CHAPTER 124*

ZONING

*Constitutionality of zoning; restoration of nonconforming use. 110 C. 92. No impairment of vested rights by adoption of regulations after contract made to purchase land and work commenced. Id., 141. Cited. 112 C. 240, 245; 113 C. 50; 116 C. 555; 118 C. 7; 123 C. 480; 124 C. 54. History of zoning laws in state. 133 C. 250. Cited. 139 C. 119; 143 C. 152, 280. No municipality is obliged to establish a planning commission, and statutory authority granted to towns, cities and boroughs under this chapter for establishment of zoning commission is not conditioned on simultaneous exercise of powers granted under chapter 126. 144 C. 117. Cited. 145 C. 435, 625; 147 C. 65; 148 C. 492. Entire history of zoning legislation indicates clear intention on part of general assembly, subject to certain underlying principles, to leave solution of zoning questions to local authority. Courts must not substitute their discretion for wide and liberal discretion enjoyed by zoning agencies. Court can grant relief on appeal only where local authority has acted arbitrarily or illegally and has thus abused discretion vested in it. 150 C. 79. Cited. Id., 131; 154 C. 203; Id., 463. Chapter is a general zoning enabling act and has no effect in city of Hartford whose legislative body has not acted to adopt it, except as to such provisions as Secs. 8-8 through 8-10 which the legislature intended should apply to all municipalities. 155 C. 360. Provisions of Sec. 8-7 held not to apply to municipality until it has adopted chapter as provided in Sec. 8-1. Id., 422. City of Norwalk has been acting under general statutes in zoning matters since 1929; therefore provisions of chapter apply to appeal from its board. Id., 550. Cited. 157 C. 308, 552. Whether or not a municipality adopts chapter, appeals from its final zoning authority are governed by Sec. 8-10. 159 C. 1. Cited. Id., 598. Amendments to zoning regulations are essentially legislative actions and courts will not disturb them unless amendment violates chapter or is “patently arbitrary”. 164 C. 210. Zoning in Norwich is controlled by special act, hence its charter and not this chapter controls the reference to referendum of a zoning ordinance. 167 C. 579. Cited. 171 C. 480. Fact that town and zoning enforcement officer, defendants in the action, were not named in the two previous actions does not preclude application of doctrine of res judicata. Since they represent the rights of the municipality the agents of the same municipal corporation are in privity with each other and with the municipality. 181 C. 556. Cited. 189 C. 261; 208 C. 267. Sec. 8-1 et seq., zoning, cited. 211 C. 690. Secs. 8-1–8-30a cited. 213 C. 604. Cited. 221 C. 374. Secs. 8-1–8-13a cited. 227 C. 71.

Cited. 2 CA 595; 22 CA 407. Sec. 8-1 et seq. cited. 35 CA 317.

Where building permit has been properly obtained, it may not arbitrarily be revoked, particularly where, on faith of it, owner has incurred material expense and substantial liabilities. 23 CS 461. Cited. 25 CS 278; 28 CS 286.

Table of Contents

Sec. 8-1. Zoning commissions.

Sec. 8-1a. “Municipality” to include district.

Sec. 8-1b. Alternate members of zoning commission or combined planning and zoning commission.

Sec. 8-1c. Fees for municipal land use applications.

Sec. 8-1d. Hours for holding land use public hearings.

Secs. 8-1e to 8-1z. Reserved

Sec. 8-1aa. Ridgeline protection: Definitions.

Sec. 8-2. Regulations.

Sec. 8-2a. Copies of zoning and subdivision regulations to be available.

Sec. 8-2b. Use of maps of Soil Conservation Service as standard.

Sec. 8-2c. Payment of a fee in lieu of parking requirements.

Sec. 8-2d. Planned unit developments under former chapter 124a continue to be valid.

Sec. 8-2e. Municipal agreements regarding development rights.

Sec. 8-2f. Joint applications necessary for transfer of development rights.

Sec. 8-2g. Special exemption from density limits for construction of affordable housing.

Sec. 8-2h. Zoning applications filed prior to change in zoning regulations not required to comply with change. Applications for building permit or certificate of occupancy filed prior to adoption of zoning regulations not required to comply with regulations.

Sec. 8-2i. Inclusionary zoning.

Sec. 8-2j. Village districts. Compatibility objectives with other uses in immediate neighborhood. Applications. Village district consultant.

Sec. 8-2k. Zoning regulations re construction near lakes.

Sec. 8-2l. Zoning regulations re structures or uses located in floodplain.

Sec. 8-2m. Floating and overlay zones and flexible zoning districts.

Sec. 8-2n. Zoning regulations re crematories.

Sec. 8-3. Establishment and changing of zoning regulations and districts. Enforcement of regulations. Certification of building permits and certificates of occupancy. Site plans. District for water-dependent uses.

Sec. 8-3a. Findings of consistency of proposed regulations or boundaries with the plan of development. Referral of proposed regulations or boundaries to planning commission.

Sec. 8-3b. Notice to regional planning agency of proposed zone or zone use change.

Sec. 8-3c. Special permits, exceptions and exemptions. Hearings. Filing requirements.

Sec. 8-3d. Variances, special permits, special exceptions and special exemptions to be recorded.

Sec. 8-3e. Regulation of community residences for persons with intellectual disability, child-care residential facilities and community residences for persons receiving mental health or addiction services.

Sec. 8-3f. Establishment of community residences for persons with intellectual disability and child-care residential facilities.

Sec. 8-3g. Regulation of community residences for mentally ill adults and UCONN 2000 projects.

Sec. 8-3h. Notice to adjoining municipalities.

Sec. 8-3i. Notice to water company re projects within aquifer protection area or watershed of water company.

Sec. 8-3j. Regulation of family day care homes.

Sec. 8-4. Zoning commission may be designated as planning and zoning commission.

Sec. 8-4a. Zoning or planning commission may be designated as planning and zoning commission.

Sec. 8-4b. Change from combined commission to separate commissions.

Sec. 8-5. Zoning board of appeals. Alternate members.

Sec. 8-5a. Designation of alternate members to act.

Sec. 8-5b. Ordinance may provide for appointment of alternate members.

Sec. 8-6. Powers and duties of board of appeals.

Sec. 8-6a. Appeal to be heard before variance when both joined.

Sec. 8-7. Appeals to board. Hearings. Effective date of exceptions or variances; filing requirements.

Sec. 8-7a. Evidence at hearings and meetings to deliberate formal petitions, applications, requests or appeals to be taken by stenographer or recorded.

Sec. 8-7b. Notice to contiguous municipalities of variance applications.

Sec. 8-7c. Disclosure of beneficiaries of real property held in trust.

Sec. 8-7d. Hearings and decisions. Time limits. Day of receipt. Notice to adjoining municipality. Public notice registry.

Sec. 8-7e. Notice to adjoining municipalities of applications or requests.

Sec. 8-8. Appeal from board to court. Mediation. Review by Appellate Court.

Sec. 8-8a. Process for mediation.

Sec. 8-9. Appeals from zoning commissions and planning and zoning commissions. Review by Appellate Court.

Sec. 8-10. Appeals procedure to apply to all municipalities.

Sec. 8-11. Disqualification of members of zoning authorities.

Sec. 8-11a. Disqualification of board member as enforcement officer.

Sec. 8-12. Procedure when regulations are violated.

Sec. 8-12a. Establishment of municipal penalties for violations of regulations.

Sec. 8-13. Controlling requirement in case of variation.

Sec. 8-13a. Nonconforming buildings and land uses.


Sec. 8-1. Zoning commissions. (a) Any municipality may, by vote of its legislative body, adopt the provisions of this chapter and exercise through a zoning commission the powers granted hereunder. On and after July 1, 1974, in each municipality, except as otherwise provided by special act or charter provision adopted under chapter 99, the zoning commission shall consist of not less than five nor more than nine members, with minority representation as determined under section 9-167a, who shall be electors of such municipality. The number of such members and the method of selection and removal for cause and terms of office shall be determined by ordinance, provided no such ordinance shall designate the legislative body of such municipality to act as such zoning commission, except that (1) in towns having a population of less than five thousand, the selectmen may be empowered by such ordinance to act as such zoning commission, (2) a legislative body which is acting as a zoning commission prior to July 1, 1974, pursuant to an ordinance, may continue to act as such zoning commission if such municipality has initiated a charter revision pursuant to section 7-188, prior to July 1, 1974, which revision proposes to designate such legislative body as the zoning commission, and such charter revision is approved as provided in section 7-191, and (3) a legislative body which is acting as a zoning commission prior to June 17, 1987, pursuant to a special act may continue to act as such zoning commission. The manner for filling vacancies arising from any cause shall be provided by vote of the legislative body.

(b) The zoning commission of any town shall have jurisdiction over that part of the town outside of any city or borough contained therein except that the legislative body of any city or borough may, by ordinance, designate the zoning commission of the town in which such city or borough is situated as the zoning commission of such city or borough.

(1949 Rev., S. 836; 1951, S. 156b; 1953, S. 373d; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 41; 1959, P.A. 614, S. 1; P.A. 73-256; P.A. 74-232, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-629, S. 1; P.A. 87-278, S. 3, 5.)

History: 1959 act authorized ordinances determining method of removal for cause and authorized legislative body to determine manner of filling vacancies; P.A. 73-256 established membership of zoning commission as “not less than five nor more than nine members with minority representation as determined under section 9-167a”, effective July 1, 1974, unless otherwise provided and prohibited legislative body from acting as zoning commission reversing previous provision allowing such double duty; P.A. 74-232 set forth special conditions under which legislative body may act as zoning commission; P.A. 75-629 divided section into subsections and set forth conditions under which town commission serves as commission for city or borough within its limits; P.A. 87-278 added Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (a) concerning legislative bodies acting as a zoning commission pursuant to a special act.

See Secs. 1-1 and 9-1 for applicable definitions.

See Sec. 9-209 re certification of terms of office and number of members of planning and zoning boards or commissions.

See Sec. 22a-354n re delineation of aquifer protection areas on maps.

Extent of zoning authority of city. 110 C. 101, 102. Establishment of commission is act of town, not legislature; optional with town to adopt and to terminate zoning system. 118 C. 6. Cited. 131 C. 299; 132 C. 216; 133 C. 234. Reference to special act explained. Id., 251. Town meeting may not amend or repeal regulations duly made by commission. Id., 596. Cited. 138 C. 500; 141 C. 349; 143 C. 448. Once a municipality has established a zoning commission, it cannot regulate its actions, except as expressly provided in its municipal charter. 148 C. 33. Cited. Id., 299; 149 C. 411. Municipality’s legislative body must pass on act in which the intent to utilize the zoning provisions of the enabling act is expressed. 152 C. 237. Where legislative body of city of Hartford never took action to adopt chapter, provisions do not apply to city except where the legislature makes sections applicable to all municipalities. 155 C. 360. Until chapter is adopted by legislative body of municipality in manner provided, Sec. 8-7 does not apply to hearings before its zoning board of appeals. Id., 422. Cited. 157 C. 308, 552. The mere fact that one not a member of a zoning commission served as moderator of a commission meeting does not invalidate the meeting in absence of a showing the meeting was conducted illegally. 166 C. 207. Cited. 167 C. 579; 170 C. 61; 189 C. 261; 208 C. 267; 214 C. 400; 216 C. 112; 220 C. 584.

Cited. 21 CA 351.

Cited. 5 CS 195. Members of zoning board are not agents or employees of a town; they constitute a legal entity. 12 CS 192. Cited. 13 CS 59; 14 CS 246. Limitation put on town’s authority to avoid duplication with political subdivision. Id., 258. Compared with former statute. 15 CS 413. Cited. 18 CS 45; 19 CS 446. Municipality must adhere minutely to enabling act when adopting zoning ordinance. 21 CS 78. Failure of board of burgesses to formally adopt enabling act held to invalidate subsequent zoning ordinance. Id. Omission of zoning powers from enumeration of specific powers granted to towns under Home Rule Act compels conclusion that legislature did not intend that any action under said act should alter the declared law under this statute. 25 CS 378. Zoning regulations adopted prior to new charter which contains no zoning regulation powers, prevail over charter and zoning commission could appoint its own agent as zoning enforcement officer of the town. 28 CS 278. Cited. Id., 419.

Subsec. (a):

Once municipality adopts provisions of chapter and establishes a zoning commission which then commences its functions in accordance with chapter, commission is not subject to interference by municipality’s legislative body; municipality’s legislative body may not substitute its judgment for that of commission in a matter involving use of municipality’s land. 49 CS 183.

Sec. 8-1a. “Municipality” to include district. “Municipality” as used in this chapter shall include a district establishing a zoning commission under section 7-326. Wherever the words “town” and “selectmen” appear in this chapter, they shall be deemed to include “district” and “officers of such district”, respectively.

(1959, P.A. 577, S. 1.)

Cited. 212 C. 375; 216 C. 112.

Sec. 8-1b. Alternate members of zoning commission or combined planning and zoning commission. Any town, city or borough, in addition to such powers as it has under the provisions of the general statutes or any special act, shall have the power to provide by ordinance for the appointment or election of alternate members to its zoning commission or combined planning and zoning commission. Such alternate members shall, when seated as herein provided, have all the powers and duties set forth in the general statutes or any special act relating to such municipality for such commission and its members. Such alternate members shall be electors and shall not be members of the zoning board of appeals or planning commission. Such ordinance shall provide for the manner of designating alternates to act.

(1963, P.A. 249; February, 1965, P.A. 280; 1971, P.A. 763, S. 1; P.A. 84-154, S. 1, 3; P.A. 85-284, S. 1, 5.)

History: 1965 act provided option of electing alternate members; 1971 act deleted provision concerning alternate members of planning commissions, forbade members of planning commission to serve as alternate members of zoning commission and deleted provisions concerning selection of alternate by member he is to substitute for, giving chairman sole power to make selection; P.A. 84-154 provided for mandatory appointment or election of alternates, effective January 1, 1986; P.A. 85-284 repealed provisions of P.A. 84-154 and provided that local ordinances shall provide for the manner of designating alternates to act.

See Sec. 8-19a re alternate members of planning commission.

Cited. 168 C. 20.

Sec. 8-1c. Fees for municipal land use applications. Any municipality may, by ordinance, establish a schedule of reasonable fees for the processing of applications by a municipal zoning commission, planning commission, combined planning and zoning commission, zoning board of appeals or inland wetlands commission. Such schedule shall supersede any specific fees set forth in the general statutes, or any special act or established by a planning commission under section 8-26.

