deed, instrument or writing.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 10.)

Sec. 12-504. Effect of federal transfer tax. If the federal government imposes a federal documentary stamp tax on real estate transfers at the same rate as, or a higher rate than, that imposed by this chapter, this chapter shall cease to have any force and effect; but if such federal tax is imposed at a rate less than that imposed by this chapter, this chapter shall continue in effect but the tax imposed by this chapter shall be reduced by the amount of such federal tax.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 11.)

Sec. 12-504a. Conveyance tax on sale or transfer of land classified as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land. (a) If at any time there is a change of ownership for any property that is classified as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, a revised application shall be filed with the assessor pursuant to said section 12-107c, 12-107d, 12-107e or section 12-107g.

(b) Any land which has been classified by the record owner thereof as open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or as maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, if sold or transferred by him within a period of ten years from the time he first caused such land to be so classified, shall be subject to a conveyance tax applicable to the total sales price of such land, which tax shall be in addition to the tax imposed under sections 12-494 to 12-504, inclusive. Said conveyance tax shall be at the following rate: (1) Ten per cent of said total sales price if sold within the first year following the date of such classification; (2) nine per cent if sold within the second year following the date of such classification; (3) eight per cent if sold within the third year following the date of such classification; (4) seven per cent if sold within the fourth year following the date of such classification; (5) six per cent if sold within the fifth year following the date of such classification; (6) five per cent if sold within the sixth year following the date of such classification; (7) four per cent if sold within the seventh year following the date of such classification; (8) three per cent if sold within the eighth year following the date of such classification; (9) two per cent if sold within the ninth year following the date of such classification; and (10) one per cent if sold within the tenth year following the date of such classification. No conveyance tax shall be imposed on such record owner by the provisions of sections 12-504a to 12-504f, inclusive, following the end of the tenth year after the date of such classification by the record owner or person acquiring title to such land or causing such land to be so classified.

(c) Any land which has been classified by the record owner thereof as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c or as forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, if sold or transferred by him within a period of ten years from the time he acquired title to such land or from the time he first caused such land to be so classified, whichever is earlier, shall be subject to a conveyance tax applicable to the total sales price of such land, which tax shall be in addition to the tax imposed under sections 12-494 to 12-504, inclusive. Said conveyance tax shall be at the following rate: (1) Ten per cent of said total sales price if sold within the first year of ownership by such record owner; (2) nine per cent if sold within the second year of ownership by such record owner; (3) eight per cent if sold within the third year of ownership by such record owner; (4) seven per cent if sold within the fourth year of ownership by such record owner; (5) six per cent if sold within the fifth year of ownership by such record owner; (6) five per cent if sold within the sixth year of ownership by such record owner; (7) four per cent if sold within the seventh year of ownership by such record owner; (8) three per cent if sold within the eighth year of ownership by such record owner; (9) two per cent if sold within the ninth year of ownership by such record owner; and (10) one per cent if sold within the tenth year of ownership by such record owner. No conveyance tax shall be imposed by the provisions of sections 12-504a to 12-504f, inclusive, following the end of the tenth year of ownership by the record owner or person acquiring title to such land or causing such land to be so classified.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 1; P.A. 74-343, S. 1, 7; P.A. 79-513, S. 5, 6; P.A. 80-483, S. 57, 186; P.A. 87-589, S. 22, 87; P.A. 05-190, S. 6; P.A. 07-127, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 74-343 added references to record owner of land and made technical change re ten-year period during which conveyance tax applies; P.A. 79-513 amended section to make tax applicable to only ten-year period after land first classified, deleting alternate applicability to ten-year period after land acquired, if earlier, effective July 1, 1979, and applicable to the sale of any land classified for the first time as farm, forest or open space land on or after that date; P.A. 80-483 added Subsec. (b) re conveyance tax on land classified as farm land; P.A. 87-589 made technical change in Subsec. (b), substituting reference to Sec. 12-494 for reference to Sec. 12-294; P.A. 05-190 added new Subsec. (a) re submission of a revised application upon change of ownership of property classified as farm land, forest land or open space land, redesignated existing Subsecs. (a) and (b) as new Subsecs. (b) and (c), and amended said Subsecs. to apply provisions to land transferred and make tax applicable to person acquiring title or causing land to be classified, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to sales, transfers or changes in use of land classified as farm land, forest land or open space land that occur on or after that date; P.A. 07-127 added references to maritime heritage land pursuant to Sec. 12-107g in Subsecs. (a) and (b), effective July 1, 2007.

