CHAPTER 166*

TEACHERS AND SUPERINTENDENTS

*School laws demonstrate adoption of public policy to provide good public schools, staffed by qualified teachers; that these teachers shall be secure in their employment save for circumstances affecting the quality of their work; and that, as an inducement to, and reward for, a long period of service, qualified teachers shall benefit from a comprehensive retirement system. 152 C. 151.

Table of Contents

Sec. 10-144o. Definitions.

Sec. 10-145. Certificate necessary to employment. Forfeiture for noncompliance. Substitute teachers.

Sec. 10-145a. (Formerly Sec. 10-146). Certificates of qualification. Specific components of teacher preparation programs.

Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates.

Sec. 10-145c. Election of persons certified provisionally before July 1, 1974.

Sec. 10-145d. State board regulations for teacher certificates. Certification of school business administrators; membership in teachers’ retirement system; applicability of teacher tenure law. Certification of computer science teachers. Endorsement to teach elementary education and comprehensive special education. Teaching experience in birth-to-three programs. Certification of marital and family therapists.

Sec. 10-145e. Certification for occupational subjects.

Sec. 10-145f. Testing for prospective teachers.

Sec. 10-145g. Regulations.

Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher.

Sec. 10-145i. Limitation on issuance and reissuance of certificates, authorizations or permits to certain individuals.

Sec. 10-145j. Employment of national corps of teachers’ training program graduates.

Sec. 10-145k. Issuance of international teacher permit.

Sec. 10-145l. Waiver from subject area major requirements.

Sec. 10-145m. Resident teacher certificate.

Sec. 10-145n. Issuance of adjunct instructor permit.

Sec. 10-145o. Teacher education and mentoring program. Administration. Three-year plan. Instructional modules. Data system. Guidelines.

Sec. 10-145p. Alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. Requirements. Issuance of initial educator certificate upon completion.

Sec. 10-145q. Issuance of charter school educator permit.

Sec. 10-145r. Practice reading instruction examination requirement for certain early childhood educators.

Sec. 10-145s. Distinguished educator designation.

Sec. 10-146. Transferred

Sec. 10-146a. Advisory board on state certification of teachers.

Sec. 10-146b. Extension of period to complete requirements for teaching certificate. Renewal of certificate, authorization or permit that expires while holder is on active duty with armed forces of United States or ordered out with National Guard. Exceptions.

Sec. 10-146c. Interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification.

Secs. 10-146d and 10-146e. Commissioner of Education as agent for state. Filing of contracts under agreement.

Sec. 10-146f. Waiver of certification requirements for bilingual teachers.

Sec. 10-146g. Teachers of specialized courses.

Secs. 10-147 and 10-148. Kindergarten certificates. Teacher to have certificate.

Sec. 10-148a. Professional development. Program audits.

Sec. 10-148b. Professional development program re scientifically-based reading research and instruction. Review and assessment of professional development.

Sec. 10-149. Qualifications for coaches of intramural and interscholastic athletics.

Sec. 10-149a. Felony conviction or fine pursuant to mandated reporting provisions. Notification by state’s attorney.

Sec. 10-149b. Training courses for coaches re concussions and head injuries. Development or approval by State Board of Education. Revocation of coaching permit.

Sec. 10-149c. Student athletes and concussions. Removal from athletic activities. Revocation of coaching permit.

Secs. 10-150 and 10-150a. School registers.

Sec. 10-151. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Employment of teachers. Definitions. Tenure. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal.

Sec. 10-151a. Access of teacher to supervisory records and reports in personnel file.

Sec. 10-151b. Evaluation by superintendents of certain education personnel. Teacher evaluation programs. Guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program.

Sec. 10-151c. Nondisclosure of records of teacher performance and evaluation. Exceptions.

Sec. 10-151d. Performance Evaluation Advisory Council. Responsibilities.

Sec. 10-151e. Disclosure of teacher records for purposes of an investigation of child abuse or neglect.

Sec. 10-151f. Teacher evaluation and support pilot program.

Sec. 10-151g. Neag School of Education study of teacher evaluation and support pilot program.

Sec. 10-151h. Training and orientation programs for educators re teacher evaluation and support program.

Sec. 10-151i. Audits of teacher evaluation and support programs.

Sec. 10-152. Discrimination in salaries of teachers.

Sec. 10-153. Discrimination on the basis of sex, gender identity or expression or marital status prohibited.

Sec. 10-153a. Rights concerning professional organization and negotiations. Duty of fair representation. Annual service fees negotiable item.

Sec. 10-153b. Selection of teachers’ representatives.

Sec. 10-153c. Disputes as to elections.

Sec. 10-153d. Meeting between board of education and fiscal authority required. Duty to negotiate. Procedure if legislative body rejects contract.

Sec. 10-153e. Prohibited practices of employers, employees and representatives. Hearing before State Board of Labor Relations. Appeal. Penalty.

Sec. 10-153f. Mediation and arbitration of disagreements.

Sec. 10-153g. Negotiations concerning salaries, hours and other conditions of employment unaffected by special acts, charters, ordinances.

Sec. 10-153h. Appropriation.

Sec. 10-153i. Designation of statutory agent for service of process.

Sec. 10-153j. The making of service of process, notice or demand.

Sec. 10-153k. Teacher Negotiation Act applies to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Sec. 10-153l. Applicability of employment of teachers statute and teacher negotiation law to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Sec. 10-153m. Payment of attorney’s fees in proceedings to vacate or confirm teacher grievance arbitration awards.

Sec. 10-153n. Applicability of employment of teachers statute and teacher negotiation law to the Gilbert School in Winchester.

Sec. 10-153o. Review of performance of arbitration panel members.

Sec. 10-153p to 10-153r. Summary of results of contract negotiations. Monitoring of major economic provisions of contracts. Report concerning contracts to General Assembly.

Sec. 10-153s. Negotiation, arbitration and ratification of turnaround plans for commissioner’s network schools.

Sec. 10-153t. Turnaround plan referees.

Sec. 10-154. Homes and transportation for teachers.

Sec. 10-154a. Professional communications between teacher or nurse and student. Surrender of physical evidence obtained from students.

Sec. 10-155. Emergency teacher training program.

Secs. 10-155a to 10-155c. Cooperative arrangements for teacher training. Subcommittee and advisory committee for program. State grants.

Sec. 10-155d. Preparation of teachers. Alternate route programs for teachers, administrators and early childhood education teachers.

Sec. 10-155e. Development of programs to assist paraprofessionals to fulfill state certification requirements. Report to General Assembly.

Sec. 10-155f. Residency requirement prohibited.

Sec. 10-155g. Educational Excellence Trust Fund.

Sec. 10-155h. Educational excellence program administered by department. Governor to recommend appropriation for.

Sec. 10-155i. Pilot program to assist paraprofessionals.

Sec. 10-155j. Development of paraprofessionals.

Sec. 10-155k. School Paraprofessional Advisory Council.

Sec. 10-155l. Minority teacher recruitment.

Sec. 10-155m. Reserved

Secs. 10-155n to 10-155q. Teacher career incentive programs. Applications for grants; selection criteria. Project evaluations; statement of expenditures. Grant program administration.

Secs. 10-155r and 10-155s. Reserved

Secs. 10-155t to 10-155bb. Advisory commission on career incentives and teacher evaluation. Election to participate in programs; appointment of panels. Local teacher evaluation plans. Presentation of plans. Grants for developing evaluation plans. Local career incentive plans. Grants for developing career incentive plans. Grants for approval of evaluation and career incentive plans; distribution of proceeds. Teacher Career Incentive Fund; grants for approval of evaluation and career incentive plans; distribution of proceeds.

Sec. 10-155cc. Definitions.

Secs. 10-155dd to 10-155gg. Grants to implement comprehensive professional development plans. Planning grants to develop or revise teacher evaluation programs. Grants to implement, assess and improve teacher evaluation programs. Planning grants for teacher career incentive programs.

Sec. 10-156. Sick leave.

Sec. 10-156a. Duty-free lunch period.

Sec. 10-156b. Tenure and sick leave rights of teacher on regionalization of school and on dissolution of regional school district.

Sec. 10-156c. Military leave.

Sec. 10-156d. Reemployment after military leave.

Sec. 10-156e. Employees of boards of education permitted to serve as elected officials; exception.

Sec. 10-157. Superintendents: Relationship to local or regional board of education; verification of certification status; waiver of certification; written contract of employment; evaluation of superintendent by board of education.

Sec. 10-157a. Superintendent for more than one town.

Sec. 10-158. Superintendent for more than one town. Supervision districts.

Sec. 10-158a. Cooperative arrangements among towns. School building projects. Student transportation.

Secs. 10-159 and 10-159a. Supervisory service by State Board of Education. Election to receive grant in lieu of supervisory service.


PART I*

TEACHERS

*Teacher may be discharged by the district and, in absence of action by the district, may be discharged by the committee. 33 C. 304. If improperly discharged by the committee, the district may compel reinstatement. Id., 305, 306. General certificate of teacher is sufficient in any district of the town where issued. 36 C. 282. Is not a public officer in ordinary sense of word; his wages are subject to attachment. 53 C. 509. Status of teacher, as to district. Id. Interest of town in moral fitness of teacher; may defend action brought against school officers for statements as to. 79 C. 237. Statement as to qualifications of teacher made in report of superintendent held privileged. 81 C. 293. Under former statute, no certificate needed by teacher of music. 97 C. 430. History of statutes. 123 C. 519.

Sec. 10-144o. Definitions. As used in sections 10-145 to 10-158a, inclusive:

(1) “Equivalent” means qualifications reasonably comparable to those specifically listed as required for certification;

(2) “Initial educator certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1989, to a person who has successfully met the preparation and eligibility requirements specified by the State Board of Education for entrance into a beginning educator program;

(3) “Beginning educator program” means the support and standards program established by the State Board of Education for holders of initial educator certificates. The program shall be designed to improve the quality of the first school years of teaching and to determine whether holders of initial educator certificates have achieved the level of competency, as defined by said board, to entitle them to provisional educator certificates;

(4) “Provisional teaching certificate” or “provisional certificate” means a license to teach during the provisional certification period, issued prior to July 1, 1989, to a person who meets in full the preparation requirements of the State Board of Education;

(5) “Provisional educator certificate” means a license to teach, issued on or after July 1, 1989, to a person who (A) has successfully completed a beginning educator program, if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area, and not less than one school year of successful teaching in a public school, (B) has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education or appropriate governing body in another state within ten years prior to application for such provisional educator certificate or (C) has successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding application for such provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education;

(6) “Standard teaching certificate” or “standard certificate” means a license to teach issued prior to July 1, 1989, to one who has successfully completed no less than three school years of satisfactory teaching experience and fulfilled other requirements while holding a provisional certificate or its equivalent;

(7) “Professional educator certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1989, initially to a person who has successfully completed not less than three school years of teaching in a public school or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education while holding a provisional educator or provisional teaching certificate and prior to July 1, 2016, has successfully completed not fewer than thirty semester hours of credit beyond a bachelor’s degree, and on and after July 1, 2016, holds a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such person’s certification endorsement area. Said certificate shall be continued every five years after issuance;

(8) “Temporary ninety-day certificate” means a license to teach issued on or after July 1, 1988, to a person upon the request of a local or regional board of education pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-145b. Each such certificate may be reissued once upon the request of a local or regional board of education during the 1988-1989 school year and upon reissuance shall be effective until July 1, 1989. Any provision for the reissuance of such certificate after said school year shall be pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education;

(9) “One year” means one school year.

(P.A. 78-218, S. 96; P.A. 85-613, S. 96, 154; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 20, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 3, 4, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 1, 9; P.A. 90-325, S. 11, 32; P.A. 91-288, S. 2; P.A. 93-353, S. 14, 52; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 9; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6, S. 39; P.A. 12-116, S. 40.)

History: P.A. 85-613 made technical change, substituting reference to Sec. 10-158a for reference to Sec. 10-159a; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 deleted the definition of “provisional certification period”, added definitions for “initial educator certificate”, “beginning education program”, “provisional educator certificate”, “professional educator certificate”, and “temporary ninety-day certificate”, and redefined “provisional teaching certificate” and “standard teaching certificate” to state that they be issued prior to July 1, 1988, and added that the years of teaching experience for a standard teaching certificate be school years; P.A. 87-499 redefined “professional educator certificate” in Subdiv. (7) to provide that a person may have taught in an approved nonpublic school and to eliminate the requirement that the 30 semester hours be “teaching-related” and redefined “temporary ninety-day certificate” in Subdiv. (8) by adding “on or after July 1, 1988” and by referring to Sec. 10-145b rather than listing the requirements for the certificate; P.A. 88-273 substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date before which provisional and standard teaching certificates are issued and after which initial, provisional and professional educator certificates are issued, added provisions re the reissuance of temporary ninety-day certificates and made a technical change; P.A. 90-325 in Subdiv. (5) added Subpara. (c) re issuance of a provisional educator certificate to persons who have taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding application for a provisional educator certificate; P.A. 91-288 in Subdiv. (7) substituted 90 hours of continuing education for nine continuing education units; P.A. 93-353 amended Subdiv. (5) defining “provisional educator certificate” to clarify that the requirement for passage of the beginning educator program only applies if such a program is available for the person’s certification endorsement area, effective July 1, 1993; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subdiv. (7) by deleting requirement that continuing education be “not less than ninety hours” and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6 amended Subdiv. (3) by replacing “assessment” with “standards”, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 12-116 amended Subdiv. (7) to redefine “professional educator certificate”, effective July 1, 2012.

Cited. 210 C. 286.

Sec. 10-145. Certificate necessary to employment. Forfeiture for noncompliance. Substitute teachers. (a) No teacher, supervisor, administrator, special service staff member or school superintendent, except as provided for in section 10-157, shall be employed in any of the schools of any local or regional board of education unless such person possesses an appropriate state certificate, nor shall any such person be entitled to any salary unless such person can produce such certificate dated previous to or the first day of employment, except as provided for in section 10-157; provided nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the board of education from prescribing qualifications additional to those prescribed by the regulations of the State Board of Education and provided nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent any local or regional board of education from contracting with a licensed drivers’ school approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles for the behind-the-wheel instruction of a driver instruction course, to be given by driving instructors licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles. No person shall be employed in any of the schools of any local or regional board of education as a substitute teacher unless such person holds a bachelor’s degree, provided the Commissioner of Education may waive such requirement for good cause upon the request of a superintendent of schools.

(b) If the State Board of Education determines that a local or regional board of education is not in compliance with any provision of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and section 10-220a, the State Board of Education may require the local or regional board of education to forfeit of the total sum which is paid to such board of education from the State Treasury an amount to be determined by the State Board of Education, which amount shall be not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. The amount so forfeited shall be withheld from a grant payment, as determined by the commissioner, during the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which noncompliance is determined pursuant to this subsection. Notwithstanding the penalty provision of this section, the State Board of Education may waive such forfeiture if the board determines that the failure of the local or regional board of education to comply with such a provision was due to circumstances beyond its control.

(1949 Rev., S. 1432; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 116; 1971, P.A. 456, S. 5; P.A. 78-218, S. 93; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 21, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 5, 34; P.A. 89-137, S. 1, 14; P.A. 93-353, S. 49, 52; P.A. 07-241, S. 5; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 15; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6, S. 48; P.A. 11-27, S. 1.)

History: 1961 act added regional district; 1971 act added proviso for contracts with licensed drivers’ schools; P.A. 78-218 deleted reference to “supervising agents”, substituted “local or regional board of education” for “town or regional district” and made technical changes; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 required administrators to have state certificates, substituted “employment” for “the opening of school” re dating of certificates and deleted provision that certificates in force July 1, 1935, are valid and renewable; P.A. 87-499 deleted principal and added special service staff member to list of persons to whom the section applies and added that the certificate may be dated the first day of employment; P.A. 89-137 added Subsec. (a) designation and new Subsec. (b) re forfeiture of funds by local and regional boards of education for noncompliance with certain statutes; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to add the requirement that a substitute teacher hold a bachelor’s degree unless such requirement is waived, effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor’s note: In 1997 references throughout the general statutes to “Motor Vehicle(s) Commissioner” and “Motor Vehicle(s) Department” were replaced editorially by the Revisors with “Commissioner of Motor Vehicles” or “Department of Motor Vehicles”, as the case may be, for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 07-241 amended Subsec. (a) to add language re exception provided for in Sec. 10-157, effective July 1, 2007; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re waiver of requirement that substitute teachers hold a bachelor’s degree, effective July 1, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6 amended Subsec. (a) to add exception to bachelor’s degree requirement for substitute teachers applicable to school year commencing July 1, 2009, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 11-27 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting exception to bachelor’s degree requirement for substitute teachers applicable to school year commencing July 1, 2009, adding provision re waiver of requirement that substitute teachers hold a bachelor’s degree and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

Cited. 96 C. 720. Certificate to teach or as superintendent is not “appropriate” certificate for principal or vice principal; certificate issued under old law continues valid even for new employee so far as it is appropriate for position; “new” teacher includes one formerly employed who has definitely severed connection with the schools. 123 C. 515. Cited. 138 C. 280; 152 C. 151. Teacher employed without an appropriate state certificate is illegally employed and cannot obtain tenure during this period. 167 C. 444. Cited. 177 C. 68; 200 C. 21; 210 C. 286; 221 C. 549; 240 C. 119.

Cited. 5 CA 253; 32 CA 6.

Prevention of the issuance of a certificate by malicious or false representations is a legal wrong. 14 CS 28.

Sec. 10-145a. (Formerly Sec. 10-146). Certificates of qualification. Specific components of teacher preparation programs. (a) The State Board of Education may, in accordance with section 10-19 and such regulations and qualifications as it prescribes, issue certificates of qualification to teach, to administer, to supervise or to serve in other positions requiring certification pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education in any public school in the state and may revoke the same. Any such regulations shall provide that the qualifications to maintain any administrator, supervisor or special service certificate shall incorporate the professional development provisions of section 10-148a. The certificates of qualification issued under this section shall be accepted by boards of education in lieu of any other certificate, provided additional qualifications may be required by a board of education, in which case the state certificate shall be accepted for such subjects as it includes.

(b) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be encouraged to successfully complete an intergroup relations component of such a program which shall be developed with the participation of both sexes, and persons of various ethnic, cultural and economic backgrounds. Such intergroup relations program shall have the following objectives: (1) The imparting of an appreciation of the contributions to American civilization of the various ethnic, cultural and economic groups composing American society and an understanding of the life styles of such groups; (2) the counteracting of biases, discrimination and prejudices; and (3) the assurance of respect for human diversity and personal rights. The State Board of Education, the Board of Regents for Higher Education, the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities and the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women shall establish a joint committee composed of members of the four agencies, which shall develop and implement such programs in intergroup relations.

(c) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be encouraged to complete a (1) health component of such a program, which includes, but need not be limited to, human growth and development, nutrition, first aid, disease prevention and community and consumer health, and (2) mental health component of such a program, which includes, but need not be limited to, youth suicide, child abuse and alcohol and drug abuse.

(d) Any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall complete a school violence, bullying, as defined in section 10-222d, and suicide prevention and conflict resolution component of such a program.

(e) On and after July 1, 1998, any candidate in a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall complete a computer and other information technology skills component of such program, as applied to student learning and classroom instruction, communications and data management.

(f) On and after July 1, 2006, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in literacy skills and processes that reflects current research and best practices in the field of literacy training. Such instruction shall be incorporated into requirements of student major and concentration.

(g) On and after July 1, 2006, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in the concepts of second language learning and second language acquisition and processes that reflects current research and best practices in the field of second language learning and second language acquisition. Such instruction shall be incorporated into requirements of student major and concentration.

(h) On and after July 1, 2011, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification may permit teaching experience in a nonpublic school, approved by the State Board of Education, and offered through a public or private institution of higher education to count towards the preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, provided such teaching experience is completed as part of a cooperating teacher program, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of section 10-220a.

(i) On and after July 1, 2012, any candidate entering a program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall be required to complete training in competency areas contained in the professional teaching standards established by the State Board of Education, including, but not limited to, development and characteristics of learners, evidence-based and standards-based instruction, evidence-based classroom and behavior management, and assessment and professional behaviors and responsibilities.

(j) On and after July 1, 2015, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall require, as part of the curriculum, clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience in a classroom during four semesters of such program of teacher preparation.

(k) On and after July 1, 2012, any program of teacher preparation leading to professional certification shall include, as part of the curriculum, instruction in the implementation of student individualized education programs as it relates to the provision of special education and related services.

(1949 Rev., S. 1433; February, 1965, P.A. 140, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 555, S. 62; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 34; 1971, P.A. 370, S. 3; 1972, P.A. 204, S. 1, 2; P.A. 73-632, S. 1, 5; P.A. 74-331, S. 1, 7; P.A. 75-372, S. 3; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 78-218, S. 94, 95, 212; P.A. 80-405, S. 3, 4; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 22, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 6, 34; P.A. 89-168, S. 3; P.A. 94-221, S. 4; P.A. 95-259, S. 13, 32; P.A. 96-244, S. 52, 63; P.A. 04-75, S. 1; 04-227, S. 2; P.A. 08-160, S. 8; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 1; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; 11-127, S. 2; 11-232, S. 8; P.A. 12-116, S. 35, 42; 12-173, S. 2.)

History: 1965 act required passing of hygiene examination for certification to teach grades above the fifth rather than the third grade and included as part of hygiene knowledge the effects of alcohol and narcotics on personality development; 1967 act replaced “narcotics” with “controlled drugs”; 1969 act included in hygiene knowledge of the effects of nicotine or tobacco and made provision for the necessary training of teachers and guidance personnel; 1971 act required passing of hygiene examination for all certifications to teach not just for those above the fifth grade and included administrators in training provision; 1972 act added Subsec. (a) defining “equivalency”, “alternate” and “internship”, made former provisions Subsec. (b) and added provisions concerning internships for certification and equivalencies or alternates to present certification requirements; P.A. 73-632 deleted provisions added to Subsec. (b) in 1972, dropped provision allowing exemption from hygiene examination, required passing of hygiene examination for supervisor’s certificate as well as for teaching certificate and referred to “drugs” rather than “controlled drugs”, deleting specific effects and provision for training programs; P.A. 74-331 amended Subsec. (a) to extend applicability to entire chapter, to substitute “equivalent” for “equivalency”, to delete definitions of “alternate” and “internship” and to add definitions of “provisional certification period”, “provisional teaching certificate”, “standard teaching certificate” and “one year” and amended Subsec. (b) to reflect recognition of the two different types of certificates; Sec. 10-146 was transferred to Sec. 10-145a in 1975; P.A. 75-372 added Subsec. (c) re intergroup relations programs; P.A. 77-573 replaced commission for higher education with board of higher education; P.A. 78-218 deleted Subsec. (a), relettering remaining subsections accordingly, and amended Subsec. (b), formerly (c), to delete references to July 1, 1977, and to July 1, 1976, and to delete reference to advisory board on state certification of teachers as an agency involved in developing intergroup relations programs; P.A. 80-405 required development of intergroup programs with participation of both sexes and included permanent commission on the status of women as an agency involved in developing such programs; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 in Subsec. (a) substituted “issue” for “grant”, provided for certificates to administer, added provisions re regulations re administrator and supervisor certificates, deleted requirement re examination in hygiene and the effects of nicotine or tobacco, alcohol and drugs; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) provided that the state board of education may issue certificates to serve in positions requiring certification pursuant to regulations and that regulations shall provide that qualifications to maintain any special service certificate incorporate continuing education provisions; P.A. 89-168 added a new Subsec. (c) re the mental health component in a program of teacher preparation; P.A. 94-221 added Subsec. (d) re school violence prevention and conflict resolution as component of teacher preparation programs; P.A. 95-259 added Subsec. (c)(1) re health component, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-244 added Subsec. (e) requiring teacher candidate programs to provide training in computer and other information technology skills, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 04-75 added Subsec. (f) requiring teacher training programs to provide instruction in literacy skills, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-227 added Subsec. (g) requiring teacher training programs to provide instruction in second language learning and acquisition, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 08-160 amended Subsec. (d) to add language re bullying and suicide prevention, effective July 1, 2009; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (h) re competency area training, effective July 1, 2009; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-127 added new Subsec. (h) re nonpublic school teaching experience as part of teacher preparation program and redesignated existing Subsec. (h) as Subsec. (i), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-232 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting “be encouraged to” and adding “as defined in section 10-222d” re bullying, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “continuing education” with “professional development” and making a conforming change in the corresponding internal reference, and added Subsec. (j) re requirement, on and after July 1, 2015, of four semesters of clinical experience, field experience or student teaching experience in a classroom as part of teacher preparation program, effective July 1, 2012 (Revisor’s note: An internal reference in P.A. 12-116, S. 42, to “section 62 of this act” was determined by the Revisors to properly refer to section 39 of said act and was therefore codified in Subsec. (a) as “section 10-148a”); P.A. 12-173 added provision, codified by the Revisors as Subsec. (k), re instruction in implementation of student individualized education programs, effective July 1, 2012.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

See Sec. 10-19 re teaching of courses on effect of alcohol, nicotine or tobacco and drugs.

See Sec. 10-226f re coordinator of intergroup relations.

See Sec. 10-226g re intergroup relations training for teachers.

Annotations to former section 10-146:

Cited. 138 C. 280; 152 C. 151.

Subsec. (b):

Teacher’s contract of employment over two five-year periods terminated on his failure to obtain the standard certificate. Renewal of his employment thereafter was illegal. 167 C. 444.

Annotations to present section:

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 210 C. 286.

Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates. (a) The State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate to any person who has graduated (1) from a four-year baccalaureate program of teacher education as approved by said state board, or (2) from a four-year baccalaureate program approved by said state board or from a college or university accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited, provided such person has taken such teacher training equivalents as the State Board of Education shall require and, unless such equivalents are taken at institutions outside of this state, as the board of regents shall accredit. In addition, on and after July 1, 1993, each applicant shall have completed a subject area major as defined by the State Board of Education, except as provided in section 10-145l. Each such initial educator certificate shall be valid for three years, except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, and may be extended by the Commissioner of Education for an additional year for good cause upon the request of the superintendent in whose school district such person is employed or upon the request of the assessment team reviewing such person’s performance.

(b) During the period of employment in a public school, a person holding an initial educator certificate shall (1) be under the supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of an initial certificate, and (2) participate in a beginning educator program if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area.

(c) (1) The State Board of Education, upon request of a local or regional board of education, shall issue a temporary ninety-day certificate to any applicant in the certification endorsement areas of elementary education, middle grades education, secondary academic subjects, special subjects or fields, special education, early childhood education and administration and supervision when the following conditions are met:

(A) The employing agent of a board of education makes a written request for the issuance of such certificate and attests to the existence of a special plan for supervision of temporary ninety-day certificate holders;

(B) The applicant meets the following requirements, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C) of this subdivision:

(i) Holds a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited with a major either in or closely related to the certification endorsement area in which the requesting board of education is placing the applicant or, in the case of secondary or special subject or field endorsement area, possesses at least the minimum total number of semester hours of credit required for the content area, except as provided in section 10-145l;

(ii) Has met the requirements pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-145f;

(iii) Presents a written application on such forms as the Commissioner of Education shall prescribe;

(iv) Has successfully completed an alternate route to certification program provided by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or the Office of Higher Education or public or independent institutions of higher education, regional educational service centers or private teacher or administrator training organizations and approved by the State Board of Education;

(v) Possesses an undergraduate college overall grade point average of at least “B” or, if the applicant has completed at least twenty-four hours of graduate credit, possesses a graduate grade point average of at least “B”; and

(vi) Presents supporting evidence of appropriate experience working with children; and

(C) The Commissioner of Education may waive the requirements of subparagraphs (B)(v) or (B)(vi), or both, of this subdivision upon a showing of good cause.

(2) A person serving under a temporary ninety-day certificate shall participate in a beginning support and assessment program pursuant to section 10-220a which is specifically designed by the state Department of Education for holders of temporary ninety-day certificates.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section to the contrary, on and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who has taught successfully while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate and meets the requirements pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to section 10-145d.

(d) In order to be eligible to obtain a provisional teaching certificate, a provisional educator certificate or an initial educator certificate, each person shall be required to complete a course of study in special education comprised of not fewer than thirty-six hours, which shall include an understanding of the growth and development of exceptional children, including handicapped and gifted and talented children and children who may require special education, and methods for identifying, planning for and working effectively with special needs children in a regular classroom. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, each applicant for such certificates who has met all requirements for certification except the completion of the course in special education shall be entitled to a certificate (1) for a period not to exceed one year, provided the applicant completed a teacher preparation program either in the state prior to July 1, 1987, or outside the state, or completed the necessary combination of professional experience or coursework as required by the State Board of Education or (2) for a period not to exceed two years if the applicant applies for certification in an area for which a bachelor’s degree is not required.

(e) On and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue a provisional educator certificate to any person who (1) has successfully completed a beginning educator program and one school year of successful teaching as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose local or regional school district such person was employed, (2) has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public school in another state or a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education or appropriate governing body in another state within ten years prior to application for such provisional educator certificate, as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose school district such person was employed, or by the supervising agent of the nonpublic school in which such person was employed, and has met preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, or (3) has successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education.

(f) Any person holding a standard or permanent certificate on July 1, 1989, shall be eligible to receive upon application a professional educator certificate to replace said standard or permanent certificate. On and after July 1, 1989, standard and permanent certificates shall no longer be valid.

(g) On or after July 1, 1989, and prior to July 1, 2016, to qualify for a professional educator certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate under subsection (e) of this section shall have completed thirty credit hours of course work beyond the baccalaureate degree. It is not necessary that such course work be taken for a master’s degree and such work may include graduate or undergraduate courses. On and after July 1, 2016, to qualify for a professional educator certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate under subsection (d) of this section shall hold a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such teacher’s certification endorsement area.

(h) (1) Unless otherwise provided in regulations adopted under section 10-145d, in not less than three years or more than eight years after the issuance of a provisional educator certificate pursuant to subsection (e) of this section and upon the statement of the superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, in whose school district such certificate holder was employed, or the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education, in whose school such certificate holder was employed, that the provisional educator certificate holder and such superintendent, or such superintendent’s designee, or supervisory agent have mutually determined or approved an individual program pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section and upon the statement of such superintendent, or such superintendent’s designee, or supervisory agent that such certificate holder has a record of competency in the discharge of such certificate holder’s duties during such provisional period, the state board upon receipt of a proper application shall issue such certificate holder a professional educator certificate. A signed recommendation from the superintendent of schools, or the superintendent’s designee, for the local or regional board of education or from the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education shall be evidence of competency. Such recommendation shall state that the person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate has successfully completed at least three school years of satisfactory teaching for one or more local or regional boards of education or such nonpublic schools. Each applicant for a certificate pursuant to this subsection shall provide to the Department of Education, in such manner and form as prescribed by the commissioner, evidence that the applicant has successfully completed coursework pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, as appropriate.

(2) Each professional educator certificate shall be valid for five years and continued every five years thereafter.

(3) Upon receipt of a proper application, the State Board of Education shall issue to a teacher from another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico who (A) is nationally board certified by an organization deemed appropriate by the Commissioner of Education to issue such certifications, (B) has taught in another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a minimum of three years in the preceding ten years, and (C) holds a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area, as determined by the State Board of Education, related to such teacher’s certification endorsement area, a professional educator certificate with the appropriate endorsement, subject to the provisions of subsection (i) of this section relating to denial of applications for certification. Applicants who have taught under an appropriate certificate issued by another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for three or more years shall be exempt from completing the beginning educator program based upon such teaching experience. An applicant with three or more years of teaching experience in this state at a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education in the past ten years shall be exempt from completing the beginning educator program based upon such teaching experience.

(i) (1) The State Board of Education may revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, for any of the following reasons: (A) The holder of the certificate, authorization or permit obtained such certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the holder has persistently neglected to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (C) the holder is professionally unfit to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (D) the holder is convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board continued holding of a certificate, authorization or permit by the person would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (E) other due and sufficient cause. The State Board of Education shall revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to said sections if the holder is found to have intentionally disclosed specific questions or answers to students or otherwise improperly breached the security of any administration of a state-wide examination pursuant to section 10-14n. In any revocation proceeding pursuant to this section, the State Board of Education shall have the burden of establishing the reason for such revocation by a preponderance of the evidence. Revocation shall be in accordance with procedures established by the State Board of Education pursuant to chapter 54.

(2) When the Commissioner of Education is notified, pursuant to section 10-149a or 17a-101i, that a person holding a certificate, authorization or permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, has been convicted of (A) a capital felony, under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, (B) arson murder, pursuant to section 53a-54d, (C) a class A felony, (D) a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-122, 53a-252 or 53a-291, (E) a crime involving an act of child abuse or neglect as described in section 46b-120, or (F) a violation of section 53-21, 53-37a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-73a, 53a-88, 53a-90a, 53a-99, 53a-103a, 53a-181c, 53a-191, 53a-196, 53a-196c, 53a-216, 53a-217b or 21a-278 or subsection (a) of section 21a-277, any certificate, permit or authorization issued by the State Board of Education and held by such person shall be deemed revoked and the commissioner shall notify such person of such revocation, provided such person may request reconsideration pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. As part of such reconsideration process, the board shall make the initial determination as to whether to uphold or overturn the revocation. The commissioner shall make the final determination as to whether to uphold or overturn the revocation.