(P.A. 82-282; P.A. 93-124, S. 2; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 9, 130.)

History: P.A. 93-124 added reference to planning commissions for consistency with 1993 changes to the general statutes; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical change, effective July 1, 1994.

Town has broad authority under section to define subdivision application processing fees by ordinance subject only to the standard of reasonableness. 232 C. 44.

Sec. 8-1d. Hours for holding land use public hearings. Any municipality may, by ordinance, establish an hour at or after which public hearings shall be held by its planning commission, zoning commission, combined planning and zoning commission, zoning board of appeals and inland wetlands agency.

(P.A. 89-175, S. 2, 7.)

Secs. 8-1e to 8-1z. Reserved for future use.

Sec. 8-1aa. Ridgeline protection: Definitions. As used in section 8-2:

(1) “Traprock ridge” means Beacon Hill, Saltonstall Mountain, Totoket Mountain, Pistapaug Mountain, Fowler Mountain, Beseck Mountain, Higby Mountain, Chauncey Peak, Lamentation Mountain, Cathole Mountain, South Mountain, East Peak, West Peak, Short Mountain, Ragged Mountain, Bradley Mountain, Pinnacle Rock, Rattlesnake Mountain, Talcott Mountain, Hatchett Hill, Peak Mountain, West Suffield Mountain, Cedar Mountain, East Rock, Mount Sanford, Prospect Ridge, Peck Mountain, West Rock, Sleeping Giant, Pond Ledge Hill, Onion Mountain, The Sugarloaf, The Hedgehog, West Mountains, The Knolls, Barndoor Hills, Stony Hill, Manitook Mountain, Rattlesnake Hill, Durkee Hill, East Hill, Rag Land, Bear Hill, Orenaug Hills;

(2) “Amphibolite ridge” means Huckleberry Hill, East Hill, Ratlum Hill, Mount Hoar, Sweetheart Mountain;

(3) “Ridgeline” means the line on a traprock or amphibolite ridge created by all points at the top of a fifty per cent slope, which is maintained for a distance of fifty horizontal feet perpendicular to the slope and which consists of surficial basalt geology, identified on the map prepared by Stone et al., United States Geological Survey, entitled “Surficial Materials Map of Connecticut”;

(4) “Ridgeline setback area” means the area bounded by (A) a line that parallels the ridgeline at a distance of one hundred fifty feet on the more wooded side of the ridge, and (B) the contour line where a ridge of less than fifty per cent is maintained for fifty feet or more on the rockier side of the slope, mapped pursuant to section 8-2;

(5) “Development” means the construction, reconstruction, alteration, or expansion of a building; and

(6) “Building” means any structure other than (A) a facility as defined in section 16-50i or (B) structures of a relatively slender nature compared to the buildings to which they are associated, including but not limited to chimneys, flagpoles, antennas, utility poles and steeples.

(P.A. 95-239, S. 1; P.A. 98-105, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 83, 121.)

History: P.A. 98-105 added new Subdiv. (2) defining “amphibolite ridge”, renumbering existing Subdivs. accordingly, and made technical corrections; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made technical corrections, effective June 24, 1998.

Sec. 8-2. Regulations. (a) The zoning commission of each city, town or borough is authorized to regulate, within the limits of such municipality, the height, number of stories and size of buildings and other structures; the percentage of the area of the lot that may be occupied; the size of yards, courts and other open spaces; the density of population and the location and use of buildings, structures and land for trade, industry, residence or other purposes, including water-dependent uses, as defined in section 22a-93, and the height, size and location of advertising signs and billboards. Such bulk regulations may allow for cluster development, as defined in section 8-18. Such zoning commission may divide the municipality into districts of such number, shape and area as may be best suited to carry out the purposes of this chapter; and, within such districts, it may regulate the erection, construction, reconstruction, alteration or use of buildings or structures and the use of land. All such regulations shall be uniform for each class or kind of buildings, structures or use of land throughout each district, but the regulations in one district may differ from those in another district, and may provide that certain classes or kinds of buildings, structures or uses of land are permitted only after obtaining a special permit or special exception from a zoning commission, planning commission, combined planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals, whichever commission or board the regulations may, notwithstanding any special act to the contrary, designate, subject to standards set forth in the regulations and to conditions necessary to protect the public health, safety, convenience and property values. Such regulations shall be made in accordance with a comprehensive plan and in adopting such regulations the commission shall consider the plan of conservation and development prepared under section 8-23. Such regulations shall be designed to lessen congestion in the streets; to secure safety from fire, panic, flood and other dangers; to promote health and the general welfare; to provide adequate light and air; to prevent the overcrowding of land; to avoid undue concentration of population and to facilitate the adequate provision for transportation, water, sewerage, schools, parks and other public requirements. Such regulations shall be made with reasonable consideration as to the character of the district and its peculiar suitability for particular uses and with a view to conserving the value of buildings and encouraging the most appropriate use of land throughout such municipality. Such regulations may, to the extent consistent with soil types, terrain, infrastructure capacity and the plan of conservation and development for the community, provide for cluster development, as defined in section 8-18, in residential zones. Such regulations shall also encourage the development of housing opportunities, including opportunities for multifamily dwellings, consistent with soil types, terrain and infrastructure capacity, for all residents of the municipality and the planning region in which the municipality is located, as designated by the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management under section 16a-4a. Such regulations shall also promote housing choice and economic diversity in housing, including housing for both low and moderate income households, and shall encourage the development of housing which will meet the housing needs identified in the state’s consolidated plan for housing and community development prepared pursuant to section 8-37t and in the housing component and the other components of the state plan of conservation and development prepared pursuant to section 16a-26. Zoning regulations shall be made with reasonable consideration for their impact on agriculture, as defined in subsection (q) of section 1-1. Zoning regulations may be made with reasonable consideration for the protection of historic factors and shall be made with reasonable consideration for the protection of existing and potential public surface and ground drinking water supplies. On and after July 1, 1985, the regulations shall provide that proper provision be made for soil erosion and sediment control pursuant to section 22a-329. Such regulations may also encourage energy-efficient patterns of development, the use of solar and other renewable forms of energy, and energy conservation. The regulations may also provide for incentives for developers who use passive solar energy techniques, as defined in subsection (b) of section 8-25, in planning a residential subdivision development. The incentives may include, but not be limited to, cluster development, higher density development and performance standards for roads, sidewalks and underground facilities in the subdivision. Such regulations may provide for a municipal system for the creation of development rights and the permanent transfer of such development rights, which may include a system for the variance of density limits in connection with any such transfer. Such regulations may also provide for notice requirements in addition to those required by this chapter. Such regulations may provide for conditions on operations to collect spring water or well water, as defined in section 21a-150, including the time, place and manner of such operations. No such regulations shall prohibit the operation of any family day care home or group day care home in a residential zone. No such regulations shall prohibit the use of receptacles for the storage of items designated for recycling in accordance with section 22a-241b or require that such receptacles comply with provisions for bulk or lot area, or similar provisions, except provisions for side yards, rear yards and front yards. No such regulations shall unreasonably restrict access to or the size of such receptacles for businesses, given the nature of the business and the volume of items designated for recycling in accordance with section 22a-241b, that such business produces in its normal course of business, provided nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit such regulations from requiring the screening or buffering of such receptacles for aesthetic reasons. Such regulations shall not impose conditions and requirements on manufactured homes having as their narrowest dimension twenty-two feet or more and built in accordance with federal manufactured home construction and safety standards or on lots containing such manufactured homes which are substantially different from conditions and requirements imposed on single-family dwellings and lots containing single-family dwellings. Such regulations shall not impose conditions and requirements on developments to be occupied by manufactured homes having as their narrowest dimension twenty-two feet or more and built in accordance with federal manufactured home construction and safety standards which are substantially different from conditions and requirements imposed on multifamily dwellings, lots containing multifamily dwellings, cluster developments or planned unit developments. Such regulations shall not prohibit the continuance of any nonconforming use, building or structure existing at the time of the adoption of such regulations. Such regulations shall not provide for the termination of any nonconforming use solely as a result of nonuse for a specified period of time without regard to the intent of the property owner to maintain that use. Any city, town or borough which adopts the provisions of this chapter may, by vote of its legislative body, exempt municipal property from the regulations prescribed by the zoning commission of such city, town or borough; but unless it is so voted municipal property shall be subject to such regulations.

(b) In any municipality that is contiguous to Long Island Sound the regulations adopted under this section shall be made with reasonable consideration for restoration and protection of the ecosystem and habitat of Long Island Sound and shall be designed to reduce hypoxia, pathogens, toxic contaminants and floatable debris in Long Island Sound. Such regulations shall provide that the commission consider the environmental impact on Long Island Sound of any proposal for development.

(c) In any municipality where a traprock ridge, as defined in section 8-1aa, or an amphibolite ridge, as defined in section 8-1aa, is located the regulations may provide for development restrictions in ridgeline setback areas, as defined in said section. The regulations may restrict quarrying and clear cutting, except that the following operations and uses shall be permitted in ridgeline setback areas, as of right: (1) Emergency work necessary to protect life and property; (2) any nonconforming uses that were in existence and that were approved on or before the effective date of regulations adopted under this section; and (3) selective timbering, grazing of domesticated animals and passive recreation.

(1949 Rev., S. 837; November, 1955, S. N10; 1959, P.A. 614, S. 2; 661; 1961, P.A. 569; 1963, P.A. 133; 1967, P.A. 801; P.A. 77-509, S. 1; P.A. 78-314, S. 1; P.A. 80-327, S. 1; P.A. 81-334, S. 2; P.A. 83-388, S. 6, 9; P.A. 84-263; P.A. 85-91, S. 2, 5; 85-279, S. 3; P.A. 87-215, S. 1, 7; 87-232; 87-474, S. 1; 87-490, S. 1; P.A. 88-105, S. 2; 88-203, S. 1; P.A. 89-277, S. 1; P.A. 91-170, S. 1; 91-392, S. 1; 91-395, S. 1, 11; P.A. 92-50; P.A. 93-385, S. 3; P.A. 95-239, S. 2; 95-335, S. 14, 26; P.A. 97-296, S. 2, 4; P.A. 98-105, S. 3; P.A. 10-87, S. 4; P.A. 11-124, S. 2; 11-188, S. 3.)

History: 1959 acts required that regulations be uniform for use of land in district and authorized requirement of special permits or exceptions; 1961 act deleted provision authorizing reconstruction of nonconforming structure destroyed or damaged by fire or casualty provided cost be less than 50% of fair market value of property and reconstruction be commenced within six months; 1963 act allowed municipality to exempt municipal property from zoning regulations; 1967 act specified that special acts contrary to provision re special permits or special exceptions have no bearing; P.A. 77-509 allowed considerations of historic factors, sedimentation control and erosion in zoning regulations; P.A. 78-314 allowed regulations to encourage energy-efficient development, energy conservation and use of renewable forms of energy; P.A. 80-327 allowed consideration of water supply protection; P.A. 81-334 authorized regulations to provide for incentives for developers using passive solar energy techniques; P.A. 83-388 required provision be made for soil erosion and sediment control, effective July 1, 1985; P.A. 84-263 provided the regulations shall encourage the development of housing opportunities for all citizens of the municipality consistent with soil types, terrain and infrastructure capacity (Revisor’s note: P.A. 84-263, which took effect on October 1, 1984, incorporated the amendment enacted by P.A. 83-388, but the Revisors are of the opinion that (1) this in no way changed the July 1, 1985, effective date of the 1983 act, and (2) the further amendment in the 1984 act took effect on October 1, 1984); P.A. 85-91 specified the date by which provision for soil erosion and sediment control is required; P.A. 85-279 made consideration of the protection of surface water and groundwater mandatory where before it had been discretionary; P.A. 87-215 authorized regulations to provide for additional notice requirements; P.A. 87-232 provided that no regulations shall prohibit the operation of any family day care home or group day care home in a residential zone; P.A. 87-474 clarified authority to regulate water-dependent uses; P.A. 87-490 inserted provisions concerning creation and transfer of development rights; P.A. 88-105 required zoning regulations to be made with reasonable consideration for their impact on agriculture; P.A. 88-203 added provisions re imposition of conditions and requirements on certain manufactured homes and developments to be occupied by certain manufactured homes; P.A. 89-277 added provision specifying that the regulations shall not provide for the termination of a nonconforming use solely as a result of nonuse without regard to intent; P.A. 91-170 designated existing language as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re regulations in municipalities contiguous to Long Island Sound; P.A. 91-392 required regulations to encourage opportunities for multifamily dwellings for residents of municipality and planning region, to promote housing choice and economic diversity in housing and to encourage housing development consistent with the state housing plan and the state plan of conservation and development; P.A. 91-395 authorized adoption of regulations under this section to provide for cluster development; P.A. 92-50 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate reference to adoption of regulations in accordance with the comprehensive plan and substituted consideration of the plan of development in lieu thereof; P.A. 93-385 amended Subsec. (a) by requiring that regulations be made in accordance with a comprehensive plan; P.A. 95-239 added Subsec. (c) re development restrictions in ridgeline setback areas (Revisor’s note: Uppercase alphabetic Subdiv. indicators were replaced editorially by the Revisors with numeric indicators for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 95-335 amended Subsec. (a) to change “plan of development” to “plan of conservation and development”, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-296 amended Subsec. (a) to allow regulations to provide for conditions on operations to collect spring or well water, effective July 8, 1997; P.A. 98-105 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for protection of amphibolite ridgelines; P.A. 10-87 amended Subsec. (a) by making technical changes and adding provision prohibiting regulations from prohibiting use of receptacles for storage of items designated for recycling or requiring such receptacles to comply with provisions for bulk or lot area and prohibiting regulations from unreasonably restricting access to or size of such receptacles for businesses; P.A. 11-124 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “housing plan” with “state’s consolidated plan for housing and community development”; P.A. 11-188 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to Sec. 1-1(q) re definition of “agriculture”.