Cited. 173 C. 328; 176 C. 613; 226 C. 407.

Cited. 4 CA 200; 18 CA 608.

Cited. 32 CS 82. Provisions concerning length of ownership and tax preference scheme in general do not violate the fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution. 34 CS 52.

Subsec. (c) (former Subsec. (b)):

Sec. 12-504d sets forth exclusive appellate remedy for persons aggrieved by imposition of a conveyance tax pursuant to Subsec., but the exclusive remedy is not an obstacle to pursuit of a collateral attack on imposition of the tax under common law. 260 C. 406.

Sec. 12-504b. Payment of tax; land declassified; assessment change. Said conveyance tax shall be due and payable by the particular grantor who caused such classification to be made to the town clerk of the town in which the property is entered upon the tax list at the time of the recording of his deed or other instrument of conveyance. Such conveyance tax and the revenues produced thereby shall become part of the general revenue of such municipality. No deed or other instrument of conveyance which is subject to tax under sections 12-504a to 12-504f, inclusive, shall be recorded by any town clerk unless the tax imposed by said sections has been paid. Upon the recording of such deed and the payment of the required conveyance tax such land shall be automatically declassified and the assessor shall forthwith record with the town clerk a certificate setting forth that such land has been declassified. Thereafter, such land shall be assessed at its fair market value as determined by the assessor under the provisions of section 12-63 for all other property, until such time as a record owner may reclassify such land.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 2; P.A. 74-343, S. 2, 7.)

History: P.A. 74-343 clarified provision re payment of tax by grantor, stated that revenues from conveyance tax become part of municipality’s general revenues and added provisions re declassification of land.

Cited. 176 C. 613; 226 C. 407.

Cited. 32 CS 82; 34 CS 52.