(3) The State Board of Education may deny an application for a certificate, authorization or permit for any of the following reasons: (A) The applicant seeks to obtain a certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the applicant has been convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board issuance of a certificate, authorization or permit would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (C) other due and sufficient cause. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit shall be notified in writing of the reasons for denial. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit may request a review of such denial by the State Board of Education.

(4) A person whose certificate, permit or authorization has been revoked may not be employed in a public school during the period of revocation.

(5) Any local or regional board of education or private special education facility approved by the commissioner shall report to the commissioner when an employee, who holds a certificate, permit or authorization, is dismissed pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (d) of section 10-151.

(j) Not later than thirty days after receipt of notification, any initial educator certificate holder who is not granted a provisional educator certificate, or any provisional educator certificate holder who is not granted a professional educator certificate, or any professional educator certificate holder who is not granted a continuation, under the provisions of sections 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, and 10-146b, may appeal to the State Board of Education for reconsideration. Said board shall review the records of the appropriate certification period, and, if a hearing is requested in writing, hold such hearing not later than sixty days after such request and render a written decision not later than thirty days after the conclusion of such hearing. Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of said board may appeal from such decision in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183 and such appeal shall be privileged with respect to assignment of such appeal.

(k) For the purposes of this section “supervisory agent” means the superintendent of schools or the principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent to provide direct supervision to a provisional certificate holder.

(l) Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with this section and section 10-145d, there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of the applicant a nonreturnable fee of two hundred dollars in the case of an applicant for an initial educator certificate, two hundred fifty dollars in the case of an applicant for a provisional educator certificate and three hundred seventy-five dollars in the case of an applicant for a professional educator certificate, except that applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs mandated under subparagraph (A) of subsection (a) of section 10-69 shall pay a fee of one hundred dollars; persons eligible for a certificate or endorsement for which the fee is less than that applied for shall receive an appropriate refund; persons not eligible for any certificate shall receive a refund of the application fee minus fifty dollars; and persons holding standard or permanent certificates on July 1, 1989, who apply for professional certificates to replace the standard or permanent certificates, shall not be required to pay such a fee. Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of a subject area endorsement there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of such applicant a nonreturnable fee of one hundred dollars. With each request for a duplicate copy of any such certificate or endorsement there shall be paid to the board a nonreturnable fee of fifty dollars.

(P.A. 74-331, S. 2, 7; P.A. 76-373, S. 1, 2; 76-436, S. 470, 681; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; 77-603, S. 8, 125; P.A. 78-218, S. 97, 212; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 83-134, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 13, 96; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; 84-298, S. 1, 2; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 23, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 7, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 2, 9; 88-360, S. 14–18, 63; P.A. 89-137, S. 2–5, 11, 12, 14; 89-251, S. 67, 203; P.A. 90-230, S. 78, 101; 90-325, S. 1, 14, 15; P.A. 91-208, S. 1, 11; 91-288, S. 1; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 1, 2, 117; P.A. 93-70, S. 1, 2; 93-353, S. 15–18, 52; P.A. 94-221, S. 20; P.A. 95-58, S. 1, 4; 95-259, S. 14, 32; P.A. 96-244, S. 11, 12, 63; 96-246, S. 15; P.A. 98-243, S. 15, 25; 98-252, S. 37, 44, 80; P.A. 99-211, S. 9, 10; P.A. 00-220, S. 7, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 15, 53, 67; P.A. 02-106, S. 5, 6, 8; P.A. 03-76, S. 44; P.A. 04-138, S. 1; P.A. 05-288, S. 49; P.A. 08-148, S. 1; 08-153, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 152; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 2; P.A. 10-71, S. 2; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; 11-93, S. 18; 11-127, S. 1; P.A. 12-5, S. 8; 12-59, S. 7; 12-116, S. 36; 12-156, S. 5, 6; 12-173, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 76-373 added Subsec. (g) re fees for teaching certificates; P.A. 76-436 amended Subsec. (e) to replace court of common pleas with superior court and to specify county or judicial district of residence, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-573 substituted board of higher education for commission for higher education; P.A. 77-603 amended appeal provisions in Subsec. (e) to provide that appeals be in accordance with Sec. 4-183; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” and “board of education” for “school district” throughout section, made reasons for revocation new Subsec. (e), removing them from Subsec. (d), and relettered former Subsecs. (e) to (g) accordingly; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 83-134 amended Subsec. (e) to clarify authority of board to revoke provisional certification; P.A. 83-587 made a technical amendment to Subsec. (c), replacing board of higher education with board of governors; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; P.A. 84-298 inserted new Subsec. (b) which requires candidates for certification to satisfactorily complete a course in special education and requires state board of education to report to the education committee upon the adoption of certification regulations requiring completion of a special education course and relettered subsequent Subsecs. accordingly; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 made provisions for initial educator, temporary ninety-day, provisional educator and professional educator certificates; made standard and permanent certificates invalid after July 1, 1988; deleted description of what may be included in an individual program for a standard certificate and requirement re final years prior to eligibility for a standard certificate, and made other technical changes; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) delayed, from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1992, the requirement that applicants for initial educator certificates have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) provided that the requirements re temporary ninety-day certificates and the issuance of initial educator certificates to the holders of such temporary certificates be in regulation rather than in the subsection that the temporary certificates not be issued until July 1, 1988; in Subsec. (e) clarified that the completion of a special education course is a prerequisite to obtaining provisional teaching and initial educator certificates; in Subsec. (g) added to the requirements for a provisional educator certificate that the person have met the requirements for an initial educator certificate and that the person may have taught for at least one year in the state; in Subsec. (h) described what may be included in an individual program; in Subsecs. (i) and (k) provided that other requirements may be provided in regulation; in Subsec. (k) added that the person may have taught in a nonpublic school; in Subsec. (p) provided exceptions to the fee requirement; changed “holder” to “person who holds or has held” and made technical changes; P.A. 88-273 in Subsecs. (a), (c), (g), (i) and (j) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date after which initial, provisional and professional educator certificates are issued; in Subsecs. (d), (h) and (i) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date before which provisional and standard teaching certificates are issued; in Subsec. (a) substituted July 1, 1993, for July 1, 1992, as the date after which applicants for initial educator certificates shall have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) added Subdiv. descriptions and in new subdivision substituted a description of the conditions which must be met for the issuance of a temporary ninety-day certificate for the provision that such a certificate be issued pursuant to regulations and added new Subdiv. (2) re participation in a beginning support and assessment program; in Subsec. (l) added Subdiv. designations and provided that continuing education units or their equivalent be determined by local or regional boards of education rather than defined by the state board of education and that commencing July 1, 1989, local and regional boards of education make not fewer than 18 hours of professional development activities available at no cost and in accordance with the subsection; and in Subsec. (p) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (e) made the requirements of the Subsec. apply to eligibility for a provisional educator certificate, specified that the required course be a course of study comprised of not fewer than 36 hours and provided exceptions to the requirements of the subsection, in Subsec. (g)(3) substituted having taught “for the 1988-1989 school year under a temporary emergency permit” for having taught “for a period of at least one year”, in Subsec. (m) added provisions for the denial of an application for certification, made Subsec. (p) apply upon applications for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with Sec. 10-145d and added Subsec. (q) re the reissuance of provisional teaching and provisional educator certificates; P.A. 89-137 in Subsec. (a) provided an exception to the requirement that initial educator certificates be valid for one year of employment, in Subsec. (c)(3) provided that an initial educator certificate issued to a person who has taught while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate be valid for one and one-half years and be nonrenewable, in Subsec. (e)(2) made applicants who have not completed the course in special education and who held temporary 90-day certificates within one year of application for provisional educator or initial educator certificates eligible for certificates for periods not to exceed two years, in Subsec. (i) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from an approved nonpublic school and that evidence of the completion of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the employing board of education, in Subsec. (k) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from the superintendent of an approved nonpublic school, that there be a statement from the superintendent that the certificate holder and the superintendent have mutually determined or approved an individual program and that evidence of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the superintendent and in Subsec. (m) expanded the types of certificates which the state board of education has the authority to revoke to those issued pursuant to Secs. 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and made a technical change; P.A. 89-251 increased fee for a certificate from $15 to $18 and for a duplicate from $5 to $6; P.A. 90-230 made a technical correction in Subsec. (k); P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (a) provided that the board of governors of higher education not have to accredit teacher training equivalents taken out of state, in Subsec. (c)(3) deleted provisions that the one and one-half years that an initial educator certificate issued pursuant to the subdivision is valid begins on the date of issuance and that such a certificate be nonrenewable and added Subsec. (g)(4) re issuance of a provisional educator certificate to a person who has taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate; P.A. 91-208 in Subsec. (c)(B)(iv) deleted reference to program developed through institute for effective teaching and substituted reference to program provided under contract with institution designated by higher education department; P.A. 91-288 in Subsec. (l) changed the requirement from nine continuing education units to 90 hours of continuing education, added the provisions concerning members of the general assembly, added language requiring boards of education to grant credit for activities offered in accordance with the plan developed pursuant to Sec. 10-220a or activities which the board approves for any individual certified employee, added in Subdiv. (2) evaluation of activities in terms of contribution to school goals and provision for each educator to attest to the state department of education that continuing education hours have been completed; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a certificate of eligibility and Subsec. (p) to establish specific fees for certificate of eligibility, initial educator certificate, provisional educator certificate, professional educator certificate, and to provide exceptions for applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs and other exceptions and provide a fee for issuance of a subject area endorsement; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 obsolete references to “subsection (a) of section 10-146f” in Subsecs. (f) and (n) were deleted editorially by the Revisors since Sec. 10-146f is repealed); P.A. 93-70 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add the provision concerning reissuance of certificate for unemployed teachers who have not completed required continuing education and made technical changes, effective May 10, 1993; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision tying the validity and extension of the initial educator certificate to employment in a public school and made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that participation in a beginning educator program is required only if there is such a program for such person’s certification endorsement area, amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add the certification endorsement areas of middle grades education and administration and supervision, and to remove obsolete language and amended Subsec. (e)(2) to delete the exception for applicants who hold a temporary ninety-day certificate or held such certificate within one year of application for a provisional educator or initial educator certificate, removed a report to the general assembly on the adoption of regulations containing the provisions of Subsec. (c) and deleted obsolete language, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (m) to provide for the automatic revocation of certificates issued by the State Board of Education for persons convicted of crimes involving child abuse or violations of Sec. 53a-71 or 53a-73a, to require the commissioner to notify such persons of the revocation and to allow such persons to request reconsideration; P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (l) to add requirement for superintendents and certain administrators to complete training in the evaluation of teachers, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-259 amended Subsec. (m) to require the revocation of any certificate if the holder intentionally discloses information on or breaches the security of the examination pursuant to Sec. 10-14n, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from “one” to “two” years and amended Subsec. (c)(3) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from “one and one-half” to “two” years, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (m) by changing reference to Sec. 17a-101(f) to Sec. 17a-101i; P.A. 98-243 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add new Subpara. (A) re requirement for training in the teaching of reading for certain certified employees and redesignated existing Subparas. (A) and (B) as Subpara. (B)(i) and (B)(ii), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-252 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision for the issuance of a certificate of eligibility, amended Subsec. (a) and (c)(3) to make the initial educator certificate valid for three years instead of two years, amended Subsec. (l)(1) to add requirement for continuing education for certain employees to include at least 15 hours of training in the use of computers in the classroom, and amended Subsec. (p) by deleting provision re certificate of eligibility, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-211 added Subsec. (l)(l)(D) re certified employees with bilingual education endorsements, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (m) to require the State Board of Education in any revocation proceeding to establish the reason for the revocation by a preponderance of the evidence, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to allow completion of a national board certification assessment to meet the requirement for continuing education, to expand the requirement for training in the use of computers to cover secondary school teachers and add provision re demonstration of technology competence and to make technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality, and amended Subsec. (m) to apply the provisions to authorizations and permits, to expand the crimes for which conviction results in a person’s certificate, authorization or permit being deemed revoked, to redesignate existing Subdivs. (1) to (5) as Subparas. (A) to (E) of Subdiv. (1) and to divide provisions into new Subdivs. (1) to (3), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-106 amended Subsec. (g)(1) by adding reference to superintendent’s designee and (g)(2) by adding provisions re attestation and making a technical change, and amended Subsec. (k) by adding references to supervisory agent and superintendent’s designee and by making a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2002, and amended Subsec. (m)(2) by adding reference to Sec. 10-149a; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsec. (l)(1)(C), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 04-138 amended Subsec. (k) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re certification of teachers who are nationally board certified, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (k)(1), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 08-148 amended Subsec. (m)(2) to provide that as part of reconsideration process, board shall make initial determination concerning revocation, but commissioner shall make final determination, effective July 1, 2008; P.A. 08-153 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add early childhood education, effective June 12, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 increased fees, effective September 9, 2009; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding exception to subject area major requirement, amended Subsec. (c) by adding exception to subject area major requirement in Subdiv. (1)(B)(i) and rephrasing provision re alternate route to certification program in Subdiv. (1)(B)(iv), deleted former Subsecs. (d), (f) and (h), redesignated existing Subsecs. (e), (g) and (i) to (p), as (d) to (m), amended redesignated Subsec. (e) by adding “school in another state”, making a conforming change, deleting former Subdiv. (3) and redesignating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (3), amended redesignated Subsec. (f) by deleting provisions re standard teaching certificate, amended redesignated Subsec. (g) by adding “and prior to July 1, 2016”, deleting former Subdivs. (1) and (2), adding provision re graduate coursework on and after July 1, 2016, and making a technical change, amended redesignated Subsec. (h) by adding language re superintendent’s designee, adding provision re nonpublic school teaching experience and making technical changes in Subdiv. (1) and adding language re credit hours required before, on and after July 1, 2016, and making technical changes in Subdiv. (2), amended redesignated Subsec. (i)(1) by adding provisions re continuing education and professional development activities on and after July 1, 2011, amended redesignated Subsec. (j) by adding references to Secs. 53a-49 and 53a-90a in Subdiv. (2)(F), adding Subdiv. (4) re employment in public school during period of revocation and adding Subdiv. (5) re report following dismissal of employee, amended redesignated Subsec. (k) by deleting references to provisional teaching certificates and standard teaching certificates and making conforming and technical changes, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-71 made a technical change in Subsec. (k), effective May 18, 2010; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” and “Department of Higher Education” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-93 amended Subsec. (j)(2)(F) by deleting reference to Sec. 53a-49, effective July 8, 2011; P.A. 11-127 amended Subsec. (h)(1) by deleting provision re nonpublic school teaching experience shall not be accepted for issuance of professional educator certificate and amended Subsec. (i) by including certified employees of nonpublic schools, adding language re supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education and making conforming changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-5 amended Subsec. (j)(2)(A) re capital felony to reference provisions of Sec. 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, effective April 25, 2012; P.A. 12-59 made a technical change in Subsec. (m), effective May 31, 2012; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing provision re 30 credit hours of graduate coursework with provision re master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area related to teacher’s endorsement area, amended Subsec. (h) by adding new Subdiv. (2) re professional educator certificate to be valid for 5 years and continued every 5 years thereafter, redesignating existing Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3) and amending same by deleting former clauses (i) and (ii) in existing Subpara. (B), adding new Subpara. (C) re requirement that teacher from another state hold a master’s degree in an appropriate subject matter area related to teacher’s endorsement area, adding provisions re exceptions to beginning educator program and making technical changes, deleted former Subsec. (i) re continuing education, and redesignated existing Subsecs. (j) to (m) as Subsecs. (i) to (l), effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a) by making a technical change and adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation and amended Subsec. (c)(1)(B) by adding reference to State Board of Education in clause (i) and adding reference to Office of Higher Education in clause (iv), effective June 15, 2012; P.A. 12-173 amended former Subsec. (i)(1) by adding Subpara. (E) re professional development for certified employees with a special education endorsement to include implementation of individualized education programs and communication of program procedures, effective July 1, 2012.

See Sec. 10-148a re professional development.

See Sec. 17a-101 re certification revocation upon conviction of a crime involving an act of child abuse.

Cited. 238 C. 1. Statute constitutional as applied to holding of standard or permanent certificates. 210 C. 286. Cited. Id.; 221 C. 549; 240 C. 119.

Cited. 45 CA 476.

Sec. 10-145c. Election of persons certified provisionally before July 1, 1974. Section 10-145c is repealed, effective July 1, 1993.

(P.A. 74-331, S. 3, 7; P.A. 93-353, S. 51, 52.)

Sec. 10-145d. State board regulations for teacher certificates. Certification of school business administrators; membership in teachers’ retirement system; applicability of teacher tenure law. Certification of computer science teachers. Endorsement to teach elementary education and comprehensive special education. Teaching experience in birth-to-three programs. Certification of marital and family therapists. (a) The State Board of Education shall, pursuant to chapter 54, adopt such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 10-144o, 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, 10-145f and 10-146b. Such regulations shall provide for (1) the establishment of an appeal panel to review any decision to deny the issuance of a certificate authorized under section 10-145b; (2) the establishment of requirements for subject area endorsements; (3) the extension of the time to complete requirements for certificates under section 10-145b; (4) the establishment of requirements for administrator and supervisor certificates; (5) the composition of, and the procedures to be utilized by, the assessment teams in implementing the beginning educator program; (6) procedures and criteria for issuing certificates to persons whose certificates have lapsed or persons with non-public-school or out-of-state teaching experience; (7) the criteria for defining a major course of study; (8) a requirement that on and after July 1, 1993, in order to be eligible to obtain an initial educator certificate with an elementary endorsement, each person be required to complete a survey course in United States history comprised of not fewer than three semester hours; and (9) a requirement that on and after July 1, 2004, in order to be eligible to obtain an initial educator certificate with an early childhood nursery through grade three or an elementary endorsement, each person be required to complete a comprehensive reading instruction course comprised of not less than six semester hours. Such regulations may provide for exceptions to accommodate specific certification endorsement areas.

(b) The State Board of Education shall, pursuant to chapter 54, adopt regulations to provide standards for the certification of school business administrators. Such regulations shall make provision for certification requirements to be met by either (1) completion of prescribed courses of study or (2) such other experience as the state board shall deem appropriate for the position of school business administrator. Any person serving in the position of school business administrator on July 1, 1983, shall be considered as having met all requirements for certification. The regulations shall also contain standards to certify individuals who hold certification from a state other than Connecticut.

(c) Any individual certified as a school business administrator after July 1, 1983, pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall not be deemed to be eligible for membership in the teachers’ retirement system solely by reason of such certification, provided any such individual who holds a regular teacher’s certificate issued by the State Board of Education shall not be excluded from membership in said system.

(d) Any individual certified as a school business administrator pursuant to regulations adopted by the state board in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, shall not be deemed to be included in the definition of “teacher” in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 10-151 solely by reason of such certification, provided any such individual who holds a regular teacher’s certificate issued by the State Board of Education and is employed as a teacher, principal, supervisor or school superintendent shall not be excluded from such definition.

(e) The State Board of Education shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to provide standards for the certification of computer science teachers. Such regulations shall make provision for certification requirements to be met by either (1) completion of prescribed courses of study, or (2) such other experience as the state board shall deem appropriate.

(f) An endorsement issued prior to July 1, 2013, to teach elementary education grades one to six, inclusive, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to six, inclusive, and for such an endorsement issued on or after July 1, 2013, the endorsement shall be valid for grades one to six, inclusive, except such an endorsement issued between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017, to any student who was admitted to a teacher preparation program, as defined in section 10-10a, in the certification endorsement area of elementary education on or before the start of the fall semester of 2012, and successfully completes such program, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to six, inclusive. An endorsement to teach comprehensive special education grades one to twelve, inclusive, shall be valid for grades kindergarten to twelve, inclusive, provided, on and after July 1, 2013, any certified employee with such comprehensive special education endorsement achieves a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009.

(g) For the purposes of issuance of certificates, permits and authorizations by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, teaching experience in approved nonpublic schools shall include teaching experience in birth-to-three programs approved by the Department of Developmental Services.

(h) Not later than June 1, 2008, the State Board of Education shall, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, adopt regulations to provide standards for the certification of marital and family therapists employed by local or regional boards of education. Such regulations shall include certification requirements to be met by (1) licensure as a marital and family therapist under section 20-195c, and (2) such other experience as the State Board of Education deems appropriate for the position of marital and family therapist in a school system.

(i) On and after July 1, 2013, any certified employee with a remedial reading and remedial language arts endorsement shall achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009.

(P.A. 74-331, S. 6, 7; P.A. 83-423, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-255, S. 8, 21; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 24, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 8, 34; P.A. 89-237, S. 10, 11; P.A. 98-243, S. 14, 25; P.A. 00-187, S. 39, 75; P.A. 03-168, S. 3, 4; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 33; P.A. 07-73, S. 2(a); 07-241, S. 7; P.A. 12-63, S. 1; 12-116, S. 50, 92, 93.)

History: P.A. 83-423 added Subsecs. (b) and (c) requiring state board to adopt regulations for the certification of school business administrators specifying that eligibility for membership in the teachers’ retirement system shall not be based solely on such certification as a school business administrator; P.A. 84-255 added Subsec. (d) concerning applicability of teacher tenure law to individuals certified as school business administrators; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 in Subsec. (a) added Subdivs. (1) to (7), inclusive, re content of regulations; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) provided that the state board of education adopt regulations re certificate definitions and testing for prospective teachers and that it may, by regulation, provide for exceptions for specific certification endorsement areas; P.A. 89-237 added new Subsec. (a)(8) requiring the completion of a survey course in United States history in order to be eligible to obtain certain initial educator certificates; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 an obsolete reference in Subsec. (a) to “subsection (a) of section 10-146f” was deleted since Sec. 10-146f is repealed); P.A. 98-243 amended Subsec. (a)(8) to make a technical change and added Subsec. (a)(9) re requirement for comprehensive reading instruction course in order to be eligible to obtain certain initial educator certificates, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-187 added Subsec. (e) re certification of computer science teachers, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 03-168 amended Subsec. (a)(9) by substituting “July 1, 2004” for “July 1, 2003”, effective July 1, 2003, and added new Subsecs. (f) and (g) re endorsements to teach elementary education and comprehensive special education and re experience in birth-to-three programs, effective June 26, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (f) by adding references to grades one to six and one to twelve, effective August 20, 2003; pursuant to P.A. 07-73 “Department of Mental Retardation” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Department of Developmental Services”, effective October 1, 2007; P.A. 07-241, added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (h), required adoption of regulations re certification standards for marital and family therapists employed by boards of education, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 12-63 amended Subsec. (f) by adding provisions making endorsements to teach elementary education issued on or after July 1, 2013, valid for grades 1 to 6 and making endorsements issued between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2017, to students admitted to a teacher preparation program for elementary education on or before the start of fall semester of 2012 valid for grades kindergarten to 6, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 12-116 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (f) by adding provision requiring, on and after July 1, 2013, that certified employees with comprehensive special education endorsement achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, and added Subsec. (i) requiring, on and after July 1, 2013, that certified employees with a remedial reading and remedial language arts endorsement achieve a satisfactory score on the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009, effective July 1, 2012.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

Cited. 240 C. 119.

Cited. 5 CA 253.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 210 C. 286.

Sec. 10-145e. Certification for occupational subjects. Section 10-145e is repealed, effective July 1, 2009.

(P.A. 77-297; P.A. 78-18; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 26.)

Sec. 10-145f. Testing for prospective teachers. (a) No person shall be formally admitted to a State Board of Education approved teacher preparation program until such person has achieved satisfactory scores on the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination prescribed by and administered under the direction of the State Board of Education, or has qualified for a waiver of such test based on criteria established by the State Board of Education.

(b) (1) Any person who does not hold a valid certificate pursuant to section 10-145b shall (A) achieve satisfactory scores on the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination prescribed by and administered under the direction of the State Board of Education, or qualify for a waiver of such test based on criteria approved by the State Board of Education, and (B) achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment in order to be eligible for a certificate pursuant to said section unless such assessment has not been approved by the State Board of Education at the time of application, in which case the applicant shall not be denied a certificate solely because of the lack of an evaluation on such assessment. A person who holds a valid school administrator certificate in another state that is at least equivalent to an initial educator certificate, pursuant to section 10-145b, as determined by the State Board of Education, and has successfully completed three years of experience as a school administrator in a public school in another state or in a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education during the ten-year period prior to the date of application for a certificate in a school administration endorsement area shall not be required to meet the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination.

(2) Any person applying for an additional certification endorsement shall achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment in order to be eligible for such additional endorsement, unless such assessment has not been approved by the State Board of Education at the time of application, in which case the applicant shall not be denied the additional endorsement solely because of the lack of an evaluation on such assessment.

(3) On and after July 1, 1992, any teacher who held a valid teaching certificate but whose certificate lapsed and who had completed all requirements for the issuance of a new certificate pursuant to section 10-145b, except for filing an application for such certificate, prior to the date on which the lapse occurred, may file, within one year of the date on which the lapse occurred, an application with the Commissioner of Education for the issuance of such certificate. Upon the filing of such an application, the commissioner may grant such certificate and such certificate shall be retroactive to the date on which the lapse occurred, provided the commissioner finds that the lapse of the certificate occurred as a result of a hardship or extenuating circumstances beyond the control of the applicant. If such teacher has attained tenure and is reemployed by the same board of education in any equivalent unfilled position for which the person is qualified as a result of the issuance of a certificate pursuant to this subdivision, the lapse period shall not constitute a break in employment for such person reemployed and shall be used for the purpose of calculating continuous employment pursuant to section 10-151. If such teacher has not attained tenure, the time unemployed due to the lapse of a certificate shall not be counted toward tenure, except that if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education as a result of the issuance of a certificate pursuant to this subdivision, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment immediately prior to the lapse towards tenure. Using information provided by the Teachers’ Retirement Board, the Department of Education shall annually notify each local or regional board of education of the name of each teacher employed by such board of education whose provisional certificate will expire during the period of twelve months following such notice. Upon receipt of such notice the superintendent of each local and regional board of education shall notify each such teacher in writing, at such teacher’s last known address, that the teacher’s provisional certificate will expire.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, to be eligible for a certificate to teach subjects for which a bachelor’s degree is not required, any applicant who is otherwise eligible for certification in such endorsement areas shall be entitled to a certificate without having met the requirements of the competency examination and subject area assessment pursuant to this subsection for a period not to exceed two years, except that for a certificate to teach skilled trades or trade-related or occupational subjects, the commissioner may waive the requirement that the applicant take the competency examination. The commissioner may, upon the showing of good cause, extend the certificate.

(5) On and after July 1, 2011, any person applying for a certification in the endorsement area of elementary education shall achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved mathematics assessment in order to be eligible for such elementary education endorsement.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section and section 10-145b, the following persons shall be eligible for a nonrenewable temporary certificate: (1) A person who has resided in a state other than Connecticut during the year immediately preceding application for certification in Connecticut and meets the requirements for certification, excluding successful completion of the competency examination and subject matter assessment, if such person holds current teacher certification in a state other than Connecticut and has completed at least one year of successful teaching in another state in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education, (2) a person who has graduated from a teacher preparation program at a college or university outside of the state and regionally accredited, and meets the requirements for certification, excluding successful completion of the competency examination and subject matter assessment, and (3) a person hired by a charter school after July first in any school year for a teaching position that school year, provided the person hired after said date could reasonably be expected to complete the requirements prescribed in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of section 10-145b. The nonrenewable temporary certificate shall be valid for one year from the date it is issued.

(d) Any person who is first issued a certificate valid after July 1, 1989, or who is reissued a certificate after July 1, 1989, shall, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, be required to achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment not later than the end of the second year of teaching in a public school if hired prior to January first or, if hired on or after January first, not later than the end of the second full school year of teaching following the year in which such person was hired in order to retain the certificate. The commissioner (1) may waive the requirement that such satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment be achieved upon a determination that such assessment is not valid for the person’s teaching assignment, or (2) upon a showing of good cause, may extend the time limit for the assessment for a period of time not exceeding two years. The requirement of a clinical assessment shall not apply to any such person who has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education during the ten years immediately preceding the date of application or who successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate during the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the State Board of Education may reissue an initial educator certificate to a person who held such certificate and did not achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment provided the person submits evidence demonstrating significant intervening study and experience, in accordance with standards established by the State Board of Education.

(e) The board shall, by regulation, set all fees to be charged to each person who applies to take the State Board of Education administered competency examination, the subject area assessment or the professional knowledge clinical assessment, which shall be not less than seventy-five dollars for the competency examination and subject area assessment for the elementary level. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section to the contrary, the Commissioner of Education may waive any fee under this section due to a candidate’s inability to pay.

(f) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any person who holds a valid teaching certificate that is at least equivalent to an initial educator certificate, as determined by the State Board of Education, and such certificate is issued by a state other than Connecticut in the subject area or endorsement area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut shall not be required to successfully complete the competency examination and subject matter assessment pursuant to this section, if such person has either (1) successfully completed at least three years of teaching experience in the subject area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut in the past ten years in a public school or a nonpublic school approved by the appropriate state board of education in such other state, or (2) holds a master’s degree or higher in the subject area for which such person is seeking certification in Connecticut.

(P.A. 85-532, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-147, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-464, S. 5, 8; 87-499, S. 9, 10, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 3, 4, 8, 9; 88-360, S. 19–21, 63; P.A. 89-137, S. 6–8, 13, 14; 89-251, S. 68, 203; P.A. 90-325, S. 2–5, 32; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 3, 117; P.A. 93-353, S. 19, 34, 52; P.A. 94-245, S. 4, 46; P.A. 95-259, S. 15, 32; P.A. 96-214, S. 9; 96-244, S. 13, 57, 63; P.A. 03-76, S. 13, 14; 03-174, S. 2; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 3; P.A. 11-85, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 86-147 in Subsec. (b) deleted reference to professional knowledge assessment, added testing requirements for permanent and lapsed or revoked certificate holders and persons applying for additional certification endorsement and set deadline for development of subject area assessment, added Subsec. (c) to provide for a nonrenewable temporary certificate, added Subsec. (d) re professional knowledge clinical assessment, added Subsec. (e) which had been part of Subsec. (b) and made other technical changes; P.A. 87-464 added Subdiv. and Subpara. designations in Subsec. (b) and in Subsec. (c) provided for nonrenewable temporary certificates for graduates of out-of-state teacher preparation programs; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (b) provided an exception to the testing requirements for applicants for certificates to teach skilled trades and trade-related subjects and in Subsec. (d) deleted “provisional” and made the Subsec. apply to all certificate holders, counted the 10 years from the date of application rather than date of employment under provisional certificate, substituted July for May and provided that the time limit for assessment may be extended by “one year” rather than by “not more than one year”; P.A. 88-273 inserted new Subsec. (b)(3) re standard certificates for and the reemployment of holders of certain lapsed provisional certificates and re annual notification by state department of education of provisional certificates which are to expire in the subsequent 12 months, and renumbered old Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (4), amended Subsec. (c) to provide for the issuance of a nonrenewable temporary certificate pursuant to Subdiv. (2) for the 1988-1989 school year and in Subsec. (d) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (a) substituted “scores on all components, in one administration of the” for “score on each component of any one” state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination and made a technical change, in Subsec. (b)(1) substituted “scores on all components, in one administration, of the” for “score on each component of any one” state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination and in Subdiv. (3) (now (4)) of Subsec. (b) substituted “subjects for which a bachelor’s degree is not required” for “skilled trades and trade-related subjects” and in Subsec. (e) substituted “all fees” for “a fee”, specified that the competency examination be that administered by the state board of education, provided that the fees be at a level not to exceed the administrative costs but need not be at a level to meet all such costs and added provisions re the competency examination fee, registration fees and waivers of fees; P.A. 89-137 in Subsec. (b)(2) substituted December 1, 1990, for May 1, 1990, as the date before which the state board of education shall complete the development of subject area assessments, in Subsec. (b)(3) added Subpara. (A) designation, deleted the provisions granting a standard certificate to certain persons whose provisional certificates had lapsed and concerning the reemployment of such teachers and treatment of the lapse period, specified the circumstances under which the commissioner of education may issue a new certificate to a teacher whose certificate has lapsed, specified the circumstances under which the lapse period is not a break in employment and is used for calculating continuous employment, required superintendents to notify teachers of the expiration of provisional certificates and added new Subpara. (B) re the granting of a provisional teaching certificate to certain persons 65 years of age or older, in Subsec. (b)(4) permitted the commissioner of education to waive the competency examination requirement for applicants for certificates to teach skilled trades or trade-related or occupational subjects, and in Subsec. (d) permitted the reissuance of an initial educator certificate to certain persons who did not achieve a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment; P.A. 89-251 set the fee for the competency examination at not less than $48 and increased the fee for retesting from $10 to $12; P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (b)(1) with an exception made the subdivision apply to any person who does not hold a valid certificate and provided that a satisfactory evaluation on a subject area assessment not be required if the assessment has not been approved by the state board of education, rather than if it has not been developed, in Subsec. (b)(2) provided that a satisfactory evaluation on a subject area assessment for eligibility for an additional endorsement not be required if the assessment has not been approved by the state board of education, rather than if it has not been developed, in Subsec. (c) removed the limitation that nonrenewable temporary certificates for graduates of out-of-state teacher preparation programs be issued only for certain years and in added Subsec. (d)(1) to allow the commissioner of education to waive the requirement of a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment if the assessment is not valid for the person’s teaching assignment and provided that the requirement not apply to certain persons who taught with provisional teaching certificates; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (e) to provide the fee shall be not less than $75 for competency examination and subject area assessment for the elementary level and to delete references to board discretion regarding assessment of fees; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions concerning the Scholastic Aptitude Test scores or those of an equivalent test and amended Subsec. (b)(3) to make the Subdiv. applicable on and after July 1, 1992, to remove the requirement that the teacher have held the certificate “while employed by a local or regional board of education or a facility approved for special education by the state board of education or on authorized leave from such a board of education or facility”, to divide Subpara. (A) into (A) and (B) and to delete the existing Subpara. (B) which was obsolete, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-245 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to provide that on and after January 1, 1995, satisfactory scores in all components of competency examinations need not be achieved in one administration and to substitute an examination administered “under the direction of” the board for an examination administered “by” the board, effective June 2, 1994; P.A. 95-259 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to apply the existing requirements to tests administered on or before March 31, 1995, and to add new requirements for tests administered after said date, also in Subsec. (b) added the provisions dealing with non-English versions and amended Subsec. (c) to change the time frame for the validity of nonrenewable temporary certificates, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-214 added Subsec. (c)(3) re person hired by a charter school after July first in any school year; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (c)(3) to change the eligibility requirement for the temporary certificate for persons hired by a charter school and amended Subsec. (d) to extend the time for achievement of a satisfactory evaluation on a professional knowledge clinical assessment from within “one” to “two” years and made a technical change, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b)(3) and (c), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 03-174 amended Subsec. (d) by differentiating between teachers hired prior to January first and teachers hired on or after January first re timing of evaluation, substituting a two-year extension for a one-year extension in Subdiv. (2), and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2003; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b)(1) by eliminating provisions re components and Scholastic Aptitude Test and English competency testing requirements, adding provision re establishment of waiver criteria, and making conforming changes, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision in Subdiv. (1) re testing requirement waiver for out-of-state school administrators and deleting obsolete provisions in Subdivs. (2) and (3), amended Subsec. (c) by deleting provisions re temporary nonrenewable certificate and added Subsec. (f) re testing requirement waiver for out-of-state teachers, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-85 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (5) requiring that applicants for certification in elementary education endorsement area achieve a satisfactory evaluation on appropriate mathematics assessment, effective July 1, 2011.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

Sec. 10-145g. Regulations. The State Board of Education shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to govern the use and access of information concerning child abuse in reports received by the Commissioner of Education, or his representative, pursuant to sections 17a-101b and 17a-101c.