Regulation prohibiting in light industrial zone a use noxious by reason of odor, dust, gas or smoke has rational relation to health and public welfare. 110 C. 102. Exclusion from residential zones of buildings devoted to most business uses is proper. Id., 138. “Farming” in regulation construed. 113 C. 53. Cited. 123 C. 264. Where change in regulations seriously affects value of property of an individual. Id., 286. Cited. 126 C. 237. Not a violation of section to treat signs referring to business on property where signs stand differently from signs not so related to such a business. 131 C. 304. What constitutes a zoning regulation. Id., 647. Cited. 132 C. 216; 134 C. 293. To permit business in small area within residential zone may fall within scope of a “comprehensive plan”, and unless it amounts to unreasonable or arbitrary action, is not unlawful. 136 C. 89. Change of zone for small area can be made only if it falls within requirements of comprehensive plan. Id., 452. Ordinance valid as meeting requirements of enabling act if plan is comprehensive as to territory, public needs and time and if it promotes public welfare. 138 C. 434. Action of commission was spot zoning. 139 C. 59. Extension of industrial zone into residential area is proper if in accord with comprehensive plan and general welfare. Id., 603. Requires zoning regulations be expressive of plan which is comprehensive and promotes public welfare. 141 C. 349. Zoning regulations shall be made in accordance with “a comprehensive plan” which is general plan to control and direct use and development of property in municipality or large part thereof by dividing it into districts according to present and potential use of properties. 142 C. 265. Zoning regulations must be made upon reasonable consideration of character of district and its peculiar suitability for particular purposes and with view to conserving value of buildings and encouraging most appropriate use of land throughout the town. Id., 580. Cited. 143 C. 280. Zoning commission and not town meeting authorized to divide municipality into districts and to regulate erection or use of buildings or structures and use of land. Id., 448. Power to determine what are needs of town with reference to use of real property and to legislate in such manner that those needs will be satisfied vests exclusively in zoning commission. Id., 542. Comprehensive plan in accordance with which zoning regulations are to be adopted is such a plan as zoning commission devises. 144 C. 117. Permits change in zonal classification only when change is made in accordance with comprehensive plan. Id., 160. Regulations should be made in accordance with comprehensive plan. Id., 560. Elements of spot zoning. Id., 600. Spot zoning defined. 145 C. 26; 148 C. 97. Granting of change of zone within two months of refusal of similar application and after private conference with applicants opens commission to criticism. 145 C. 237. Anything which weakens public confidence in commission and undermines sense of security of individual’s rights is against public policy. Id. Zoning regulations are invalid if not made in accordance with comprehensive plan (former statute). Id., 394. Deviation from comprehensive plan permissible. Zone change which may increase traffic in area not necessarily barred. Id., 435. Interpretation of special act similar to section. Id., 476. Requisites to establish nonconforming use. Id., 682. Main, principal and dominant use of a building determines its character. 146 C. 70. Change of zone increased rather than lessened congestion in streets; action of commission held illegal. Id., 321. Maximum possible enrichment of developers is not controlling purpose of zoning. Id., 531. Powers of zoning commission distinguished from those of planning commission. Id., 570. Dicta that zoning regulations may in their operation result in prohibition under some circumstances. Id., 697. One aim of zoning is elimination of nonconforming uses. 147 C. 30. Provision re continuance of nonconforming uses not applicable to regulations enacted prior to effective date of amendment. Id., 358. Use held not to be permissible nonconforming use because lot was not being used for such purpose when zoning regulations were adopted. 148 C. 84. A proposed use cannot constitute an existing nonconforming use. Id., 299. Conflict between public welfare and private gain discussed. Id. An essential purpose of zoning is to stabilize use of property. Id., 492. “Comprehensive plan” defined. Id. Interpretation that regulation, prohibiting premises to be used for sale of liquor if entrance to same was within 1,500 feet of entrance to other premises used for such sale, prohibited certification of premises in question because liquor outlet was located within 1,500 feet, although in another town, held proper and did not give extraterritorial effect to regulation. 149 C. 292. Fact that section forbids zoning regulations affecting antecedent nonconforming uses is no benefit to plaintiff who merely contemplates such a use. Id., 678. In order to attack constitutionality of regulations, plaintiff must demonstrate that it is affected by them. Challenge of unconstitutional delegation of legislative power is successfully met if ordinance declares a legislative policy, establishes primary standards for carrying it out or lays down an intelligible principle to which agency must conform with proper regard for protection of public interest. Regulations themselves are not unconstitutional because of failure to establish adequate standards to meet constitutional requirement. In order to hold zoning regulation unconstitutional as violative of due process of law or equal protection clauses of state or federal constitution, it must appear that provisions are clearly arbitrary and unreasonable, having no substantial relation to public health, safety, morals or general welfare. Regulations did no more than offer assurance of measure of supervision by responsible public authority over conditions which affected public health, safety and general welfare, and consequently they were a proper exercise of the police power. Id., 712. Question of power or authority of commission either to hear or to decide application for change of zone must be decided before further action is taken. Trial court should have determined the question, it being basic to issue of validity of change of zone. Id., 746. Legislative history and purposes discussed. Zoning commission can by regulation reserve to itself or delegate to any of the other specified agencies power to grant a special permit or special exception. Purpose of section is to establish means by which special requirements affecting particular property could be imposed whether they affected buildings and structures or land. Provision that zoning regulations must conform to a comprehensive plan is to prevent arbitrary, unreasonable and discriminatory exercise of zoning power. Comprehensive plan of Ridgefield found in scheme of zoning regulations themselves. Courts cannot substitute their discretion for wide and liberal discretion enjoyed by local zoning agencies. Relief can be granted on appeal only when local authority has acted arbitrarily or illegally and thus has abused discretion vested in it. 150 C. 79. Change of zone for small area is open to suspicion as spot zoning but can be sustained if it is in harmony with comprehensive plan. Zoning commission may accept long-continued nonconforming use as permanent and inevitable and find that change of zone which would render use conforming would encourage most appropriate use of land in town. Id., 129. Cited. Id., 146. Nonconforming uses should be abolished or reduced to conformity as speedily as fair interest of parties will permit, and in no case should be allowed to increase. Id., 439. Power to stipulate restrictions re garden apartments implied power to withhold approval entirely. Id., 672. Where zoning regulations excluded uses not specifically permitted and made no provision for storing vehicles on vacant lots in residential zone, plaintiff was in violation for doing so. 151 C. 46. Burden of proof as to whether commission acted improperly is on aggrieved party. Id., 484. If any reason for action of commission in denying a zone change is supported, subsequent appeal must fail. 152 C. 262. Cited. Id., 329. Word “school” used in zoning regulations of Westport construed. Id., 559. Fact that zoning regulations were designated as “interim” does not make them invalid. 153 C. 187. Where zoning regulations imposed restrictions on lot size, the placement of building on property and minimum living areas of residential property, with exceptions for seasonal properties within 500 feet of the high-water mark of any body of water, held that a “comprehensive” plan was established, even though no restriction was placed on the particular uses which might be made of the property since the community was small, rural and almost entirely residential and since, because zoning commission is clothed with liberal discretion in enacting regulations, a court is not justified in upsetting its decision merely because it feels a different classification might have been preferable. Id., 191. It is not required that zoning regulations divide town into districts as long as every owner of property located in the town can ascertain with reasonable certainty what uses he may legally make of any portion of his property. Id. Cited. Id., 310. Where plaintiff’s application to the board does not make it clear whether a permit under the zoning ordinance or an approval under the statutes is requested, the board must decide each issue separately and the required number of votes for each must be met in order for the application to be approved. 154 C. 32, 36. In the absence of standards set up by the local zoning ordinance, the power to grant a special permit under statute is denied despite the fact that statute itself provides for certain standards. Id., 156, 161. Cited. Id., 210. Zoning commission’s refusal of a change of zone as to plaintiff’s property shown by the record as not arbitrary or an abuse of discretion but for the general welfare of the community. Id., 309. Standards used for special exceptions for hospital found sufficiently definite. 154 C. 399, 403. Zoning authority acts as a legislative body in making zoning changes. Commission acted reasonably in rezoning a central area to meet the changing conditions of the town. Id., 463. Amendment adopted by zoning commission involved a debatable question within its legislative capacity to resolve. Courts are cautious about disturbing commission’s decisions. Id., 470. Record does not show town plan and zoning commission acted illegally, arbitrarily or in abuse of its discretion in upgrading zone of an undeveloped residential area, particularly when change of zone was made in accordance with comprehensive plan lately adopted. Id., 638. Although commission should not ordinarily alter classification of area in absence of changed conditions, rule being a restriction on legislative discretion will be applied only when zoning amendment is patently arbitrary. 155 C. 209. Spot zoning defined. Id., 210. Change of zone predicated on interest in providing housing for persons displaced by redevelopment project, if otherwise consistent with accepted zoning principles, is reasonable exercise of board’s discretionary powers. Id. Cited. Id., 563; 156 C. 102, 287, 300. Zoning board of appeals upheld where it granted exception to town to locate sanitary landfill operation as record showed public welfare was served thereby and neighboring property not substantially injured. 157 C. 106. Responsibility and authority for zoning rests with zoning commission and unless its action is clearly contrary to a rational development of the town’s comprehensive plan, courts will not interfere with commission’s decisions. Id., 434. Regulation requiring signature of owner on future developer’s petition for change was waived by lack of timely objection and its omission did not affect jurisdiction of commission. Id., 520. Change of zone enacted by commission substantially not in accordance with comprehensive plan of zoning of town held arbitrary, illegal and in abuse of its discretion. 158 C. 78. Only in cases where zoning authority has acted arbitrarily or illegally will courts reverse authority’s disapproval of reclassification. Id., 111. Zoning commission’s delegation of power to grant exception to zoning board of appeals was invalid as no criteria were given and delegation of power was too broad. Id., 196. Denial of plaintiff’s application for change of zone for property he owned not unreasonable merely on ground zoning authority had approved the same changes the previous year. Id., 301. Where plaintiff’s filling station was an existing use which predated zoning ordinance and ordinance provided for filling stations as exceptional use in his area, the use was not a nonconforming but a permitted use. Id., 516. Language herein is sufficiently broad to permit creation of floating zones. 159 C. 192; 197. Section does not militate against change in general zoning classification that is reasonable and in community interest. Id., 192. Cited. 160 C. 120, 121. Zoning commissions may grant special building permits subject to certain conditions to protect public health, safety, convenience and property values. Id., 295. Although zoning commission has wide discretion it must predicate its decisions on fair and proper motives and follow legislative direction of statute. Id., 397. Cited. 161 C. 32; Id., 182; Id., 430; 162 C. 23; 163 C. 49, 190. Power to vary ordinance in zoning board of appeals. Id., 453. “Congestion in the streets” means density of traffic, not overall volume. 164 C. 215. Cited. 165 C. 533; 166 C. 305; 168 C. 358; 172 C. 306; 173 C. 23; 174 C. 212; 176 C. 479; Id., 581; 177 C. 420; 178 C. 657; 179 C. 650; 181 C. 230; 185 C. 135; Id., 294; 186 C. 106. Commission was justified in considering drainage, historical and rural factors although these factors not specifically incorporated in the municipal regulations. 189 C. 261. Cited. 193 C. 506. Moratorium was not beyond the powers delegated by statute. 194 C. 152. Cited. 199 C. 575; 201 C. 700; 205 C. 703. Includes “... the power to terminate nonconforming uses solely because of nonuse for a specified period.” 206 C. 595. Cited. 208 C. 146. Minimum floor area requirements held not to be rationally related to any legitimate purpose of zoning under section. Id., 267. “... statute has not delegated to municipalities the power to regulate colors in a sign.” Id., 480. Cited. 212 C. 570; 213 C. 604; 214 C. 400; 217 C. 103; Id., 447; 220 C. 61; Id., 527; Id., 584; Id., 556; 222 C. 216; Id., 607; 224 C. 124; Id., 823; 225 C. 731; 227 C. 71; 232 C. 122; Id., 419; 234 C. 221; Id., 498. Decision by zoning commission re historic overlay zone not a decision on floating zone and is an administrative function, requiring substantial supporting evidence. 258 C. 205.

Cited. 6 CA 237. Violation of uniformity requirement of statute by creation of a buffer area discussed. Id., 686. Cited. 7 CA 684; 10 CA 190; 12 CA 90; 13 CA 159; Id., 448; Id., 699; 15 CA 110; 16 CA 303. Zoning power “to regulate” under section does not include power “to prohibit” unless prohibition is supported by a rational relation to purposes of zoning. 17 CA 17; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 570. Cited. 19 CA 334; 21 CA 538; 24 CA 5; Id., 526; 25 CA 375; Id., 392; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 607; 26 CA 212; 28 CA 314; 30 CA 627; 31 CA 643; 35 CA 594; Id., 820; 36 CA 98; 37 CA 303; 40 CA 501. Reiterated previous holdings that regulation of uses of land, like regulations for classes of buildings and structures, must be uniform and use of special exceptions authorized. 85 CA 820. Planned development district under special act not authorized under statute since no uniform standards for applications. Id. Test of commission’s action is twofold: (1) The zone change must be in accord with a comprehensive plan and (2) it must be reasonably related to normal police power purposes enumerated in section. Only where local zoning authority has acted arbitrarily or illegally and thus abused the discretion vested in it can courts grant relief on appeal. 99 CA 768.

Standards by which regulations are to be scrutinized. 15 CS 485. Change of zone classification of large lot in center of residential area to business is spot zoning. 16 CS 189. Cited. Id., 328. Where zoning ordinance attempted to zone by individual pieces of property, held not in accordance with comprehensive plan. Id., 422. Power of zoning commission to fix minimum lot sizes and minimum floor areas upheld. 19 CS 24. Cited. Id., 447. Omission of any direct mention of a mobile home park as a permitted use of land anywhere in a town does not render zoning law void or unconstitutional. 21 CS 275. In order to qualify as nonconforming use, use must be in existence when ordinance goes into effect or in such a state of preparation that it is naturally recognized in neighborhood as such a use. Id. Restrictive covenant and zoning restrictions are two entirely separate and unrelated limitations on use of property. Where deeds to all lots sold under general development scheme contain same restrictive covenants, each grantee is entitled to enforce them in absence of conduct on his part constituting laches, waiver or abandonment. 22 CS 235. Nonconforming use may be increased in extent by natural expansion and growth. 24 CS 221. Cited. 25 CS 277. Zoning commission has no statutory power to enact ordinance limiting occupancy of certain areas to elderly persons. 26 CS 128. To change nonconforming business use to nonconforming liquor use is an increase in use and zoning board of appeals acted arbitrarily, illegally and in abuse of discretion in denying plaintiff’s appeal. Id., 457. Refusal of zoning variance to permit use of plaintiff’s property as gasoline station, its claimed best use, was not an unconstitutional confiscation of property. Id., 475. Change of zone dependent for proper functioning on action by other agencies over which zoning commission has no control cannot be sustained unless action appears not a possibility but a probability. Id., 503. Community as a whole must benefit from commission action. Id. Regulation of defendant zoning commission requiring gasoline station sites to be 1,500 feet apart is an exercise of police power which plaintiff failed to prove unreasonable or confiscatory of his property’s value. 27 CS 362. Cited. 30 CS 157, 164; 32 CS 217; 34 CS 177; 35 CS 246. Statute provides no authority to planning and zoning commissions to modify statutes under which they acquire authority. 36 CS 281. Cited. 39 CS 436; 41 CS 196; Id., 593; 42 CS 256; 43 CS 373.