Sec. 12-504c. Excepted transfers. The provisions of section 12-504a shall not be applicable to the following: (1) Transfers of land resulting from eminent domain proceedings; (2) mortgage deeds; (3) deeds to or by the United States of America, state of Connecticut or any political subdivision or agency thereof; (4) strawman deeds and deeds which correct, modify, supplement or confirm a deed previously recorded; (5) deeds between husband and wife and parent and child when no consideration is received, except that a subsequent nonexempt transfer by the grantee in such cases shall be subject to the provisions of said section 12-504a as it would be if the grantor were making such nonexempt transfer; (6) tax deeds; (7) deeds of foreclosure; (8) deeds of partition; (9) deeds made pursuant to a merger of a corporation; (10) deeds made by a subsidiary corporation to its parent corporation for no consideration other than the cancellation or surrender of the capital stock of such subsidiary; (11) property transferred as a result of death when no consideration is received and in such transfer the date of acquisition or classification of the land for purposes of sections 12-504a to 12-504f, inclusive, or section 12-107g, whichever is earlier, shall be the date of acquisition or classification by the decedent; (12) deeds to any corporation, trust or other entity, of land to be held in perpetuity for educational, scientific, aesthetic or other equivalent passive uses, provided such corporation, trust or other entity has received a determination from the Internal Revenue Service that contributions to it are deductible under applicable sections of the Internal Revenue Code; (13) land subject to a covenant specifically set forth in the deed transferring title to such land, which covenant is enforceable by the town in which such land is located, to refrain from selling, transferring or developing such land in a manner inconsistent with its classification as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, for a period of not less than eight years from the date of transfer, if such covenant is violated the conveyance tax set forth in this chapter shall be applicable at the rate multiplied by the market value as determined by the assessor which would have been applicable at the date the deed containing the covenant was delivered and, in addition, the town or any taxpayer therein may commence an action to enforce such covenant; (14) land the development rights to which have been sold to the state under chapter 422a; and (15) deeds to or from any limited liability company when the grantors or grantees are the same individuals as the principals or members of the limited liability company. If action is taken under subdivision (13) of this section by a taxpayer, such action shall commence prior to the ninth year following the date of the deed containing such covenant and the town shall be served as a necessary party.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 3; P.A. 73-585, S. 1; P.A. 99-173, S. 50, 65; P.A. 05-190, S. 7; P.A. 07-127, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 73-585 added Subdivs. (l) and (m) exempting deeds of land to be held in perpetuity for educational, scientific, aesthetic, etc. purposes and land subject to covenant; P.A. 99-173 added Subdiv. (n) re land the development rights to which have been sold to the state under chapter 422a, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to transfers made on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 05-190 replaced alphabetic subdivision designators with numeric designators, deleted former provision re deeds releasing property which is security for debt or other obligation, added new Subdiv. (7) exempting deeds of foreclosure, amended Subdiv. (11) to limit provisions to transfers when no consideration is given, amended Subdiv. (13) to provide that the applicable tax shall be determined at a rate multiplied by the market value as determined by the assessor, added Subdiv. (15) exempting deeds to or from limited liability companies under certain conditions, added provision re action taken under Subdiv. (13) to commence prior to ninth year following date of deed, and made technical changes throughout, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to sales, transfers or changes in use of land classified as farm land, forest land or open space land that occur on or after that date; P.A. 07-127 added references to Sec. 12-107g and maritime heritage land in Subdivs. (11) and (13), effective July 1, 2007.

Cited. 176 C. 613; 226 C. 407.

Cited. 18 CA 608.

Cited. 32 CS 82.

Sec. 12-504d. Appeals. Any person aggrieved by the imposition of a tax under the provisions of sections 12-504a to 12-504f, inclusive, may appeal therefrom as provided in sections 12-111, 12-112 and 12-118. If the time for appealing to the board of assessment appeals has passed, the taxpayer may appeal at the next regularly scheduled meeting.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 4; P.A. 99-89, S. 8, 10; P.A. 05-190, S. 8.)

History: P.A. 99-89 made technical changes, effective June 3, 1999; P.A. 05-190 added provision authorizing appeal as provided in Sec. 12-118 and provided that if time for appeal to the board of assessment has passed, appeal may be made at the next regularly scheduled board meeting, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to sales, transfers or changes in use of land classified as farm land, forest land or open space land that occur on or after that date.

Cited. 176 C. 613. Statute sets forth the exclusive appellate remedy for persons aggrieved by imposition of a conveyance tax pursuant to Sec. 12-504a(b), but the exclusive remedy is not an obstacle to pursuit of a collateral attack on imposition of the tax under common law. 260 C. 406.

Cited. 32 CS 82.

Sec. 12-504e. Conveyance tax applicable on change of use or classification of land. Any land which has been classified by the owner as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, if changed by him, within a period of ten years of his acquisition of title, to use other than farm land, forest land, open space land or maritime heritage land, shall be subject to said conveyance tax as if there had been an actual conveyance by him, as provided in sections 12-504a and 12-504b, at the time he makes such change in use. For the purposes of this section: (1) The value of any such property shall be the fair market value thereof as determined by the assessor in conjunction with the most recent revaluation, and (2) the date used for purposes of determining such tax shall be the date on which the use of such property is changed, or the date on which the assessor becomes aware of a change in use of such property, whichever occurs first.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 5; P.A. 74-343, S. 3, 7; P.A. 05-190, S. 9; P.A. 07-127, S. 8; P.A. 08-124, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 74-343 specified classification within ten-year period of acquisition of title and made technical changes for clarity; P.A. 05-190 revised provision re use of fair market value to determine value of property and added provision re date used for determining the tax, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to sales, transfers or changes in use of land classified as farm land, forest land or open space land that occur on or after that date; P.A. 07-127 added references to Sec. 12-107g and maritime heritage land and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 08-124 made a technical change, effective June 2, 2008.