(P.A. 92-76, S. 2; P.A. 96-246, S. 16.)

History: P.A. 96-246 changed reference to Sec. 17a-101 to Secs. 17a-101b and 17a-101c.

Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher. (a) On and after July 1, 1999, the State Board of Education shall require an applicant for certification as a bilingual education teacher to demonstrate competency in English and the other language of instruction as a condition of certification. Competency in English shall be demonstrated by successful passage of the essential skills test approved by the State Board of Education. Competency in the other language shall be demonstrated on an examination, if available, of comparable difficulty as specified by the Department of Education. If such an examination is not available, competency shall be demonstrated by an appropriate alternative method as specified by the department.

(b) On and after July 1, 2003, the State Board of Education shall require persons seeking to become (1) elementary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in elementary education and bilingual education and (2) secondary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in both the subject area they will teach and in bilingual education. Such dual certification requirement may be met by earning a bachelor’s degree in one field and meeting the requirements for an endorsement in the other field.

(c) On and after July 1, 2000, the State Board of Education shall require bilingual education teachers holding provisional educator certificates to meet the requirements of this subsection in order to qualify for a professional educator certificate to teach bilingual education. (1) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the elementary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in language arts, reading and mathematics. (2) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the middle or secondary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in the subject matter that they teach. Such professional educator certificate shall be valid for bilingual education and the grade level and content area of preparation.

(d) (1) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, for the period from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2010, inclusive, the State Board of Education shall require an applicant for certification as a bilingual education teacher to demonstrate competency in English and the other language of instruction as a condition of certification. Competency in English shall be demonstrated by successful passage of the oral proficiency test in English and an essential skills test approved by the State Board of Education. Oral and written competency in the other language shall be demonstrated by passage of an examination, if available, of comparable difficulty as specified by the Department of Education. If such an examination is not available, competency shall be demonstrated by an appropriate alternative method as specified by the department.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, for the period from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2010, inclusive, the State Board of Education shall require persons seeking to become (A) elementary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in (i) bilingual education and achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved assessment for elementary education, or (ii) elementary education and have completed six semester hours of credit in English as a second language course work as approved by the State Board of Education, and (B) secondary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in (i) bilingual education and achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment, or (ii) the subject area they will teach and have completed six semester hours of credit in English as a second language course work as approved by the State Board of Education. Such certificates shall be valid for subject-specific bilingual education. Certification in elementary bilingual education shall be valid for grades kindergarten to eight, inclusive, and certification in secondary subject-specific bilingual education shall be valid for grades seven to twelve, inclusive.

(P.A. 99-211, S. 4, 10; P.A. 05-290, S. 1; P.A. 06-13, S. 5; P.A. 08-170, S. 15; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 99-211 effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 05-245 added Subsec. (d) re certification from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 06-13 made a technical change in Subsec. (d)(1), effective May 2, 2006; P.A. 08-170 amended Subsec. (d) to extend provisions to July 1, 2009, effective July 1, 2008; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (d) to extend provisions to June 30, 2010, effective July 1, 2009.

Sec. 10-145i. Limitation on issuance and reissuance of certificates, authorizations or permits to certain individuals. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-146b, inclusive, and 10-149, the State Board of Education shall not issue or reissue any certificate, authorization or permit pursuant to said sections if (1) the applicant for such certificate, authorization or permit has been convicted of any of the following: (A) A capital felony, as defined under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012; (B) arson murder, as defined in section 53a-54d; (C) any class A felony; (D) any class B felony except a violation of section 53a-122, 53a-252 or 53a-291; (E) a crime involving an act of child abuse or neglect as described in section 46b-120; or (F) a violation of section 53-21, 53-37a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-73a, 53a-88, 53a-90a, 53a-99, 53a-103a, 53a-181c, 53a-191, 53a-196, 53a-196c, 53a-216, 53a-217b or 21a-278 or a violation of subsection (a) of section 21a-277, and (2) the applicant completed serving the sentence for such conviction within the five years immediately preceding the date of the application.

(P.A. 00-220, S. 41, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 54, 67; P.A. 03-168, S. 5; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 5; P.A. 11-93, S. 19; P.A. 12-5, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 00-220 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subdiv. (1) to redesignate Subpara. (E) as Subpara. (F), add new Subpara. (E) re crime involving act of child abuse or neglect, expand the list of crimes in Subpara. (F), and make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-168 added “authorization or permit”, effective July 1, 2003; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subdiv. (1)(F) by adding references to Secs. 53a-49 and 53a-90a, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-93 deleted reference to Sec. 53a-49 in Subdiv. (1)(F), effective July 8, 2011; P.A. 12-5 amended Subdiv. (1)(A) re capital felony to reference provisions of Sec. 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, effective April 25, 2012.

Sec. 10-145j. Employment of national corps of teachers’ training program graduates. (a) Prior to July 1, 2015, the Department of Education may permit qualified graduates of a national corps of teachers’ training program, approved by the Commissioner of Education, to be employed under a durational shortage area permit in public schools located in the towns of Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven and state charter schools located in Stamford.

(b) Such persons may only be employed in a position at the elementary or secondary level where no certified teacher suitable to the position is available. Such persons shall (1) be enrolled in a planned program leading to certification in the subject area they are teaching, or enrolled in an approved alternate route to certification program or a program with state approval pending and that meets the standards for an alternate route to certification program, and (2) have completed at least twelve semester hours of credit or have passed the assessment approved by the State Board of Education in the subject area they will teach. The State Board of Education may grant a durational shortage area permit, endorsed consistent with this section, to a person who meets the qualifications for such permit as modified by this section. In granting such permits, the board shall give priority to addressing the needs of the schools operated by the boards of education for the towns of Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven, and then to the needs of state charter schools located in Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven and Stamford. Such permit shall be valid for one year and shall be renewable once.

(P.A. 06-192, S. 3; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 14; P.A. 11-179, S. 13.)

History: P.A. 06-192 effective July 1, 2006; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “Prior to July 1, 2011,” and provisions re durational shortage area permit and state charter schools located in Stamford and amended Subsec. (b) by enumerating Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven and Stamford, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-179 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “2011” with “2015”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 10-145k. Issuance of international teacher permit. (a) The State Board of Education shall, upon the request of a local or regional board of education, issue an international teacher permit in a subject shortage area pursuant to section 10-8b, provided the conditions for issuance of such permit pursuant to the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section are met. Such permits shall be issued for one year and may be renewed for a period of up to one year, upon the request of the local or regional board of education, provided the teacher whose permit is to be renewed maintains, at the time of such renewal, a valid J-1 Visa issued by the United States Department of State at the time such permit is renewed.

(b) The local or regional board of education requesting the issuance of an international teacher permit shall attest to the existence of a plan for the supervision of the teacher.

(c) The teacher shall:

(1) Hold a J-1 visa issued by the United States Department of State;

(2) Be in the United States to teach (A) in accordance with a memorandum of understanding between Connecticut and the country from which the teacher is entering, or (B) as part of the Exchange Visitor Program administered by the United States Department of State Teacher Exchange Branch;

(3) (A) Hold the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree, from a regionally accredited institution of higher education, as determined by a foreign credentialing agency recognized by the Commissioner of Education, with a major in or closely related to the certification endorsement area in which the teacher is to teach, or (B) hold such a degree without such a major and have successfully completed the teacher assessment for the appropriate subject area, as approved by the State Board of Education;

(4) Have completed, in the country from which the teacher is entering, the equivalent of a regionally accredited teacher preparation program; and

(5) Have achieved the level of oral proficiency in English as determined by an examination approved by the Commissioner of Education.

(P.A. 07-30, S. 1; P.A. 11-179, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 07-30 effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-179 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing limitation on number of times permit can be renewed with requirement that teacher seeking renewal maintains valid J-1 Visa at time of renewal, effective July 13, 2011.

Sec. 10-145l. Waiver from subject area major requirements. On and after July 1, 2010, the State Board of Education shall allow an applicant for certification to teach in a subject shortage area pursuant to section 10-8b or a certified employee seeking to teach in such a subject shortage area to substitute achievement of an excellent score, as determined by the State Board of Education, on any appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment for the subject area requirements for certification pursuant to section 10-145f.

(June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 10.)

History: June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 effective July 1, 2009.

Sec. 10-145m. Resident teacher certificate. (a) The State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue a resident teacher certificate to any applicant in the certification endorsement areas of elementary education, middle grades education, secondary academic subjects, special subjects or fields, special education, early childhood education and administration and supervision, who (1) holds a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited, (2) possesses a minimum undergraduate college cumulative grade point average of 3.00, (3) has achieved a qualifying score, as determined by the State Board of Education, on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment, and (4) is enrolled in an alternate route to certification program, approved by the State Board of Education, that meets the guidelines established by the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110.

(b) Each such resident teacher certificate shall be valid for one year, and may be extended by the Commissioner of Education for an additional one year for good cause upon the request of the superintendent of schools for the school district employing such person.

(c) During the period of employment in a public school, a person holding a resident teacher certificate shall be the teacher of record and be under the supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of a resident teacher certificate.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 10-145b, on and after July 1, 2009, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who (1) successfully completed an alternate route to certification program, approved by the State Board of Education, that meets the guidelines established by the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, (2) taught successfully as the teacher of record while holding a resident teacher certificate, and (3) meets the requirements established in subsection (b) of section 10-145f.

(June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 13; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 7.)

History: June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 effective July 1, 2009; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-145n. Issuance of adjunct instructor permit. (a) Subject to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, the State Board of Education, upon the request of a local or regional board of education or a regional educational service center, may issue an adjunct instructor permit to any applicant with specialized training, experience or expertise in the arts, as defined in subsection (a) of section 10-16b. Such permit shall authorize a person to hold a part-time position, of no more than fifteen classroom instructional hours per week at a part-time interdistrict arts magnet high school in existence on July 1, 2009, and approved pursuant to section 10-264l or the Cooperative Arts and Humanities Magnet High School, as a teacher of art, music, dance, theater or any other subject related to such holder’s artistic specialty. Except as provided in subsection (g) of this section, such applicant shall (1) hold a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited, (2) have a minimum of three years of work experience in the arts, or one year of work experience and two years of specialized schooling related to such applicant’s artistic specialty, and (3) attest to the State Board of Education that he or she has at least one hundred eighty hours of cumulative experience working with children, in a private or public setting, including, but not limited to, after school programs, group lessons, children’s theater, dance studio lessons and artist-in-residence programs, or at least two years experience as a full-time faculty member at an institution of higher education.

(b) During the period of employment in such part-time interdistrict arts magnet high school or the Cooperative Arts and Humanities Magnet High School, a person holding an adjunct instructor permit shall be under the supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of an adjunct instructor permit.

(c) Each such adjunct instructor permit shall be valid for three years and may be renewed by the Commissioner of Education for good cause upon the request of the superintendent of schools for the district employing such person or the regional educational service center operating such part-time interdistrict arts magnet high school or the Cooperative Arts and Humanities Magnet High School employing such person.

(d) Any board of education or regional educational service center employing a person who holds an adjunct instructor permit issued under this section shall provide a program to assist each such person. Such program, developed in consultation with the Department of Education, shall include academic and classroom support service components.

(e) No person holding an adjunct instructor permit shall fill a position that will result in the displacement of any person holding a teaching certificate under section 10-145b who is already employed at such part-time interdistrict arts magnet high school or the Cooperative Arts and Humanities Magnet High School.

(f) Any person holding an adjunct instructor permit pursuant to this section shall not be deemed to be eligible for membership in the teachers’ retirement system solely by reason of such permit, provided any such person who holds a regular teacher’s certificate issued by the State Board of Education shall not be excluded from membership in said system.

(g) Any person who, prior to July 1, 2009, was employed as a teacher of art, music, dance, theater or any other subject related to such person’s artistic specialty in a part-time interdistrict arts magnet high school approved pursuant to section 10-264l or the Cooperative Arts and Humanities Magnet High School for at least one year shall qualify for and be granted an adjunct instructor permit.

(June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 11; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 8.)

History: June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 effective July 1, 2009; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-145o. Teacher education and mentoring program. Administration. Three-year plan. Instructional modules. Data system. Guidelines. (a) The Department of Education, with cooperation from local and regional school districts, regional educational service centers, representatives of the exclusive bargaining representative for certified employees chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, and public institutions of higher education, shall establish and administer a teacher education and mentoring program that includes guided teacher support and coaching and the completion of instructional modules, pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, for beginning teachers. The program shall be aligned with the principles of teaching approved by the State Board of Education. As part of the program, each beginning teacher shall develop a two-year individualized mentoring plan.

(b) In administering the teacher education and mentoring program under this section:

(1) The Department of Education shall (A) develop a statement for the teacher education and mentoring program that includes the state’s goals for state-wide teacher induction, mentoring, professional development and evaluation, using state-wide data and national research findings; (B) distribute state funding to local and regional school districts to assist with implementation of district teacher education and mentoring plans; (C) manage and make accessible to local and regional school districts the data systems needed to document that teachers and mentors have satisfactorily completed the instructional modules; (D) monitor district implementation of the teacher education and mentoring program to ensure fidelity to the program’s plan and goals, including random district audits and observations by state personnel; (E) issue provisional educator certificates to teachers that have satisfactorily completed the induction program; (F) develop guidelines for the creation and approval of district teacher education and mentoring plans, based on input and recommendations from stakeholder groups; and (G) oversee an outside evaluation of the teacher education and mentoring program every three to five years;

(2) The Department of Education, in collaboration with EASTCONN, the RESC Alliance, institutions of higher education and other stakeholders, shall (A) develop instructional modules for beginning teachers to complete; (B) train mentors to carry out responsibilities at the district level; (C) provide professional development and training for regional mentors working at the district level; (D) provide professional development and training for district teams and principals in managing, designing and administering teacher education and mentoring plans; and (E) provide technical assistance to districts based on district size and needs;

(3) The Department of Education and public institutions of higher education shall (A) work with regional educational service centers to align modules with National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education approved preservice teacher preparation programs; (B) develop and deliver regional strategies for supporting mentor assistance programs; and (C) train cooperating teachers to work with teacher preparation candidates during student teaching and internships;

(4) Local and regional boards of education shall (A) develop a three-year teacher education and mentoring plan in accordance with subsection (c) of this section; (B) form a local or regional coordinating committee or committees, with representatives of the exclusive bargaining representative for certified employees chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, based on district size, to guide the activities outlined in the three-year teacher education and mentoring plan; (C) develop an annual budget to support the activities detailed in the three-year teacher education and mentoring plan and submit such budget annually to the Department of Education to receive state assistance for such activities; (D) recruit and pair mentors from within and outside of the district to work with beginning teachers; (E) ensure substitute teacher coverage for mentors and beginning teachers to participate in the activities and modules required in the three-year teacher education and mentoring plan; (F) communicate regularly with beginning teachers about training opportunities, state-wide workshops and support group work; (G) coordinate the teacher education and mentoring program and teacher evaluation and supervision program, provided they are kept separate; (H) verify, through the local or regional coordinating committee, that the work of beginning teachers and instructional modules has been successfully completed to warrant provisional certification; (I) when a beginning teacher has satisfactorily completed all modules, attest to that fact and that the teacher is eligible for provisional certification; and (J) ensure that schools under the board’s jurisdiction (i) administer the state’s on-line needs assessment to establish the goals and priorities of each beginning teacher as such teacher develops an individualized mentoring plan, (ii) review and approve beginning teachers’ individualized, two-year mentoring plan, (iii) organize mentoring opportunities by grade, department or specialty area, (iv) take steps to make time available, as needed, to help teachers achieve the goals of their mentoring plans, (v) coordinate the activities and schedules of mentors and beginning teachers to ensure faithful implementation of the district plan, and (vi) submit annual report on mentor-teacher activities to the district coordinating committee for review and approval.

(c) Local and regional school districts shall develop a three-year teacher education and mentoring plan that incorporates the Department of Education’s goals and instructional priorities, as well as any local considerations based on community and student needs. Such plan shall include: (1) Background information about the district that includes a community profile, district profile, student profile, faculty profile, mentor profile and beginning teacher profile; (2) a statement of three-year objectives related to the state’s goal statement for the teacher education and mentoring program; (3) a general timeline for district coordinating teams to meet with central office personnel, principals, mentors or district facilitators; (4) a description of the process used to select mentors and assign them to beginning teachers, based on subject areas, levels and need; (5) a description of the process used to train and update mentors in best practices and essential knowledge; (6) a timeline of district-wide mentoring days for observations, individual discussion, small group meetings, professional development days, regional educational service center training sessions and beginning teachers’ completion of tasks associated with each module; (7) a description of the process used to collect, review and coordinate teachers’ mentoring plans; (8) a description of the process to resolve internal disputes over the district’s recommendations to the state concerning which individuals have satisfactorily completed the instructional modules; and (9) a description of the resources and budget needed to carry out the activities described in the plan.

(d) Local and regional boards of education shall not consider a teacher’s completion of the teacher education and mentoring program as a factor in its decision to continue a teacher’s employment in the district.

(e) (1) Beginning teachers shall satisfactorily complete instructional modules in the following areas: (A) Classroom management and climate, which shall include training regarding the prevention, identification and response to school bullying, as defined in section 10-222d, and the prevention of and response to youth suicide; (B) lesson planning and unit design; (C) delivering instruction; (D) assessing student learning; and (E) professional practice. Beginning teachers shall complete two modules in their first year in the program and three modules in their second year in the program, except as otherwise provided by the Commissioner of Education, or as provided for in subsection (h) of this section.

(2) Beginning teachers shall work with their mentors in developing a planned set of activities, based on the topics offered within each instructional module, to complete each such instructional module, and such activities shall be reflected in the beginning teacher needs assessment. Such activities may be presented in person by mentors, offered in workshops, through on-line courses or through the completion of a set of readings. For each instructional module, beginning teachers shall (A) apply the knowledge gained through such activities in a lesson, project or demonstration of how the activity impacted student learning, and (B) submit a reflection paper or project, to be signed by the mentor, that summarizes, describes or analyzes what has been learned by the beginning teacher and their students throughout the module and how the learning contributed to the development of such beginning teacher. Such reflection paper or project shall be forwarded to the district’s coordinating committee for approval.

(3) Upon successful completion of the instructional modules and final review by the coordinating committee, the superintendent of the school district shall submit the names of the beginning teachers eligible for receipt of a provisional educator certificate to the State Board of Education.

(f) Local and regional boards of education, in cooperation with the Department of Education, institutions of higher education and regional educational service centers, shall recruit mentors for their teacher education and mentoring program. Those persons eligible to serve as mentors for such programs shall hold a provisional educator certificate or a professional educator certificate or a distinguished educator designation, pursuant to section 10-145s, and have at least three years teaching experience in Connecticut, including at least one year of experience in the district in which they are presently employed. Retired certified teachers may also serve as mentors, provided they successfully complete a mentor training program offered by a regional educational service center. Each mentor shall be assigned two beginning teachers, except that in certain circumstances, a mentor may be assigned three beginning teachers. Such assignment shall be reflected in each district’s three-year plan. Each mentor shall provide fifty contact hours to each beginning teacher during the program, with the expectation of approximately ten contact hours per module. Mentors shall receive a minimum of a five-hundred-dollar annual stipend for each beginning teacher assigned to such mentor from the local or regional board of education for participation in the teacher education and mentoring program. Such stipend shall be included in a person’s total earnings for purposes of retirement.

(g) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, for the school year commencing July 1, 2010, beginning teachers who hold an initial educator certificate and have not participated in any beginning educator program as of July 1, 2009, shall participate in the teacher education and mentoring programs as follows:

(1) Beginning teachers in the following subject areas and endorsement areas shall be required to successfully complete the teacher education and mentoring program in full: Elementary education, English and language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, special education, bilingual education, music, physical education, visual arts, world languages and teachers of English as a second language.

(2) Beginning teachers in any other endorsement area and whose primary function is providing direct instruction to students shall be required to successfully complete one year of mentorship and two instructional modules.

(h) Teachers who began in a beginning educator program, pursuant to section 10-145b of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 2009, but have not completed that program as of July 1, 2009, and teach during the 2009-2010 school year, shall be granted a one-year extension of their initial educator certificates, if necessary, and shall participate in the teacher education and mentoring program, pursuant to this section, through the completion of two instructional modules during the 2010-2011 school year. Such teachers shall exit the program at the end of the 2010-2011 school year upon the successful completion of the two instructional modules.

(i) The Department of Education, in consultation with EASTCONN, shall create a data system for local and regional school districts to access the resources and record-keeping tools to manage the teacher education and mentoring program at the local level. Such data system shall include (1) templates for (A) writing and updating each district’s plan, (B) recording each teacher’s completion of each of the five instructional modules, and (C) teachers to record the completion of instructional module activities and submit written reflection papers or projects, and (2) links to on-line programs or workshops that are part of the five modules.

(j) Not later than July 1, 2010, the State Board of Education shall adopt guidelines to provide for the implementation of the teacher education and mentoring program in accordance with this section and the Report of the Beginning Educator Support and Training Program (BEST)/Mentor Assistance Program (MAP) Task Force dated December 29, 2008.

(Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6, S. 37; P.A. 11-232, S. 7; P.A. 12-116, S. 38.)

History: Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-6 effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 11-232 amended Subsec. (e)(1)(A) by adding provision re training regarding prevention, identification and response to school bullying and prevention of and response to youth suicide, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (f) by adding provision re eligibility of persons holding distinguished educator designation to serve as mentors, effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-145p. Alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. Requirements. Issuance of initial educator certificate upon completion. (a) The Department of Education shall review and approve proposals for alternate route to certification programs for school administrators. In order to be approved, a proposal shall provide that the alternative route to certification program (1) be provided by a public or independent institution of higher education, a local or regional board of education, a regional educational service center or a private, nonprofit teacher or administrator training organization approved by the State Board of Education; (2) accept only those participants who (A) hold a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited, (B) have at least forty school months teaching experience, of which at least ten school months are in a position requiring certification at a public school, in this state or another state, and (C) are recommended by the immediate supervisor or district administrator of such person on the basis of such person’s performance; (3) require each participant to (A) complete a one-year residency that requires such person to serve (i) in a position requiring an intermediate administrator or supervisor endorsement, and (ii) in a full-time position for ten school months at a local or regional board of education in the state under the supervision of (I) a certified administrator, and (II) a supervisor from an institution or organization described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, or (B) have ten school months experience in a full-time position as an administrator in a public or nonpublic school in another state that is approved by the appropriate state board of education in such other state; and (4) meet such other criteria as the department requires.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of section 10-145b, on and after July 1, 2010, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate in the certification endorsement area of administration and supervision, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who (1) successfully completed the alternate route to certification program for administrators and superintendents pursuant to this section, and (2) meets the requirements established in subsection (b) of section 10-145f.

(c) Notwithstanding any regulation adopted by the State Board of Education pursuant to section 10-145b, any person who successfully completed the alternate route to certification program for administrators pursuant to this section and was issued an initial educator certificate in the endorsement area of administration and supervision shall obtain a master’s degree not later than five years after such person was issued such initial educator certificate. If such person does not obtain a master’s degree in such time period, such person shall not be eligible for a professional educator certificate.

(P.A. 10-111, S. 1; P.A. 11-28, S. 11; 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 10-111 effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(4), effective June 3, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (a)(2)(A), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(A) by adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-145q. Issuance of charter school educator permit. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (5) of subsection (b) of section 10-66dd, the State Board of Education, upon the request of the state charter school governing council, may issue a charter school educator permit to a person who is employed by a charter school as a teacher or administrator and does not hold the initial educator, provisional educator or professional educator certificate if such person (1) achieves satisfactory scores on the state reading, writing and mathematics competency examination prescribed by and administered under the direction of the State Board of Education, or qualifies for a waiver of such test based on criteria approved by the State Board of Education, (2) achieves a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment, and (3) demonstrates evidence of effectiveness. Such permit shall authorize a person to serve as an administrator or teacher in the charter school employing such person. Each such charter school educator permit may be renewed by the Commissioner of Education for good cause upon the request of the state charter school governing council employing such person at the time the charter for the school is renewed.

(P.A. 11-60, S. 2; 11-234, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 11-60 and 11-234 effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 10-145r. Practice reading instruction examination requirement for certain early childhood educators. For the school year commencing July 1, 2014, and each school year thereafter, the local or regional board of education for all certified employees who hold an initial, provisional or professional educator certificate with an early childhood nursery through grade three or an elementary endorsement and are employed in a position requiring such an endorsement in kindergarten to grade three, inclusive, shall require all such certified employees to take the practice version of the reading instruction examination approved by the State Board of Education on April 1, 2009. Each local and regional board of education shall annually report the results of such practice examination to the Department of Education.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-145s. Distinguished educator designation. (a) The State Board of Education shall award, upon receipt of a proper application, a distinguished educator designation to any person who (1) has successfully completed not less than five years of teaching in a public school or private special education facility approved by the State Board of Education, (2) holds a professional educator certificate, pursuant to section 10-145b, (3) has additional, advanced education beyond a master’s degree from a degree or nondegree granting institution in areas to include, but not be limited to, mentorship or coaching of teachers, and (4) meets the performance requirements established by the Department of Education with consideration to the demonstration of distinguished practice as validated by the department or an entity approved by the department.

(b) Such designation shall be renewed every five years after issuance upon the demonstration that such person meets performance requirements established by the department with consideration to the demonstration of distinguished practice as validated by the department or an entity approved by the department.

(c) Upon application to the State Board of Education for the designation as a distinguished educator there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of the applicant a nonreturnable fee of two hundred dollars. With each request for a duplicate copy of such designation there shall be paid to the board a nonreturnable fee of fifty dollars. The Commissioner of Education may, upon request by the applicant, waive any fee required under this subsection if the commissioner determines that the applicant is unable to pay such fee due to extenuating circumstances.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 37.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-146. Transferred to Sec. 10-145a.

Sec. 10-146a. Advisory board on state certification of teachers. Section 10-146a is repealed.

(1967, P.A. 560, S. 1–3; 1969, P.A. 376, S. 1; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; 77-614, S. 609, 610.)

Sec. 10-146b. Extension of period to complete requirements for teaching certificate. Renewal of certificate, authorization or permit that expires while holder is on active duty with armed forces of United States or ordered out with National Guard. Exceptions. (a) Any person who holds a provisional educator or provisional teaching certificate or held such certificate within one year of application for extension of such certificate and is unable to complete the requirements for a professional educator certificate within the period required, or any person who holds a professional educator certificate or held such certificate within one year of application for extension of such certificate and is unable to complete the requirements for continuation of such professional educator certificate within the period required may appeal to the commissioner for an extension of the applicable period for good cause. If the commissioner finds a hardship exists in the case of such person or finds an emergency situation because of a shortage of certified teachers in the school district where such person is employed, the commissioner may extend such certificate for no more than twenty-four months, effective as of or retroactive to the expiration date of such certificate, provided not more than one extension shall be granted to such person and, provided further, the record of such person is satisfactory under the provisions of sections 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, and this section. For the purposes of section 10-151, any lapse period pursuant to this section shall not constitute a break in employment for such person if reemployed and shall be used for the purpose of calculating continuous employment.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, the State Board of Education shall renew a certificate, authorization or permit issued by the board to an individual which expires while the individual is on active duty in the armed forces of the United States, or a member of the National Guard when ordered out by the Governor for military service, if the individual submits an application for renewal of such certificate, authorization or permit not later than one year after discharge from such active duty or ordered military service. Such renewal shall be valid for not less than the amount of time the individual was on active duty or ordered out for military service not to exceed the amount of time the original certificate, authorization or permit was valid. Such individual applying for renewal of a certificate, authorization or permit pursuant to this subsection shall submit to the State Board of Education such documentation as the board may require. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to reservists or National Guard members on active duty for annual training that is a regularly scheduled obligation for reservists or members of the National Guard for training which is not a part of mobilization.

(1969, P.A. 250, S. 1; P.A. 74-331, S. 4, 7; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 25, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 11, 34; P.A. 90-325, S. 6, 32; P.A. 02-89, S. 13; P.A. 07-157, S. 3; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 74-331 replaced reference to period required by “regulation of the state board of education” with reference to period required by Sec. 10-145b or 10-145c and required that person seeking extension have satisfactory record in order to be granted one; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 deleted references to Secs. 10-145b and 10-145c when referring to period required for completing the requirements for a standard certificate, made provisions of the section applicable to provisional educator and professional educator certificate holders; P.A. 87-499 substituted “school district” for “municipality”; P.A. 90-325 added new Subsec. (b) re waiver of compliance with revised statutes and regulations and in Subsec. (a) provided for the extension of time to complete requirements for or continuation of a professional educator certificate if the person held a provisional teaching certificate or a professional educator certificate within one year of application for the extension of time and provided that any lapse pursuant to the section not constitute a break in employment and be used for calculating continuous employment; P.A. 02-89 deleted Subsec. (a) designator and deleted as obsolete former Subsec. (b) re waiver of compliance with revised statutes or regulations establishing teacher certification standards for certain persons requesting such waiver by September 1, 1990; P.A. 07-157 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re renewal of certificate, authorization or permit issued to an individual which expires while the individual is on active duty or ordered out for military service, effective July 1, 2007; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing references to “said board” with “the commissioner”, making conforming changes and adding provision limiting extension to 24 months, effective July 1, 2009.

Cited. 210 C. 286.

Sec. 10-146c. Interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification. The Commissioner of Education, or the commissioner’s designee, as agent for the state may establish or join interstate agreements to facilitate the certification of qualified educators, provided candidates for certification, at a minimum, hold a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university, fulfill assessment requirements as approved by the State Board of Education and meet all conditions as mandated by such interstate agreement.

(1969, P.A. 269, S. 1; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 7.)

History: June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 replaced provisions re Interstate Agreement on Qualification of Educational Personnel with provision authorizing commissioner to establish or join interstate agreements to facilitate educator certification, effective July 1, 2009.

Secs. 10-146d and 10-146e. Commissioner of Education as agent for state. Filing of contracts under agreement. Sections 10-146d and 10-146e are repealed, effective July 1, 2009.

(1969, P.A. 269, S. 2, 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 610; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 26.)

Sec. 10-146f. Waiver of certification requirements for bilingual teachers. Section 10-146f is repealed.

(1971, P.A. 462, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-331, S. 5, 7; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 78-218, S. 98; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; P.A. 88-360, S. 62, 63.)

Sec. 10-146g. Teachers of specialized courses. The Commissioner of Education, upon request from a local or regional board of education for a district that has a school with grades kindergarten to eight, inclusive, in the district, may permit a certified teacher employed by such board in such school who holds an endorsement in elementary education and who is otherwise qualified to teach a specialized course to teach such specialized course in grades kindergarten to eight, inclusive. For purposes of this section, “specialized course” means a course in a subject area that requires specialized knowledge and skills, such as computer and information technology.

(P.A. 11-136, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 11-136 effective July 1, 2011.

Secs. 10-147 and 10-148. Kindergarten certificates. Teacher to have certificate. Sections 10-147 and 10-148 are repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1434, 1435; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 117; 1963, P.A. 196.)