Subsec. (a):

Zoning commission amendment to town’s zoning regulations satisfied the uniformity requirements of Subsec. and was reasonably related to balancing conservation and development. 259 C. 402. Soil contamination issue not limited to review of site plan application but also relevant to adoption of proposed text amendment because Subsec. requires regulations to “promote health and general welfare”. 271 C. 1. That Subsec. explicitly authorizes special permits demonstrates that legislature itself recognized the need for exceptions to uniformity, and, therefore, complete uniformity was not mandated. 281 C. 66. Subdivision of property into more than 30 residential lots that otherwise comply with applicable zoning regulations is not a distinct “use of land” subject to special permit regulations under Subsec. 288 C. 730.

Implicitly requires uniform enforcement of zoning regulations. 49 CA 669. Use of property as gasoline station was not a preexisting, nonconforming use. 74 CA 622. Does not necessarily confer authority in zoning commission to promulgate regulations re noise pollution and does not contradict legislature’s specific enactment in Sec. 22a-67 et seq. 76 CA 199.

Cited. 36 CS 98.

Sec. 8-2a. Copies of zoning and subdivision regulations to be available. The secretary or clerk of each regulatory board of a political subdivision of the state, adopting subdivision or zoning regulations pursuant to the general statutes or a special act, shall make printed copies of such regulations available to the public at a reasonable price upon request.

(1961, P.A. 410.)

Sec. 8-2b. Use of maps of Soil Conservation Service as standard. Any planning commission, zoning commission or planning and zoning commission of any municipality may use soil survey maps of the Soil Conservation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture as a standard in determining land use, planning, zoning or development regulations.

(1971, P.A. 132.)

Sec. 8-2c. Payment of a fee in lieu of parking requirements. Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, any town, city or borough having zoning authority pursuant to this chapter or any special act or planning authority pursuant to chapter 126 or any special act may, by regulation of the authority exercising zoning or planning power, provide that an applicant may be allowed to pay a fee to the town, city or borough in lieu of any requirement to provide parking spaces in connection with any use of land pursuant to any zoning or planning regulations adopted by such zoning or planning authority. Such regulation shall provide that no such fee shall be accepted by the town, city or borough unless the authority exercising zoning or planning power has found and declared that the number of parking spaces which would be required in connection with such use of land pursuant to any existing planning or zoning regulation: (1) Would result in an excess of parking spaces for such use of land or in the area surrounding such use of land; or (2) could not be physically located on the parcel of land for which such use is proposed and such regulation shall further provide that the amount of such fee shall be determined in accordance with a formula or schedule of fees set forth in such regulations and that no such fee shall be imposed or paid without the consent of the applicant and the zoning or planning authority, as the case may be. In any case in which a fee is proposed to be accepted in lieu of a parking requirement because the number of parking spaces required could not be physically located on the parcel of land for which such use is proposed, a two-thirds vote of the zoning or planning authority shall be necessary to consent to such payment. Such regulations may also limit the areas of such town, city or borough in which such payments shall be accepted by the town, city or borough. Any such payment to the town, city or borough shall be deposited in a fund established by the town, city or borough pursuant to this section. Such fund shall be used solely for the acquisition, development, expansion or capital repair of municipal parking facilities, traffic or transportation related capital projects, the provision or operating expenses of transit facilities designed to reduce reliance on private automobiles and capital programs to facilitate carpooling or vanpooling. The proceeds of such fund shall not be used for operating expenses of any kind, except operating expenses of transit facilities, or be considered a part of the municipal general fund. Expenditures from such fund shall be authorized in the same manner as any other capital expenditure of the town, city or borough. Any income earned by any moneys on deposit in such fund shall accrue to the fund.

(P.A. 84-497; P.A. 85-164; P.A. 90-286, S. 7, 9.)

History: P.A. 85-164 inserted provisions allowing payments in cases where parking could not be physically located on the subject parcel of land and requiring a two-thirds vote in such cases; P.A. 90-286 authorized the use of the proceeds of the fund for the “operating expenses” of transit facilities designed to reduce reliance on private automobiles.

Sec. 8-2d. Planned unit developments under former chapter 124a continue to be valid. Any land use regulations concerning planned unit developments or planned residential developments adopted by a municipal zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or other applicable zoning authority pursuant to sections 8-13b to 8-13k, inclusive, of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 1985, shall continue to be valid and any planned unit development or planned residential development proposed in accordance with such regulations which has received approval, whether tentative, preliminary or final, from such commission or authority prior to July 1, 1985, shall continue to be governed by the provisions of such regulations.

(P.A. 85-409, S. 6, 8.)

Sec. 8-2e. Municipal agreements regarding development rights. Any two or more municipalities which have adopted the provisions of this chapter or chapter 125a or which are exercising zoning power pursuant to any special act may, with the approval of the legislative body of each municipality, execute an agreement providing for a system of development rights and the transfer of development rights across the boundaries of the municipalities which are parties to the agreement. Such system shall be implemented in a manner approved by the legislative body of each municipality and by the commission or other body which adopts zoning regulations of each municipality.

(P.A. 87-490, S. 2.)

Sec. 8-2f. Joint applications necessary for transfer of development rights. Any zoning regulations adopted pursuant to section 8-2 concerning development rights shall authorize the transfer of the development rights to land only upon joint application of the transferor and transferee.

(P.A. 87-490, S. 3.)

Sec. 8-2g. Special exemption from density limits for construction of affordable housing. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, any zoning commission existing pursuant to this chapter and any municipal agency exercising the powers of a zoning commission pursuant to any special act may provide by regulation for a special exemption from density limits established for any zoning district, or special exception use, in which multifamily dwellings are permitted, in accordance with the requirements contained in subsection (b) of this section. Such special exemption shall allow the construction of a designated number of such permitted multifamily dwelling units in excess of applicable density limits, in accordance with a contract entered into between a developer applying for the special exemption and the municipality. Any such contract shall provide: (1) For each dwelling unit constructed by the developer in excess of the number of such units permitted by applicable density limits, the developer shall construct in the municipality a unit of affordable housing, as defined in section 8-39a, which is of comparable size and workmanship; (2) for a period which shall not be less than thirty years from the date of completion of any units of affordable housing constructed pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection, such units of affordable housing shall be offered for sale or rent only to persons and families having such income as the agency created or designated under subsection (b) of this section may establish but which shall not exceed the area median income of the municipality as determined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development; (3) the sale price or rent for any such unit of affordable housing shall not exceed an amount which shall be specified in such contract, provided such contract shall contain provisions concerning reasonable periodic increases of the specified sale price or rent; (4) such units of affordable housing shall be conveyed by deeds containing covenants incorporating the terms and conditions contained in such contract between the developer and the municipality, which covenants shall run with the land and be enforceable by the municipality until released by the municipality; and (5) the requirements of subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection shall apply to (A) the resale, (B) the purchase and subsequent leasing and (C) the conversion to the common interest form of ownership and subsequent sale of any such unit of affordable housing during and for the remaining term of such period.

(b) Upon the adoption of any regulation under subsection (a) of this section, the zoning commission or municipal agency exercising the powers of a zoning commission shall notify the legislative body of the municipality of such adoption and request that the municipality establish or designate an agency to implement a program designed to establish income criteria in accordance with said subsection (a) and oversee the sale or rental of any units of affordable housing constructed pursuant to said subsection (a) to persons and families satisfying such income criteria. Any municipality may, by ordinance, establish or designate a municipal agency to implement such program. If the legislative body does not enact such ordinance within one hundred twenty days following the date of such request, the zoning commission or municipal agency exercising the powers of a zoning commission may notify the housing authority of the municipality or, in any municipality which has not by resolution authorized its housing authority to transact business in accordance with the provisions of section 8-40, the municipal agency with responsibility for housing matters that it has adopted such regulation. Upon receiving such notice, the housing authority or municipal agency with responsibility for housing matters shall implement such program. Any such program shall provide for a method of selecting persons satisfying such income criteria to purchase or rent such units of affordable housing from among a pool of applicants which method shall not discriminate on the basis of age, gender, race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, marital status, intellectual disability, physical disability, including, but not limited to, blindness or deafness, place of residency, number of children or veterans’ status.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit any powers lawfully exercised by any municipality, any zoning commission existing pursuant to this chapter or any municipal agency exercising the powers of a zoning commission pursuant to any special act. Nothing in this section shall be construed to invalidate any ordinance of a municipality or any regulation of a zoning commission existing pursuant to this chapter or any municipal agency exercising the powers of a zoning commission pursuant to any special act, which ordinance or regulation was adopted before June 6, 1988. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any such municipality, zoning commission or municipal agency from changing the requirements contained in any ordinance or zoning regulation or to require any such municipality, zoning commission or municipal agency to change the requirements contained in any ordinance or zoning regulation.

(P.A. 88-338, S. 1, 5; P.A. 11-129, S. 20.)

History: Pursuant to P.A. 11-129, “mental retardation” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “intellectual disability” in Subsec. (b).

Sec. 8-2h. Zoning applications filed prior to change in zoning regulations not required to comply with change. Applications for building permit or certificate of occupancy filed prior to adoption of zoning regulations not required to comply with regulations. (a) An application filed with a zoning commission, planning and zoning commission, zoning board of appeals or agency exercising zoning authority of a town, city or borough which is in conformance with the applicable zoning regulations as of the time of filing shall not be required to comply with, nor shall it be disapproved for the reason that it does not comply with, any change in the zoning regulations or the boundaries of zoning districts of such town, city or borough taking effect after the filing of such application.

(b) An application for a building permit or certificate of occupancy filed with the building official of a city, town or borough prior to the adoption of zoning regulations by such city, town or borough in accordance with this chapter shall not be required to comply with, nor shall it be disapproved for the reason that it does not comply with, such zoning regulations.

(P.A. 89-311, S. 2.)

Cited. 220 C. 527. P.A. 89-311 cited. 225 C. 1.

Cited. 25 CA 199; 26 CA 212.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 220 C. 527.

Cited. 26 CA 212; 28 CA 314; Id., 379; 40 CA 501; Id., 840. States that if zoning regulations are changed after an application is filed, that application need not comply in order to be approved. 63 CA 176.

Sec. 8-2i. Inclusionary zoning. (a) As used in this section, “inclusionary zoning” means any zoning regulation, requirement or condition of development imposed by ordinance, regulation or pursuant to any special permit, special exception or subdivision plan which promotes the development of housing affordable to persons and families of low and moderate income, including, but not limited to, (1) the setting aside of a reasonable number of housing units for long-term retention as affordable housing through deed restrictions or other means; (2) the use of density bonuses; or (3) in lieu of or in addition to such other requirements or conditions, the making of payments into a housing trust fund to be used for constructing, rehabilitating or repairing housing affordable to persons and families of low and moderate income.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, any municipality having zoning authority pursuant to this chapter or any special act or having planning authority pursuant to chapter 126 may, by regulation of the body exercising such zoning authority, implement inclusionary zoning regulations, requirements or conditions.

(P.A. 91-204.)

Sec. 8-2j. Village districts. Compatibility objectives with other uses in immediate neighborhood. Applications. Village district consultant. (a) The zoning commission of each municipality may establish village districts as part of the zoning regulations adopted under section 8-2 or under any special act. Such districts shall be located in areas of distinctive character, landscape or historic value that are specifically identified in the plan of conservation and development of the municipality.

(b) The regulations establishing village districts shall protect the distinctive character, landscape and historic structures within such districts and may regulate, on and after the effective date of such regulations, new construction, substantial reconstruction and rehabilitation of properties within such districts and in view from public roadways, including, but not limited to, (1) the design and placement of buildings, (2) the maintenance of public views, (3) the design, paving materials and placement of public roadways, and (4) other elements that the commission deems appropriate to maintain and protect the character of the village district. In adopting the regulations, the commission shall consider the design, relationship and compatibility of structures, plantings, signs, roadways, street hardware and other objects in public view. The regulations shall establish criteria from which a property owner and the commission may make a reasonable determination of what is permitted within such district. The regulations shall encourage the conversion, conservation and preservation of existing buildings and sites in a manner that maintains the historic or distinctive character of the district. The regulations concerning the exterior of structures or sites shall be consistent with: (A) The “Connecticut Historical Commission - The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings”, revised through 1990, as amended; or (B) the distinctive characteristics of the district identified in the municipal plan of conservation and development. The regulations shall provide (i) that proposed buildings or modifications to existing buildings be harmoniously related to their surroundings, and the terrain in the district and to the use, scale and architecture of existing buildings in the district that have a functional or visual relationship to a proposed building or modification, (ii) that all spaces, structures and related site improvements visible from public roadways be designed to be compatible with the elements of the area of the village district in and around the proposed building or modification, (iii) that the color, size, height, location, proportion of openings, roof treatments, building materials and landscaping of commercial or residential property and any proposed signs and lighting be evaluated for compatibility with the local architectural motif and the maintenance of views, historic buildings, monuments and landscaping, and (iv) that the removal or disruption of historic traditional or significant structures or architectural elements shall be minimized.

(c) All development in the village district shall be designed to achieve the following compatibility objectives: (1) The building and layout of buildings and included site improvements shall reinforce existing buildings and streetscape patterns and the placement of buildings and included site improvements shall assure there is no adverse impact on the district; (2) proposed streets shall be connected to the existing district road network, wherever possible; (3) open spaces within the proposed development shall reinforce open space patterns of the district, in form and siting; (4) locally significant features of the site such as distinctive buildings or sight lines of vistas from within the district, shall be integrated into the site design; (5) the landscape design shall complement the district’s landscape patterns; (6) the exterior signs, site lighting and accessory structures shall support a uniform architectural theme if such a theme exists and be compatible with their surroundings; and (7) the scale, proportions, massing and detailing of any proposed building shall be in proportion to the scale, proportion, massing and detailing in the district.