Cited. 176 C. 613.

Cited. 32 CS 82; 34 CS 52.

Sec. 12-504f. Classification of land classified as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land personal to owner. Certificate of classification. The tax assessor shall file annually, not later than sixty days after the assessment date, with the town clerk a certificate for any land which has been classified as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, as forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, as open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or as maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, which certificate shall set forth the date of the initial classification and the obligation to pay the conveyance tax imposed by this chapter. Said certificate shall be recorded in the land records of such town. Any such classification of land shall be deemed personal to the particular owner who requests such classification and shall not run with the land. The town clerk shall notify the tax assessor of the filing in the land records of the sale of any such land. Upon receipt of such notice the tax assessor shall inform the new owner of the tax benefits of classification of such land as farm land, forest land or open space land.

(1972, P.A. 152, S. 6; June, 1972, P.A. 1, S. 12; P.A. 73-585, S. 2; P.A. 74-343, S. 4, 7; P.A. 05-190, S. 11; P.A. 07-127, S. 9.)

History: 1972 act specified that annual filing to be “not later than 60 days after the assessment date”; P.A. 73-585 required that certificate set forth date of initial classification and obligation to pay conveyance tax; P.A. 74-343 added provision which stated that land classification personal to owner and does not run with land; P.A. 05-190 added provision requiring town clerk to notify the tax assessor of sale and requiring the tax assessor to notify the new owner of tax benefits of classification of land as farm land, forest land or open space land, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 07-127 added references to Sec. 12-107g and maritime heritage land, effective July 1, 2007.

Cited. 173 C. 328; 176 C. 613; 226 C. 407.

Filing provision of section is directory and not mandatory. 4 CA 200.

Cited. 32 CS 82.

Sec. 12-504g. Recording without payment of tax as constructive notice. The recording of any title deed, instrument or writing without the payment of the tax required by sections 12-504a, 12-504b, 12-504e to 12-504h, inclusive, shall not prevent such recording from constituting constructive notice of such deed, instrument or writing.

(P.A. 74-343, S. 5, 7.)

Sec. 12-504h. Termination of classification as farm, forest, open space or maritime heritage land. Any such classification of farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, shall be deemed personal to the particular owner who requests and receives such classification and shall not run with the land. Any such land which has been classified by a record owner shall remain so classified without the filing of any new application subsequent to such classification, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 12-107c, 12-107d, 12-107e and section 12-107g, until either of the following shall occur: (1) The use of such land is changed to a use other than that described in the application for the existing classification by said record owner, or (2) such land is sold or transferred by said record owner. Upon the sale or transfer of any such property, the classification of such land as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, shall cease as of the date of sale or transfer. In the event that a change in use of any such property occurs, the provisions of section 12-504e, shall apply in terms of determining the date of change and the classification of such land as farm land pursuant to section 12-107c, forest land pursuant to section 12-107d, open space land pursuant to section 12-107e or maritime heritage land pursuant to section 12-107g, shall cease as of such date.

(P.A. 74-343, S. 6, 7; P.A. 05-190, S. 10; P.A. 07-127, S. 10.)

History: P.A. 05-190 added provision deeming classification of farm land, forest land or open space land to be personal to owner and shall not run with the land, provided that upon sale or transfer of property, the classification ceases as of the date of the sale or transfer and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to sales, transfers or changes in use of land classified as farm land, forest land or open space land that occur on or after that date; P.A. 07-127 added references to Sec. 12-107g and maritime heritage land, effective July 1, 2007.

Cited. 173 C. 328; 178 C. 100; 226 C. 407. Assessor acted illegally under 2003 revision of section when she terminated property’s open space classification on the basis of approved use for condominium units when actual use remained unchanged. 289 C. 723.