Sec. 10-148a. Professional development. Program audits. (a) For the school year commencing July 1, 2013, and each school year thereafter, each certified employee shall participate in a program of professional development. Each local and regional board of education shall make available, annually, at no cost to its certified employees, a program of professional development that is not fewer than eighteen hours in length, of which a preponderance is in a small group or individual instructional setting. Such program of professional development shall (1) be a comprehensive, sustained and intensive approach to improving teacher and administrator effectiveness in increasing student knowledge achievement, (2) focus on refining and improving various effective teaching methods that are shared between and among educators, (3) foster collective responsibility for improved student performance, and (4) be comprised of professional learning that (A) is aligned with rigorous state student academic achievement standards, (B) is conducted among educators at the school and facilitated by principals, coaches, mentors, distinguished educators, as described in section 10-145s, or other appropriate teachers, (C) occurs frequently on an individual basis or among groups of teachers in a job-embedded process of continuous improvement, and (D) includes a repository of best practices for teaching methods developed by educators within each school that is continuously available to such educators for comment and updating. Each program of professional development shall include professional development activities in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Local and regional boards of education shall offer professional development activities to certified employees as part of the plan developed pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-220a or for any individual certified employee. Such professional development activities may be made available by a board of education directly, through a regional educational service center or cooperative arrangement with another board of education or through arrangements with any professional development provider approved by the Commissioner of Education. Such professional development activities shall (1) improve the integration of reading instruction, literacy and numeracy enhancement, and cultural awareness into instructional practice, (2) include strategies to improve English language learner instruction into instructional practice, (3) be determined by each board of education with the advice and assistance of the teachers employed by such board, including representatives of the exclusive bargaining unit for such teachers pursuant to section 10-153b, and on and after July 1, 2012, in full consideration of priorities and needs related to student outcomes as determined by the State Board of Education, (4) use the results and findings of teacher and administrator performance evaluations, conducted pursuant to section 10-151b, to improve teacher and administrator practice and provide professional growth, and (5) include training in the implementation of student individualized education programs and the communication of individualized education program procedures to parents or guardians of students who require special education and related services for certified employees with an endorsement in special education who hold a position requiring such an endorsement. Professional development completed by superintendents of schools and administrators, as defined in section 10-144e, shall include at least fifteen hours of training in the evaluation and support of teachers under the teacher and administrator evaluation and support program, pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 10-151b, during each five-year period. The time and location for the provision of such activities shall be in accordance with either an agreement between the board of education and the exclusive bargaining unit pursuant to section 10-153b or, in the absence of such agreement or to the extent such agreement does not provide for the time and location of all such activities, in accordance with a determination by the board of education.

(c) Each local and regional board of education or supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education shall attest to the Department of Education, in such form and at such time as the commissioner shall prescribe, that professional development activities under this section: (1) Are planned in response to identified needs, (2) are provided by qualified instructional personnel, as appropriate, (3) have the requirements for participation in the activity shared with participants before the commencement of the activity, (4) are evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and its contribution to the attainment of school or district-wide goals, and (5) are documented in accordance with procedures established by the State Board of Education. In the event that the Department of Education notifies the local or regional board of education that the provisions of this subsection have not been met and that specific corrective action is necessary, the local or regional board of education shall take such corrective action immediately.

(d) The Department of Education shall conduct audits of the professional development programs provided by local and regional boards of education. If the State Board of Education determines, based on such audit, that a local or regional board of education is not in compliance with any provision of this section, the State Board of Education may require the local or regional board of education to forfeit of the total sum which is paid to such board of education from the State Treasury an amount determined by the State Board of Education. The amount so forfeited shall be withheld from a grant payment, as determined by the Commissioner of Education, during the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which noncompliance is determined. The State Board of Education may waive such forfeiture if the State Board of Education determines that the failure of the local or regional board of education to comply with the provisions of this section was due to circumstances beyond its control.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 39; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2, S. 138.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (5) re training in implementation of student individualized education programs and communication of individualized education program procedures, effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-148b. Professional development program re scientifically-based reading research and instruction. Review and assessment of professional development. (a) On or before July 1, 2013, the Commissioner of Education shall create a program of professional development for teachers, as defined in section 10-144d, and principals in scientifically-based reading research and instruction, as defined in section 10-14u. Such program of professional development shall (1) count towards the professional development requirements pursuant to section 10-148a, (2) be based on data collected from student reading assessments, (3) provide differentiated and intensified training in reading instruction for teachers, (4) outline how mentor teachers who will train teachers in reading instruction, (5) outline how model classrooms will be established in schools for reading instruction, (6) inform principals on how to evaluate classrooms and teacher performance in scientifically-based reading research and instruction, and (7) be job-embedded and local whenever possible.

(b) The Commissioner of Education shall annually review the professional development required under section 10-148a for certified employees who hold a professional educator certificate with an early childhood nursery through grade three or an elementary endorsement and who hold a position requiring such an endorsement. The commissioner shall assess whether such professional development meets the state goals for student academic achievement through implementation of the common core state standards adopted by the State Board of Education, research-based interventions in reading and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 USC 1400 et seq., as amended from time to time. The commissioner shall submit such review to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-149. Qualifications for coaches of intramural and interscholastic athletics. The State Board of Education shall, pursuant to chapter 54, adopt regulations fixing the qualifications of coaches of intramural and interscholastic athletics. Such regulations shall make provision for qualified persons who do not possess a teaching certificate to coach intramural and interscholastic athletics if a qualified person possessing a teaching certificate is not available.

(1949 Rev., S. 1436; 1959, P.A. 411, S. 13; P.A. 82-218, S. 39, 46; P.A. 83-154, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-236, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-137, S. 9, 14.)

History: 1959 act changed teachers colleges to state colleges and confined necessity to take instruction in physical education at said colleges to those preparing to teach; P.A. 82-218 replaced “state colleges” with the “Connecticut State University” pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 83-154 entirely replaced previous provisions re qualifications necessary for teaching physical education with new provisions re qualifications of coaches; P.A. 85-236 added Subsec. (b) authorizing issuance of temporary coaching permit and requiring current certificate of training in first aid for all persons coaching in the public schools on and after August 1, 1985; P.A. 89-137 deleted Subsec. (b) re issuance of temporary coaching permits and requirement that no person coach without a certificate of training in first aid.

Sec. 10-149a. Felony conviction or fine pursuant to mandated reporting provisions. Notification by state’s attorney. If a person holding a certificate, authorization or permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, is convicted of a felony or fined pursuant to section 17a-101a, the state’s attorney or assistant state’s attorney for the judicial district in which the conviction or fine occurred shall notify, in writing, the Commissioner of Education of such conviction or fine.

(P.A. 02-106, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 02-106 effective July 1, 2002.

Sec. 10-149b. Training courses for coaches re concussions and head injuries. Development or approval by State Board of Education. Revocation of coaching permit. (a)(1) For the school year commencing July 1, 2010, and each school year thereafter, any person who holds or is issued a coaching permit by the State Board of Education and is a coach of intramural or interscholastic athletics shall complete an initial training course regarding concussions and head injuries, developed or approved pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section, prior to commencing the coaching assignment for the season of such school athletics.

(2) For the school year commencing July 1, 2011, and each school year thereafter, and after completion of the initial training course described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, such coach shall annually review current and relevant information regarding concussions and head injuries, prepared or approved pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section, prior to commencing the coaching assignment for the season of such school athletics. Such annual review shall not be required in any year when such coach is required to complete the refresher course, pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection, for reissuance of his or her coaching permit.

(3) For the school year commencing July 1, 2015, and each school year thereafter, a coach shall complete a refresher course, developed or approved pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (b) of this section, not later than five years after completion of the initial training course, as a condition of the reissuance of a coaching permit to such coach. Such coach shall thereafter retake such refresher course at least once every five years as a condition of the reissuance of a coaching permit to such coach.

(b) (1) On or before July 1, 2010, the State Board of Education, in consultation with (A) the governing authority for intramural and interscholastic athletics, (B) an appropriate organization representing licensed athletic trainers, and (C) an organization representing county medical associations, shall develop or approve a training course regarding concussions and head injuries. Such training course shall include, but not be limited to, (i) the recognition of the symptoms of a concussion or head injury, (ii) the means of obtaining proper medical treatment for a person suspected of having a concussion or head injury, and (iii) the nature and risk of concussions and head injuries, including the danger of continuing to play after sustaining a concussion or head injury and the proper method of allowing a student athlete who has sustained a concussion or head injury to return to athletic activity.

(2) On or before July 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, the State Board of Education, in consultation with the organizations described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall prepare or approve annual review materials regarding current and relevant information about concussions and head injuries.

(3) On or before January 1, 2014, the State Board of Education, in consultation with the organizations described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall develop or approve a refresher course regarding concussions and head injuries. Such refresher course shall include, but not be limited to, (A) an overview of key recognition and safety practices, (B) an update on medical developments in the field of concussion research and prevention, and (C) an update on new relevant federal, state and local laws and regulations.

(c) The State Board of Education may revoke the coaching permit, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (i) of section 10-145b, of any coach found to be in violation of this section.

(P.A. 10-62, S. 1; P.A. 12-116, S. 45.)

History: P.A. 10-62 effective May 18, 2010; P.A. 12-116 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-149c. Student athletes and concussions. Removal from athletic activities. Revocation of coaching permit. (a)(1) The coach of any intramural or interscholastic athletics shall immediately remove a student athlete from participating in any intramural or interscholastic athletic activity who (A) is observed to exhibit signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion following an observed or suspected blow to the head or body, or (B) is diagnosed with a concussion, regardless of when such concussion or head injury may have occurred.

(2) The coach shall not permit such student athlete to participate in any supervised team activities involving physical exertion, including, but not limited to, practices, games or competitions, until such student athlete receives written clearance to participate in such supervised team activities involving physical exertion from a licensed health care professional trained in the evaluation and management of concussions.

(3) Following clearance pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection, the coach shall not permit such student athlete to participate in any full, unrestricted supervised team activities without limitations on contact or physical exertion, including, but not limited to, practices, games or competitions, until such student athlete (A) no longer exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion at rest or with exertion, and (B) receives written clearance to participate in such full, unrestricted supervised team activities from a licensed health care professional trained in the evaluation and management of concussions.

(b) The State Board of Education may revoke the coaching permit, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (i) of section 10-145b, of any coach found to be in violation of this section.

(c) For purposes of this section, “licensed health care professional” means a physician licensed pursuant to chapter 370, a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 370, an advanced practice registered nurse licensed pursuant to chapter 378 or an athletic trainer licensed pursuant to chapter 375a.

(P.A. 10-62, S. 2; P.A. 12-116, S. 46.)

History: P.A. 10-62 effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 12-116 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2012.

Secs. 10-150 and 10-150a. School registers. Sections 10-150 and 10-150a are repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1437; 1963, P.A. 293, S. 1, 2; 1971, P.A. 44.)

Sec. 10-151. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Employment of teachers. Definitions. Tenure. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal. (a) For the purposes of this section:

(1) “Board of education” means a local or regional board of education, a cooperative arrangement committee established pursuant to section 10-158a, or the board of trustees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34, which is located in this state;

(2) “Teacher” includes each certified professional employee below the rank of superintendent employed by a board of education for at least ninety days in a position requiring a certificate issued by the State Board of Education;

(3) “Continuous employment” means that time during which the teacher is employed without any break in employment as a teacher for the same board of education;

(4) “Full-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of fifty per cent or more of the salary rate of such teacher in such position if such position were full-time;

(5) “Part-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of less than fifty per cent of the salary rate of such teacher in such position, if such position were full-time;

(6) “Tenure” means:

(A) The completion of thirty school months of full-time continuous employment for the same board of education for teachers initially hired prior to July 1, 1996; and forty such school months for teachers initially hired on or after said date provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year. For purposes of calculating continuous employment towards tenure, the following shall apply: (i) For a teacher who has not attained tenure, two school months of part-time continuous employment by such teacher shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment except, for a teacher employed in a part-time position at a salary rate of less than twenty-five per cent of the salary rate of a teacher in such position, if such position were full-time, three school months of part-time continuous employment shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment; (ii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count layoff time towards tenure, except that if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment immediately prior to the layoff towards tenure; (iii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count authorized leave time towards tenure if such time exceeds ninety student school days in any one school year, provided only the student school days worked that year by such teacher shall count towards tenure and shall be computed on the basis of eighteen student school days or the greater fraction thereof equaling one school month; and (iv) for a teacher who has not attained tenure and who is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment with such board immediately prior to such cooperative arrangement towards tenure.

(B) For a teacher who has attained tenure prior to layoff, tenure shall resume if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff.

(C) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (D) and (E) of this subdivision, any teacher who has attained tenure with any one board of education and whose employment with such board ends for any reason and who is reemployed by such board or is subsequently employed by any other board, shall attain tenure after completion of twenty school months of continuous employment. The provisions of this subparagraph shall not apply if, (i) prior to completion of the twentieth school month following commencement of employment by such board such teacher has been notified in writing that his or her contract will not be renewed for the following school year, or (ii) for a period of five or more calendar years immediately prior to such subsequent employment, such teacher has not been employed by any board of education.

(D) Any certified teacher or administrator employed by a local or regional board of education for a school district identified as a priority school district pursuant to section 10-266p may attain tenure after ten months of employment in such priority school district, if such certified teacher or administrator previously attained tenure with another local or regional board of education in this state or another state.

(E) For a teacher who has attained tenure and is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher shall not experience a break in continuous employment for purposes of tenure as a result of such cooperative arrangement.

(7) “School month” means any calendar month other than July or August in which a teacher is employed as a teacher at least one-half of the student school days.

(b) Any board of education may authorize the superintendent to employ teachers. Any superintendent not authorized to employ teachers shall submit to the board of education nominations for teachers for each of the schools in the town or towns in such superintendent’s jurisdiction and, from the persons so nominated, teachers may be employed. Such board shall accept or reject such nominations within thirty-five days from their submission. Any such board of education may request the superintendent to submit multiple nominations of qualified candidates, if more than one candidate is available for nomination, for any supervisory or administrative position, in which case the superintendent shall submit such a list and may place the candidates on such list in the order in which such superintendent recommends such candidates. If such board rejects such nominations, the superintendent shall submit to such board other nominations and such board may employ teachers from the persons so nominated and shall accept or reject such nominations within one month from their submission. Whenever a superintendent offers a teacher who has not attained tenure a contract to return for another year of employment, such offer shall be based on records of evaluations pursuant to subsection (a) of section 10-151b. The contract of employment of a teacher shall be in writing.

(c) The contract of employment of a teacher who has not attained tenure may be terminated at any time for any of the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of subsection (d) of this section; otherwise the contract of such teacher shall be continued into the next school year unless such teacher receives written notice by May first in one school year that such contract will not be renewed for the following year. Upon the teacher’s written request, a notice of nonrenewal or termination shall be supplemented within seven days after receipt of the request by a statement of the reason or reasons for such nonrenewal or termination. Such teacher, upon written request filed with the board of education within twenty days after the receipt of notice of termination, or nonrenewal shall be entitled to a hearing, except as provided in this subsection, (1) before the board, (2) if indicated in such request and if designated by the board, before an impartial hearing panel established and conducted in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, or (3) if the parties mutually agree before a single impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section. Such hearing shall commence within fifteen days after receipt of such request unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen days. The impartial hearing panel or officer or a subcommittee of the board of education, if the board of education designates a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings, shall submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition. The teacher shall have the right to appear with counsel of the teacher’s choice at the hearing. A teacher who has not attained tenure shall not be entitled to a hearing concerning nonrenewal if the reason for such nonrenewal is either elimination of position or loss of position to another teacher. The board of education shall rescind a nonrenewal decision only if the board finds such decision to be arbitrary and capricious. Any such teacher whose contract is terminated for the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (3) and (4) of subsection (d) of this section shall have the right to appeal in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section.

(d) The contract of employment of a teacher who has attained tenure shall be continued from school year to school year, except that it may be terminated at any time for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Inefficiency or incompetence, provided, if a teacher is notified on or after July 1, 2000, that termination is under consideration due to incompetence, the determination of incompetence is based on evaluation of the teacher using teacher evaluation guidelines established pursuant to section 10-151b; (2) insubordination against reasonable rules of the board of education; (3) moral misconduct; (4) disability, as shown by competent medical evidence; (5) elimination of the position to which the teacher was appointed or loss of a position to another teacher, if no other position exists to which such teacher may be appointed if qualified, provided such teacher, if qualified, shall be appointed to a position held by a teacher who has not attained tenure, and provided further that determination of the individual contract or contracts of employment to be terminated shall be made in accordance with either (A) a provision for a layoff procedure agreed upon by the board of education and the exclusive employees’ representative organization, or (B) in the absence of such agreement, a written policy of the board of education; or (6) other due and sufficient cause. Nothing in this section or in any other section of the general statutes or of any special act shall preclude a board of education from making an agreement with an exclusive bargaining representative which contains a recall provision. Prior to terminating a contract, the superintendent shall give the teacher concerned a written notice that termination of such teacher’s contract is under consideration and, upon written request filed by such teacher with the superintendent, within seven days after receipt of such notice, shall within the next succeeding seven days give such teacher a statement in writing of the reasons therefor. Within twenty days after receipt of written notice by the superintendent that contract termination is under consideration, such teacher may file with the local or regional board of education a written request for a hearing. A board of education may designate a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings and submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition in the case of teachers whose contracts are terminated. Such hearing shall commence within fifteen days after receipt of such request, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension, not to exceed fifteen days (A) before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board, (B) if indicated in such request or if designated by the board before an impartial hearing panel, or (C) if the parties mutually agree, before a single impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent. If the parties are unable to agree upon the choice of a hearing officer within five days after their decision to use a hearing officer, the hearing shall be held before the board or panel, as the case may be. The impartial hearing panel shall consist of three members appointed as follows: The superintendent shall appoint one panel member, the teacher shall appoint one panel member, and those two panel members shall choose a third, who shall serve as chairperson. If the two panel members are unable to agree upon the choice of a third panel member within five days after the decision to use a hearing panel, the third panel member shall be selected with the assistance of the American Arbitration Association using its expedited selection process and in accordance with its rules for selection of a neutral arbitrator in grievance arbitration. If the third panel member is not selected with the assistance of such association within five days, the hearing shall be held before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board. Within seventy-five days after receipt of the request for a hearing, the impartial hearing panel, subcommittee of the board or hearing officer, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen days, shall submit written findings and a recommendation to the board of education as to the disposition of the charges against the teacher and shall send a copy of such findings and recommendation to the teacher. The board of education shall give the teacher concerned its written decision within fifteen days of receipt of the written recommendation of the impartial hearing panel, subcommittee or hearing officer. Each party shall pay the fee of the panel member selected by it and shall share equally the fee of the third panel member or hearing officer and all other costs incidental to the hearing. If the hearing is before the board of education, the board shall render its decision within fifteen days after the close of such hearing and shall send a copy of its decision to the teacher. The hearing shall be public if the teacher so requests or the board, subcommittee, hearing officer or panel so designates. The teacher concerned shall have the right to appear with counsel at the hearing, whether public or private. A copy of a transcript of the proceedings of the hearing shall be furnished by the board of education, upon written request by the teacher within fifteen days after the board’s decision, provided the teacher shall assume the cost of any such copy. Nothing herein contained shall deprive a board of education or superintendent of the power to suspend a teacher from duty immediately when serious misconduct is charged without prejudice to the rights of the teacher as otherwise provided in this section.

(e) Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of a board of education after a hearing as provided in subsection (d) of this section may appeal therefrom, within thirty days of such decision, to the Superior Court. Such appeal shall be made returnable to said court in the same manner as is prescribed for civil actions brought to said court. Any such appeal shall be a privileged case to be heard by the court as soon after the return day as is practicable. The board of education shall file with the court a copy of the complete transcript of the proceedings of the hearing and the minutes of board of education meetings relating to such termination, including the vote of the board on the termination, together with such other documents, or certified copies thereof, as shall constitute the record of the case. The court, upon such appeal, shall review the proceedings of such hearing. The court, upon such appeal and hearing thereon, may affirm or reverse the decision appealed from in accordance with subsection (j) of section 4-183. Costs shall not be allowed against the board of education unless it appears to the court that it acted with gross negligence or in bad faith or with malice in making the decision appealed from.

(1949 Rev., S. 1438; 1949, 1955, S. 938d; 1959, P.A. 625; 1961, P.A. 480; 556; February, 1965, P.A. 278; 1969, P.A. 532; 1971, P.A. 61; P.A. 73-456, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-278, S. 3, 5; P.A. 75-435; 75-615; P.A. 76-436, S. 297, 681; P.A. 78-218, S. 99; 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 79-90; 79-504, S. 1, 4; P.A. 80-354, S. 1–3; P.A. 81-216, S. 1, 2; P.A. 82-257; P.A. 83-398, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-230; 85-343, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 86-22, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-58, S. 2, 4; P.A. 97-247, S. 25, 27; P.A. 00-13, S. 1, 2; P.A. 01-173, S. 16, 67; P.A. 10-111, S. 9; P.A. 11-28, S. 8; 11-135, S. 10; 11-136, S. 14.)

*Note: On and after July 1, 2014, this section, as amended by section 57 of public act 12-116, is to read as follows:

“Sec. 10-151. Employment of teachers. Definitions. Tenure. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal. (a) For the purposes of this section:

(1) “Board of education” means a local or regional board of education, a cooperative arrangement committee established pursuant to section 10-158a, or the board of trustees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34, which is located in this state;

(2) “Teacher” includes each certified professional employee below the rank of superintendent employed by a board of education for at least ninety calendar days in a position requiring a certificate issued by the State Board of Education;

(3) “Continuous employment” means that time during which the teacher is employed without any break in employment as a teacher for the same board of education;

(4) “Full-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of fifty per cent or more of the salary rate of such teacher in such position if such position were full-time;

(5) “Part-time employment” means a teacher’s employment in a position at a salary rate of less than fifty per cent of the salary rate of such teacher in such position, if such position were full-time;

(6) “Tenure” means:

(A) The completion of forty school months of full-time continuous employment for the same board of education, provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year on the basis of effective practice as informed by performance evaluations conducted pursuant to section 10-151b. For purposes of calculating continuous employment towards tenure, the following shall apply: (i) For a teacher who has not attained tenure, two school months of part-time continuous employment by such teacher shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment except, for a teacher employed in a part-time position at a salary rate of less than twenty-five per cent of the salary rate of a teacher in such position, if such position were full-time, three school months of part-time continuous employment shall equal one school month of full-time continuous employment; (ii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count layoff time towards tenure, except that if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment immediately prior to the layoff towards tenure; (iii) a teacher who has not attained tenure shall not count authorized leave time towards tenure if such time exceeds ninety student school days in any one school year, provided only the student school days worked that year by such teacher shall count towards tenure and shall be computed on the basis of eighteen student school days or the greater fraction thereof equaling one school month; and (iv) for a teacher who has not attained tenure and who is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher may count the previous continuous employment with such board immediately prior to such cooperative arrangement towards tenure.

(B) For a teacher who has attained tenure prior to layoff, tenure shall resume if such teacher is reemployed by the same board of education within five calendar years of the layoff.

(C) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (D) and (E) of this subdivision, any teacher who has attained tenure with any one board of education and whose employment with such board ends for any reason and who is reemployed by such board or is subsequently employed by any other board, shall attain tenure after completion of twenty school months of continuous employment, provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year on the basis of effective practice as informed by performance evaluations conducted pursuant to section 10-151b. The provisions of this subparagraph shall not apply if, (i) prior to completion of the twentieth school month following commencement of employment by such board such teacher has been notified in writing that his or her contract will not be renewed for the following school year, or (ii) for a period of five or more calendar years immediately prior to such subsequent employment, such teacher has not been employed by any board of education.

(D) Any certified teacher or administrator employed by a local or regional board of education for a school district identified as a priority school district pursuant to section 10-266p may attain tenure after ten months of employment in such priority school district, if such certified teacher or administrator previously attained tenure with another local or regional board of education in this state or another state.

(E) For a teacher who has attained tenure and is employed by a local or regional board of education that enters into a cooperative arrangement pursuant to section 10-158a, such teacher shall not experience a break in continuous employment for purposes of tenure as a result of such cooperative arrangement.

(7) “School month” means any calendar month other than July or August in which a teacher is employed as a teacher at least one-half of the student school days.

(b) Any board of education may authorize the superintendent to employ teachers. Any superintendent not authorized to employ teachers shall submit to the board of education nominations for teachers for each of the schools in the town or towns in such superintendent’s jurisdiction and, from the persons so nominated, teachers may be employed. Such board shall accept or reject such nominations not later than thirty-five calendar days from their submission. Any such board of education may request the superintendent to submit multiple nominations of qualified candidates, if more than one candidate is available for nomination, for any supervisory or administrative position, in which case the superintendent shall submit such a list and may place the candidates on such list in the order in which such superintendent recommends such candidates. If such board rejects such nominations, the superintendent shall submit to such board other nominations and such board may employ teachers from the persons so nominated and shall accept or reject such nominations not later than one month from their submission. Whenever a superintendent offers a teacher who has not attained tenure a contract to return for another year of employment, such offer shall be based on records of evaluations pursuant to subsection (a) of section 10-151b. The contract of employment of a teacher shall be in writing.

(c) The contract of employment of a teacher who has not attained tenure may be terminated at any time for any of the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of subsection (d) of this section; otherwise the contract of such teacher shall be continued into the next school year unless such teacher receives written notice by May first in one school year that such contract will not be renewed for the following year. Upon the teacher’s written request, not later than three calendar days after such teacher receives such notice of nonrenewal or termination, a notice of nonrenewal or termination shall be supplemented not later than four calendar days after receipt of the request by a statement of the reason or reasons for such nonrenewal or termination. Such teacher, upon written request filed with the board of education not later than ten calendar days after the receipt of notice of termination, or nonrenewal shall be entitled to a hearing, except as provided in this subsection, (1) before the board, or (2) if indicated in such request and if designated by the board, before an impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section. Such hearing shall commence not later than fifteen calendar days after receipt of such request unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen calendar days. The impartial hearing officer or a subcommittee of the board of education, if the board of education designates a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings, shall submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition. The teacher shall have the right to appear with counsel of the teacher’s choice at the hearing. A teacher who has not attained tenure shall not be entitled to a hearing concerning nonrenewal if the reason for such nonrenewal is either elimination of position or loss of position to another teacher. The board of education shall rescind a nonrenewal decision only if the board finds such decision to be arbitrary and capricious. Any such teacher whose contract is terminated for the reasons enumerated in subdivisions (3) and (4) of subsection (d) of this section shall have the right to appeal in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section.

(d) The contract of employment of a teacher who has attained tenure shall be continued from school year to school year, except that it may be terminated at any time for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Inefficiency, incompetence or ineffectiveness, provided, if a teacher is notified on or after July 1, 2014, that termination is under consideration due to incompetence or ineffectiveness, the determination of incompetence or ineffectiveness is based on evaluation of the teacher using teacher evaluation guidelines established pursuant to section 10-151b; (2) insubordination against reasonable rules of the board of education; (3) moral misconduct; (4) disability, as shown by competent medical evidence; (5) elimination of the position to which the teacher was appointed or loss of a position to another teacher, if no other position exists to which such teacher may be appointed if qualified, provided such teacher, if qualified, shall be appointed to a position held by a teacher who has not attained tenure, and provided further that determination of the individual contract or contracts of employment to be terminated shall be made in accordance with either (A) a provision for a layoff procedure agreed upon by the board of education and the exclusive employees’ representative organization, or (B) in the absence of such agreement, a written policy of the board of education; or (6) other due and sufficient cause. Nothing in this section or in any other section of the general statutes or of any special act shall preclude a board of education from making an agreement with an exclusive bargaining representative which contains a recall provision. Prior to terminating a contract, the superintendent shall give the teacher concerned a written notice that termination of such teacher’s contract is under consideration and give such teacher a statement of the reasons for such consideration of termination. Not later than ten calendar days after receipt of written notice by the superintendent that contract termination is under consideration, such teacher may file with the local or regional board of education a written request for a hearing. A board of education may designate a subcommittee of three or more board members to conduct hearings and submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition in the case of teachers whose contracts are terminated. Such hearing shall commence not later than fifteen calendar days after receipt of such request, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension, not to exceed fifteen calendar days (A) before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board, or (B) if indicated in such request or if designated by the board before an impartial hearing officer chosen by the teacher and the superintendent. If the parties are unable to agree upon the choice of a hearing officer not later than five calendar days after the decision to use a hearing officer, the hearing officer shall be selected with the assistance of the American Arbitration Association using its expedited selection process and in accordance with its rules for selection of a neutral arbitrator in grievance arbitration. If the hearing officer is not selected with the assistance of such association after five days, the hearing shall be held before the board of education or a subcommittee of the board. When the reason for termination is incompetence or ineffectiveness, the hearing shall (i) address the question of whether the performance evaluation ratings of the teacher were determined in good faith in accordance with the program developed by the local or regional board of education pursuant to section 10-151b and were reasonable in light of the evidence presented, and (ii) be limited to twelve total hours of evidence and testimony, with each side allowed not more than six hours to present evidence and testimony except the board, subcommittee of the board or impartial hearing officer may extend the time period for evidence and testimony at the hearing when good cause is shown. Not later than forty-five calendar days after receipt of the request for a hearing, the subcommittee of the board or hearing officer, unless the parties mutually agree to an extension not to exceed fifteen calendar days, shall submit written findings and a recommendation to the board of education as to the disposition of the charges against the teacher and shall send a copy of such findings and recommendation to the teacher. The board of education shall give the teacher concerned its written decision not later than fifteen calendar days of receipt of the written recommendation of the subcommittee or hearing officer. Each party shall share equally the fee of the hearing officer and all other costs incidental to the hearing. If the hearing is before the board of education, the board shall render its decision not later than fifteen calendar days after the close of such hearing and shall send a copy of its decision to the teacher. The hearing shall be public if the teacher so requests or the board, subcommittee or hearing officer so designates. The teacher concerned shall have the right to appear with counsel at the hearing, whether public or private. A copy of a transcript of the proceedings of the hearing shall be furnished by the board of education, upon written request by the teacher within fifteen days after the board’s decision, provided the teacher shall assume the cost of any such copy. Nothing herein contained shall deprive a board of education or superintendent of the power to suspend a teacher from duty immediately when serious misconduct is charged without prejudice to the rights of the teacher as otherwise provided in this section.

(e) Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of a board of education after a hearing as provided in subsection (d) of this section may appeal therefrom, not later than thirty calendar days of such decision, to the Superior Court. Such appeal shall be made returnable to said court in the same manner as is prescribed for civil actions brought to said court. Any such appeal shall be a privileged case to be heard by the court as soon after the return day as is practicable. The board of education shall file with the court a copy of the complete transcript of the proceedings of the hearing and the minutes of board of education meetings relating to such termination, including the vote of the board on the termination, together with such other documents, or certified copies thereof, as shall constitute the record of the case. The court, upon such appeal, shall review the proceedings of such hearing. The court, upon such appeal and hearing thereon, may affirm or reverse the decision appealed from in accordance with subsection (j) of section 4-183. Costs shall not be allowed against the board of education unless it appears to the court that it acted with gross negligence or in bad faith or with malice in making the decision appealed from.”

(1949 Rev., S. 1438; 1949, 1955, S. 938d; 1959, P.A. 625; 1961, P.A. 480; 556; February, 1965, P.A. 278; 1969, P.A. 532; 1971, P.A. 61; P.A. 73-456, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-278, S. 3, 5; P.A. 75-435; 75-615; P.A. 76-436, S. 297, 681; P.A. 78-218, S. 99; 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 79-90; 79-504, S. 1, 4; P.A. 80-354, S. 1–3; P.A. 81-216, S. 1, 2; P.A. 82-257; P.A. 83-398, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-230; 85-343, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 86-22, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-58, S. 2, 4; P.A. 97-247, S. 25, 27; P.A. 00-13, S. 1, 2; P.A. 01-173, S. 16, 67; P.A. 10-111, S. 9; P.A. 11-28, S. 8; 11-135, S. 10; 11-136, S. 14; P.A. 12-116, S. 57.)