(d) All applications for new construction and substantial reconstruction within the district and in view from public roadways shall be subject to review and recommendation by an architect or architectural firm, landscape architect, or planner who is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners selected and contracted by the commission and designated as the village district consultant for such application. Alternatively, the commission may designate as the village district consultant for such application an architectural review board whose members shall include at least one architect, landscape architect or planner who is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners. The village district consultant shall review an application and report to the commission within thirty-five days of receipt of the application. Such report and recommendation shall be entered into the public hearing record and considered by the commission in making its decision. Failure of the village district consultant to report within the specified time shall not alter or delay any other time limit imposed by the regulations.

(e) The commission may seek the recommendations of any town or regional agency or outside specialist with which it consults, including, but not limited to, the regional planning agency, the municipality’s historical society, the Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation and The University of Connecticut College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Any reports or recommendations from such agencies or organizations shall be entered into the public hearing record.

(f) If a commission grants or denies an application, it shall state upon the record the reasons for its decision. If a commission denies an application, the reason for the denial shall cite the specific regulations under which the application was denied. Notice of the decision shall be published in a newspaper having a substantial circulation in the municipality. An approval shall become effective in accordance with subsection (b) of section 8-3c.

(g) No approval of a commission under this section shall be effective until a copy thereof, certified by the commission, containing the name of the owner of record, a description of the premises to which it relates and specifying the reasons for its decision, is recorded in the land records of the town in which such premises are located. The town clerk shall index the same in the grantor’s index under the name of the then record owner and the record owner shall pay for such recording.

(P.A. 98-116; P.A. 00-145, S. 1; P.A. 01-195, S. 110, 111, 181.)

History: P.A. 00-145 divided existing Subsec. (a) into Subsecs. (a) and (b) and existing Subsec. (c) into Subsecs. (d) and (e), amended Subsec. (a) to require districts to be located in areas identified on the plan of conservation and development, amended Subsec. (d) to include landscape architects and planners in review and authorize an architectural review board to act as the village district consultant, deleted former Subsec. (e) which had defined “neighborhood”, inserted new provisions as Subsec. (f) re approval or disapproval, relettered former Subsec. (d) as (g) and made numerous technical changes throughout; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsecs. (d) and (f), effective July 11, 2001.

Sec. 8-2k. Zoning regulations re construction near lakes. Section 8-2k is repealed, effective October 1, 2006.

(P.A. 04-248, S. 3; P.A. 05-263, S. 2, 3.)

Sec. 8-2l. Zoning regulations re structures or uses located in floodplain. (a) As used in this section and section 25-68i, “floodplain” means that area of a municipality located within the real or theoretical limits of the base flood or base flood for a critical activity, as determined by the municipality or the Federal Emergency Management Agency in its flood insurance study or flood insurance rate map for the municipality prepared pursuant to the National Flood Insurance Program, 44 CFR Part 59 et seq.

(b) Whenever a municipality, pursuant to the National Flood Insurance Program, 44 CFR Part 59 et seq., is required to revise its zoning regulations or any other ordinances regulating a proposed building, structure, development or use located in a floodplain, the revision shall provide for restrictions for flood storage and conveyance of water for floodplains that are not tidally influenced as follows:

(1) Within a designated floodplain, encroachments resulting from fill, new construction or substantial improvements, as defined in 44 CFR Part 59.1, involving an increase in footprint to the structure shall be prohibited unless the applicant provides to the zoning commission certification by a state licensed engineer that such encroachment shall not result in any increase in base flood elevation;

(2) The water holding capacity of the floodplain shall not be reduced by any form of development unless such reduction (A) is compensated for by deepening or widening the floodplain, (B) is on-site, or if adjacent property owners grant easements and the municipality in which the development is located authorizes such off-site compensation, (C) is within the same hydraulic reach and a volume not previously used for flood storage, (D) is hydraulically comparable and incrementally equal to the theoretical volume of flood water at each elevation, up to and including the hundred-year flood elevation, which would be displaced by the proposed project, and (E) has an unrestricted hydraulic connection to the same waterway or water body; and

(3) Work within adjacent land subject to flooding, including work to provide compensatory storage, shall not result in any increase in flood stage or velocity.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, a municipality may adopt more stringent restrictions for flood storage and conveyance of water for floodplains that are not tidally influenced.

(P.A. 04-144, S. 1.)

See Sec. 25-68k re hazard mitigation and floodplain management grant program.

Sec. 8-2m. Floating and overlay zones and flexible zoning districts. The zoning authority of any municipality that (1) was incorporated in 1784, (2) has a mayor and board of alderman form of government, and (3) exercises zoning power pursuant to a special act, may provide for floating and overlay zones and flexible zoning districts, including, but not limited to, planned development districts, planned development units, special design districts and planned area developments. The regulations shall establish standards for such zones and districts. Flexible zoning districts established under such regulations shall be designed for the betterment of the municipality and the floating and overlay zones and neighborhood in which they are located and shall not establish in a residential zone a zone that is less restrictive with respect to uses than the underlying zone of the flexible zoning district. Such regulations shall not authorize the expansion of a pre-existing, nonconforming use. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, no planned development district shall be approved which would permit a use or authorize the expansion of a pre-existing nonconforming use where the underlying zone is a residential zone.

(P.A. 06-128, S. 2; 06-196, S. 290.)

History: P.A. 06-196 changed effective date of P.A. 06-128, S. 2 from October 1, 2006, to June 2, 2006, effective June 7, 2006.

Sec. 8-2n. Zoning regulations re crematories. The zoning regulations adopted under section 8-2 or any special act shall not authorize the location of a crematory within five hundred feet of any residential structure or land zoned for residential purposes not owned by the owner of the crematory. As used in this section, “crematory” means a building or structure containing one or more cremation chambers or retorts for the cremation of dead human bodies or large animals and “large animals” means all cattle, horses, sheep, goat, swine or similar species commonly kept as livestock.

(P.A. 09-232, S. 39.)

See Sec. 19a-320 re erection and maintenance of crematories.

Sec. 8-3. Establishment and changing of zoning regulations and districts. Enforcement of regulations. Certification of building permits and certificates of occupancy. Site plans. District for water-dependent uses. (a) Such zoning commission shall provide for the manner in which regulations under section 8-2 or 8-2j and the boundaries of zoning districts shall be respectively established or changed. No such regulation or boundary shall become effective or be established or changed until after a public hearing in relation thereto, held by a majority of the members of the zoning commission or a committee thereof appointed for that purpose consisting of at least five members. Such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of section 8-7d. A copy of such proposed regulation or boundary shall be filed in the office of the town, city or borough clerk, as the case may be, in such municipality, but, in the case of a district, in the offices of both the district clerk and the town clerk of the town in which such district is located, for public inspection at least ten days before such hearing, and may be published in full in such paper. The commission may require a filing fee to be deposited with the commission to defray the cost of publication of the notice required for a hearing.

(b) Such regulations and boundaries shall be established, changed or repealed only by a majority vote of all the members of the zoning commission, except as otherwise provided in this chapter. In making its decision the commission shall take into consideration the plan of conservation and development, prepared pursuant to section 8-23, and shall state on the record its findings on consistency of the proposed establishment, change or repeal of such regulations and boundaries with such plan. If a protest against a proposed change is filed at or before a hearing with the zoning commission, signed by the owners of twenty per cent or more of the area of the lots included in such proposed change or of the lots within five hundred feet in all directions of the property included in the proposed change, such change shall not be adopted except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the commission.

(c) All petitions requesting a change in the regulations or the boundaries of zoning districts shall be submitted in writing and in a form prescribed by the commission and shall be considered at a public hearing within the period of time permitted under section 8-7d. The commission shall act upon the changes requested in such petition. Whenever such commission makes any change in a regulation or boundary it shall state upon its records the reason why such change is made. No such commission shall be required to hear any petition or petitions relating to the same changes, or substantially the same changes, more than once in a period of twelve months.

(d) Zoning regulations or boundaries or changes therein shall become effective at such time as is fixed by the zoning commission, provided a copy of such regulation, boundary or change shall be filed in the office of the town, city or borough clerk, as the case may be, but, in the case of a district, in the office of both the district clerk and the town clerk of the town in which such district is located, and notice of the decision of such commission shall have been published in a newspaper having a substantial circulation in the municipality before such effective date. In any case in which such notice is not published within the fifteen-day period after a decision has been rendered, any applicant or petitioner may provide for the publication of such notice within ten days thereafter.

(e) The zoning commission shall provide for the manner in which the zoning regulations shall be enforced.

(f) No building permit or certificate of occupancy shall be issued for a building, use or structure subject to the zoning regulations of a municipality without certification in writing by the official charged with the enforcement of such regulations that such building, use or structure is in conformity with such regulations or is a valid nonconforming use under such regulations. Such official shall inform the applicant for any such certification that such applicant may provide notice of such certification by either (1) publication in a newspaper having substantial circulation in such municipality stating that the certification has been issued, or (2) any other method provided for by local ordinance. Any such notice shall contain (A) a description of the building, use or structure, (B) the location of the building, use or structure, (C) the identity of the applicant, and (D) a statement that an aggrieved person may appeal to the zoning board of appeals in accordance with the provisions of section 8-7.

(g) (1) The zoning regulations may require that a site plan be filed with the commission or other municipal agency or official to aid in determining the conformity of a proposed building, use or structure with specific provisions of such regulations. If a site plan application involves an activity regulated pursuant to sections 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, the applicant shall submit an application for a permit to the agency responsible for administration of the inland wetlands regulations not later than the day such application is filed with the zoning commission. The commission shall, within the period of time established in section 8-7d, accept the filing of and shall process, pursuant to section 8-7d, any site plan application involving land regulated as an inland wetland or watercourse under chapter 440. The decision of the zoning commission shall not be rendered on the site plan application until the inland wetlands agency has submitted a report with its final decision. In making its decision, the commission shall give due consideration to the report of the inland wetlands agency and if the commission establishes terms and conditions for approval that are not consistent with the final decision of the inland wetlands agency, the commission shall state on the record the reason for such terms and conditions. A site plan may be modified or denied only if it fails to comply with requirements already set forth in the zoning or inland wetlands regulations. Approval of a site plan shall be presumed unless a decision to deny or modify it is rendered within the period specified in section 8-7d. A certificate of approval of any plan for which the period for approval has expired and on which no action has been taken shall be sent to the applicant within fifteen days of the date on which the period for approval has expired. A decision to deny or modify a site plan shall set forth the reasons for such denial or modification. A copy of any decision shall be sent by certified mail to the person who submitted such plan within fifteen days after such decision is rendered. The zoning commission may, as a condition of approval of a site plan or modified site plan, require a financial guarantee in the form of a bond, a bond with surety or similar instrument to ensure (A) the timely and adequate completion of any site improvements that will be conveyed to or controlled by the municipality, and (B) the implementation of any erosion and sediment controls required during construction activities. The amount of such financial guarantee shall be calculated so as not to exceed the anticipated actual costs for the completion of such site improvements or the implementation of such erosion and sediment controls plus a contingency amount not to exceed ten per cent of such costs. At any time, the commission may grant an extension of time to complete any site improvements. The commission shall publish notice of the approval or denial of site plans in a newspaper having a general circulation in the municipality. In any case in which such notice is not published within the fifteen-day period after a decision has been rendered, the person who submitted such plan may provide for the publication of such notice within ten days thereafter. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to all zoning commissions or other final zoning authority of each municipality whether or not such municipality has adopted the provisions of this chapter or the charter of such municipality or special act establishing zoning in the municipality contains similar provisions.

(2) To satisfy any financial guarantee requirement, the commission may accept surety bonds and shall accept cash bonds, passbook or statement savings accounts and other financial guarantees other than surety bonds including, but not limited to, letters of credit, provided such other financial guarantee is in a form acceptable to the commission and the financial institution or other entity issuing any letter of credit is acceptable to the commission. Such financial guarantee may, at the discretion of the person posting such financial guarantee, be posted at any time before all approved site improvements are completed, except that the commission may require a financial guarantee for erosion and sediment controls prior to the commencement of any such site improvements. No certificate of occupancy shall be issued before a required financial guarantee is posted or the approved site improvements are completed to the reasonable satisfaction of the commission or its agent. For any site plan that is approved for development in phases, the financial guarantee provisions of this section shall apply as if each phase was approved as a separate site plan. Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, municipal charter or ordinance, no commission shall (A) require a financial guarantee or payment to finance the maintenance of roads, streets, retention or detention basins or other improvements approved with such site plan for more than one year after the date on which such improvements have been completed to the reasonable satisfaction of the commission or its agent or accepted by the municipality, or (B) require the establishment of a homeowners association or the placement of a deed restriction, easement or similar burden on property for the maintenance of approved public site improvements to be owned, operated or maintained by the municipality, except that the prohibition of this subparagraph shall not apply to the placement of a deed restriction, easement or similar burden necessary to grant a municipality access to such approved site improvements.

(3) If the person posting a financial guarantee under this section requests a release of all or a portion of such financial guarantee, the commission or its agent shall, not later than sixty-five days after receiving such request, (A) release or authorize the release of any such financial guarantee or portion thereof, provided the commission or its agent is reasonably satisfied that the site improvements for which such financial guarantee or portion thereof was posted have been completed, or (B) provide the person posting such financial guarantee with a written explanation as to the additional site improvements that must be completed before such financial guarantee or portion thereof may be released.

(h) Notwithstanding the provisions of the general statutes or any public or special act or any local ordinance, when a change is adopted in the zoning regulations or boundaries of zoning districts of any town, city or borough, no improvements or proposed improvements shown on a site plan for residential property which has been approved prior to the effective date of such change, either pursuant to an application for special exception or otherwise, by the zoning commission of such town, city or borough, or other body exercising the powers of such commission, and filed or recorded with the town clerk, shall be required to conform to such change.

(i) In the case of any site plan approved on or after October 1, 1984, except as provided in subsection (j) of this section, all work in connection with such site plan shall be completed within five years after the approval of the plan. The certificate of approval of such site plan shall state the date on which such five-year period expires. Failure to complete all work within such five-year period shall result in automatic expiration of the approval of such site plan, except in the case of any site plan approved on or after October 1, 1989, the zoning commission or other municipal agency or official approving such site plan may grant one or more extensions of the time to complete all or part of the work in connection with the site plan provided the total extension or extensions shall not exceed ten years from the date such site plan is approved. “Work” for purposes of this subsection means all physical improvements required by the approved plan.