History: 1959 act added Subsec. (e); 1961 acts amended Subsec. (a) by providing for the supplying of a statement of the reasons for failure to renew the contract upon request, amended Subsec. (b) to provide for giving copy of transcript to teacher and added first proviso to Subsec. (e); 1965 act added Subsec. (f) re appeals to court of common pleas; 1969 act included in Subsec. (a) provisions for filling supervisory or administrative positions; 1971 act amended Subsec. (a) to require that board accept or reject nominations within 35 days rather than within one month; P.A. 73-456 inserted new Subsec. (c) re teacher evaluations, relettering following subsections accordingly and deleted reference to supervising agents in Subsec. (d), formerly (c); P.A. 74-278 deleted Subsec. (c), relettering following subsections accordingly; P.A. 75-435 included in provisions of Subsec. (e) teachers who leave employment and are subsequently rehired in the same municipality or school district; P.A. 75-615 amended section to include provisions concerning hearings before impartial hearing panels; P.A. 76-436 amended Subsec. (f) to substitute superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-218 made technical changes; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties in Subsec. (f); P.A. 79-90 amended Subsec. (a) to delete provision which had forbidden court appeal from decisions of impartial panel and clarified circumstances in which teachers whose contracts have been terminated may appeal; P.A. 79-504 extended provisions of section to include certified professional employees of incorporated or endowed high schools; P.A. 80-354 clarified application of provisions to professional employees of incorporated or endowed high schools by requiring them to choose coverage in Subsec. (a) and amended Subsec. (b)(5) re loss of position to another teacher and clarified provisions concerning layoffs and added to Subsec. (b) general proviso re agreements with bargaining representatives; P.A. 81-216 amended Subsec. (c) to define “continuous employment” and “part-time employment” for purposes of clarifying the provisions of the teacher fair dismissal law; P.A. 82-257 amended Subsec. (c) to require that authorized leave time be treated in the same manner as layoff time for purposes of computing continuous employment where previously authorized leave was entirely excluded in computations; P.A. 83-398 redesignated former Subsec. (c) containing definitions as Subsec. (a), adding definitions of “board of education”, “full-time employment”, “tenure” and “school month” and redefining “part-time employment”, redesignated former Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (b) and limited provisions to employment of teachers, moved provision re termination of contract of employment previously contained in former Subsec. (a) to Subsec. (c) for teachers who have not attained tenure and Subsec. (d) for tenured teachers; and repealed former Subsec. (e) re employment and termination of contracts for tenured teachers, effective July 1, 1983, provided provisions of P.A. 83-398 shall not apply to layoff, nonrenewal or termination proceedings initiated prior to that date; P.A. 85-230 amended Subsec. (d) to provide for hearing before a single impartial hearing officer if both parties agree; P.A. 85-343 amended Subsecs. (c) and (d) to allow the board to designate a subcommittee to conduct hearings and submit written findings and recommendations to the board for final disposition in certain teacher termination cases and made technical changes; P.A. 86-22 required that findings be submitted within 90 days after receipt of the request for a hearing rather than within 15 days after the close of the hearing in Subsec. (d); P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add employment “for at least ninety days”, Subsec. (a)(6)(A) to apply the 30 school months to teachers hired prior to July 1, 1996, and to require teachers hired after said date to be employed for 40 school months provided the superintendent offers the teacher a contract to return for the following school year, Subsec. (a)(6)(C) to change 16 to 20 school months for the attainment of tenure by teachers who previously attained tenure with the same or a different board of education, Subsec. (b) to require the superintendent to base the offer of a contract to return on the records of evaluations, Subsec. (c) to allow a terminated teacher to request and receive a statement of the reason for such termination, to remove provision for hearings for nonrenewal, to add alternative for a hearing before an impartial hearing officer, to limit extensions for the commencement of hearings to 15 days, to require the submission of written findings and recommendations to the board of education in all cases not just in the case of teachers whose contracts are terminated for the reasons stated in Subsec. (d)(5), to remove the right to an appeal for teachers terminated for the reasons enumerated in Subsec. (d)(1) and (2), Subsec. (d) to replace board of education with superintendent re notice to teachers that termination is under consideration and provision of statements in writing of the reasons upon request, to allow boards of education to designate subcommittees to conduct hearings in all cases not just terminations for the reasons stated in Subdiv. (5), to limit extensions to 15 days, to substitute agreement by the teacher and superintendent for “both parties” re hearings before single impartial hearing officers, to substitute superintendent for board of education re appointment of panels, to add provision for appointment of third panel member with the assistance of the American Arbitration Association, to reduce the time for the submission of findings from 90 to 75 days, to specify that the Subsec. does not limit the right of a superintendent to suspend a teacher and to make technical changes, deleted former Subsec. (e) specifying that the provisions of a special act regarding the dismissal or employment of teachers prevail over the provisions of the section in the event of conflict and relettered Subsecs., and amended newly designated Subsec. (e), formerly Subsec. (f), to require submission of the minutes of board of education meetings relating to the termination, including the vote of the board on termination, removed language allowing parties to the appeal to introduce evidence and added requirement that the court affirm or reverse the decision appealed from in accordance with Sec. 4-183(j), effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-247 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for a hearing for nonrenewal unless the contract of a teacher who has not attained tenure is not renewed due to elimination of the position or loss of position to another teacher and to provide that the board of education rescind a nonrenewal decision only if the board finds such decision to be arbitrary and capricious, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 00-13 amended Subsec. (d) to add requirement for the determination of incompetence to be based on evaluations, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsec. (d) to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; (Revisor’s note: In 2005 the Revisors changed the reference to “subsection (f)” in the phrase “shall have the right to appeal in accordance with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section”, at the end of Subsec. (c), to “subsection (e)”, to correctly reflect the relettering of the subsections by P.A. 95-58); P.A. 10-111 amended Subsec. (a)(6) by replacing “subparagraph (B)” with “subparagraphs (B) and (D)” in Subpara. (C) and adding Subpara. (D) re attainment of tenure for employment in a priority school district, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 2011; P.A. 11-135 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re cooperative arrangement committee in Subdiv. (1), adding Subdiv. (6)(A)(iv) re previous continuous employment immediately prior to cooperative arrangement for purposes of attaining tenure, adding Subdiv. (6)(E) re tenured teachers employed by board that enters into cooperative arrangements, and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-136 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “April” with “May” and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a)(6) to redefine “tenure” by replacing “thirty” with “forty” re school months of continuous employment and adding provision re contract based on effective practice as informed by performance evaluations in Subpara. (A) and by adding provision re contract to return offered by superintendent based on effective practice as informed by performance evaluations in Subpara. (C), amended Subsec. (c) by revising time periods re statement of reasons for nonrenewal or termination and re hearing request and deleting provisions re hearing panel, amended Subsec. (d) by adding “or ineffectiveness” and replacing “July 1, 2000” with “July 1, 2014” in Subdiv. (1), deleting provision re written request filed by teacher following notice that contract is under consideration for termination, requiring request for hearing to be filed not later than 10 calendar days after receipt of written notice, deleting provisions re hearing panel, adding provision re hearing process when reason for termination is incompetence or ineffectiveness, and requiring submission of written findings and recommendation not later than 45 calendar days after receipt of hearing request, and replaced “days” with “calendar days” and made technical and conforming changes throughout, effective July 1, 2014.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

See Sec. 5-242 re appointment and tenure of teachers in state institution schools.

See Sec. 17a-101 re suspension when child abused by a certified public school employee in a position requiring a certificate.

Cited. 138 C. 280; 152 C. 148. Language of former Subsec. (b) clearly concerned with defining grounds for discharge of a teacher. Id., 150. Cited. Id., 568. Section says nothing about form of notice. 165 C. 671. Right of appeal provided by former Subsec. (f) applies only to tenured teachers. 166 C. 189. Hearing re termination of teacher’s contract held a “contested case” in the meaning of Sec. 4-166(2). 167 C. 368. Right of appeal is granted by section only to tenured teachers. Id., 444. Teacher employed who does not have appropriate state certificate is illegally employed and not entitled to benefits of section. Id. Cited. 168 C. 435; 170 C. 36; Id., 43; 171 C. 691; 173 C. 462; 174 C. 366; Id., 414; Id., 522; 175 C. 445. Absence of prior board authorization for teacher tenure hearing and failure to advise of right to legal representation deemed not prejudicial given all the circumstances involved. 176 C. 466. Judicial review of decisions of boards of education can be had only as authorized by section. Id., 630. Violation of terms of a decision of board is not violation of “reasonable rules” under former Subsec. (b). 177 C. 572. Insubordination in and of itself constitutes other due and sufficient cause for termination of contract and is valid statutory basis for dismissal, however dismissal under facts of case determined to be excessive punishment, an abuse of discretion. Id. Where his position is eliminated, board not required to assign tenured teacher to comparable position held by nontenured teacher, only required to assign to a vacant position. 178 C. 618. Cited. 179 C. 428. Teacher Tenure Act (Sec. 10-151 et seq.) not applicable to reassignments of administrators. 180 C. 66. Cited. Id., 96. A teacher discharged for cause under statute is entitled, as a matter of constitutional law, to a written statement of decision reached, the reasons for the determination and a fair summary of evidence relied on. 181 C. 69. Cited. 182 C. 93; 187 C. 94. Board of education may not terminate a teacher’s contract unless the board first notifies the teacher that such action is under consideration. 189 C. 585. Cited. 190 C. 748; 195 C. 174; 196 C. 647; 198 C. 229. Doctrine of exhaustion of administrative remedies discussed; judgment of appellate court in 2 CA 36 reversed in part and case remanded with direction that judgment of trial court be reinstated. 199 C. 70. Judgment of appellate court in 2 CA 551 reversed and case remanded with direction to reinstate the judgment of the trial court. Id., 231. Cited. 200 C. 21; Id., 376; 206 C. 113; 210 C. 286; 216 C. 541; 226 C. 475; Id., 704; 227 C. 333; 231 C. 308. Teacher Tenure Act cited. Id. Cited. 232 C. 198; 240 C. 119. Teacher Tenure Act cited. Id.

A board of education may not terminate a teacher’s contract unless the teacher is first notified by the board that such action is “under consideration”. 2 CA 36; judgment reversed in part, see 199 C. 70. Former Subsec. (b) cited. 2 CA 551; judgment reversed, see 199 C. 231. Cited. 3 CA 630. Full trial-type evidentiary hearing held before impartial hearing panel pursuant to section fulfills the right to due process. 4 CA 1. An appeal may be taken only from a decision to terminate a contract of employment; there is no right to appeal from suspension of employment. Id., 87. Cited. Id., 464; 5 CA 253; 8 CA 508; 9 CA 260; 20 CA 231; 31 CA 690; 32 CA 6; Id., 395. Teacher Tenure Act cited. Id. Cited. 33 CA 78. Determination of voluntariness is prior to and thus outside the scope of a hearing pursuant to section. 36 CA 282. Cited. 42 CA 480. Teacher Tenure Act cited. Id. Cited. 44 CA 179; Id., 677. Teacher Tenure Act cited. Id. P.A. 95-58 cited. Id. Plaintiff would need to follow provisions of section only after initial determination was made that her resignation was involuntary. 53 CA 252. Section mandates continued employment for tenured teacher unless statutory ground for termination has been found, but is silent re continuing pay during period of administrative leave. 90 CA 59.

Cited. 9 CS 442. Injunction does not lie to prevent impending breach of contract. 12 CS 174. Board of education has broad powers in superintendence of school affairs. 14 CS 280. To fulfill the intent and purpose of statute, a local board of education must exercise a sound and reasonable discretion in making decisions to renew or not renew the contracts of nontenured teachers. 26 CS 102. Cited. Id., 107. Plaintiff working under temporary emergency teaching certificate does not meet technical requirements of tenure defined by former Subsec. (b). Tenure is statutory not contractual. 32 CS 264. Cited. 34 CS 115. Policy decision by board of education to eliminate a teaching position may not be challenged by teacher at hearing. Id. Former Subsec. (b)(5) violated where school board terminated plaintiff tenured teacher’s employment while nontenured teacher had the same position in school system. Section encompasses entire school system and is not limited to school classifications created by school board. Board’s staff reduction policy prohibiting “bumping” between levels of organizational classifications absolutely at variance with statute. 35 CS 55. Sufficiency of board’s termination hearing and its proposed findings and conclusion discussed; appeal dismissed. 45 CS 171.

Subsec. (a):

Assistant superintendent is “below the rank of superintendent” and thus a teacher as defined in Subsec. 261 C. 287.

Subsec. (d):

Purpose of Subsec. is reciprocal: to provide framework for termination of tenured teacher’s contract while protecting teacher’s right to due process of law. Teacher not required to exhaust administrative remedies if such recourse is futile or inadequate. 246 C. 456.

Sec. 10-151a. Access of teacher to supervisory records and reports in personnel file. Each professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by any local or regional board of education shall be entitled to knowledge of, access to, and, upon request, a copy of supervisory records and reports of competence, personal character and efficiency maintained in such employee’s personnel file with reference to evaluation of performance as a professional employee of such board of education.

(1967, P.A. 464; P.A. 73-345; P.A. 78-218, S. 100.)

History: P.A. 73-345 required provision of copies of records and reports in personnel file upon request; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” board of education and made technical changes.

Cited. 174 C. 366.

Sec. 10-151b. Evaluation by superintendents of certain education personnel. Teacher evaluation programs. Guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program. (a) The superintendent of each local or regional board of education shall annually evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher, in accordance with guidelines established by the State Board of Education, pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and such other guidelines as may be established by mutual agreement between the local or regional board of education and the teachers’ representative chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, and may conduct additional formative evaluations toward producing an annual summative evaluation. An evaluation pursuant to this subsection shall include, but need not be limited to, strengths, areas needing improvement, strategies for improvement and multiple indicators of student academic growth. Claims of failure to follow the established procedures of such evaluation and support programs shall be subject to the grievance procedure in collective bargaining agreements negotiated subsequent to July 1, 2004. In the event that a teacher does not receive a summative evaluation during the school year, such teacher shall receive a “not rated” designation for such school year. The superintendent shall report the status of teacher evaluations to the local or regional board of education on or before June first of each year. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a board of education, below the rank of superintendent, who holds a certificate or permit issued by the State Board of Education.

(b) (1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, not later than September 1, 2013, each local and regional board of education shall develop and implement teacher evaluation programs consistent with guidelines adopted by the State Board of Education, pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and consistent with the plan developed in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of section 10-220a.

(2) Not later than June thirtieth of each year, each superintendent shall report to the Commissioner of Education the status of the implementation of teacher evaluations, including the frequency of evaluations, aggregate evaluation ratings, the number of teachers who have not been evaluated and other requirements as determined by the Department of Education.

(c) On or before July 1, 2012, the State Board of Education shall adopt, in consultation with the Performance Evaluation Advisory Council established pursuant to section 10-151d, guidelines for a model teacher evaluation and support program. Such guidelines shall include, but not be limited to, (1) the use of four performance evaluations designators: Exemplary, proficient, developing and below standard; (2) the use of multiple indicators of student academic growth and development in teacher evaluations; (3) methods for assessing student academic growth and development; (4) a consideration of control factors tracked by the state-wide public school information system, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-10a, that may influence teacher performance ratings, including, but not limited to, student characteristics, student attendance and student mobility; (5) minimum requirements for teacher evaluation instruments and procedures, including scoring systems to determine exemplary, proficient, developing and below standard ratings; (6) the development and implementation of periodic training programs regarding the teacher evaluation and support program to be offered by the local or regional board of education or regional educational service center for the school district to teachers who are employed by such local or regional board of education and whose performance is being evaluated and to administrators who are employed by such local or regional board of education and who are conducting performance evaluations; (7) the provision of professional development services based on the individual or group of individuals’ needs that are identified through the evaluation process; (8) the creation of individual teacher improvement and remediation plans for teachers whose performance is developing or below standard, designed in consultation with such teacher and his or her exclusive bargaining representative for certified teachers chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, and that (A) identify resources, support and other strategies to be provided by the local or regional board of education to address documented deficiencies, (B) indicate a timeline for implementing such resources, support, and other strategies, in the course of the same school year as the plan is issued, and (C) include indicators of success including a summative rating of proficient or better immediately at the conclusion of the improvement and remediation plan; (9) opportunities for career development and professional growth; and (10) a validation procedure to audit evaluation ratings of exemplary or below standard by the department, or a third-party entity approved by the department, to validate such exemplary or below standard evaluation ratings. The State Board of Education, following the completion of the teacher evaluation and support pilot program, pursuant to section 10-151f, and the submission of the study of such pilot program, pursuant to section 10-151g, shall validate the guidelines adopted under this subsection.

(d) The State Board of Education may waive the provisions of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section for any local or regional board of education that has developed a teacher evaluation program prior to the validation of the model teacher evaluation and support program guidelines described in subsection (c) of this section and that the State Board of Education determines is in substantial compliance with such model teacher evaluation and support program guidelines.

(P.A. 74-278, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 77-27, S. 3; P.A. 78-218, S. 101; P.A. 82-74, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-2, S. 12, 21; P.A. 89-26, S. 1, 4; P.A. 90-324, S. 7, 13; P.A. 91-220, S. 3, 8; P.A. 93-353, S. 30, 52; P.A. 95-58, S. 3, 4; 95-182, S. 3, 11; P.A. 00-220, S. 8, 43; P.A. 04-137, S. 1; P.A. 10-111, S. 4; P.A. 11-135, S. 7, 9; P.A. 12-116, S. 51; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2, S. 23.)

History: P.A. 77-27 amended Subsec. (b) to make provisions generally applicable rather than specific to January 1, 1975, report; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” and “board of education” for “school district”; P.A. 82-74 amended Subsec. (b) to require boards of education to file triennial rather than annual reports on teacher evaluation programs; P.A. 87-2 amended Subsec. (a) to require a review of the guidelines and in Subsec. (b) substituted the fifteenth of June, 1989, for January first of 1983 and provided for monitoring teacher evaluation programs by the department of education; P.A. 89-26 amended the definition of “teacher” in Subsec. (a) to include the word “professional” and deleted an obsolete provision re a review and revision of guidelines not later the May 15, 1987; P.A. 90-324 in Subsec. (b) deleted reference to the program submitted pursuant to repealed Sec. 10-155ee; P.A. 91-220 in Subsec. (b) changed “triennially” to every five years re reports on teacher evaluation programs; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute requirement that the report be submitted in accordance with Sec. 10-220 instead of every five years, to specify that the programs be consistent with the plan developed in accordance with the provisions of Sec. 10-220a and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (a) to specify areas to be included in evaluations, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-182 amended Subsec. (b) to delete requirement that report on teacher evaluation program be used to monitor program implementation, effective June 28, 1995; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 04-137 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re claims of failure to follow procedures of evaluation programs, effective May 21, 2004; P.A. 10-111 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “continuously evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher”, adding provision re guidelines pursuant to Subsec. (c) and adding provision re multiple indicators of student academic growth, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re guidelines pursuant to Subsec. (c) and added Subsec. (c) re adoption of guidelines for model teacher evaluation program, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-135 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting “for the development of evaluation programs” and deleting “continuously evaluate or cause to be evaluated each teacher” and amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “2013” with “2012”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “continuously” with “annually” re evaluations, adding provision re additional formative evaluations to produce an annual summative evaluation and adding provision re “not rated” designation, amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing language as Subdiv. (1) and replacing “established” with “adopted” in same and adding Subdiv. (2) re report by superintendent, amended Subsec. (c) by adding new Subdivs. (1) and (6) to (10) re guidelines for model teacher evaluation and support program, designating existing language re use of multiple indicators as Subdiv. (2), redesignating existing Subdivs. (1) to (3) as Subdivs. (3) to (5) and adding “and development” in redesignated Subdivs. (2) and (3), added Subsec. (d) re waiver of requirements for preexisting evaluation programs that are in substantial compliance with guidelines, added references to teacher evaluation and support program and made conforming changes, effective May 14, 2012; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by adding “not later than September 1, 2013”, effective June 15, 2012.

See Sec. 4d-85 re state-wide standard for teacher and administrator competency in use of technology for instructional purposes.

See Sec. 10-222e re evaluation and termination of coaches.

Teacher evaluations not a mandatory subject of collective bargaining where amendment substituted “mutual agreement” for “negotiation”. 201 C. 685. Cited. 205 C. 116.

Cited. 42 CA 480.

Sec. 10-151c. Nondisclosure of records of teacher performance and evaluation. Exceptions. Any records maintained or kept on file by any local or regional board of education which are records of teacher performance and evaluation shall not be deemed to be public records and shall not be subject to the provisions of section 1-210, provided that any teacher may consent in writing to the release of such teacher’s records by a board of education. Such consent shall be required for each request for a release of such records. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, records maintained or kept on file by any local or regional board of education which are records of the personal misconduct of a teacher shall be deemed to be public records and shall be subject to disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of section 1-210. Disclosure of such records of a teacher’s personal misconduct shall not require the consent of the teacher. For the purposes of this section, “teacher” includes each certified professional employee below the rank of superintendent employed by a board of education in a position requiring a certificate issued by the State Board of Education.

(P.A. 84-276, S. 1, 2; P.A. 02-138, S. 20.)

History: P.A. 02-138 added provision that records of personal misconduct of a teacher shall be deemed to be public records and subject to disclosure pursuant to Sec. 1-210(a) and that disclosure of such records do not require the consent of the teacher and made technical changes including a change for purposes of gender neutrality.

Purpose of act to clarify, not change, earlier enactment. 210 C. 590. Does not prevent public disclosure of substance of votes of public agency that concern matters of personnel, teacher performance or evaluation. 221 C. 217. “... a document, portions of which concern matters of teacher performance and evaluation and portions of which concern nonevaluative information, is not exempt from disclosure in its entirety...” pursuant to section. Id., 393. Allegations by students, parents, community members concerning teacher’s conduct do not constitute “records of teacher performance or evaluation” under section. Id., 549.

Cited. 35 CA 384. Documents concerning teacher’s misconduct occurring during class time but unrelated to teaching do not constitute records of employee performance and evaluation within meaning of statute exempting teacher performance evaluations from disclosure. 59 CA 20. Section designed to prevent parents from “teacher shopping” in public schools by looking at evaluations and then demanding that their children be placed with one specific teacher. 82 CA 604.

Sec. 10-151d. Performance Evaluation Advisory Council. Responsibilities. (a) There is established a Performance Evaluation Advisory Council within the Department of Education. Membership of the council shall consist of: (1) The Commissioner of Education and the president of the Board of Regents for Higher Education, or their designees, (2) one representative from each of the following associations, designated by the association, the Connecticut Association of Boards of Education, the Connecticut Association of Public School Superintendents, the Connecticut Federation of School Administrators, the Connecticut Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers-Connecticut, and (3) persons selected by the Commissioner of Education who shall include, but not be limited to, teachers, persons with expertise in performance evaluation processes and systems, and any other person the commissioner deems appropriate.

(b) The council shall be responsible for (1) assisting the State Board of Education in the development and implementation of the teacher evaluation guidelines, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-151b, and (2) the data collection and evaluation support system, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-10a. The council shall meet at least quarterly.

(P.A. 10-111, S. 5; P.A. 11-28, S. 12; 11-48, S. 285.)

History: P.A. 10-111 effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 2011; pursuant to 11-48, “Commissioner of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “president of the Board of Regents for Higher Education” in Subsec. (a)(1), effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 10-151e. Disclosure of teacher records for purposes of an investigation of child abuse or neglect. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 10-151c, a local or regional board of education shall provide the Commissioner of Children and Families, upon request and for the purposes of an investigation by the commissioner of suspected child abuse or neglect by a teacher employed by such board of education, any records maintained or kept on file by such board of education. Such records shall include, but not be limited to, supervisory records, reports of competence, personal character and efficiency maintained in such teacher’s personnel file with reference to evaluation of performance as a professional employee of such board of education, and records of the personal misconduct of such teacher. For purposes of this section, “teacher” includes each certified professional employee below the rank of superintendent employed by a board of education in a position requiring a certificate issued by the State Board of Education.

(P.A. 11-93, S. 12.)

History: P.A. 11-93 effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 10-151f. Teacher evaluation and support pilot program. (a) For the school year commencing July 1, 2012, the Commissioner of Education shall administer a teacher evaluation and support pilot program. Not later than June 1, 2012, the commissioner shall select, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, at least eight school districts or consortia of school districts, but not more than ten school districts or consortia of school districts to participate in a teacher evaluation and support program based on the guidelines adopted pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-151b. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a board of education, below the rank of superintendent, who holds a certificate or permit issued by the State Board of Education.

(b) The teacher evaluation and support pilot program described in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall (1) assess and evaluate the implementation of a teacher evaluation and support program developed by a local or regional board of education pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-151b that is in compliance with the guidelines for a teacher evaluation and support program adopted pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-151b, (2) identify district needs for technical assistance and support in implementing such teacher evaluation and support program, (3) provide training to administrators in how to conduct performance evaluations under the teacher evaluation and support program, (4) provide orientation to teachers being evaluated under the teacher evaluation and support program, (5) include a validation process for performance evaluations to be conducted by the Department of Education, or the department’s designee, and (6) provide funding for the administration of the teacher evaluation and support program developed by the local or regional board of education.

(c) On or before May 25, 2012, a local or regional board of education may apply, on a form provided and in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, to participate in the teacher evaluation and support pilot program.

(d) The commissioner shall select a diverse group of rural, suburban and urban school districts with varying levels of student academic performance to participate in the teacher evaluation and support pilot program. If the commissioner does not receive an adequate amount of applications for participation in the teacher evaluation and support pilot program, the commissioner shall select school districts for participation in such teacher evaluation and support pilot program to satisfy the representation requirements under this subsection.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 52; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2, S. 24.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective May 14, 2012; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to consortia of school districts and amended Subsec. (b)(4) by replacing “training” with “orientation”, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-151g. Neag School of Education study of teacher evaluation and support pilot program. (a) The Neag School of Education at The University of Connecticut shall study the implementation of the teacher evaluation and support pilot program described in section 10-151f. Such study shall (1) analyze and evaluate the implementation of the teacher evaluation and support program adopted pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-151b for each local or regional board of education participating in the teacher evaluation and support pilot program, (2) compare such teacher evaluation and support program adopted by each local or regional board of education pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-151b to the teacher evaluation and support program guidelines adopted by the State Board of Education pursuant to subsection (c) of said section 10-151b, and (3) compare and evaluate the use of student performance data on the state-wide mastery examination, pursuant to section 10-14n, and the use of student performance data on progress monitoring tests approved by the State Board of Education as an indicator of and method for student academic growth and development.

(b) Upon completion of such study, but not later than January 1, 2014, the Neag School of Education at The University of Connecticut shall (1) submit to the State Board of Education such study and any recommendation concerning validation of the teacher evaluation and support program guidelines adopted by the State Board of Education pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-151b, and (2) submit such study to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 53.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective May 14, 2012.

Sec. 10-151h. Training and orientation programs for educators re teacher evaluation and support program. Prior to the implementation of the teacher evaluation and support program developed pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-151b, but not later than July 1, 2014, each local and regional board of education shall conduct training programs for all evaluators and orientation for all teachers employed by such board relating to the provisions of such teacher evaluation and support program developed by such board of education. Such training shall provide instruction to evaluators in how to conduct proper performance evaluations prior to conducting an evaluation under the teacher evaluation and support program. Such orientation shall be completed by each teacher before a teacher receives an evaluation under the teacher evaluation and support program. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a board of education, below the rank of superintendent, who holds a certificate or permit issued by the State Board of Education.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 54.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-151i. Audits of teacher evaluation and support programs. On July 1, 2014, and annually thereafter, the Commissioner of Education shall randomly select, within available appropriations, at least ten teacher evaluation and support programs developed pursuant to section 10-151b to be subject to a comprehensive audit conducted by the Department of Education. The department shall submit the results of such audits to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 55.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective July 1, 2012.

Sec. 10-152. Discrimination in salaries of teachers. Section 10-152 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1439; P.A. 78-218, S. 211.)

Sec. 10-153. Discrimination on the basis of sex, gender identity or expression or marital status prohibited. No local or regional board of education shall discriminate on the basis of sex, gender identity or expression or marital status in the employment of teachers in the public schools or in the determination of the compensation to be paid to such teachers.

(1949 Rev., S. 1440; P.A. 78-218, S. 102; P.A. 11-55, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 78-218 forbade discrimination on basis of sex, deleted reference to municipalities and specified local and regional school boards; P.A. 11-55 prohibited discrimination on basis of gender identity or expression.

Cited. 152 C. 151; 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-153a. Rights concerning professional organization and negotiations. Duty of fair representation. Annual service fees negotiable item. (a) Members of the teaching profession shall have and shall be protected in the exercise of the right to form, join or assist, or refuse to form, join or assist, any organization for professional or economic improvement and to negotiate in good faith through representatives of their own choosing with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment free from interference, restraint, coercion or discriminatory practices by any employing board of education or administrative agents or representatives thereof in derogation of the rights guaranteed by this section and sections 10-153b to 10-153n, inclusive.

(b) The organization designated as the exclusive representative of a teachers’ or administrators’ unit shall have a duty of fair representation to the members of such unit.

(c) Nothing in this section or in any other section of the general statutes shall preclude a local or regional board of education from making an agreement with an exclusive bargaining representative to require as a condition of employment that all employees in a bargaining unit pay to the exclusive bargaining representative of such employees an annual service fee, not greater than the amount of dues uniformly required of members of the exclusive bargaining representative organization, which represents the costs of collective bargaining, contract administration and grievance adjustment; and that such service fee be collected by means of a payroll deduction from each employee in the bargaining unit.

(1961, P.A. 562; 1969, P.A. 811, S. 1; P.A. 76-403, S. 1, 11; P.A. 79-422; P.A. 83-72, S. 1, 9; P.A. 87-250, S. 2, 11; P.A. 93-426, S. 6.)

History: 1969 act substituted for “without prejudice”, “free from interference, restraint, coercion or discriminatory practices by any employing board of education ...”; P.A. 76-403 included rights to form or assist and to refuse to form or assist organizations as well as rights to join or not join and included protection in the exercise of rights mentioned and bestowed right to negotiate in good faith; P.A. 79-422 added Subsec. (b) re annual service fees for bargaining representation; P.A. 83-72 amended Subsec. (a) to include all statutory references to provisions of teacher negotiation law, Secs. 10-153b to 10-153n, inclusive; P.A. 87-250 amended Subsec. (a) to include hours as a subject to be negotiated in good faith; P.A. 93-426 inserted new Subsec. (b) to impose a duty of fair representation on teachers’ and educational administrators’ collective bargaining representatives and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as (c).

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Cited. 162 C. 393; Id., 575, 578. By agreement on submission of question to arbitrator, Waterbury Board of Education waived objection to procedural limits of arbitration in teacher contract. 168 C. 54. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Agency shop clause in collective bargaining agreement prior to 1979 amendment expressly authorizing such clauses was valid and did not offend public policy. 180 C. 459. Cited. 184 C. 116; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. 210 C. 286; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110. Cited. 231 C. 922. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111. Cited. 42 CA 700; judgment reversed, see 240 C. 835. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id. Cited. 43 CA 133.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (c) (former Subsec. (b)):

Not a violation for local organization to allocate part of service fee to the state and national organizations. 206 C. 25.

Sec. 10-153b. Selection of teachers’ representatives. (a) Whenever used in this section or in sections 10-153c to 10-153n, inclusive: (1) The “administrators’ unit” means the professional employee or employees in a school district or charter school not excluded from the purview of sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, employed in positions requiring an intermediate administrator or supervisor certificate, or the equivalent thereof, or charter school educator permit, issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of section 10-145q, and whose administrative or supervisory duties, for purposes of determining membership in the administrators’ unit, shall equal at least fifty per cent of the assigned time of such employee. Certified professional employees covered by the terms and conditions of a contract in effect prior to October 1, 1983, shall continue to be covered by such contract or any successor contract until such time as the employee is covered by the terms and conditions of a contract negotiated by the exclusive bargaining unit of which the employee is a member for purposes of collective bargaining pursuant to the provisions of this section. (2) The “teachers’ unit” means (A) the group of professional employees who hold a certificate or durational shortage area permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and are employed by a local or regional board of education in positions requiring such a certificate or durational shortage area permit and are not included in the administrators’ unit or excluded from the purview of sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, and (B) the group of professional employees who hold a certificate, durational shortage area permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, or a charter school educator permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of section 10-145q, and are employed by a charter school in positions requiring such a certificate, durational shortage area permit or charter school educator permit and are not included in the administrators’ unit or excluded from the purview of sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive. (3) “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of Education. (4) “To post a notice” means to post a copy of the indicated material on each bulletin board for teachers in every school in the school district or, if there are no such bulletin boards, to give a copy of such information to each employee in the unit affected by such notice. (5) “Budget submission date” means the date on which a school district is to submit its itemized estimate of the cost of maintenance of public schools for the next following year to the board of finance in each town having a board of finance, to the board of selectmen in each town having no board of finance and, in any city having a board of finance, to said board, and otherwise to the authority making appropriations therein. (6) “Days” means calendar days.

(b) The superintendent of schools, assistant superintendents, certified professional employees who act for the board of education in negotiations with certified professional personnel or are directly responsible to the board of education for personnel relations or budget preparation, temporary substitutes and all noncertified employees of the board of education are excluded from the purview of this section and sections 10-153c to 10-153n, inclusive.

(c) The employees in either unit defined in this section may designate any organization of certified professional employees to represent them in negotiations with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment with the local or regional board of education which employs them by filing, during the period between March first and March thirty-first of any school year, with the board of education a petition which requests recognition of such organization for purposes of negotiation under this section and sections 10-153c to 10-153n, inclusive, and is signed by a majority of the employees in such unit. Where a new school district is formed as the result of the creation of a regional school district, a petition for designation shall also be considered timely if it is filed at any time from the date when such regional school district is approved pursuant to section 10-45 through the first school year of operation of any such school district. Where a new school district is formed as a result of the dissolution of a regional school district, a petition for designation shall also be considered timely if it is filed at any time from the date of the election of a board of education for such school district through the first year of operation of any such school district. Within three school days next following the receipt of such petition, such board shall post a notice of such request for recognition and mail a copy thereof to the commissioner. Such notice shall state the name of the organization designated by the petitioners, the unit to be represented and the date of receipt of such petition by the board. If no petition which requests a representation election and is signed by twenty per cent of the employees in such unit is filed in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, with the commissioner within the thirty days next following the date on which the board of education posts notice of the designation petition, such board shall recognize the designated organization as the exclusive representative of the employees in such unit for a period of one year or until a representation election has been held for such unit pursuant to this section and section 10-153c, whichever occurs later. If a petition complying with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section is filed within such period of thirty days, the local or regional board of education shall not recognize any organization so designated until an election has been held pursuant to said sections to determine which organization shall represent such unit.

(d) Twenty per cent or more of the personnel in an administrators’ unit or teachers’ unit may file during the period between March first and April thirtieth of any school year with the commissioner a petition requesting that a representation election be held to elect an organization to represent such unit. Where a new school district is formed as the result of the creation of a regional school district, a petition for a representation election shall also be considered timely if it is filed at any time from the date when such regional school district is approved pursuant to section 10-45 through the first school year of operation of any such school district. Where a new school district is formed as a result of the dissolution of a regional school district, a petition for a representation election shall also be considered timely if it is filed at any time during the first school year of operation of any such school district. Whenever a multiple-year contract is in effect, a petition requesting that a representation election be held to elect an organization to represent such unit shall be considered timely if it is filed with the commissioner between March first and April thirtieth after two years of a contract have elapsed or is filed between March first and April thirtieth of the calendar year prior to the year of expiration of the collective bargaining contract covering the employees who are the subject of the petition, whichever is sooner. The commissioner shall file notice of such petition with the local or regional board of education on or before the fifth school day following receipt of the petition. The commissioner shall not divulge the names on such petition or any petition filed with the commissioner pursuant to this section to anyone except upon court order. Such notice shall state the name of the petitioning group, the unit for which an election is sought and the date the petition was filed. Within three school days after receipt of such notice, the local or regional board of education shall post a copy of the notice. Any organization interested in representing personnel in such unit may intervene within three school days after the board posts notice of such petition by filing with the commissioner a petition signed by ten per cent of the employees in such unit provided that any employee who signs more than one such petition between March first and April thirtieth in any one school year shall not be deemed to have signed any such petition. The commissioner shall notify the local or regional board on or before the third day following receipt of the intervening petition, and such board shall post notice of the intervening petition within three days following receipt thereof. No intervening petition shall be required from any incumbent organization previously designated by the board or elected and such incumbent organization shall be listed on the ballot if a petition for a representation election is filed. The petitioning organization, the incumbent organization, if any, and any intervening organization may agree on an impartial person or agency to conduct such an election consistent with the other provisions of this section, provided not more than one such election shall be held to elect an organization to represent the employees in such unit in any one school year, except, however, if no organization receives a majority of the vote validly cast, the election shall not be deemed completed and within ten days after the initial election a runoff election shall be held. In the event of a disagreement on the agency to conduct the election, the method shall be determined by the board of arbitration selected in accordance with section 10-153c. The person or agency so selected shall conduct, between twenty and forty-five days after the first petition requesting an election is filed with the commissioner, an election by secret ballot to determine which organization, if any, shall represent such unit, provided if no organization receives a majority of the vote validly cast, such election shall not be deemed completed and a runoff election between the two choices receiving the largest and second largest number of valid votes cast in the election shall be held within ten days after the initial election. The organizations participating in the election and the organizations participating in the runoff election shall share equally in the cost incurred by the impartial person or agency selected to conduct each election. Such person or agency shall immediately report the results of the election or runoff election to the commissioner. Within five days after receipt of the tally of ballots in the election or runoff election, any party to said election or runoff election may file with the commissioner any objection to said election or runoff election. If timely objections are found to be valid and they affected the results of the election or runoff election, the commissioner shall order another election or runoff election, as appropriate, to be conducted within ten days of the commissioner’s decision. If satisfied that the election or runoff election has been conducted properly, the commissioner shall certify that the organization receiving a majority of votes is the exclusive representative of the employees in such unit.

(e) The representative designated or elected in accordance with this section shall, from the date of such designation or election, be the exclusive representative of all the employees in such unit for the purposes of negotiating with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment, provided any certified professional employee or group of such employees shall have the right at any time to present any grievance to such persons as the local or regional board of education shall designate for that purpose. The terms of any existing contract shall not be abrogated by the election or designation of a new representative. During the balance of the term of such contract the board of education and the new representative shall have the duty to negotiate pursuant to section 10-153d concerning a successor agreement. The new representative shall, from the date of designation or election, acquire the rights and powers and shall assume the duties and obligations of the existing contract during the period of its effectiveness.

(f) Any organization which has been designated or elected the exclusive representative of a unit which includes teachers and administrators shall continue to be the exclusive representative of such personnel upon expiration of the salary agreement in effect between such organization and the board of education employing such personnel on July 1, 1969, until or unless employees of such board of education in either of the units defined in this section initiate a petition for designation or election of an organization to represent them in accordance with the procedures set forth in sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive.

(February, 1965, P.A. 298, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 752, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 811, S. 2; P.A. 73-385, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-403, S. 2, 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 610; P.A. 78-218, S. 81; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 82-225, S. 1, 3; P.A. 83-72, S. 2, 9; 83-359; P.A. 84-546, S. 22, 23, 173; P.A. 87-250, S. 3, 4, 11; 87-499, S. 12, 34; P.A. 88-136, S. 8, 37; P.A. 91-303, S. 3, 22; P.A. 98-56, S. 3, 5; P.A. 03-174, S. 15; P.A. 11-60, S. 3; 11-234, S. 4.)

History: 1967 act detailed process for designating representative organization in Subsecs. (a) and (b), including petition procedure, intervening petitions and referendum provisions and made technical changes in old language; 1969 act replaced former Subsec. (a) with definitions of “administrators’ unit”, “teachers’ unit”, “secretary” and “to post a notice”, inserted new Subsec. (b) excluding certain personnel from provisions of Secs. 10-153b to 10-153g, placed petitions provisions formerly in Subsec. (a) in new Subsec. (c), relettered Subsecs. (b) and (c) as Subsecs. (d) and (e) and added Subsec. (f) continuing previously chosen representatives of units containing both teachers and administrators until or unless otherwise elected by employees; P.A. 73-385 changed closing date for petition in Subsec. (c) from April fifteenth to October thirty-first and in Subsec. (d) from April fifteenth to November thirtieth and included in Subsec. (d) requirement that petitions filed be signed by 20% or more of unit members and added provision concerning runoff election; P.A. 76-403 included definitions of “budget submission date” and “days” in Subsec. (a), changed filing period in Subsec. (b) from October to March, changed filing period in Subsec. (c) from period between October first and November thirtieth to period between March first and April thirtieth and further amended Subsec. (c) to prohibit employee from signing more than one intervening petition each year and to require runoff within 10 days of initial election and amended Subsec. (e) to include provisions concerning multiple year contracts; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” boards of education; P.A. 82-225 amended Subsec. (d) to redefine timeliness for filing a request for a representative election when a multiple year contract is involved, including one year provision for multiple year contracts that expire in 1983; P.A. 83-72 added provisions concerning designation or election in a new school district formed as the result of the dissolution or creation of a regional school district in Subsecs. (c) and (d), further amended Subsec. (d) to require notice from commissioner to boards of education on requests received for a representation election within 5, rather than 3, school days following receipt of petition by commissioner, decreased from 10 to 3 the number of days organizations have to file petition to intervene in election after board posts notice of election, and clarified provisions pertaining to runoff elections; P.A. 83-359 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that after October 1, 1983, members in the administrators’ unit shall be those certified professional employees in a school district in positions requiring an intermediate administrator or supervisor certificate and whose administrative or supervisory duties equal at least 50% of the assigned time of the employee; P.A. 84-546 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (d); P.A. 87-250 amended Subsec. (c) to include hours as a subject of negotiations with respect to which an organization may be designated to represent employees and amended Subsec. (e) to include hours as a subject of negotiations for which the representative is the exclusive representative; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) added “employee or” to the definition of administrator’s unit and made technical changes; P.A. 88-136 deleted in Subsec. (a) a definition of “administrators’ unit” applicable prior to October 1, 1983; P.A. 91-303 in Subsecs. (c) and (d) added provision allowing petition for designation to be filed at any time during the first school year of operation in the case of a new district formed as a result of the dissolution of a regional district; P.A. 98-56 changed the provisions for a petition for designation to be considered timely in the case of a new district formed as the result of the dissolution of a regional school district in Subsec. (c), effective January 1, 1999; P.A. 03-174 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to include holders of durational shortage area permits as part of the teachers’ unit, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 11-60 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding charter school employees to definition of “administrators’ unit” and by making a conforming change and amended Subsec. (a)(2) by designating existing language as Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (B) re inclusion of certain employees of charter schools to definition of “teachers’ unit”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-234 made identical changes as P.A. 11-60 and further amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding “issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of section 10-145q” re charter school educator permit, effective July 1, 2011.

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Cited. 162 C. 393; Id., 575; 164 C. 348. Section applies to principals as well as teachers in nonadministrative positions. 164 C. 426. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 184 C. 116; 186 C. 725; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492. Cited. 204 C. 746. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727. Cited. 33 CA 78. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 35 CA 111.

Organization chosen by employee teachers of defendant board of education short time prior to enactment of statute was properly recognized by board as the exclusive teachers’ representative hereunder. 27 CS 298. Act is permissive in nature, although some of its provisions are mandatory if act is employed. Act should be construed as operating prospectively not retroactively, no contrary intent clearly appearing. Id., 311. Cited. 28 CS 266; 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 174 C. 522; 226 C. 704.

Sec. 10-153c. Disputes as to elections. (a) Any dispute as to the eligibility of personnel to vote in an election, or the agency to conduct the election required by section 10-153b, shall be submitted to a board of arbitration for a binding decision with respect thereto. If there are two or more organizations seeking to represent employees, each may name an arbitrator within five days after receipt of a request for arbitration made in writing by any party to the dispute. Such arbitrators shall select an additional impartial member thereof within five days after the arbitrators have been named by the parties. The impartial agency selected to conduct the election shall decide all procedural matters relating to such election and shall conduct such election fairly. Each organization shall have, during the election process, equal access to school mail boxes and facilities.

(b) A local or regional board of education or the exclusive representative of a teachers’ or administrators’ unit may file a unit clarification petition with the Commissioner of Education in order to clarify questions concerning the appropriate composition of an existing unit if no question concerning representation is pending. Upon receipt of a properly filed petition, the commissioner shall render a final decision on the petition pursuant to chapter 54.

(February, 1965, P.A. 298, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 752, S. 2; P.A. 76-403, S. 3, 11; P.A. 86-333, S. 7, 32.)

History: 1967 act required naming of arbitrators by disputants within five days of request for arbitration and naming of arbitrators by board of education within five days of naming of others and required equal access to school mailboxes and facilities for all parties; P.A. 76-403 replaced provision requiring equal number of arbitrators to be chosen by state board with provision for selection of one additional arbitrator by arbitrators selected by disputants; P.A. 86-333 added Subsec. (b) to provide for a unit clarification petition re questions re composition of an existing unit.

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 184 C. 116; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 27 CS 298; 28 CS 266; 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 226 C. 704.

Sec. 10-153d. Meeting between board of education and fiscal authority required. Duty to negotiate. Procedure if legislative body rejects contract. (a) Within thirty days prior to the date on which the local or regional board of education is to commence negotiations pursuant to this section, such board of education shall meet and confer with the board of finance in each town or city having a board of finance, with the board of selectmen in each town having no board of finance and otherwise with the authority making appropriations therein. A member of such board of finance, such board of selectmen, or such other authority making appropriations, shall be permitted to be present during negotiations pursuant to this section and shall provide such fiscal information as may be requested by the board of education.

(b) The local or regional board of education and the organization designated or elected as the exclusive representative for the appropriate unit, through designated officials or their representatives, shall have the duty to negotiate with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment about which either party wishes to negotiate. For purposes of this subsection and sections 10-153a, 10-153b and 10-153e to 10-153g, inclusive, (1) “hours” shall not include the length of the student school year, the scheduling of the student school year, the length of the student school day, the length and number of parent-teacher conferences and the scheduling of the student school day, except for the length and the scheduling of teacher lunch periods and teacher preparation periods and (2) “other conditions of employment” shall not include the establishment or provisions of any retirement incentive plan authorized by section 10-183jj. Such negotiations shall commence not less than two hundred ten days prior to the budget submission date. Any local board of education shall file forthwith a signed copy of any contract with the town clerk and with the Commissioner of Education. Any regional board of education shall file forthwith a signed copy of any such contract with the town clerk in each member town and with the Commissioner of Education. Upon receipt of a signed copy of such contract the clerk of such town shall give public notice of such filing. The terms of such contract shall be binding on the legislative body of the local or regional school district, unless such body rejects such contract at a regular or special meeting called and convened for such purpose within thirty days of the filing of the contract. If a vote on such contract is petitioned for in accordance with the provisions of section 7-7, in order to reject such contract, a minimum number of those persons eligible to vote equal to fifteen per cent of the electors of such local or regional school district shall be required to participate in the voting and a majority of those voting shall be required to reject. Any regional board of education shall call a district meeting to consider such contract within such thirty-day period if the chief executive officer of any member town so requests in writing within fifteen days of the receipt of the signed copy of the contract by the town clerk in such town. The body charged with making annual appropriations in any school district shall appropriate to the board of education whatever funds are required to implement the terms of any contract not rejected pursuant to this section. All organizations seeking to represent members of the teaching profession shall be accorded equal treatment with respect to access to teachers, principals, members of the board of education, records, mail boxes and school facilities and, in the absence of any recognition or certification as the exclusive representative as provided by section 10-153b, participation in discussions with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment.

(c) If the legislative body rejects the contract pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the parties shall commence the arbitration process, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of section 10-153f, on the fifth day next following the rejection which, for the purposes of this procedure, shall serve as the equivalent of the one hundred thirty-fifth day prior to the budget submission date, provided, if requested by either party, the parties shall mediate the contract dispute prior to the initial arbitration hearing. The parties shall meet with a mediator mutually selected by them, provided such parties shall inform the commissioner of the name of such mediator. If the parties are unable to mutually select a mediator, then the parties shall meet with the commissioner or the commissioner’s agent or a mediator designated by said commissioner. Mediators shall be chosen from a panel of mediators selected by the State Board of Education or from outside such panel if mutually agreed by the parties. Such mediators shall receive a per diem fee determined on the basis of the prevailing rate for such services, and the parties shall share equally in the cost of such mediation. In any civil or criminal case, any proceeding preliminary thereto, or in any legislative or administrative proceeding, a mediator shall not disclose any confidential communication made to such mediator in the course of mediation unless the party making such communication waives such privilege. The parties shall provide such information as the commissioner may require. The commissioner may recommend a basis for settlement but such recommendations shall not be binding upon the parties.

(February, 1965, P.A. 298, S. 3; 1967, P.A. 752, S. 3; 1969, P.A. 811, S. 3; P.A. 73-391; P.A. 76-403, S. 4, 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 610; P.A. 78-84; 78-218, S. 82; P.A. 83-72, S. 3, 9; P.A. 84-225; P.A. 87-250, S. 1, 11; P.A. 89-233, S. 2, 3; P.A. 90-230, S. 79, 101; P.A. 92-84, S. 4, 7; 92-170, S. 21, 26; P.A. 96-244, S. 14, 63.)

History: 1967 act substituted “town” for “local” boards of education and included provision for equal access to mailboxes and school facilities; 1969 act added detailed provisions re adoption and implementation of contracts; P.A. 73-391 required town clerk to give public notice of filing of contract; P.A. 76-403 inserted Subsec. (a) re role of municipal appropriation-making authority in negotiation process, made former provisions Subsec. (b) and included in Subsec. (b) requirement that negotiations commence at least 180 days before budget submission date and requirement that copies of contracts be filed with secretary of state board as well as with town clerk(s) and modified provision re equal access and right to participate in discussion so that all have right to equal access, and discussion participation right applies only where no exclusive representative has been designated, whereas previously equal access and discussion participation rights were allowed to all only when no exclusive representative was designated, deleting details of what is involved in duty to negotiate and prohibition of interference with employees by board of education or its representatives, agents etc.; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-84 amended Subsec. (b) re required vote for rejection in petitioned vote on contract; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” board of education and made technical corrections; P.A. 83-72 added Subsec. (c) concerning procedure to be followed if the legislative body rejects contract negotiated by board of education and exclusive bargaining representative; P.A. 84-225 changed minimum voter turnout from 15% of those eligible to vote to 15% of electors; P.A. 87-250 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the parties have the duty to negotiate with respect to hours, and defined “hours”; P.A. 89-233 in Subsec. (b) added Subdiv. (1) designation and new Subdiv. (2) re establishment or provisions of retirement incentive plans as not included in “other conditions of employment”; P.A. 90-230 made technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 92-84 amended Subsec. (b) to require negotiations to commence not less than 240 days, rather than 180 days, prior to the budget submission date; P.A. 92-170 amended Subsec. (b) to change 240 days to 210 days and amended Subsec. (c) to change the eighty-fifth day to the one hundred thirty-fifth day, effective May 26, 1992, and applicable to arbitration proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 96-244 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), deleting reference to Secs. 10-257b to 10-257e, inclusive, repealed elsewhere in the act, effective July 1, 1996.

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Good faith negotiation mandatory. 162 C. 577. Communication by school board with teachers during negotiations, permissible. Id., 578. Collective bargaining is a constitutional right. 164 C. 348. Cited. Id., 426. Mandamus action to obtain interpretation of collective contract and payment of sums to individual teachers precluded by existence of adequate remedies at law. 167 C. 513. Cited. 174 C. 189. Nothing in statute which, in absence of express provision in contract, would guarantee teacher job security; board has discretion under Sec. 10-151(b)(5) to eliminate positions and terminate teachers’ contracts in order to implement a reduced budget. Id., 522. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 184 C. 116; 186 C. 725; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 27 CS 298. Equal treatment of all organizations is not permitted once defendant was certified as exclusive representative of New Haven board of education employees pursuant to Sec. 10-153b. Id., 422. Held that prior to 1969 amendment, final decision as to teachers’ salaries rested with ultimate budgetary control of board of finance and board of aldermen. 28 CS 265. Obligation to negotiate in good faith, when. 30 CS 63. Cited. 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 202 C. 492.

Subsec. (c):

Cited. 202 C. 492.

Sec. 10-153e. Prohibited practices of employers, employees and representatives. Hearing before State Board of Labor Relations. Appeal. Penalty. (a) No certified professional employee shall, in an effort to effect a settlement of any disagreement with the employing board of education, engage in any strike or concerted refusal to render services. This provision may be enforced in the superior court for any judicial district in which said board of education is located by an injunction issued by said court or a judge thereof pursuant to sections 52-471 to 52-479, inclusive, provided the Commissioner of Education shall be given notice of any hearing and the commissioner or said commissioner’s designee shall be an interested party for the purposes of section 52-474.

(b) The local or regional board of education or its representatives or agents are prohibited from: (1) Interfering, restraining or coercing certified professional employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in sections 10-153a to 10-153n; (2) dominating or interfering with the formation, existence or administration of any employees’ bargaining agent or representative; (3) discharging or otherwise discriminating against or for any certified professional employee because such employee has signed or filed any affidavit, petition or complaint under said sections; (4) refusing to negotiate in good faith with the employees’ bargaining agent or representative which has been designated or elected as the exclusive representative in an appropriate unit in accordance with the provisions of said sections; or (5) refusing to participate in good faith in mediation or arbitration. A prohibited practice committed by a board of education, its representatives or agents shall not be a defense to an illegal strike or concerted refusal to render services.

(c) Any organization of certified professional employees or its agents is prohibited from: (1) Interfering, restraining or coercing (A) certified professional employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in this section and sections 10-153a to 10-153c, inclusive, provided that this shall not impair the right of an employees’ bargaining agent or representative to prescribe its own rules with respect to acquisition or retention of membership provided such rules are not discriminatory and (B) a board of education in the selection of its representatives or agents; (2) discriminating against or for any certified professional employee because such employee has signed or filed any affidavit, petition or complaint under said sections; (3) breaching its duty of fair representation pursuant to section 10-153a; (4) refusing to negotiate in good faith with the employing board of education, if such organization has been designated or elected as the exclusive representative in an appropriate unit; (5) refusing to participate in good faith in mediation or arbitration; or (6) soliciting or advocating support from public school students for activities of certified professional employees or organizations of such employees.

(d) As used in this section, sections 10-153a to 10-153c, inclusive, and section 10-153g, “to negotiate in good faith” is the performance of the mutual obligation of the board of education or its representatives or agents and the organization designated or elected as the exclusive representative for the appropriate unit to meet at reasonable times, including meetings appropriately related to the budget-making process, and to participate actively so as to indicate a present intention to reach agreement with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment, or the negotiation of an agreement, or any question arising thereunder and the execution of a written contract incorporating any agreement reached if requested by either party, but such obligation shall not compel either party to agree to a proposal or require the making of a concession.

(e) Whenever a board of education or employees’ representative organization has reason to believe that a prohibited practice, as defined in subsection (b) or (c) of this section, has been or is being committed, or whenever a certified employee believes a breach of the duty of fair representation under subdivision (3) of subsection (c) of this section has occurred or is occurring, such board of education, representative organization or certified employee shall file a written complaint with the State Board of Labor Relations and shall mail a copy of such complaint to the party that is the subject of the complaint. Upon receipt of a properly filed complaint said board shall refer such complaint to the agent who shall, after investigation and within ninety days after the date of such referral, either (1) make a report to said board recommending dismissal of the complaint or (2) issue a written complaint charging prohibited practices. If no such report is made and no such written complaint is issued, the Board of Labor Relations in its discretion may proceed to a hearing upon the party’s original complaint of the violation of this chapter which shall in such case be treated for the purpose of this section as a complaint issued by the agent. Upon receiving a report from the agent recommending dismissal of a complaint, said Board of Labor Relations may issue an order dismissing the complaint or may order a further investigation or a hearing thereon. Upon receiving a complaint issued by the agent, the Board of Labor Relations shall set a time and place for the hearing. Any such complaint may be amended with the permission of said board. The party so complained of shall have the right to file an answer to the original or amended complaint within five days after the service of such complaint or within such other time as said board may limit. Such party shall have the right to appear in person or otherwise to defend against such complaint. In the discretion of said board any person may be allowed to intervene in such proceeding. In any hearing said board shall not be bound by technical rules of evidence prevailing in the courts. A stenographic or electronic record of the testimony shall be taken at all hearings of the Board of Labor Relations and a transcript thereof shall be filed with said board upon its request. Said board shall have the power to order the taking of further testimony and further argument. If, upon all the testimony, said board determines that the party complained of has engaged in or is engaging in any prohibited practice, it shall state its finding of fact and shall issue and cause to be served on such party an order requiring it to cease and desist from such prohibited practice, and shall take such further affirmative action as will effectuate the policies of subsections (b) to (d), inclusive, of this section. Such order may further require such party to make reports from time to time showing the extent to which the order has been complied with. If upon all the testimony the Board of Labor Relations is of the opinion that the party named in the complaint has not engaged in or is not engaging in any such prohibited practice, then said board shall make its finding of fact and shall issue an order dismissing the complaint. Until a transcript of the record in a case has been filed in the Superior Court, as provided in subsection (g) of this section, said board may at any time, upon notice, modify or set aside in whole or in part any finding or order made or issued by it. Proceedings before said board shall be held with all possible expedition. Any party who wishes to have a transcript of the proceedings before the Board of Labor Relations shall apply therefor. The parties may agree on the sharing of the costs of the transcript but, in the absence of such agreement, the costs shall be paid by the requesting party.

(f) For the purpose of hearings pursuant to this section before the Board of Labor Relations said board shall have power to administer oaths and affirmations and to issue subpoenas requiring the attendance of witnesses. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any person, the Superior Court, upon application by said board, shall have jurisdiction to order such person to appear before said board to produce evidence or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation or in question, and any failure to obey such order may be punished by said court as a contempt thereof. No person shall be excused from attending and testifying or from producing books, records, correspondence, documents or other evidence in obedience to the subpoena of the board, on the ground that the testimony or evidence required may tend to incriminate or subject such person to a penalty or forfeiture; but no individual shall be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter or thing concerning which such individual is compelled, after claiming a privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or produce evidence, except that such individual so testifying shall not be exempt from prosecution and punishment for perjury committed in so testifying. Complaints, orders and other processes and papers of the Board of Labor Relations or the agent may be served personally, by registered or certified mail, by telegraph or by leaving a copy thereof at the principal office or place of business of the person required to be served. The verified return of service shall be proof of such service. Witnesses summoned before said board or the agent shall be paid the same fees and mileage allowances that are paid witnesses in the courts of this state, and witnesses whose depositions are taken and the person taking the same shall severally be entitled to the same fees as are paid for like services in the courts of this state. All processes of any court to which an application or petition may be made under this chapter may be served in the judicial district wherein the person or persons required to be served reside or may be found.

(g) (1) The Board of Labor Relations may petition the superior court for the judicial district wherein the prohibited practice in question occurred or wherein any party charged with the prohibited practice resides or transacts business, or, if said court is not in session, any judge of said court, for the enforcement of an order and for appropriate temporary relief or a restraining order, and shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the entire record of the proceedings, including the pleadings and testimony upon which such order was made and the finding and orders of said board. In the event an appeal has not been filed pursuant to section 4-183, the board may file its petition in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, or, if said court is not in session, the board may petition any judge of said court. Within five days after filing such petition in the Superior Court, said board shall cause a notice of such petition to be sent by registered or certified mail to all parties or their representatives. The Superior Court, or, if said court is not in session, any judge of said court, shall have jurisdiction of the proceedings and of the questions determined thereon, and shall have the power to grant such relief, including temporary relief, as it deems just and suitable and to make and enter a decree enforcing, modifying and enforcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in part, the order of said board. (2) No objection that has not been urged before the Board of Labor Relations shall be considered by the court, unless the failure to urge such objection is excused because of extraordinary circumstances. The findings of said board as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. If either party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before said board, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before said board and to be made part of the transcript. The Board of Labor Relations may modify its findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of additional evidence so taken, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, and shall file its recommendations, if any, for the modification or setting aside of its original order. (3) The jurisdiction of the Superior Court shall be exclusive and its judgment and decree shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Appellate Court, on appeal, by either party, irrespective of the nature of the decree or judgment or the amount involved. Such appeal shall be taken and prosecuted in the same manner and form and with the same effect as is provided in other cases of appeal to the Appellate Court, and the record so certified shall contain all that was before the lower court. (4) Any party aggrieved by a final order of the Board of Labor Relations granting or denying in whole or in part the relief sought may appeal pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54 to the superior court for the judicial district where the prohibited practice was alleged to have occurred, in the judicial district of New Britain, or in the judicial district wherein such party resides or transacts business. (5) Petitions filed under this subsection shall be heard expeditiously and determined upon the transcript filed, without requirement of printing. Hearings in the Superior Court or Appellate Court under this chapter shall take precedence over all other matters, except matters of the same character.

(h) Subject to regulations to be made by the Board of Labor Relations, the complaints, orders and testimony relating to a proceeding instituted under subsection (e) of this section may be available for inspection or copying. All proceedings pursuant to said subsection shall be open to the public.

(i) Any person who wilfully resists, prevents or interferes with any member of the Board of Labor Relations or the agent in the performance of duties pursuant to subsections (e) to (i), inclusive, of this section shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than six months or both.

(February, 1965, P.A. 298, S. 4; 1969, P.A. 811, S. 4; P.A. 76-403, S. 5, 11; P.A. 77-235, S. 1, 2; 77-614, S. 302, 610; P.A. 78-218, S. 83–86; 78-280, S. 2, 127; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 83-72, S. 4, 9; 83-308, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 22, 82; P.A. 87-250, S. 5, 11; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-317, S. 36, 107; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-426, S. 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4–6; P.A. 99-215, S. 24, 29.)

History: 1969 act included provisions for enforcement of prohibition against strikes by professional employees by temporary injunction; P.A. 76-403 added Subsecs. (b) to (i) re prohibited activities by board of education and by professional employees; P.A. 77-235 amended Subsec. (a) to require that notice of hearing be given secretary of the state board and to designate secretary or his designee as interested party; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” board of education in Subsec. (b) and made technical changes; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to county in Subsec. (g); P.A. 83-72 amended Subsec. (b) to include statutory reference to all provisions concerning teacher negotiation law, Secs. 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive; P.A. 83-308 amended Subsec. (g) to allow the board to file its petition for enforcement of an order in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford-New Britain if an appeal of the order has not been filed; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof in Subsec. (g); P.A. 87-250 amended Subsec. (d) to include hours as a subject with respect to which the parties are to indicate a present intention to reach agreement; P.A. 88-230 replaced “judicial district of Hartford-New Britain” with “judicial district of Hartford”, effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-317 amended Subsec. (g)(1) by deleting “or subdivision (4) of this subsection” after “4-183” and amended Subsec. (g)(4) to require appeal to be made “pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54”, instead of specifying the procedure for the appeal, and to superior court in judicial district of Hartford-New Britain, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 90-98 changed effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-426 inserted new Subsec. (c)(3) to prohibit a bargaining representative for certified professional employees from breaching its duty of fair representation to such employees and redesignated existing Subdiv. (3) as (4) and amended Subsec. (e) to allow certified employees to file written complaints with the state board of labor relations against their bargaining representatives alleging breach of the duty of fair representation; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 99-215 replaced “judicial district of Hartford” with “judicial district of New Britain” in Subsec. (g)(4), effective June 29, 1999.

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Cited. 162 C. 393; Id., 577. Section is constitutional. 164 C. 348. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. Cited. 177 C. 68; 184 C. 116. Injunction authorized under section could be issued against the New Haven Federation of Teachers as well as against individual teachers. 186 C. 725. Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 27 CS 298; 30 CS 63; 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (b):

Subdiv. (4) cited. 232 C. 198. Subdiv. (4): A unilateral change to an employment condition constitutes an unlawful refusal to negotiate under Subdiv., but union failed to present evidence of a preexisting, fixed and definite practice necessary to show unilateral change that increased workload. 299 C. 63.

Subsec. (d):

Cited. 240 C. 835.

Sec. 10-153f. Mediation and arbitration of disagreements. (a) There shall be in the Department of Education an arbitration panel of not less than twenty-four or more than twenty-nine persons to serve as provided in subsection (c) of this section. The Governor shall appoint such panel, with the advice and consent of the General Assembly, as follows: (1) Seven members shall be representative of the interests of local and regional boards of education and shall be selected from lists of names submitted by such boards; (2) seven members shall be representative of the interests of exclusive bargaining representatives of certified employees and shall be selected from lists of names submitted by such bargaining representatives; and (3) not less than ten or more than fifteen members shall be impartial representatives of the interests of the public in general and shall be residents of the state of Connecticut, experienced in public sector collective bargaining interest impasse resolution and selected from lists of names submitted by the State Board of Education. The lists of names submitted to the Governor pursuant to subdivisions (1) to (3), inclusive, of this subsection shall, in addition to complying with the provisions of section 4-9b, include a report from the State Board of Education certifying that the process conducted for soliciting applicants made adequate outreach to minority communities and documenting that the number and make-up of minority applicants considered reflect the state’s racial and ethnic diversity. Each member of the panel shall serve a term of two years, provided each arbitrator shall hold office until a successor is appointed and, provided further, any arbitrator not reappointed shall finish to conclusion any arbitration for which such arbitrator has been selected or appointed. Arbitrators may be removed for good cause. If any vacancy occurs in such panel, the Governor shall act within forty days to fill such vacancy in the manner provided in section 4-19. Persons appointed to the arbitration panel shall serve without compensation but each shall receive a per diem fee for any day during which such person is engaged in the arbitration of a dispute pursuant to this section. The parties to the dispute so arbitrated shall pay the fee in accordance with subsection (c) of this section.

(b) If any local or regional board of education cannot agree with the exclusive representatives of a teachers’ or administrators’ unit after negotiation concerning the terms and conditions of employment applicable to the employees in such unit, either party may submit the issues to the commissioner for mediation. On the one hundred sixtieth day prior to the budget submission date, the commissioner shall order the parties to report their settlement. If, on such one hundred sixtieth day, the parties have not reached agreement and have failed to initiate mediation, the commissioner shall order the parties to notify the commissioner of the name of a mutually selected mediator and to commence mediation. The commissioner may order the parties to appear before said commissioner during the mediation period. In either case, the parties shall meet with a mediator mutually selected by them, provided such parties shall inform the commissioner of the name of such mediator, or with the commissioner or the commissioner’s agents or a mediator designated by said commissioner. Mediators shall be chosen from a panel of mediators selected by the State Board of Education or from outside such panel if mutually agreed by the parties. Such mediators shall receive a per diem fee determined on the basis of the prevailing rate for such services, and the parties shall share equally in the cost of such mediation. In any civil or criminal case, any proceeding preliminary thereto, or in any legislative or administrative proceeding, a mediator shall not disclose any confidential communication made to such mediator in the course of mediation unless the party making such communication waives such privilege. The parties shall provide such information as the commissioner may require. The commissioner may recommend a basis for settlement but such recommendations shall not be binding upon the parties. Such recommendation shall be made within twenty-five days after the day on which mediation begins.

(c) (1) On the fourth day next following the end of the mediation session or on the one hundred thirty-fifth day prior to the budget submission date, whichever is sooner, the commissioner shall order the parties to report their settlement of the dispute or, if there is no settlement, to notify the commissioner of either their agreement to submit their dispute to a single arbitrator or the name of the arbitrator selected by each of them. Within five days of providing such notice, the parties shall notify the commissioner of the name of the arbitrator if there is an agreement on a single arbitrator appointed to the panel pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section or agreement on the third arbitrator appointed to the panel pursuant to said subdivision. The commissioner may order the parties to appear before said commissioner during the arbitration period. If the parties have notified the commissioner of their agreement to submit their dispute to a single arbitrator and they have not agreed on such arbitrator, within five days after such notification, the commissioner shall select such single arbitrator who shall be an impartial representative of the interests of the public in general. If each party has notified the commissioner of the name of the arbitrator it has selected and the parties have not agreed on the third arbitrator, within five days after such notification, the commissioner shall select a third arbitrator, who shall be an impartial representative of the interests of the public in general. If either party fails to notify the commissioner of the name of an arbitrator, the commissioner shall select an arbitrator to serve and the commissioner shall also select a third arbitrator who shall be an impartial representative of the interests of the public in general. Any selection pursuant to this section by the commissioner of an impartial arbitrator shall be made at random from among the members appointed under subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section. Arbitrators shall be selected from the panel appointed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and shall receive a per diem fee determined on the basis of the prevailing rate for such services. Whenever a panel of three arbitrators is selected, the chairperson of such panel shall be the impartial representative of the interests of the public in general.