(j) In the case of any site plan for a project consisting of four hundred or more dwelling units approved on or after June 19, 1987, all work in connection with such site plan shall be completed within ten years after the approval of the plan. In the case of any commercial, industrial or retail project having an area equal to or greater than four hundred thousand square feet approved on or after October 1, 1988, the zoning commission or other municipal agency or official approving such site plan shall set a date for the completion of all work in connection with such site plan, which date shall be not less than five nor more than ten years from the date of approval of such site plan, provided such commission, agency or official approving such plan and setting a date for completion which is less than ten years from the date of approval may extend the date of completion for an additional period or periods, not to exceed ten years in the aggregate from the date of the original approval of such site plan. The certificate of approval of such site plan shall state the date on which such work shall be completed. Failure to complete all work within such period shall result in automatic expiration of the approval of such site plan. “Work” for purposes of this subsection means all physical improvements required by the approved plan.

(k) A separate zoning district may be established for shorefront land areas utilized for water-dependent uses, as defined in section 22a-93, existing on October 1, 1987. Such district may be composed of a single parcel of land, provided the owner consents to such establishment. The provisions of this section shall not be construed to limit the authority of a zoning commission to establish and apply land use districts for the promotion and protection of water-dependent uses pursuant to section 8-2 and sections 22a-101 to 22a-104, inclusive. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to all zoning commissions or other final zoning authority of each municipality whether or not such municipality has adopted the provisions of this chapter or the charter of such municipality or special act establishing zoning in the municipality contains similar provisions.

(l) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section to the contrary, any site plan approval made under this section on or before October 1, 1989, except an approval made under subsection (j) of this section, shall expire not more than seven years from the date of such approval and the commission may grant one or more extensions of time to complete all or part of the work in connection with such site plan, provided the time for all extensions under this subsection shall not exceed ten years from the date the site plan was approved.

(m) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any site plan approval made under this section prior to July 1, 2011, that has not expired prior to May 9, 2011, except an approval made under subsection (j) of this section, shall expire not less than nine years after the date of such approval and the commission may grant one or more extensions of time to complete all or part of the work in connection with such site plan, provided no approval, including all extensions, shall be valid for more than fourteen years from the date the site plan was approved.

(1949 Rev., S. 838; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 375d; 1957, P.A. 662; 1959, P.A. 452; 577, S. 4; 614, S. 3; February, 1965, P.A. 622, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 862, S. 1; P.A. 77-450, S. 1; 77-509, S. 2; P.A. 78-104, S. 4; P.A. 80-177; P.A. 82-90; P.A. 84-147, S. 1; 84-174; P.A. 86-236, S. 1; P.A. 87-215, S. 2, 7; 87-371, S. 2, 5; 87-474, S. 2; 87-533, S. 7, 14; P.A. 88-105, S. 1; P.A. 89-277, S. 2; 89-356, S. 10, 11; P.A. 91-153, S. 1; P.A. 93-19, S. 1, 3; P.A. 00-145, S. 2; P.A. 02-74, S. 1; 02-77, S. 1; P.A. 03-144, S. 1; 03-177, S. 1; P.A. 06-20, S. 1; P.A. 07-102, S. 1; P.A. 08-38, S. 1; P.A. 09-181, S. 1; P.A. 11-5, S. 1; 11-79, S. 1; P.A. 12-182, S. 1.)

History: 1959 acts provided notice of hearing be published “in the form of a legal advertisement appearing” in a newspaper, provided for filing of copy of regulations and proposed regulations in case of district, provided protest of change to be effective must be signed by at least 20% of property owners within 500 feet “in all directions” rather than “in any direction” and that a two-thirds rather than three-quarters vote of commission is needed to overcome protest, allowed petitions for change in regulations as well as boundaries and added “or substantially the same changes” in the last sentence; 1965 act required copy of zoning regulations, boundaries or changes in the case of a district be filed with both district and town clerk and specified notice of decision of commission, rather than of the filing of the regulation, boundary or change, be published; 1971 act required that hearing be held within 65, rather than 90, days after receipt of petition, that decision be made within 65, rather than 90, days after hearing and that extensions not exceed 65 days; P.A. 77-450 made provisions of Sec. 8-7d applicable to changes and amendments and replaced 65 periods for hearing, decision and extension with time period permitted under Sec. 8-7d; P.A. 77-509 divided section into Subsecs., placed provision for filing fee in Subsec. (a) rather than Subsec. (c), required recording of reasons for making changes in Subsec. (c) and added Subsecs. (d) to (g), inclusive, re effective dates, enforcement, building permits and site plans; P.A. 78-104 amended Subsec. (g) to specify that site plans may be modified or denied only for noncompliance and to replace reference to 65-day period for decision or extensions with reference to time periods in Sec. 8-7d; P.A. 80-177 amended Subsec. (g) concerning posting of bond as condition of approval; P.A. 82-90 amended Subsec. (g) to provide for issuance of a certificate of approval upon the expiration of the time limit and for the publication of notices of approval; P.A. 84-147 added Subsecs. (h) and (i) concerning the effect of subsequent zoning changes on approved site plans and expiration of site plan approval; P.A. 84-174 amended Subsec. (f) to include certificates of occupancy; P.A. 86-236 amended Subsec. (g) to require the commission to publish notice of the denial of site plans; P.A. 87-215 amended Subsec. (a) to allow for notice by mail to included and adjacent landowners; P.A. 87-371 added Subsec. (j) concerning completion of work on site plans for projects consisting of 400 or more dwelling units; P.A. 87-474 added Subsec. (k) regarding separate zoning districts for shorefront land areas utilized for dependent uses; P.A. 87-533 amended Subsec. (g) to add provision re site plan applications involving activities regulated under Secs. 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive; P.A. 88-105 amended Subsec. (j) to provide for expiration of site plan approval in the case of certain commercial, industrial or retail projects; P.A. 89-277 amended Subsec. (i) to authorize the granting of one or more extensions of the 5-year period for site plans approved on or after October 1, 1989, and limited the total extension or extensions to 10 years; P.A. 89-356 amended Subsec. (d) to authorize any applicant or petitioner for a change in zoning regulations or boundaries to provide for publication of the notice of the decision of the commission when such notice is not published in a timely manner and amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the person who submitted a site plan application to provide for the publication of the notice of the decision of the commission when such notice is not published in a timely manner; P.A. 91-153 added Subsec. (l) which provided that site plans approved on or before October 1, 1989, be valid for 7 years after the date of approval; P.A. 93-19 amended Subsec. (g) to authorize planning commissions to extend the time to complete work on a modified site plan and to condition such approval in determination of the adequacy of the bond, amended Subsec. (i) to replace reference to a 5-year period with provisions re completion of work and amended Subsec. (l) to authorize extensions of site plans approved on or before October 1, 1989, effective April 21, 1993; P.A. 00-145 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 8-2j; P.A. 02-74 amended Subsec. (b) to require commission to consider the municipal plan of conservation and development in decisions and to state on the record its findings on consistency with such plan; P.A. 02-77 amended Subsec. (c) to authorize commissions to act upon petitions, removing limitation of adoption or denial, effective June 3, 2002, and applicable to petitions filed on and after that date; P.A. 03-144 amended Subsec. (f) to add provisions re notice of certification by the applicant; P.A. 03-177 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that public hearings be conducted in accordance with Sec. 8-7d, and to delete provisions re notice of time and place for public hearing and notice to adjacent landowners, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to applications filed on or after that date; P.A. 06-20 amended Subsec. (g) to apply subsection to all zoning commissions or final zoning authorities, effective May 2, 2006; P.A. 07-102 amended Subsec. (g) to add provision re acceptance and processing of site plan application involving inland wetlands and watercourses and to replace provision re consideration of report of inland wetlands agency with provision re consideration of report of inland wetlands agency and statement on the record of terms and conditions consistent with final decision of inland wetlands agency; P.A. 08-38 amended Subsec. (g) to substitute “give due consideration to” for “consider” re report of inland wetlands agency, effective May 7, 2008; P.A. 09-181 added Subsec. (m) re site plan approvals made during period from July 1, 2006, to July 1, 2009, effective July 2, 2009; P.A. 11-5 amended Subsec. (m) to apply to site plan approvals made prior to July 1, 2011, that have not expired prior to May 9, 2011, and to provide that approvals shall expire not less than 9 years after approval date and that no approval shall be valid for more than 14 years, effective May 9, 2011; P.A. 11-79 amended Subsec. (g) to redesignate existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and amend same to add language limiting bond required for modified site plan from exceeding cost to perform modifications plus 10% of bond and delete provision re determination of adequacy of bond amount, and to add Subdivs. (2) and (3) re bond and surety requirements and release of same; P.A. 12-182 amended Subsec. (g) by making extensive changes throughout re posting and release of financial guarantees and re site improvements, effective June 15, 2012, and applicable to all approvals or extensions granted on or after that date.

See Sec. 7-159b re preapplication review of use of property.

When protested, change by town zoning commission requires vote of all members, not merely of those present at meeting. 123 C. 282. Change invalid if notice not in compliance with statute. Id., 472. Cited. Id., 541; 125 C. 720. Failure to state on record reason for change of regulation does not invalidate board’s action. 129 C. 287. Ordinance invalid for failure to give notice and hold hearing. 131 C. 649. Cited. 133 C. 594. Does not apply to a proceeding pending on effective date of act. 134 C. 572. Husband of applicant sat at meeting and voted for application. Held: Change of zone is invalid. 135 C. 1. Words “immediately adjacent” mean adjoining or abutting. Id., 24. Cited. 136 C. 94. Special act controls in West Hartford at least as to procedural matters. 138 C. 497. Cited. 141 C. 349. Zoning regulations shall be made in accordance with “a comprehensive plan” which is a general plan to control and direct use and development of property in municipality or large part thereof by dividing it into districts according to present and potential use of properties. 142 C. 265. Zoning commission need not set out reasons for amendment and change of zoning regulations in language which would satisfy meticulous criticism of a legal expert. Id., 580. Nothing in section permits vote of town meeting to approve any amendment adopted by zoning commission. Power to provide for manner in which zoning regulations may be changed is vested exclusively in commission and cannot be delegated to town meeting. 143 C. 448. Compliance with statutory procedure was prerequisite to any valid and effective date change in zonal boundaries. 144 C. 475. Words “immediately adjacent in the rear,” as similarly used in special act, construed. Id., 677. Adequacy of notice. Id., 690. In computing notice period, both terminal days are excluded when such phrases as “at least” and “not less than” are used. 145 C. 136. Compliance with statutory procedure was a prerequisite to any valid amendment of, or change in, zoning regulations. Id. Legislative history. Words “in any direction” mean “all or every direction” (former statute). Id., 325. Zone change in substantial conformity with comprehensive plan held not spot zoning. Id., 435. Prior conferences with applicant and experts did not compel conclusion that commission made up its mind before public hearing. Id. Regulation which does not clearly state boundaries of zone not ipso facto a nullity. Id., 468. An orderly extension of an existing district to serve a public need is not spot zoning. Id., 592. Commission acts in a legislative capacity; board of appeals acts in a quasi-judicial capacity. Id. Disregard of zoning regulations regarding traffic congestion and allowing access to commercial property through residential area constitutes illegal action by board. Id., 597. Notice is adequate if it sufficiently apprises those who may be affected of nature and character of action proposed. Id., 625. Exempting shopping centers from certain liquor regulations held reasonable. Id. Classification is duty of legislative body. Id. Delay in prosecuting violation by commission not deemed waiver. Id., 682. Purchasers of property have right to expect that classification will not change unless new conditions arise which demand rezoning for public good. 146 C. 170. Fact that person other than member of commission acted as moderator at public hearing does not of itself invalidate such hearing. Id., 531. Upgrading of zone in residential semirural area is type of regulation generally upheld. Id. Commission must state upon its records its reason for changing zoning regulation or boundaries of zoning district and such statement should contain only such reasons as motivated commission as collective body. 147 C. 30. Extension of existing business zone held to constitute spot zoning. Id. Stamford charter provides for review of action of zoning board by board of representatives; held that function of latter board is legislative and it may act without notice and hearing. 148 C. 33. Unless charter expressly states otherwise, once zoning commission has adopted zoning regulations, municipality is powerless to amend them. Id. When zoning authorities act within their prescribed legislative powers, they have a wide and liberal discretion. Id., 68. If change of zone is in accordance with comprehensive plan and predominating purpose in making change is to benefit community as a whole rather than landowner, this does not constitute spot zoning even though owner may receive an incidental benefit. Id. Denial of petition pending action of planning commission, held not to constitute surrender of its functions to planning commission. Id., 172. Denial of an application “without prejudice” may permit a renewal of such application without waiting twelve months. Id. Possible that denial of an application “without prejudice” may raise a question whether such matter is appealable. Id. Rule that zoning board of appeals cannot reverse an earlier decision unless there are changed conditions does not necessarily apply to zoning commission, which is essentially a legislative body. Id., 299. Provision that board shall state upon its records its reasons for making a change is directory only, and failure to comply does not make action of commission void. Id. Test of board’s power to change zone is whether change is for benefit of community as a whole rather than for benefit of particular individual or groups of individuals. Id., 492. Commission tabled application for zone change pending receipt of additional information to support such change but later approved application without obtaining such information; held commission was motivated by individual welfare of petitioner and not the common good. Id., 500. In making change in zone, commission must follow mandates of Sec. 8-2. Id. An important purpose of zoning is to lessen congestion in streets. Id. Appeals from zoning authorities exist only under statutory authority. Id., 551. Stamford charter provides for review of the action of its zoning board in amending zoning map either by direct appeal to court or by petition to legislative body and then an appeal to court from such body’s decision; held that each method is complete in itself and having pursued one, a party is precluded from pursuing the other. Id. Strict compliance with statute is prerequisite to zoning action. 149 C. 76. Legislative history. Id., 77. Where former statute provided, if adequate protest is filed, no zone change can be made “except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the zoning commission” held, an affirmative two-thirds vote of authorized membership of commission is required. Id., 78. Failure of zoning commission to state on its records any reasons for zone change did not render action void. 149 C. 411. Cited. Id., 680, 682. Not spot zoning if change results in good of community as a whole and falls within requirements of comprehensive plan. 150 C. 646. Prior to 1963 amendment of Sec. 8-7: When no reason given for denial of application for special exception, court must search record to discover sufficient reason to support decision. No statutory requirement for giving reason for denial. 151 C. 265. Change of small area from one residential classification to another residential classification does not of itself constitute “spot zoning”. Id., 425. Elements constituting “spot zoning” discussed. 152 C. 7. Cited. Id., 311. Due process requirements not violated because plaintiff did not receive actual notice of zoning ordinance since adoption of ordinance affected every property owner in the town and such a rule would nullify statutory provision for notice by publication. Id., 325. Fact that zoning regulations were designated as “interim” does not make them invalid. 153 C. 187. Cited. Id., 483. Board not required to state a reason for denying a change of zone. Id., 574, 576. Change of zone which is dependent for its proper functioning on action by other agencies and over which zoning commission has no control cannot be sustained unless the necessary action appears to be a probability. 154 C. 202, 210. Claim public hearing statutory provision violated not considered as not raised or passed on by trial court. Id., 463. Variances should be granted charily. Where plaintiff applied for a substantial variance of set back requirements and board denied application upon grounds of public convenience and welfare, appeal denied. Id., 484. Notice and filing of zone changes actually adopted distinct from, independent of and in addition to prehearing notice and filing. 155 C. 12, 16. Filing of map prior to hearing not required unless integral part of proposed regulations. Id., 20. Statute does not require retention by town clerk of proposed zoning regulations after public hearing on same. Id. Notice stating that among proposed changes in the zoning regulations was repeal of a paragraph specified by section and subsection numbers held sufficient. Id., 511. Cited. 156 C. 103. Where public notice contained text of proposed zoning amendment, notice was sufficient although adopted amendment differed from proposal so as to affect plaintiffs’ interests; fundamental character was not changed. 157 C. 303. Decision rendered after sixty days is not invalid; language of section is directory only. Id., 520. Power to grant variance must be sparingly exercised and financial hardship alone is not sufficient grounds for granting variance. 158 C. 86. Cited. 160 C. 295. Member of zoning commission absent from public hearing may vote on proposed changes if he sufficiently acquaints himself with evidence presented at hearing. 161 C. 32. One publication in two newspapers, proper notice. 163 C. 45. Cited. 166 C. 207. Where zoning authority has stated reasons for zone change, reviewing court limits determinations to whether assigned grounds are pertinent and reasonably supported by the record. Id., 533, 543. Application of a “floating zone” to land in a town requires an application for change of zone and a public hearing as to the particular property or area. 168 C. 20. The zoning commission acts arbitrarily and violates the statutory uniformity requirement when it attempts to establish a buffer zone between two zones with different classifications in a specific instance but not in other instances. Id., 358. Cited. Id., 512; 170 C. 61; 173 C. 23; 176 C. 439; 178 C. 657; 186 C. 106; 194 C. 152; 195 C. 276; 213 C. 604; 218 C. 65; 219 C. 139; 220 C. 455; 222 C. 380; 232 C. 122; 235 C. 448.