(2) The chairperson of the arbitration panel or the single arbitrator shall set the date, time and place for a hearing to be held in the school district between the fifth and twelfth day, inclusive, after such chairperson or such single arbitrator is selected. At least five days prior to such hearing, a written notice of the date, time and place of the hearing shall be sent to the board of education and the representative organization which are parties to the dispute, and, if a three-member arbitration panel is selected or designated, to the other members of such panel. Such written notice shall also be sent, by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the fiscal authority having budgetary responsibility or charged with making appropriations for the school district, and a representative designated by such body may be heard at the hearing as part of the presentation and participation of the board of education. At the hearing each party shall have full opportunity to submit all relevant evidence, to introduce relevant documents and written material and to argue on behalf of its positions. At the hearing a representative of the fiscal authority having budgetary responsibility or charged with making appropriations for the school district shall be heard regarding the financial capability of the school district, unless such opportunity to be heard is waived by the fiscal authority. The nonappearance of the representative shall constitute a waiver of the opportunity to be heard unless there is a showing that proper notice was not given to the fiscal authority. The chairperson of the arbitration panel or the single arbitrator shall preside over such hearing.

(3) The hearing may, at the discretion of the arbitration panel or the single arbitrator, be continued but in any event shall be concluded within twenty-five days after its commencement.

(4) After hearing all the issues, the arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall, within twenty days, render a decision in writing, signed by a majority of the arbitrators or the single arbitrator, which states in detail the nature of the decision and the disposition of the issues by the arbitrators or the single arbitrator. The written decision shall include a narrative explaining the evaluation by the arbitrators or the single arbitrator of the evidence presented for each item upon which a decision was rendered by the arbitrators or the single arbitrator and shall state with particularity the basis for the decision as to each disputed issue and the manner in which the factors enumerated in this subdivision were considered in arriving at such decision, including, where applicable, the specific similar groups and conditions of employment presented for comparison and accepted by the arbitrators or the single arbitrator and the reason for such acceptance. The arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall file one copy of the decision with the commissioner, each town clerk in the school district involved, the legislative body or bodies of the town or towns for the school district involved, or, in the case of a town for which the legislative body of the town is a town meeting or representative town meeting, to the board of selectmen, and the board of education and organization which are parties to the dispute. The decision of the arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall be final and binding upon the parties to the dispute unless a rejection is filed in accordance with subdivision (7) of this subsection. The decision of the arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall incorporate those items of agreement the parties have reached prior to its issuance. At any time prior to the issuance of a decision by the arbitrators or the single arbitrator, the parties may jointly file with the arbitrators or the single arbitrator, any stipulations setting forth contract provisions which both parties agree to accept. In arriving at a decision, the arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall give priority to the public interest and the financial capability of the town or towns in the school district, including consideration of other demands on the financial capability of the town or towns in the school district. In assessing the financial capability of the town or towns, there shall be an irrebuttable presumption that a budget reserve of five per cent or less is not available for payment of the cost of any item subject to arbitration under this chapter. The arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall further consider, in light of such financial capability, the following factors: (A) The negotiations between the parties prior to arbitration, including the offers and the range of discussion of the issues; (B) the interests and welfare of the employee group; (C) changes in the cost of living averaged over the preceding three years; (D) the existing conditions of employment of the employee group and those of similar groups; and (E) the salaries, fringe benefits, and other conditions of employment prevailing in the state labor market, including the terms of recent contract settlements or awards in collective bargaining for other municipal employee organizations and developments in private sector wages and benefits. The parties shall submit to the arbitrators or the single arbitrator their respective positions on each individual issue in dispute between them in the form of a last best offer. The arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall resolve separately each individual disputed issue by accepting the last best offer thereon of either of the parties, and shall incorporate in a decision each such accepted individual last best offer and an explanation of how the total cost of all offers accepted was considered. The award of the arbitrators or the single arbitrator shall not be subject to rejection by referendum. The parties shall each pay the fee of the arbitrator selected by or for them and share equally the fee of the third arbitrator or the single arbitrator and all other costs incidental to the arbitration.

(5) The commissioner shall assist the arbitration panel or the single arbitrator as may be required in the course of arbitration pursuant to this section.

(6) If the day for filing any document required pursuant to this section falls on Saturday, Sunday or a holiday, the time for such filing shall be extended to the next business day thereafter.

(7) The award of the arbitrators or single arbitrator may be rejected by the legislative body of the local school district or, in the case of a regional school district, by the legislative bodies of the participating towns. Such rejection shall be by a two-thirds majority vote of the members of such legislative body or, in the case of a regional school district, the legislative body of each participating town, present at a regular or special meeting called and convened for such purpose within twenty-five days of the receipt of the award. If the legislative body or legislative bodies, as appropriate, reject any such award, they shall notify, within ten days after the vote to reject, the commissioner and the exclusive representative for the teachers’ or administrators’ unit of such vote and submit to them a written explanation of the reasons for the vote. Within ten days after receipt of such notice, the exclusive representative of the teachers’ or administrators’ unit shall prepare, and the board of education may prepare, a written response to such rejection and shall submit it to such legislative body or legislative bodies, as appropriate, and the commissioner. Within ten days after the commissioner has been notified of the vote to reject, (A) the commissioner shall select a review panel of three arbitrators or, if the parties agree, a single arbitrator, who are residents of Connecticut and labor relations arbitrators approved by the American Arbitration Association and not members of the panel who issued the rejected award, and (B) such arbitrators or single arbitrator shall review the decision on each rejected issue. The review conducted pursuant to this subdivision shall be limited to the record and briefs of the hearing pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection, the written explanation of the reasons for the vote and a written response by either party. In conducting such review, the arbitrators or single arbitrator shall be limited to consideration of the criteria set forth in subdivision (4) of this subsection. Such review shall be completed within twenty days of the appointment of the arbitrators or single arbitrator. The arbitrators or single arbitrator shall accept the last best offer of either of the parties. Within five days after the completion of such review, the arbitrators or single arbitrator shall render a final and binding award with respect to each rejected issue. The decision of the arbitrators or single arbitrator shall be in writing and shall include the specific reasons and standards used by each arbitrator in making his decision on each issue. The decision shall be filed with the parties. The reasonable costs of the arbitrators or single arbitrator and the cost of the transcript shall be paid by the legislative body or legislative bodies, as appropriate. Where the legislative body of the school district is the town meeting, the board of selectmen shall have all of the authority and responsibilities required of and granted to the legislative body under this subdivision.

(8) The decision of the arbitrators or a single arbitrator shall be subject to judicial review upon the filing by a party to the arbitration, within thirty days following receipt of a final decision pursuant to subdivision (4) or (7), as appropriate, of a motion to vacate or modify such decision in the superior court for the judicial district wherein the school district involved is located. The superior court, after hearing, may vacate or modify the decision if substantial rights of a party have been prejudiced because such decision is: (A) In violation of constitutional or statutory provisions; (B) in excess of the statutory authority of the panel; (C) made upon unlawful procedure; (D) affected by other error of law; (E) clearly erroneous in view of the reliable, probative and substantial evidence on the whole record; or (F) arbitrary or capricious or characterized by abuse of discretion or clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion. In any action brought pursuant to this subdivision to vacate or modify the decision of the arbitrators or single arbitrator, reasonable attorney’s fees, costs and legal interest on salary withheld as the result of an appeal of said decision may be awarded in accordance with the following: Where the board of education moves to vacate or modify the decision and the decision is not vacated or modified, the court may award to the organization which is the exclusive representative reasonable attorney’s fees, costs and legal interest on salary withheld as the result of an appeal; or, where the organization which is the exclusive representative moves to vacate or modify the decision and the decision is not vacated or modified, the court may award to the board of education reasonable attorney’s fees, costs and legal interest on salary withheld as the result of an appeal.

(d) The commissioner and the arbitrators or single arbitrator shall have the same powers and duties as the board under section 31-108 for the purposes of mediation or arbitration pursuant to this section, and subsection (c) of section 10-153d, and all provisions in section 31-108 with respect to procedure, jurisdiction of the Superior Court, witnesses and penalties shall apply.

(e) The local or regional board of education and the organization designated or elected as the exclusive representative for the appropriate unit, through designated officials or their representatives, which are parties to a collective bargaining agreement, and which, for the purpose of negotiating with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment, mutually agree to negotiate during the term of the agreement or are ordered to negotiate said agreement by a body of competent jurisdiction, shall notify the commissioner of the date upon which negotiations commenced within five days after said commencement. If the parties are unable to reach settlement twenty-five days after the date of the commencement of negotiations, the parties shall notify the commissioner of the name of a mutually selected mediator and shall conduct mediation pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, notwithstanding the mediation time schedule of subsection (b) of this section. On the fourth day next following the end of the mediation session or on the fiftieth day following the date of the commencement of negotiations, whichever is sooner, if no settlement is reached the parties shall commence arbitration pursuant to the provisions of subsections (a), (c) and (d) of this section, notwithstanding the reference to the budget submission date.

(f) The State Board of Education shall adopt regulations pursuant to chapter 54 concerning the method by which names of persons who are impartial representatives of the interests of the public in general are placed on lists submitted by the State Board of Education to the Governor for appointment to the arbitration panel established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. Such regulations shall include, but not be limited to (1) a description of the composition of the group which screens persons applying to be such impartial representatives, which group shall include representatives of local legislative and fiscal authorities and local and regional boards of education and exclusive bargaining representatives of certified employees, (2) application requirements and procedures and (3) the selection criteria and process, including an evaluation of an applicant’s experience in arbitration. Such regulations shall provide for a training program for applicants who lack experience in arbitration but who are otherwise qualified and shall describe the criteria for participation in the training program.

(February, 1965, P.A. 298, S. 5; 1969, P.A. 811, S. 5; P.A. 76-403, S. 6, 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 304, 587, 610; P.A. 78-218, S. 87–91, 212; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-405, S. 1, 2; P.A. 80-483, S. 40, 186; P.A. 83-72, S. 5, 9; 83-342, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-459, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-343, S. 3–5; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 26, 27, 58; P.A. 87-1, S. 4, 7; 87-206, S. 1–3; 87-250, S. 9, 11; P.A. 90-325, S. 22, 23, 32; P.A. 91-352; P.A. 92-84, S. 2, 3, 5–7; 92-170, S. 22, 23, 26; P.A. 97-177, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-252, S. 11, 80; P.A. 00-204, S. 9, 13; 00-220, S. 9, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 17, 18, 67; P.A. 11-125, S. 1.)

History: 1969 act inserted new Subsec. (a) re appointment of arbitration panel, made former Subsec. (a) new Subsec. (b) and clarified secretary of state board’s role in mediation procedure, deleted former Subsec. (b) except for provision that arbitrators’ decision is advisory and not binding which was incorporated into otherwise new provisions of Subsec. (c) re selection of arbitrators, hearings, decision and payment of arbitrators’ fees and added Subsec. (d) re general powers and duties of secretary and arbitrators; P.A. 76-403 deleted provisions in Subsec. (a) which had given only temporary existence to arbitration panel, amended Subsec. (b) to require mediation if agreement not reached within 120 days of budget submission date, to allow parties to select mediator themselves, to provide per diem payment, to require confidentiality of communications and to require that secretary’s recommendation be made within 30 days of beginning of mediation, amended Subsec. (c) to include specific timetable for actions, inserted new Subsecs. (d) and (e) concerning recommencement of negotiations upon failure of arbitration or rejection of contract and secretary’s power to meet with group involved and designated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (f); P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education and specified that arbitration panel is within department of education under Subsec. (a), effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” boards of education and “chairperson” for “chairman” and made other technical changes; P.A. 79-405 amended Subsec. (a) to change number of panel members from 25 to 15 and specified that 5 each shall represent boards of education, bargaining representatives and the general public, amended Subsec. (c)(1) to require that third member of three-member panel represent interests of general public, amended Subsec. (c)(4) to make decisions final and binding rather than advisory and to include provisions concerning points of agreement and last best offer, added Subsec. (c)(7) re judicial review, deleted former Subsecs. (d) and (e) and designated Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 80-483 gave subparagraphs in Subdivs. (4) and (7) of Subsec. (c) alphabetic rather than numeric designators; P.A. 83-72 amended Subsec. (a) to increase size of arbitration panel from fifteen to twenty-one by increasing each group of representatives from five to seven, to add provisions re arbitrator remaining in office until successor is appointed and requiring arbitrator not reappointed to complete any matter for which he was selected or appointed and to authorize governor to fill vacancies in manner provided in Sec. 4-19, amended Subsec. (b) to decrease from 120 to 110 days the length of time parties have to reach settlement prior to initiating mediation, to allow parties to select mediator from outside panel and to decrease from 30 to 25 the number of days commissioner may recommend a settlement to parties and amended Subsec. (c) to require that report made to commissioner on settlement or lack of settlement be made in 85 days rather than 90 days, to specify that chairperson of arbitration panel has between seventh and fifteenth day after designation to set date, time and place for hearing to be held, rather than on tenth day, to increase hearing duration from 20 to 25 days, and to specify that panel has 20 rather than 15 days to render a decision in writing; P.A. 83-342 amended Subsec. (c)(7) to provide for awarding of reasonable attorney’s fees, costs and legal interest on money withheld as the result of an appeal of the decision of the arbitrators or single arbitrator; P.A. 84-459 amended Subsec. (c)(4) to require that the written decision of the arbitrators contain a narrative explaining the evaluation by the arbitrators of the evidence presented for each item upon which a decision was rendered; P.A. 85-343 increased number of panel members from 21 to 23, adding 2 additional public members and added provision in Subsec. (c) re random designation of arbitrator by commissioner; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 in Subsec. (a) increased the number of impartial representatives on the arbitration panel from 9 to 15, required that such representatives be state residents and have certain experience and substituted a panel of labor arbitrators submitted by the American Arbitration Association for a list submitted by the state board of education in Subsec. (c)(1) provided that the commissioner designate rather than the arbitrators select a third arbitrator and made technical changes in Subsec. (c)(4); P.A. 87-1 made technical corrections; P.A. 87-206 amended Subsec. (a) to change the number of impartial representatives on the panel from 15 to “not less than ten nor more than fifteen” and to substitute lists of names submitted by the state board of education for a panel of labor arbitrators submitted by the American Arbitration Association and in Subsec. (c)(1) provided that the arbitrators select rather than the commissioner designate a third arbitrator, unless the arbitrators fail to agree on the selection of a third within 5 days, that the parties notify the commissioner of the name of the third arbitrator and that any recommendation or selection by the commissioner of an impartial arbitrator be made at random, deleted provision that each party may refuse to accept one designated member and made a technical change; P.A. 87-250 added Subsec. (e) re negotiations during the term of an agreement; P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (c)(1) provided that if the parties agree to submit their dispute to a single arbitrator the commissioner of education, rather than the parties, shall select the arbitrator and if the parties agree to submit the dispute to three arbitrators the commissioner, rather than the arbitrators shall select the third arbitrator and made technical changes, in Subsec. (c)(2) provided that the chairperson or single arbitrator be selected rather than designated and required that at the hearing a representative of the fiscal authority be heard, unless such opportunity is waived, in Subsec. (c)(4) added that the decision state certain matters with particularity and that it incorporate an explanation of how the total costs of all offers accepted was considered and added new Subsec. (f) re the adoption of regulations concerning the method by which names of persons who are impartial representatives of the interests of the public in general are placed on lists for appointment to the arbitration panel; P.A. 91-352 in Subsec. (c)(4) expanded the factors to be considered by arbitrators to include offers and range of discussion prior to arbitration and financial capability of town or towns in school district and to specify that changes in cost of living be averaged over preceding three years; P.A. 92-84 amended Subsec. (a) to require a term of two years for each member of the panel, replacing terms concurrent with that of governor, amended Subsec. (b) to require the commissioner to order the parties to report settlement or commence mediation on the one hundred seventieth day, rather than one hundred tenth day, prior to the budget submission date, and amended Subsec. (c) to change the date by which the commissioner shall order the parties to report settlement or submit their dispute to arbitration from the eighty-fifth to the one hundred forty-fifth day prior to the budget submission date in Subdiv. (1), to move provision requiring the arbitrators or the single arbitrator to give priority to the public interest and the financial capability of the town or towns in the school district in arriving at a decision and to require consideration of developments in private sector wages and benefits, to delete provisions that the arbitration decision shall not be subject to rejection by the legislative body or by referendum from Subdiv. (4), and to add Subdiv. (7) providing for rejection of any issue in the decision of the arbitrators or single arbitrator by the legislative body of the local or regional school district; P.A. 92-170 amended Subsec. (b) to change one hundred seventieth to one hundred sixtieth day, and amended Subsec. (c) (1) to change forty-fifth to thirty-fifth day, Subsec. (c)(2) to change seventh and fifteenth to fifth and twelfth, Subsec. (c)(4) to remove language prohibiting rejection by the legislative body of the school district and make technical changes, and Subsec. (c)(7) to add language concerning rejection in cases of regional school districts, to change 30 to 25 days, to require the employee unit to prepare and submit a written response, to change the requirement that the arbitrators be members of the American Arbitration Association to labor relations arbitrators approved by the association and residents of Connecticut, to limit the review to the criteria set forth in Subdiv. (4), to remove language allowing the arbitrators to render an award somewhere in between the last best offers, to require the decision to be in writing, to include specific reasons and standards used, and to be filed with the parties, and to add language concerning the town meeting, effective May 26, 1992, and applicable to arbitration proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 97-177 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add requirement for notification to the commissioner to include the name of the arbitrator if there is agreement on a single arbitrator or agreement on the third arbitrator and provisions re lack of agreement on the arbitrator, and amended Subsec. (c)(4) to add provision re an irrebuttable presumption that a budget reserve of 5% or less is not available for payment of the cost of any item subject to arbitration under this chapter; P.A. 98-252 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to give the parties 5 days to notify the commissioner of the name of the single arbitrator in cases in which there is no settlement and the parties have agreed to submit their dispute to a single arbitrator, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-204 amended Subsec. (a) to add the provisions relating to minorities and the lists of names submitted to the Governor, effective June 1, 2000; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (c)(2) to require the notice to the fiscal authority to be sent by registered mail, return receipt requested, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c)(2) to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 11-125 amended Subsec. (c)(4) by adding provision re arbitrator to file copy of decision with legislative body or board of selectmen of the town or towns for the school district, effective July 1, 2011.

See Sec. 10-153k re applicability of this section to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Cited. 162 C. 393. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Since plaintiff was not a proper “party to the arbitration” he lacked standing to seek judicial review of the arbitration award. 184 C. 116. Cited. 190 C. 235; 197 C. 554; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685. Arbitration procedure prescribed “... is limited to negotiations of contracts”. 202 C. 492. Cited. 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 27 CS 298. Arbitrators selected under statute are all to be impartial. Former school board chairman and personal friend of superintendent of schools cannot serve as impartial member of board. Id., 421. Cited. 30 CS 63; 38 CS 80.

Subsec. (c):

Subdiv. (1) cited. 238 C. 183. Subdiv. (7) required arbitration review panel to take second look at the evidence in light of the same statutory criteria that arbitration panel or single arbitrator is required to consider which is the essence of a de novo standard of review and the legislative history of statute supports conclusion that review panel properly conducted a de novo review of arbitration panel’s award. 259 C. 5. Arbitration award was final, even though it had not been presented to Waterbury board of alderman for review and possible rejection and award was sufficiently specific to satisfy section’s finality requirement. Judicial review of arbitrators’ decision under Teacher Act must be by motion to modify or vacate, filed in Superior Court within thirty days following receipt of final decision. Provisions of Teacher Act remain unaffected except to the extent they conflict with S.A. 01-1, which prevails over Teacher Act. S.A. 01-1 reduced thirty-day time limit for filing motion to vacate to fifteen days. Plaintiff was required to file a motion to vacate in order to challenge award. 276 C. 355.

Sec. 10-153g. Negotiations concerning salaries, hours and other conditions of employment unaffected by special acts, charters, ordinances. Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, municipal charter or local ordinance, the provisions of sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, shall apply to negotiations concerning salaries, hours and other conditions of employment conducted by boards of education and certified personnel.

(1969, P.A. 811, S. 6; P.A. 83-72, S. 6, 9; P.A. 87-250, S. 6, 11.)

History: P.A. 83-72 amended internal reference to include all statutory provisions concerning negotiation, Secs. 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive; P.A. 87-250 included hours as a subject of negotiations to which the provisions of Secs. 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, shall apply.

Cited. 162 C. 393. Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153h. Appropriation. Section 10-153h is repealed.

(1969, P.A. 811, S. 7; P.A. 76-403, S. 7, 11.)

Sec. 10-153i. Designation of statutory agent for service of process. (a)(1) Each administrators’ or teachers’ representative organization shall file with the commissioner a written designation, on such form as the commissioner shall prescribe, of a statutory agent for service of process who shall be the statutory agent for all members of the administrators’ unit or teachers’ unit, as defined in subsection (a) of section 10-153b, who shall be (A) a natural person who is a resident of this state, or (B) a domestic corporation. (2) Each written appointment shall be signed by the president or vice president or secretary of the appointing organization. Each written appointment shall also be signed by the statutory agent for service therein appointed.

(b) If a statutory agent for service dies, dissolves, removes from the state or resigns, the organization shall forthwith appoint another statutory agent for service. If the statutory agent for service changes such agent’s address within the state from that appearing upon the record in the office of the commissioner, the organization shall forthwith file with the commissioner notice of the new address. A statutory agent for service may resign by filing with the commissioner a signed statement in duplicate to that effect. The commissioner shall forthwith file one copy and mail the other copy of such statement to the organization at its principal office. Upon the expiration of thirty days after such filing, the resignation shall be effective and the authority of such statutory agent for service shall terminate. An organization may revoke the appointment of a statutory agent for service by making a new appointment as provided in this section and any new appointment so made shall revoke all appointments theretofore made.

(P.A. 76-403, S. 9, 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 610; P.A. 78-218, S. 92.)

History: P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-218 made technical change in Subsec. (b) substituting “such agent’s” for “his or its”.

Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 186 C. 725; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153j. The making of service of process, notice or demand. (a) Except for citations for contempt, any process, notice or demand in connection with any action or proceeding pursuant to subsection (a) of section 10-153e, to be served upon any member of an administrators’ unit or any member of a teachers’ unit as defined in subsection (a) of section 10-153b, may be served upon the statutory agent for service by any proper officer or other person lawfully empowered to make service. The person making service of such process, notice or demand shall immediately send a true and attested copy thereof by registered or certified mail to each person named in such process, notice or demand.

(b) If it appears from the records of the commissioner that such an organization has failed to appoint or maintain a statutory agent for service, or if it appears by affidavit endorsed on the return of the officer or other proper person directed to serve any process, notice or demand upon such a statutory agent for service appearing on the records of the commissioner that such agent cannot, with reasonable diligence, be found at the address shown on such records as the agent’s address, service of such process, notice or demand may, when timely made, be made by such officer or other proper person by: (1) Leaving a true and attested copy thereof at the office of the commissioner or depositing the same in the United States mails, by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, addressed to such office, and (2) depositing in the United States mails, by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, a true and attested copy thereof, together with a statement by such officer that service is being made pursuant to this section, addressed to such organization at its principal office and to each person named in such process, notice or demand.

(c) The commissioner shall file the copy of each process, notice or demand received by the commissioner as provided in subsection (b) of this section and keep a record of the day and hour of such receipt. Service made as provided in this section shall be effective as of such day and hour.

(P.A. 76-403, S. 10, 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 302, 610; P.A. 07-217, S. 42.)

History: P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of education for secretary of the state board of education, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective July 12, 2007.

Secs. 10-153a–10-153j include coverage of teachers employed in summer school programs. 177 C. 68. Cited. 186 C. 725; 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153k. Teacher Negotiation Act applies to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies. The provisions of sections 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, shall apply to all certified professional employees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34.

(P.A. 79-504, S. 2, 4; P.A. 83-72, S. 7, 9.)

History: P.A. 83-72 applied all statutory provisions concerning teacher negotiation act, Secs. 10-153a to 10-153n, inclusive, to certified employees of incorporated or endowed high schools or academies.

Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153l. Applicability of employment of teachers statute and teacher negotiation law to incorporated or endowed high schools or academies. The provisions of section 10-151 as it pertains to employment of certified professional employees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34 and the provisions of section 10-153k shall not become effective until a majority of all the certified professional employees at such incorporated or endowed high school or academy elect to come under the provisions of said sections 10-151 and 10-153k. The election shall be conducted by secret ballot in September, 1979 and the results thereof certified to the Commissioner of Education.

(P.A. 79-504, S. 3, 4.)

Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153m. Payment of attorney’s fees in proceedings to vacate or confirm teacher grievance arbitration awards. In any action brought pursuant to section 52-418 to vacate an arbitration award rendered in a controversy between a board of education and a teacher or the organization which is the exclusive representative of a group of teachers, or to confirm, pursuant to section 52-417, such an arbitration award, reasonable attorney’s fees and costs may be awarded in accordance with the following: (1) Where the board of education moves to vacate an award and the award is not vacated, the court may award reasonable attorney’s fees and costs to the teacher; (2) where the teacher moves to vacate an award and the award is not vacated, the court may award reasonable attorney’s fees and costs to the board of education; (3) where the teacher moves to confirm an award, if the board of education refuses to stipulate to such confirmation and if the award is confirmed, the court may award reasonable attorney’s fees and costs to the teacher; (4) where the board of education moves to confirm an award, if the teacher refuses to stipulate to such confirmation and if the award is confirmed, the court may award reasonable attorney’s fees and costs to the board of education.

(P.A. 80-192.)

Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153n. Applicability of employment of teachers statute and teacher negotiation law to the Gilbert School in Winchester. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 10-153l, the provisions of section 10-151 as it pertains to employment of certified professional employees of an incorporated or endowed high school or academy approved pursuant to section 10-34, and the provisions of sections 10-153a to 10-153m, inclusive, shall apply to all certified professional employees of the Gilbert School in Winchester.

(P.A. 82-225, S. 2, 3; 82-472, S. 167, 183; P.A. 83-72, S. 8, 9.)

History: P.A. 82-472 specified applicability of Sec. 10-151 provisions; P.A. 83-72 incorporated reference to all statutory provisions concerning teacher negotiation law, Secs. 10-153a to 10-153m, inclusive.

Cited. 190 C. 235; 200 C. 376. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 201 C. 685; 202 C. 492; 205 C. 116; 206 C. 113. Cited. Id.; 216 C. 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 217 C. 110; 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Cited. 5 CA 253. Teacher Negotiation Act cited. Id.; 23 CA 727; 35 CA 111.

Cited. 38 CS 80.

Sec. 10-153o. Review of performance of arbitration panel members. The Commissioner of Education shall develop a process to annually review the performance of each member of the arbitration panel appointed pursuant to subsection (a) of section 10-153f, including an evaluation of the member’s compliance with the provisions of said section.

(P.A. 90-325, S. 24, 32; P.A. 95-182, S. 4, 11.)

History: P.A. 95-182 removed provision requiring commissioner to request the parties in all arbitration proceedings to submit written evaluations of awards, effective June 28, 1995.

Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 234 C. 704; 239 C. 32.

Teacher Negotiation Act cited. 35 CA 111.

Sec. 10-153p to 10-153r. Summary of results of contract negotiations. Monitoring of major economic provisions of contracts. Report concerning contracts to General Assembly. Sections 10-153p to 10-153r, inclusive, are repealed, effective July 1, 1997.

(P.A. 90-325, S. 25–27, 32; P.A. 90-339, S. 5, 6; P.A. 92-262, S. 14, 42; P.A. 97-247, S. 26, 27.)

Sec. 10-153s. Negotiation, arbitration and ratification of turnaround plans for commissioner’s network schools. (a) Upon approval of the turnaround plan, developed pursuant to subsection (d) of section 10-223h, by the State Board of Education or, if the Commissioner of Education develops a turnaround plan for a school because the turnaround committee (1) is unable to reach consensus on a turnaround plan, (2) does not develop a turnaround plan, or (3) develops a turnaround plan that the commissioner determines is deficient, the local or regional board of education for a school participating in the commissioner’s network of schools, pursuant to section 10-223h, shall negotiate with the representatives of the exclusive bargaining unit for certified employees, chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(b) (1) If the turnaround committee, as described in section 10-223h, is able to reach consensus on the turnaround plan, developed pursuant to subsection (c) of section 10-223h, and such turnaround plan is approved by the State Board of Education, the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented and the exclusive bargaining unit for certified employees, chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, shall negotiate with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment of such turnaround plan. Such negotiations shall be completed not later than thirty days from the date when consensus is reached by the turnaround committee.

(2) Any agreement reached by the parties following negotiations, conducted pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall be submitted for approval by the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by such board of education at such school. Such agreement shall be ratified upon a majority vote of such members. Upon such ratification, such turnaround plan shall be implemented at such school.

(3) If (A) the parties reach an impasse on one or more issues following negotiations conducted pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection, or (B) the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented fail to ratify the agreement reached by the parties following such negotiations, the parties shall proceed to the expedited arbitration process described in subsection (d) of this section. The decision resulting from such expedited arbitration shall be final and binding and included in the turnaround plan. Such turnaround plan shall then be implemented at such school.

(c) (1) If the turnaround committee (A) is unable to reach consensus on a turnaround plan, (B) does not develop a turnaround plan, or (C) develops a turnaround plan that the Commissioner of Education determines is deficient, the commissioner, in consultation with teachers employed at the school in which a turnaround plan is to be implemented and parents or guardians of students enrolled in such school, may develop a turnaround plan for such school.

(2) (A) If the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented and the exclusive bargaining unit for certified employees, chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, agree on (i) all components of such turnaround plan, or (ii) certain components of such turnaround plan, such board of education and such exclusive bargaining unit shall negotiate only the financial impact of such agreed upon components of such turnaround plan. Such negotiations shall be completed not later than thirty days from the date when such turnaround plan is presented to such board of education and such exclusive bargaining unit.

(B) Any agreement reached by the parties following negotiations, conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of this subsection, shall be submitted for approval by the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by such board of education at such school. Such agreement shall be ratified upon a majority vote of such members. Upon such ratification, such agreed upon components of such turnaround plan shall be implemented at such school.

(C) If (i) the parties reach an impasse on one or more issues following negotiations, conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of this subsection, or (ii) the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented fail to ratify the agreement reached by the parties following such negotiations, pursuant to subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, the parties shall proceed to the expedited arbitration process described in subsection (d) of this section. The decision resulting from such expedited arbitration shall be final and binding and included in the turnaround plan. Such components of such turnaround plan shall then be implemented at such school.

(3) (A) If the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented and the exclusive bargaining unit for certified employees, chosen pursuant to section 10-153b, do not agree (i) on all components of the turnaround plan developed by the commissioner, or (ii) on certain components of such turnaround plan, the parties shall jointly select a turnaround plan referee from the list created pursuant to section 10-153t. Such turnaround plan referee shall review the components of such turnaround plan that the parties do not agree on to determine whether the parties shall negotiate on such components, pursuant to subparagraph (B) or (C) of this subdivision. Such turnaround plan referee shall examine each such component and determine whether such component is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success. If such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success, the parties shall negotiate such component pursuant to subparagraph (B) of this subdivision. If such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is significantly different from what is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success, the parties shall negotiate such component pursuant to subparagraph (C) of this subdivision. Each party shall share equally the cost of the reasonable expenses for such turnaround plan referee in implementing the provisions of this subdivision.

(B) If such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success, such board of education and such exclusive bargaining unit shall negotiate only the financial impact of such component of such turnaround plan. Such negotiations shall be completed not later than thirty days from the date when such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success.

(C) If such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is significantly different from what is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success, such board of education and such exclusive bargaining unit shall negotiate with respect to salaries, hours and other conditions of employment of such component of such turnaround plan. Such negotiations shall be completed not later than thirty days from the date when such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is significantly different from what is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success.

(D) Any agreement reached by the parties following negotiations conducted pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this subdivision shall be submitted for approval by the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by such board of education at such school. Such agreement shall be ratified upon a majority vote of such members. Upon such ratification, such components of such turnaround plan shall be implemented at such school.

(E) If (i) the parties reach an impasse on one or more issues following negotiations, conducted pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this subdivision, or (ii) the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented fail to ratify the agreement reached by the parties following such negotiations, pursuant to subparagraph (D) of this subdivision, the parties shall proceed to the expedited arbitration process described in subsection (d) of this section. The decision resulting from such expedited arbitration shall be final and binding and included in the turnaround plan. Such components of such turnaround plan shall then be implemented at such school.