Cited. 2 CA 49; Id., 506; 6 CA 686; 7 CA 684; 13 CA 448; 17 CA 150; 18 CA 85; 23 CA 232; 25 CA 164; 27 CA 443; 41 CA 89. When time requirements for notice are computed, the terminal days are excluded; purpose of such notice is to fairly and sufficiently apprise those who may be affected by the proposed action and enable them to prepare intelligently for the hearing; however, when a site plan is separable from its accompanying documents and the special permit application is for a use not permitted as of right, section is not applicable, and where the special permit application must contain a site plan, automatic approval under section may not occur if commission does not meet time limits in Sec. 8-3c. 60 CA 504. There is a strong presumption of regularity in proceedings of a public body such as a municipal planning and zoning commission. The settled standard of review of questions of fact determined by a zoning authority is that a court may not substitute its judgment for that of the zoning authority as long as it reflects an honest judgment reasonably exercised. Court’s review is based on the record, which includes the knowledge of the board members gained through personal observation of the site or through their personal knowledge of the area involved. 99 CA 768.

Improper for zoning board not to state upon its record the reasons it granted a variance. 10 CS 340. Cited. 13 CS 59. History. Id., 330. Compared with former statute. 15 CS 413. Protest against change of zone may be filed any time before final definitive action changing zone. 16 CS 42. In term “at least ten days before the hearing” neither terminal date can be included in the computation of the period. 19 CS 441. Relationship through marriage of real estate agent assisting in development to zoning official not a disqualifying factor when official’s vote was not necessary to decision. Id., 448. Persons who have signed a protest petition may not, in the absence of fraud, withdraw their names after the public hearing has been closed or concluded; history of section reviewed. 20 CS 83. News stories mentioning a public hearing held not to constitute notice. 21 CS 78. This section and Secs. 8-8 and 8-9 are not so linked that the date of publication of notice must be considered as the date the decision was rendered. 26 CS 88. Cited. Id., 169. Where information obtained at an ex parte meeting and public hearing were obviously taken into consideration by commission members at another public hearing some eight months later, procedure was improper since zone change opponents were given no opportunity to ascertain subordinate facts or cross-examine. Id., 500, 501. Where town’s zoning regulations make no provision for amendment or repeal, section controls amendments and repeals. 28 CS 278. Adoption of zoning regulations on Sunday is illegal conduct of secular business. 31 CS 440. Cited 35 CS 246; 36 CS 281; 38 CS 492; Id., 590; 39 CS 426.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 211 C. 78. Strict compliance with section prerequisite to amending town zoning regulations. 222 C. 374. Trial court improperly concluded that plaintiffs had waived their claim that defendant failed to comply with prescribed notice requirements. Requirement of subject matter jurisdiction cannot be waived by any party and can be raised at any stage of proceedings. 277 C. 268. Trial court improperly determined that statutory notice requirements were satisfied through reference to maps on file in tax assessor’s office. Mere reference to a map on file in offices of a separate agency does not constitute adequate notice of boundaries of property affected by proposed zone change. Id. Publication of additional notices for rescheduled public hearing not required where zoning commission had satisfied notice requirements for the originally scheduled public hearing. Although failure to comply with requirement of filing a copy of proposed zoning amendment with town clerk at least ten days before public hearing is a jurisdictional defect that would render commission’s zoning amendment invalid, plaintiff did not sustain its burden of proving that notice requirements were not met. 281 C. 66.

Cited. 20 CA 705, 706; 25 CA 611, 615; judgment reversed, see 223 C. 171; 30 CA 454. Failure to accurately describe subject property was inadequate notice for public hearing. 50 CA 517. Trial court’s finding that notice requirements were not met was clear error. 54 CA 440.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 212 C. 471; 224 C. 44; 235 C. 417.

Cited. 1 CA 621.

Subsec. (c):

Cited. 220 C. 556.

Cited. 23 CA 256; 28 CA 314.

Cited. 41 CS 218.

Subsec. (d):

Cited. 211 C. 78; 220 C. 556. Appellate Court erred in concluding that planning and zoning commission could retroactively validate an otherwise invalid zone change by fixing a new effective date and publishing notice of its decision prior to that date. Commission’s failure to comply with publication requirement rendered the zone change void. 260 C. 399.

Cited. 30 CA 454. Although compliance with notice requirement is mandatory for zone change to be effective, timing of notice is directory and commission was allowed to fix new effective date and publish required notice. 53 CA 182.

Subsec. (e):

Cited. 186 C. 106, 111, 114; 221 C. 374, 378.

Subsec. (f):

Cited. 192 C. 367; 221 C. 374; 225 C. 575. Although federal regulations allow a local zoning commission to consider compliance with local health regulations in evaluating recreational uses within a hydroelectric power project, federal regulations do not require that licensee obtain local zoning and building permits for development of recreational resources. 285 C. 498.

Cited. 6 CA 284.

Subsec. (g):

Cited. 192 C. 353; 194 C. 187; 211 C. 331; 215 C. 527; 222 C. 262; Id., 269; Id., 607; Id., 911; 223 C. 171; 224 C. 44; Id., 96; Id., 106; Id., 924; 225 C. 432; Id., 575; 226 C. 579; Id., 684; 227 C. 799. If site plan and accompanying documents are seperable, Subsec. does not apply. 253 C. 183. Decisions and conditions that underlay commission’s approval of a general plan of development that are final and unreviewable during subsequent site plan proceedings are unlawful. 290 C. 300.

Cited. 2 CA 489; 3 CA 556; 6 CA 284; 15 CA 561; 17 CA 405; 25 CA 392; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 607; 28 CA 314; 29 CA 1; Id., 469. P.A. 87-533 cited. Id. Cited. 35 CA 317; Id., 599. Requirement that zoning commission give wetlands commission report “due consideration” is not a statutory mandate that zoning commission’s decision be based on wetlands commission’s report. 122 CA 112.

Subsec. (i):

Cited. 17 CA 405.

Sec. 8-3a. Findings of consistency of proposed regulations or boundaries with the plan of development. Referral of proposed regulations or boundaries to planning commission. (a) In any municipality which has a combined planning and zoning commission operating under the general statutes or any special act, the commission shall state on the record its findings on consistency of a proposed zoning regulation or boundaries or changes thereof with the plan of development of the municipality.

(b) In any municipality which has a separate zoning commission operating under the provisions of this chapter or any special act and which also has a planning commission operating under the general statutes or any special act, proposed zoning regulations or boundaries or changes thereof shall be referred to such planning commission for a report at least thirty-five days prior to the date assigned for a public hearing to be held thereon. The report shall contain the findings of the planning commission on consistency of a proposed regulation or boundaries or changes thereof with the plan of development of the municipality and any other recommendations the planning commission deems relevant. The failure of the planning commission to report prior to or at the hearing shall be taken as approval of such proposals. The report concerning consistency with the plan of development and a statement of the vote of the planning commission approving, disapproving or proposing a modification of such proposal shall be publicly read at any public hearing held thereon. The full report of the planning commission regarding such proposal shall include the reasons for the commission’s vote thereon and shall be incorporated into the records of any public hearing held thereon by the zoning commission. A proposal disapproved by the planning commission may be adopted by the zoning commission by a vote of not less than two-thirds of all the members of the zoning commission.

(1959, P.A. 614, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 862, S. 2; P.A. 91-398, S. 1.)

History: 1971 act required referral of proposed regulations to planning commission at least 35, rather than 30, days before hearing; P.A. 91-398 added provisions re statement on the record by combined planning and zoning commission of consistency of proposed change with the plan of development and requiring report of separate planning commission to contain findings on consistency of proposed regulation with plan of development and divided section into Subsecs.

Emphasizes legislative determination that cooperation between the two commissions should benefit a town. 148 C. 172. Cited. 150 C. 83. Unanimous vote of zoning commission was effective to adopt zoning amendment over planning commission’s opposition. 154 C. 202. Cited. 159 C. 587. Appeal dismissed for lack of required vote approval for adoption of zoning proposal. 162 C. 210.

Cited. 35 CS 246.

Sec. 8-3b. Notice to regional planning agency of proposed zone or zone use change. When the zoning commission of any municipality proposes to establish or change a zone or any regulation affecting the use of a zone any portion of which is within five hundred feet of the boundary of another municipality located within the area of operation of a regional planning agency, the zoning commission shall give written notice of its proposal to each regional planning agency for the region or regions in which it and the other municipality are located. Such notice shall be made by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by electronic mail to the electronic mail address designated by the regional planning agency on the agency’s Internet web site for receipt of such notice, not later than thirty days before the public hearing to be held in relation thereto. If such notice is sent by electronic mail and the zoning commission does not receive an electronic mail message from a regional planning agency confirming receipt of such notice, then not later than twenty-five days before the public hearing, the zoning commission shall also send such notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to such planning agency. The regional planning agency shall study such proposal and shall report its findings and recommendations thereon to the zoning commission at or before the hearing, and such report shall be made a part of the record of such hearing. The report of any regional planning agency of any region that is contiguous to Long Island Sound shall include findings and recommendations on the environmental impact of the proposal on the ecosystem and habitat of Long Island Sound. If such report of the regional planning agency is not submitted at or before the hearing, it shall be presumed that such agency does not disapprove of the proposal. A regional planning agency receiving such a notice may transmit such notice to the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management or his designee for comment. The planning agency may designate its executive committee to act for it under this section or may establish a subcommittee for the purpose. The report of said planning agency shall be purely advisory.

(1961, P.A. 546; 1967, P.A. 64, S. 1; 383, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 628, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 862, S. 3; P.A. 73-616, S. 51, 67; 73-679, S. 29, 43; P.A. 74-338, S. 42, 94; P.A. 75-537, S. 42, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 84-76; P.A. 91-170, S. 3; P.A. 03-177, S. 2; P.A. 11-89, S. 1; P.A. 12-27, S. 2.)

History: 1967 acts required that zoning commission notify regional planning agency of proposal at least 30, rather than 20, days before hearing, substituted “does not disapprove” for “approves”, and added provision for transmitting notice to Connecticut development commission; 1969 act substituted director of the office of state planning for Connecticut development commission; 1971 act required notification of regional planning agency at least 35 days before hearing; P.A. 73-616 returned notice required to 30 days; P.A. 73-679 substituted managing director, planning and budgeting division, department of finance and control or his designee for director of the office of state planning; P.A. 74-338 changed required notice to 35 days; P.A. 75-537 replaced managing director with commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 84-76 provided for the notification of the regional planning agencies in which both municipalities are located; P.A. 91-170 added provisions re report of region that is contiguous to Long Island Sound; P.A. 03-177 replaced requirement that commission provide notice of the proposal not later than 35 days before the public hearing with provision that notice be made by certified mail not later than 30 days before the public hearing and required report of the regional planning agency to be made a part of the record of the hearing, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to applications filed on or after that date; P.A. 11-89 added provisions re notice by electronic mail and made a technical change; P.A. 12-27 made technical changes.

Report of capitol region planning agency disapproving planned special development district was advisory only and town council’s acceptance of plan for district could not be revised by trial court on ground of agency’s disapproval. 159 C. 212. Cited. 167 C. 579.

Cited. 2 CA 595; 30 CA 454.

Notice requirement is mandatory and not permissive. 35 CS 246.

Sec. 8-3c. Special permits, exceptions and exemptions. Hearings. Filing requirements. (a) If an application for a special permit or special exception involves an activity regulated pursuant to sections 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, the applicant shall submit an application to the agency responsible for administration of the inland wetlands regulations no later than the day the application is filed for a special permit or special exception.