(d) Not later than five days after the date the parties reach impasse on one or more issues or the members of the exclusive bargaining representative employed by the local or regional board of education for a school in which such turnaround plan is to be implemented fail to ratify an agreement following negotiations, the parties shall select a single impartial arbitrator in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of section 10-153f. Not later than ten days after the selection of the single impartial arbitrator, such arbitrator shall conduct a hearing in the town that such school is located. At such hearing, the parties shall submit to such arbitrator their respective positions on each individual issue in dispute between them in the form of a last best offer. The Commissioner of Education, or the commissioner’s designee, shall have an opportunity to make a presentation at such hearing. Not later than twenty days following the close of such hearing, such arbitrator shall render a decision, in writing, signed by such arbitrator, which states in detail the nature of the decision and the disposition of the issues by such arbitrator. Such arbitrators shall give the highest priority to the educational interests of the state, pursuant to section 10-4a, as such interests relate to the children enrolled in such school in arriving at a decision and shall consider other factors, pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection (c) of section 10-153f, in light of such educational interests. Such decision shall be final and binding and included in the turnaround plan. Such turnaround plan shall then be implemented at such school.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 20; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2, S. 16, 17.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective May 14, 2012; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-2 amended Subsec. (c)(2)(A) by replacing “agreement is reached by the turnaround committee” with “turnaround plan is presented to such board of education and such exclusive bargaining unit”, amended Subsec. (c)(3)(B) by replacing “agreement is reached by the turnaround committee” with “turnaround plan referee determines that such component is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success” and amended Subsec. (c)(3)(C) by replacing “consensus is reached by the turnaround committee” with “such turnaround plan referee determines that such component is significantly different from what is comparable to a public school with a record of academic success”, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-153t. Turnaround plan referees. On or before July 1, 2012, the Department of Education shall create a list of turnaround plan referees to be used by local or regional boards of education for schools selected to participate in the commissioner’s network of schools and the exclusive bargaining unit for certified employees chosen pursuant to section 10-153b in implementing the provisions of section 10-153s. The list shall contain the name of five persons mutually agreed upon by the Commissioner of Education and representatives of the exclusive bargaining units for certified employees, chosen pursuant to section 10-153b and such persons shall have expertise in education policy and school operations and administration.

(P.A. 12-116, S. 21.)

History: P.A. 12-116 effective May 14, 2012.

Sec. 10-154. Homes and transportation for teachers. Section 10-154 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1441; P.A. 78-218, S. 211.)

Sec. 10-154a. Professional communications between teacher or nurse and student. Surrender of physical evidence obtained from students. (a) As used in this section: (1) “School” means a public school as defined in section 10-183b or a private elementary or secondary school attendance at which meets the requirements of section 10-184; (2) a “professional employee” means a person employed by a school who (A) holds a certificate from the State Board of Education, (B) is a member of a faculty where certification is not required, (C) is an administration officer of a school, or (D) is a registered nurse employed by or assigned to a school; (3) a “student” is a person enrolled in a school; (4) a “professional communication” is any communication made privately and in confidence by a student to a professional employee of such student’s school in the course of the latter’s employment.

(b) Any such professional employee shall not be required to disclose any information acquired through a professional communication with a student, when such information concerns alcohol or drug abuse or any alcoholic or drug problem of such student but if such employee obtains physical evidence from such student indicating that a crime has been or is being committed by such student, such employee shall be required to turn such evidence over to school administrators or law enforcement officials within two school days after receipt of such physical evidence, provided if such evidence is obtained less than two days before a school vacation or the end of a school year, such evidence shall be turned over within two calendar days after receipt thereof, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, and provided further in no such case shall such employee be required to disclose the name of the student from whom he obtained such evidence and such employee shall be immune from arrest and prosecution for the possession of such evidence obtained from such student.

(c) Any physical evidence surrendered to a school administration pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be turned over by such school administrator to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection or the appropriate law enforcement agency within three school days after receipt of such physical evidence, for its proper disposition, provided if such evidence is obtained less than three days before a school vacation or the end of a school year, such evidence shall be turned over within three calendar days from receipt thereof, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and holidays.

(d) Any such professional employee who, in good faith, discloses or does not disclose, such professional communication, shall be immune from any liability, civil or criminal, which might otherwise be incurred or imposed, and shall have the same immunity with respect to any judicial proceeding which results from such disclosure.

(1971, P.A. 261, S. 1-3; 1972, P.A. 64; P.A. 78-29; 78-208, S. 29, 35; 78-218, S. 103; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

History: 1972 act amended Subsec. (a) to define “school” rather than “public school”, including private elementary and secondary schools in the definition and deleting “public” with reference to schools throughout the subsection and to redefine “professional employee” to include registered nurses employed in schools; P.A. 78-29 provided time limits for turning over physical evidence of crime in Subsec. (b), inserted new Subsec. (c) providing time limits for surrender of evidence to proper authority by school administrators and relettered former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 78-208 clarified definition of “school” in Subsec. (a); P.A. 78-218 substituted “such student’s” for “his” in Subsec. (a)(4); June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-155. Emergency teacher training program. The Board of Trustees for the Connecticut State University System may maintain an emergency training program to prepare graduates of approved four-year colleges and universities to teach in the elementary schools of the state. In carrying out such program the board may (a) establish regulations governing the admission of students to the program; (b) fix tuition rates to be paid by such students, and (c) enter into such contracts and agreements as it finds necessary to secure the necessary facilities.

(1949, S. 939d; 1959, P.A. 413, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 237, S. 1; P.A. 82-218, S. 39, 46; P.A. 91-256, S. 44, 69.)

History: 1959 act deleted provision for an Emergency Scholarship Fund; 1969 act substituted board of trustees for the state colleges for state board of education; P.A. 82-218 replaced “state colleges” with “Connecticut State University” pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 91-256 made a technical change.

Cited. 152 C. 151; 216 C. 253.

Secs. 10-155a to 10-155c. Cooperative arrangements for teacher training. Subcommittee and advisory committee for program. State grants. Sections 10-155a to 10-155c, inclusive, are repealed.

(1967, P.A. 761, S. 1–4; 1969, P.A. 230; P.A. 75-556, S. 1–3; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 78-218, S. 104–106; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 83-105, S. 3.)

Sec. 10-155d. Preparation of teachers. Alternate route programs for teachers, administrators and early childhood education teachers. (a) The Office of Higher Education shall encourage and support experimentation and research in the preparation of teachers for public elementary and secondary schools. To help fulfill the purposes of this section, the Office of Higher Education shall appoint an advisory council composed of qualified professionals which shall render assistance and advice to the office. In carrying out its activities pursuant to this section, the office shall consult with the State Board of Education and such other agencies as it deems appropriate to assure coordination of all activities of the state relating to the preparation of teachers for public elementary and secondary schools.

(b) The Office of Higher Education, with the approval of the Commissioner of Education, shall expand, within available appropriations, participation in its summer alternate route to certification program and its weekend and evening alternate route to certification program. The office shall expand the weekend and evening program for participants seeking certification in a subject shortage area pursuant to section 10-8b. The office, in collaboration with the Department of Education, shall develop (1) a regional alternate route to certification program targeted to the subject shortage areas, and (2) an alternate route to certification program for former teachers whose certificates have expired and who are interested in resuming their teaching careers.

(c) The Office of Higher Education, in consultation with the Department of Education, shall develop alternate route to certification programs for (1) school administrators and superintendents, and (2) early childhood education teachers. The programs shall include mentored apprenticeships and criteria for admission to the programs.

(1967, P.A. 761, S. 5; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 78-218, S. 107; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-1, S. 6, 54; P.A. 03-76, S. 45; P.A. 04-26, S. 3; P.A. 06-135, S. 25; P.A. 11-48, S. 255; P.A. 12-156, S. 56.)

History: P.A. 77-573 replaced commission for higher education with board of higher education; P.A. 78-218 removed obsolete provision re report to governor on November 15, 1968, and deleted Connecticut research commission and Connecticut commission on aid to higher education as agencies to be consulted concerning coordination of activities relative to teacher preparation; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-1 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a), made technical changes and added Subsec. (b) re alternate route programs, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 04-26 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(1), effective April 28, 2004; P.A. 06-135, designated editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (c), required the development of alternate route to certification programs for administrators and superintendents and early childhood education teachers, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 11-48 replaced “Board of Governors of Higher Education” and “Department of Higher Education” with “Office of Financial and Academic Affairs for Higher Education” and replaced “board” and “department” with “office”, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 12-156, “Office of Financial and Academic Affairs for Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Office of Higher Education”, effective June 15, 2012.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-155e. Development of programs to assist paraprofessionals to fulfill state certification requirements. Report to General Assembly. The Board of Regents for Higher Education, with the advice and assistance of the constituent units of the state system of higher education and such private institutions of higher education as elect to participate after notice thereof, shall develop programs for persons employed in the public schools as paraprofessionals, to assist such paraprofessionals to fulfill state teacher certification requirements. Said Board of Regents for Higher Education shall report its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committee on education of the General Assembly on or before February 1, 1974.

(1971, P.A. 414; P.A. 73-324; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; P.A. 11-48, S. 285.)

History: P.A. 73-324 required report to education committee on or before February 1, 1974; P.A. 77-573 replaced commission for higher education with board of higher education; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 84-241 added “of higher education” to board of governors’ title; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2011.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-155f. Residency requirement prohibited. No municipality or school district shall require that an individual reside within the municipality or school district as a condition for appointment or continued employment as a school teacher.

(P.A. 78-203.)

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-155g. Educational Excellence Trust Fund. There is established a fund to be known as the “Educational Excellence Trust Fund”. Moneys deposited in the fund shall be held by the Treasurer separate and apart from all other moneys, funds and accounts. Investment earnings credited to the fund shall become part of the fund. Amounts in the fund shall be expended only pursuant to appropriations by the General Assembly and for the purpose of fostering the professional development and excellence of the teachers of the state.

(P.A. 85-554, S. 1, 6.)

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-155h. Educational excellence program administered by department. Governor to recommend appropriation for. Section 10-155h is repealed.

(P.A. 85-554, S. 2, 6; P.A. 88-136, S. 36, 37.)

Sec. 10-155i. Pilot program to assist paraprofessionals. Section 10-155i is repealed, effective October 1, 2002.

(P.A. 89-355, S. 15, 20; P.A. 91-361, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-226, S. 15, 30; S.A. 02-12, S. 1.)

Sec. 10-155j. Development of paraprofessionals. The Department of Education, through the State Education Resource Center and within available appropriations for such purposes, shall promote and encourage professional development activities for school paraprofessionals with instructional responsibilities. Such activities may include, but shall not be limited to, providing local and regional boards of education with training modules and curricula for professional development for paraprofessionals and assisting boards of education in the effective use of paraprofessionals and the development of strategies to improve communications between teachers and paraprofessionals in the provision of effective student instruction.

(June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 27.)

History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 effective July 1, 2007.

Sec. 10-155k. School Paraprofessional Advisory Council. The Commissioner of Education shall establish a School Paraprofessional Advisory Council consisting of one representative from each state-wide bargaining representative organization that represents school paraprofessionals with instructional responsibilities. The council shall hold quarterly meetings and annually advise the Commissioner of Education, or the commissioner’s designee, of the needs for the training of such paraprofessionals and the effectiveness of the content and the delivery of existing training for such paraprofessionals. The council shall report, annually, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, on the recommendations given to the commissioner, or the commissioner’s designee, pursuant to the provisions of this section, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education.

(June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 29; P.A. 11-136, S. 11.)

History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-136 deleted “, at least quarterly,” and added “hold quarterly meetings and annually” re council to advise Commissioner of Education and replaced “at least quarterly” with “annually” re report on recommendations, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 10-155l. Minority teacher recruitment. (a) For purposes of this section, “minority” means individuals whose race is defined as other than white, or whose ethnicity is defined as Hispanic or Latino by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by the Bureau of Census of the United States Department of Commerce.

(b) The Regional Educational Service Center Minority Recruiting Alliance, in consultation with the Department of Education, the Board of Regents for Higher Education, the constituent units of the state system of higher education and the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges, shall study methods to (1) encourage minority middle and secondary school students to attend institutions of higher education and enter teacher preparation programs, (2) recruit minority students attending institutions of higher education to enroll in teacher preparation programs and pursue teaching careers, and (3) recruit and maintain minority teachers in Connecticut schools.

(c) Not later than October 1, 2007, the Regional Educational Service Center Minority Recruiting Alliance, in consultation with the Department of Education, the Board of Regents for Higher Education, the constituent units of the state system of higher education and the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges, shall propose guidelines to the Commissioner of Education and the president of the Board of Regents for Higher Education for pilot programs to recruit and retain minority teachers and may consider, but such consideration need not be limited to, the establishment and operation of the following pilot programs:

(1) A fellows program leading to the eligibility for an educator certificate for minority individuals who have (A) completed an intensive summer session focusing on classroom management and methodology, (B) received a bachelor’s degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education or State Board of Education or regionally accredited, (C) achieved a satisfactory score on the examination required pursuant to section 10-145f or have had such requirement waived pursuant to said section, and (D) have such other qualifications for the issuance of an educator certificate as are required for individuals participating in the alternate route to certification program under section 10-155d;

(2) A competitive grant program to assist local and regional boards of education to form and operate future teachers’ clubs as part of the extracurricular activities at middle and high schools under their jurisdiction; and

(3) A program to allow minority college seniors who are majoring in subject shortage areas pursuant to section 10-8b but who are not enrolled in a teacher preparation program to receive up to three credits for working as cadet teachers in a public school and, upon graduation and recommendation by school officials, to allow such cadet teachers to enter a fellows program pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection if such a program is in operation.

(d) Not later than January 1, 2008, the Regional Educational Service Center Minority Recruiting Alliance shall report, in accordance with section 11-4a, on (1) the results of the study pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, (2) the guidelines for pilot programs developed pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and (3) the establishment and operation of any pilot program pursuant to subsection (c) of this section to the Department of Education, the Board of Regents for Higher Education and the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education and higher education.

(June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 31; P.A. 11-48, S. 285; P.A. 12-156, S. 58.)

History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 effective July 1, 2007; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, “Board of Governors of Higher Education” and “Department of Higher Education” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Board of Regents for Higher Education”, and “Commissioner of Higher Education” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “president of the Board of Regents for Higher Education”, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 12-156 amended Subsec. (c) by adding reference to State Board of Education re accreditation in Subdiv. (1)(B), effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 10-155m. Reserved for future use.

Secs. 10-155n to 10-155q. Teacher career incentive programs. Applications for grants; selection criteria. Project evaluations; statement of expenditures. Grant program administration. Sections 10-155n to 10-155q, inclusive, are repealed.

(P.A. 85-405, S. 1–5; P.A. 86-333, S. 18–20, 32; P.A. 90-324, S. 12, 13.)

Secs. 10-155r and 10-155s. Reserved for future use.

Secs. 10-155t to 10-155bb. Advisory commission on career incentives and teacher evaluation. Election to participate in programs; appointment of panels. Local teacher evaluation plans. Presentation of plans. Grants for developing evaluation plans. Local career incentive plans. Grants for developing career incentive plans. Grants for approval of evaluation and career incentive plans; distribution of proceeds. Teacher Career Incentive Fund; grants for approval of evaluation and career incentive plans; distribution of proceeds. Sections 10-155t to 10-155bb, inclusive, are repealed.

(May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 11–19, 58; P.A. 87-2, S. 14, 18, 21; P.A. 90-324, S. 12, 13.)

Sec. 10-155cc. Definitions. (a) For the purposes of this section and section 10-155dd:

(1) “Adjusted staff members in the school district or regional educational service center” means the result obtained by multiplying the total number, according to the Teachers’ Retirement Board data pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection, of full-time equivalent staff members certified pursuant to section 10-145 in the respective school district or regional educational service center, by the appropriate percentage as determined in subsection (b) of this section.

(2) “Adjusted staff members in the state” means the sum of all adjusted staff members in school districts and regional educational service centers in the state.

(3) “Teachers’ Retirement Board data” means the data reported to the Teachers’ Retirement Board on the annual school staff reports due on September fifteenth of the fiscal year prior to the fiscal year the grant is to be paid.

(4) “Comprehensive professional development plan” means (A) for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1991, and June 30, 1992, the professional development plan required and approved pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of section 10-220a and the teacher evaluation program report required pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-151b, or a comprehensive professional development plan required and approved pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 10-220a and (B) for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1993, and each fiscal year thereafter, the comprehensive professional development plan required and approved pursuant to said subdivision (2).

(b) The percentage used to calculate the adjusted staff members pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall be determined as follows:

(1) For local boards of education: (A) Each town in the state shall be ranked in descending order from one to one hundred sixty-nine according to such town’s adjusted equalized net grand list per capita, as defined in section 10-261; (B) based upon such ranking, a percentage of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred fifty shall be determined for each town on a continuous scale.

(2) For each regional board of education by: (A) Multiplying the total population, as defined in section 10-261, of each town in the district by such town’s ranking, as determined in subdivision (1) of this subsection; (B) adding together the figures for each town determined under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision; and (C) dividing the total computed under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision by the total population of all towns in the district. The ranking of each regional board of education shall be rounded to the next higher whole number and each such board shall receive the same percentage as would a town with the same rank pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection.

(3) For each regional educational service center by: (A) Multiplying the total population, as defined in section 10-261, of each member town in the regional educational service center by such town’s ranking, as determined in subdivision (1) of this subsection; (B) adding together the figures for each town determined under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision; and (C) dividing the total computed under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision by the total population of all member towns in the regional educational service center. The ranking of each regional educational service center shall be rounded to the next higher whole number and each such center shall receive the same percentage as would a town with the same rank pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection.

(P.A. 87-2, S. 8, 21; P.A. 90-324, S. 8, 13.)

History: P.A. 90-324 in Subsec. (a) deleted references to repealed Secs. 10-155ee to 10-155gg, inclusive, added definition of “comprehensive professional development plan” and made technical changes.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Secs. 10-155dd to 10-155gg. Grants to implement comprehensive professional development plans. Planning grants to develop or revise teacher evaluation programs. Grants to implement, assess and improve teacher evaluation programs. Planning grants for teacher career incentive programs. Sections 10-155dd to 10-155gg, inclusive, are repealed.

(P.A. 87-2, S. 9–11, 13, 21; P.A. 88-360, S. 55, 63; P.A. 89-355, S. 19, 20; P.A. 90-324, S. 9, 13; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-7, S. 21, 22.)

Sec. 10-156. Sick leave. Each professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by a local or regional board of education shall be entitled to a minimum of sick leave with full pay of fifteen school days in each school year. Unused sick leave shall be accumulated from year to year, as long as the employee remains continuously in the service of the same board of education, and as authorized by such board, but such authorized accumulation of sick leave shall not be less than one hundred fifty school days.

(1955, S. 940d; 1963, P.A. 353; February, 1965, P.A. 130; 1967, P.A. 247; 1969, P.A. 213; P.A. 78-218, S. 108; P.A. 06-196, S. 63; P.A. 07-217, S. 43.)

History: 1963 act added regional school districts, increased annual sick leave from 10 to 15 days and minimum cumulative leave from 60 to 75 days; 1965 act increased minimum cumulative sick leave to 90 school days; 1967 act increased minimum cumulative sick leave to 120 days; 1969 act increased minimum cumulative sick leave to 150 days; P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” boards of education and dropped reference to school districts; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change, effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change, effective July 12, 2007.

Cited. 152 C. 151; 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-156a. Duty-free lunch period. Each professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by a local or regional board of education of any town or regional school district to work directly with children shall have a guaranteed duty-free period for lunch which shall be scheduled as a single period of consecutive minutes.

(1967, P.A. 465; P.A. 78-218, S. 109; P.A. 87-250, S. 10, 11.)

History: P.A. 78-218 specified applicability to employees of local or regional boards of education; P.A. 87-250 provided that the lunch period be scheduled as a single period of consecutive minutes.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-156b. Tenure and sick leave rights of teacher on regionalization of school and on dissolution of regional school district. (a) In determining the rights and benefits earned by a teacher under section 10-151 and section 10-156, the establishment of a regional school district shall not be deemed to interrupt the continuous employment of a teacher who was employed by a local board of education of any of the towns comprising such district during the school year immediately prior to, or within which, such district is established and such teacher shall continue as an employee of the regional board of education, subject to the provisions of section 10-151.

(b) In determining the rights and benefits earned by a teacher under section 10-151 and section 10-156, the dissolution of a regional school district shall not be deemed to interrupt the continuous employment of a teacher who was employed by such regional board of education during the school year immediately prior to, or within which, such district is dissolved and such teacher shall continue as an employee of the local board of education of one of the towns which comprised such regional school district prior to dissolution, subject to the provisions of section 10-151.

(1969, P.A. 320, S. 1; P.A. 73-557.)

History: P.A. 73-557 added Subsec. (b) re effect of dissolution of regional school district on continuous employment of teachers.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-156c. Military leave. Each professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by a local or regional board of education who is a member of the reserve corps of any branch of the armed forces of the United States, as defined by section 27-103, shall be entitled to be absent from his or her duties or services while engaged in required field training in such reserve corps. No such employee shall be subjected by any person, directly or indirectly, by reason of such absence, to any loss or reduction of vacation or holiday privileges or be prejudiced by reason of such absence with reference to promotion or continuance in employment or to reemployment. The period of absence in any calendar year shall not exceed thirty days.

(1969, P.A. 788, S. 1; P.A. 78-218, S. 110.)

History: P.A. 78-218 specified applicability to employees of local or regional boards of education and to both male and female reservists.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-156d. Reemployment after military leave. Any professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by a local or regional board of education who leaves such employment for the purpose of entering the armed forces of the United States, as defined in section 27-103, shall be reemployed by the board of education as hereinafter provided, provided such employee makes application for return to such employment within ninety days after receiving a certificate of honorable separation from the armed forces. The board of education shall employ such applicant in his or her former position and duties if such employment is available; and if not, shall employ such applicant in an equivalent position, if available; and if not, shall offer such applicant employment in any available position for which such applicant is qualified. Any employee returning to the employ of the board of education as herein provided shall be credited with the period of such service in said armed forces to the same extent as though it had been a part of the term of employment by such board of education. This section shall not apply to any such employee who, because of voluntary reenlistment, has been absent from the employ of such board of education for a period of more than three years in addition to war service as defined in said section 27-103 or compulsory service and the ninety-day period as hereinbefore provided.

(1969, P.A. 788, S. 2; P.A. 78-218, S. 111.)

History: P.A. 78-218 substituted “local” for “town” boards of education and made technical changes.

Cited. 216 C. 253.

Sec. 10-156e. Employees of boards of education permitted to serve as elected officials; exception. Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act or municipal charter or ordinance to the contrary, any employee of a local or regional board of education or of an incorporated or endowed high school approved pursuant to the provisions of section 10-34 shall have the right to serve on any governmental body of the town in which he resides except that no such employee shall serve on such employee’s employing board of education.

(P.A. 81-310.)

PART II

SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING AGENTS

Sec. 10-157. Superintendents: Relationship to local or regional board of education; verification of certification status; waiver of certification; written contract of employment; evaluation of superintendent by board of education. (a) Any local or regional board of education shall provide for the supervision of the schools under its control by a superintendent who shall serve as the chief executive officer of the board. The superintendent shall have executive authority over the school system and the responsibility for its supervision. Employment of a superintendent shall be by election of the board of education. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no person shall assume the duties and responsibilities of the superintendent until the board receives written confirmation from the Commissioner of Education that the person to be employed is properly certified or has had such certification waived by the commissioner pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. The commissioner shall inform any such board, in writing, of the proper certification, waiver of certification or lack of certification or waiver of any such person not later than fourteen days after the name of such person is submitted to the commissioner pursuant to section 10-226. A majority vote of all members of the board shall be necessary to an election, and the board shall fix the salary of the superintendent and the term of office, which shall not exceed three years. Upon election and notification of employment or reemployment, the superintendent may request and the board shall provide a written contract of employment which includes, but is not limited to, the salary, employment benefits and term of office of such superintendent. Such superintendent shall, at least three weeks before the annual town or regional school district meeting, submit to the board a full written report of the proceedings of such board and of the condition of the several schools during the school year preceding, with plans and suggestions for their improvement. The board of education shall evaluate the performance of the superintendent annually in accordance with guidelines and criteria mutually determined and agreed to by such board and such superintendent.

(b) A local or regional board of education may appoint as acting superintendent a person who is or is not properly certified for a probationary period, not to exceed one school year, with the approval of the Commissioner of Education. During such probationary period such acting superintendent shall assume all duties of the superintendent for the time specified and shall successfully complete a school leadership program, approved by the State Board of Education, offered at a public or private institution of higher education in the state. At the conclusion of such probationary period, such appointing local or regional board of education may request the commissioner to grant a waiver of certification for such acting superintendant pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(c) The commissioner may, upon request of an employing local or regional board of education, grant a waiver of certification to a person (1) who has successfully completed at least three years of experience as a certified administrator with a superintendent certificate issued by another state in a public school in another state during the ten-year period prior to the date of application, or (2) who has successfully completed a probationary period as an acting superintendent pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and who the commissioner deems to be exceptionally qualified for the position of superintendent.

(1949 Rev., S. 1442; P.A. 78-218, S. 112; P.A. 81-196; P.A. 85-54, S. 1, 3; P.A. 07-241, S. 4; P.A. 10-111, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 59; P.A. 11-28, S. 13; P.A. 12-116, S. 58.)

History: P.A. 78-218 specified applicability to local and regional boards of education rather than town boards and deleted references to supervising agents; P.A. 81-196 clarified the rights and responsibilities of superintendents of schools and the employing board of education by specifying that superintendent is the chief executive officer of the board and has executive authority over the school system, that board must provide the superintendent with a written contract of employment or reemployment if the superintendent so requests and that board shall evaluate the superintendent annually in accordance with guidelines mutually agreed to by the board and the superintendent; P.A. 85-54 added requirement that no person assume duties and responsibilities of superintendent until hiring board receives confirmation from commissioner that person is properly certified, and added provision allowing certified or uncertified person as acting superintendent with commissioner’s approval as Subsec. (b); P.A. 07-241 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and add references to waiver of certification and added Subsec. (c) re waiver of certification, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 10-111 amended Subsec. (c) by adding “upon request of an employing local or regional board of education” and provision re waiver of certification requirements for out-of-state superintendent experience, effective July 1, 2010; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-28 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 2011; P.A. 12-116 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing “specified period of time” with “probationary period”, replacing “ninety days” with “one school year”, adding provision requiring completion of a school leadership program during probationary period, and replacing provision re extension of time with provision re waiver of certification, and amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re successful completion of probationary period as new Subdiv. (2) and deleting former Subparas. (A) to (C) re findings for person exceptionally qualified, effective July 1, 2012.

Superintendent appointed for fixed term does not hold over de jure. 127 C. 426. Cited. 129 C. 191; 152 C. 568; 228 C. 640.

Superintendent of schools is not an employee to be hired by contract but a public officer to be elected. 10 CS 404.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 30 CA 594.

Sec. 10-157a. Superintendent for more than one town. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions of the general statutes to the contrary, the boards of education of any two or more towns, or the board of education of any regional school district and the board of education of one or more of the towns comprising the district, or a committee formed and authorized by agreement of such boards on behalf of such boards may jointly employ a superintendent of schools, and said superintendent of schools shall have the powers and duties for each of said boards as provided in section 10-157. Such boards of education or such committee shall specify in a written agreement the term of office of such superintendent, which shall not exceed three years, and the proportionate share and limits of authorized expenditures for the salary of such superintendent and other necessary expenses, and any other pertinent matters, and shall provide for the evaluation of the superintendent pursuant to section 10-157. Any agreement authorizing the employment of a superintendent pursuant to this section shall include, but not be limited to, the duties of the committee, the membership of the committee, the voting requirements for action, and provision for termination of the agreement.

(b) Any board of education may withdraw from any agreement entered into under subsection (a) of this section if, at least one year prior to the date of proposed withdrawal, it gives written notice of its intent to do so to each of the other boards.

(P.A. 78-218, S. 114; P.A. 82-300, S. 1, 2.)

History: P.A. 82-300 amended Subsec. (a) to clarify provisions regarding the joint employment of superintendents and to authorize formation of a committee by participating school boards to hire a superintendent for joint employment.

Sec. 10-158. Superintendent for more than one town. Supervision districts. Section 10-158 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1443; 1961, P.A. 544, S. 2.)

Sec. 10-158a. Cooperative arrangements among towns. School building projects. Student transportation. (a) Any two or more boards of education may, in writing, agree to establish cooperative arrangements to provide school accommodations services, programs or activities, special education services or health care services to enable such boards to carry out the duties specified in the general statutes. Such arrangements may include the establishment of a committee to supervise such programs, the membership of the committee to be determined by the agreement of the cooperating boards. Such committee shall have the power, in accordance with the terms of the agreement, to (1) apply for, receive directly and expend on behalf of the school districts which have designated the committee an agent for such purpose any state or federal grants which may be allocated to school districts for specified programs, the supervision of which has been delegated to such committee, provided such grants are payable before implementation of any such program or are to reimburse the committee pursuant to subsection (d) of this section for transportation provided to a school operated by a cooperative arrangement; (2) receive and disburse funds appropriated to the use of such committee by the cooperating school districts, the state or the United States, or given to the committee by individuals or private corporations; (3) hold title to real or personal property in trust, or as otherwise agreed to by the parties, for the appointing boards; (4) employ personnel; (5) enter into contracts; and (6) otherwise provide the specified programs, services and activities. Teachers employed by any such committee shall be subject to the provisions of the general statutes applicable to teachers employed by the board of education of any town or regional school district. For purposes of this section, the term “teacher” shall include each professional employee of a committee below the rank of superintendent who holds a regular certificate issued by the State Board of Education and who is in a position requiring such certification.

(b) Subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, any board of education may withdraw from any agreement entered into under subsection (a) of this section if, at least one year prior to the date of the proposed withdrawal, it gives written notice of its intent to do so to each of the other boards. Upon withdrawal by one or more boards of education, two or more boards of education may continue their commitment to the agreement. If two or more boards of education continue the arrangement, then such committee established within the arrangement may continue to hold title to any real or personal property given to or purchased by the committee in trust for all the boards of education which entered the agreement, unless otherwise provided in the agreement or by law or by the grantor or donor of such property. Upon dissolution of the committee, any property held in trust shall be distributed in accordance with the agreement, if such distribution is not contrary to law.

(c) If a cooperative arrangement receives a grant for a school building project pursuant to chapter 173, the cooperative arrangement shall use the building for which the grant was provided for a period of not less than twenty years after completion of such project. If the cooperative arrangement ceases to use the building for the purpose for which the grant was provided, the Commissioner of Education shall determine whether (1) title to the building and any legal interest in appurtenant land reverts to the state or (2) the cooperative arrangement reimburses the state an amount equal to ten per cent of the eligible school building project costs of the project.

(d) Any cooperative arrangement established pursuant to this section, or any local or regional board of education which is a member of such a cooperative arrangement which transports students to a school operated by such cooperative arrangement shall be reimbursed in accordance with the provisions of section 10-266m. At the end of each school year, any such cooperative arrangement or local or regional board of education which provides such transportation shall file an application for reimbursement on a form provided by the Department of Education.

(1961, P.A. 544, S. 1, 3; 1963, P.A. 449; February, 1965, P.A. 391, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 160, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 333, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-218, S. 113; P.A. 81-257, S. 1, 10; P.A. 82-85, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-26, S. 2, 4; P.A. 96-270, S. 9, 11; P.A. 97-247, S. 15, 27; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1, S. 21; P.A. 10-71, S. 3.)

History: 1963 act deleted former provision limiting application to towns employing a total of not more than one hundred teachers and clarified powers and duties of superintendent and types of joint programs; 1965 act included in Subsec. (b) any two or more boards which have the same supervising agent, inserted new Subsec. (c) concerning special fund for purposes of section and relettered former Subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e) respectively; 1967 act amended Subsec. (b) to apply to cooperative arrangements between two or more boards of education which may be supervised by committee and deleted reference to boards with same supervising agent, deleted Subsec. (c) re special fund and relettered remaining Subsecs. accordingly; 1969 act amended Subsec. (b) to include in powers of committee the power to apply for, receive and expend state or federal grants for specified programs or other funds appropriated for its use and the power to hold title to real or personal property in trust for boards involved and amended Subsec. (c) to provide for committee’s continued holding of title upon withdrawal of one participating board and for distribution of property upon dissolution of committee; P.A. 78-218 deleted Subsec. (a) which had provided for joint employment of school superintendent, relettering Subsecs. (b) and (c) as (a) and (b); P.A. 81-257 amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that two or more boards of education may continue a cooperative arrangement upon withdrawal from the arrangement by one or more towns; P.A. 82-85 amended Subsec. (a) to include definition of “teacher”, clarifying applicability of section provisions; P.A. 89-26 amended the definition of “teacher” in Subsec. (a) to include the word “professional”; P.A. 96-270 added Subsec. (c) re grants for school building projects, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-247 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute school accommodations services for special services, to add provision concerning grants to reimburse the committee for school transportation in Subdiv. (1), and to add authority to hold title in accordance with agreement of the parties in Subdiv. (3), amended Subsec. (b) to specify that withdrawal is subject to the provisions of Subsec. (c), and added Subsec. (d) re reimbursement for transportation costs, effective July 1, 1997; June 19 Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding “special education services or health care services” and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-71 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective May 18, 2010.

Former section cited. 152 C. 148.

Secs. 10-159 and 10-159a. Supervisory service by State Board of Education. Election to receive grant in lieu of supervisory service. Sections 10-159 and 10-159a are repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 1444; 1969, P.A. 698, S. 23; 1971, P.A. 861, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 193, S. 1; P.A. 78-218, S. 115; P.A. 79-411, S. 1, 2.)