(b) The zoning commission or combined planning and zoning commission of any municipality shall hold a public hearing on an application or request for a special permit or special exception, as provided in section 8-2, and on an application for a special exemption under section 8-2g. Such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of section 8-7d. The commission shall not render a decision on the application until the inland wetlands agency has submitted a report with its final decision to such commission. In making its decision the zoning commission shall give due consideration to the report of the inland wetlands agency. Such commission shall decide upon such application or request within the period of time permitted under section 8-7d. Whenever a commission grants or denies a special permit or special exception, it shall state upon its records the reason for its decision. Notice of the decision of the commission shall be published in a newspaper having a substantial circulation in the municipality and addressed by certified mail to the person who requested or applied for a special permit or special exception, by its secretary or clerk, under his signature in any written, printed, typewritten or stamped form, within fifteen days after such decision has been rendered. In any case in which such notice is not published within such fifteen-day period, the person who requested or applied for such special permit or special exception may provide for the publication of such notice within ten days thereafter. Such permit or exception shall become effective upon the filing of a copy thereof (1) in the office of the town, city or borough clerk, as the case may be, but, in the case of a district, in the offices of both the district clerk and the town clerk of the town in which such district is located, and (2) in the land records of the town in which the affected premises are located, in accordance with the provisions of section 8-3d.

(1971, P.A. 862, S. 14; P.A. 77-450, S. 2; 77-509, S. 3; P.A. 87-215, S. 3, 7; 87-533, S. 8, 14; P.A. 88-338, S. 2, 5; P.A. 89-356, S. 12; P.A. 90-230, S. 12, 101; P.A. 03-177, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 77-450 deleted requirement that public hearing be held within 65 days and replaced requirement that decision be rendered within 65 days with requirement for rendering decision within time period under Sec. 8-7d; P.A. 77-509 changed effective date from time fixed by commission to time when filed in clerk’s office and in land records; P.A. 87-215 authorized zoning commission to provide by regulation for additional notice by mail to adjacent landowners; P.A. 87-533 added Subsec. (a) regarding applications involving activity regulated pursuant to Secs. 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, designated prior provisions as Subsec. (b) and added provision to require that the commission’s decision be rendered after the inland wetlands agency has made its report and that the commission consider such report; P.A. 88-338 added applications for special exemption under Sec. 8-2g to Subsec. (b); P.A. 89-356 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the person who requested or applied for a special permit or special exception to provide for the publication of the notice of the decision of the commission when such notice is not timely published; P.A. 90-230 made a technical correction in Subsec. (b) by substituting reference to “permit” for reference to “variance”; P.A. 03-177 amended Subsec. (b) to replace provisions re notice of time and place for public hearing and optional notice by mail to adjacent landowners with provision requiring that the public hearing be held in accordance with Sec. 8-7d, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to applications filed on or after that date.

Cited. 206 C. 554; 218 C. 65. When approval for site plan and special exception are separate actions, provisions re statutory timelines do not apply. 253 C. 195.

Cited. 5 CA 455; 7 CA 684; 18 CA 85; 24 CA 163; 29 CA 1; 38 CA 171; 41 CA 89; 45 CA 89.

Cited. 42 CS 256.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 213 C. 604; 220 C. 455; 224 C. 924; 227 C. 799.

Cited. 20 CA 705; 29 CA 469. P.A. 87-533 cited. Id. Cited. 30 CA 395; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 452. Trial court properly determined that failure of planning and zoning commission to comply with statutory notice and hearing requirements entitled individual plaintiffs to automatic approval of their application for special permit and site plan approval; notice of commission hearing was invalid and because failure to give proper notice was a jurisdictional defect, action of commission in denying plaintiffs’ application was void. 52 CA 763. Fifteen-day notice requirement is substantive, not a matter of procedure or convenience. 55 CA 359.

Subsec. (c):

Cited. 218 C. 737.

Sec. 8-3d. Variances, special permits, special exceptions and special exemptions to be recorded. No variance, special permit or special exception granted pursuant to this chapter, chapter 126 or any special act, and no special exemption granted under section 8-2g, shall be effective until a copy thereof, certified by a zoning commission, planning commission, combined planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals, containing a description of the premises to which it relates and specifying the nature of such variance, special permit, special exception or special exemption, including the zoning bylaw, ordinance or regulation which is varied in its application or to which a special exception or special exemption is granted, and stating the name of the owner of record, is recorded in the land records of the town in which such premises are located. The town clerk shall index the same in the grantor’s index under the name of the then record owner and the record owner shall pay for such recording.

(P.A. 75-317; P.A. 77-509, S. 4; P.A. 88-338, S. 3, 5.)

History: P.A. 77-509 included reference to chapter 126; P.A. 88-338 added special exemptions granted under Sec. 8-2g.

Cited. 189 C. 573.

Cited. 18 CA 85; 30 CA 395; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 452.

Sec. 8-3e. Regulation of community residences for persons with intellectual disability, child-care residential facilities and community residences for persons receiving mental health or addiction services. (a) No zoning regulation shall treat the following in a manner different from any single family residence: (1) Any community residence that houses six or fewer persons with intellectual disability and necessary staff persons and that is licensed under the provisions of section 17a-227, (2) any child-care residential facility that houses six or fewer children with mental or physical disabilities and necessary staff persons and that is licensed under sections 17a-145 to 17a-151, inclusive, or (3) any community residence that houses six or fewer persons receiving mental health or addiction services and necessary staff persons paid for or provided by the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services and that has been issued a license by the Department of Public Health under the provisions of section 19a-491, if a license is required.

(b) Any resident of a municipality in which such a community residence or child-care residential facility is located may, with the approval of the legislative body of such municipality, petition (1) the Commissioner of Developmental Services to revoke the license of such community residence on the grounds that such community residence is not in compliance with the provisions of any statute or regulation concerning the operation of such residences, (2) the Commissioner of Children and Families to revoke the license of such child-care residential facility on the grounds that such child-care residential facility is not in compliance with the provision of any general statute or regulation concerning the operation of such child-care residential facility, or (3) the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services to withdraw funding from such community residence on the grounds that such community residence is not in compliance with the provisions of any general statute or regulation adopted thereunder concerning the operation of a community residence.

(P.A. 79-353; P.A. 84-341, S. 6, 8; P.A. 89-375, S. 4, 5; P.A. 01-161, S. 1, 4; P.A. 05-280, S. 56; P.A. 07-73, S. 2(b); P.A. 11-129, S. 20.)

History: P.A. 83-341 added Subsec. (b) concerning petitions for revocation of license; P.A. 89-375 substituted “necessary” for “two” in referring to staff persons; P.A. 01-161 applied provisions to child-care residential facilities and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 05-280 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re zoning regulations pertaining to any community residence that houses six or fewer persons receiving mental health or addiction services and by making technical changes and amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (3) re the ability of a resident of a municipality to petition the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services to withdraw funding from a community residence not operating in compliance with the provisions of a governing statute or regulation, effective July 1, 2005; pursuant to P.A. 07-73 “Commissioner of Mental Retardation” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Developmental Services”, effective October 1, 2007; pursuant to P.A. 11-129, “mentally retarded persons” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “persons with intellectual disability” in Subsec. (a).

Sec. 8-3f. Establishment of community residences for persons with intellectual disability and child-care residential facilities. No community residence or child-care residential facility established pursuant to section 8-3e shall be established within one thousand feet of any other such community residence or child-care residential facility without the approval of the body exercising zoning powers within the municipality in which such residence is proposed to be established.

(P.A. 84-517, S. 2, 3; P.A. 01-161, S. 2, 4.)

History: P.A. 01-161 applied provisions to child-care residential facilities, effective July 1, 2001.

Sec. 8-3g. Regulation of community residences for mentally ill adults and UCONN 2000 projects. (a) No zoning regulation adopted pursuant to this chapter or any special act shall prohibit any community residence in any area which is zoned to allow structures containing two or more dwelling units.

(b) No zoning regulation adopted pursuant to this chapter or any special act shall prohibit any project, as defined in subdivision (16) of section 10a-109c, in any area which is zoned to allow commercial structures.

(P.A. 84-341, S. 2, 8; P.A. 95-230, S. 40, 45; P.A. 97-293, S. 22, 26.)

History: P.A. 95-230 added Subsec. (b) re projects under UCONN 2000, effective June 7, 1995; P.A. 97-293 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1997.

See Sec. 19a-507a for definition of “community residence”.

Sec. 8-3h. Notice to adjoining municipalities. Section 8-3h is repealed, effective October 1, 2003.

(P.A. 87-307, S. 1; P.A. 89-175, S. 3, 7; P.A. 03-177, S. 14.)

Sec. 8-3i. Notice to water company re projects within aquifer protection area or watershed of water company. (a) As used in this section “water company” means a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, and “petition” includes a petition or proposal to change the regulations, boundaries or classifications of zoning districts.

(b) When an application, petition, request or plan is filed with the zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals of any municipality concerning any project on any site that is within the aquifer protection area delineated pursuant to section 22a-354c or the watershed of a water company, the applicant or the person making the filing shall provide written notice of the application, petition, request or plan to the water company and the Commissioner of Public Health in a format prescribed by said commissioner, provided such water company or said commissioner has filed a map showing the boundaries of the watershed on the land records of the municipality in which the application, petition, request or plan is made and with the planning commission, zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals of such municipality or the aquifer protection area has been delineated in accordance with section 22a-354c, as the case may be. Such notice shall be made by certified mail, return receipt requested, and shall be mailed not later than seven days after the date of the application. Such water company and the Commissioner of Public Health may, through a representative, appear and be heard at any hearing on any such application, petition, request or plan.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, when an agent of the zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals is authorized to approve an application, petition, request or plan concerning any site that is within the aquifer protection area delineated pursuant to section 22a-354c or the watershed of a water company without the approval of the zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals, and such agent determines that the proposed activity will not adversely affect the public water supply, the applicant or person making the filing shall not be required to notify the water company or the Commissioner of Public Health.

(P.A. 89-301, S. 2; P.A. 91-300, S. 3; P.A. 98-115; P.A. 06-53, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 91-300 revised the statutory definition of water company by changing the statutory definition reference from Sec. 16-1 to Sec. 25-32a; P.A. 98-115 added Subsec. (a) defining “water company” and “petition”, designated existing provisions Subsec. (b) and amended Subsec. (b) to require notice of projects in aquifer protection areas and added Subsec. (c) re approvals by agents of land use agencies without notice under this section; P.A. 06-53 amended Subsec. (b) to require the Commissioner of Public Health to receive notice of proposed activity on sites within acquifer protection areas or water company watersheds, to give said commissioner the right to appear and be heard at any hearing on any such proposed activity and to provide for the filing of maps showing the boundaries of the watershed with the local planning commission, amended Subsec. (c) to add the Commissioner of Public Health to the notification exemption and made technical changes throughout.

Sec. 8-3j. Regulation of family day care homes. No zoning regulation shall treat any family day care home registered pursuant to section 17b-733 in a manner different from single or multifamily dwellings.

(P.A. 90-286, S. 4, 9.)

Sec. 8-4. Zoning commission may be designated as planning and zoning commission. Section 8-4 is repealed.

(1949 Rev., S. 840; 1959, P.A. 679, S. 4.)

Sec. 8-4a. Zoning or planning commission may be designated as planning and zoning commission. Any town, city or borough, unless otherwise provided by special act, may by ordinance or by vote of its legislative body designate its zoning commission or its planning commission as the planning and zoning commission for such municipality, and such commission shall thereupon have all the powers and duties of both a planning commission and a zoning commission and shall supersede any previous planning commission or zoning commission, as the case may be. Such vote shall establish the number of members to comprise such planning and zoning commission, which number of members shall be five, six, seven, eight, nine or ten, not counting nonvoting members. In the establishment of a five-member planning and zoning commission, the provisions of section 8-19 shall apply. In the establishment of a planning and zoning commission with six or more members, the provisions of section 8-19 shall apply except that the terms of office shall be so arranged that not more than three of such terms on a six-member commission, four of such terms on a seven or an eight-member commission, or five of such terms on a nine or ten-member commission shall expire in any one year. Any public hearing conducted by a planning and zoning commission with six or more members shall be held by the commission or a committee thereof appointed for that purpose constituting a majority of the members of the commission. Any combined planning and zoning commission established under the general statutes prior to October 1, 1959, may continue to exist. Upon the establishment of a combined planning and zoning commission, all regulations adopted by the planning commission or the zoning commission which were in effect prior to the establishment of such combined commission shall continue in full force and effect until modified, repealed or superseded in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and chapter 126. A vacancy on such combined planning and zoning commission shall be filled in a manner prescribed by the legislative body of such municipality.

(1959, P.A. 614, S. 6; 679, S. 3; 1971, P.A. 362, S. 1; 763, S. 2; P.A. 75-21, S. 1, 3; P.A. 77-509, S. 10.)

History: 1971 acts added provision continuing regulations of zoning or planning commission in force until modified, repealed or superseded by newly combined commission and extended applicability of section to cities and boroughs; P.A. 75-21 changed maximum numbers of terms to expire in one year from two to three on six-member commission, from three to four on seven or eight-member commission and from four to five on a nine or ten-member commission; P.A. 77-509 added provision concerning filling of vacancies.

See Sec. 8-1b re alternate members of zoning commission or combined planning and zoning commission.

Cited. 154 C. 473; 161 C. 430; 170 C. 62; 186 C. 106. Vote of a salaried municipal officer, although invalid under this statute and Sec. 8-19, did not invalidate commission’s entire action in approving a zone reclassification where total valid votes were sufficient. 196 C. 192.

Cited. 2 CA 213; 31 CA 643.

Sec. 8-4b. Change from combined commission to separate commissions. Any town, city or borough which has designated its zoning commission or its planning commission as the planning and zoning commission of such municipality under the provisions of section 8-4a may, by ordinance or by vote of its legislative body, reverse such designation and do anything necessary to conform to the provisions of this chapter or chapter 126; provided no such reversal, unless otherwise stated, shall be construed to affect the continuity of planning or zoning in such town.

(February, 1965, P.A. 566; 1971, P.A. 763, S. 3.)

History: 1971 act included cities and boroughs under provisions of section.

Sec. 8-5. Zoning board of appeals. Alternate members. (a) In each municipality having a zoning commission there shall be a zoning board of appeals consisting of five regular members and three alternate members, unless otherwise provided by special act. Such alternate members, also referred to as “the panel of alternates”, shall, when seated as herein provided, have all the powers and duties set forth in the general statutes relating to zoning boards of appeals and their members. The regular members and alternate members of such zoning board of appeals shall be electors and shall not be members of the zoning commission, any provision of any special act to the contrary notwithstanding. Such board and such panel of alternates shall, unless otherwise provided by special act, be elected or appointed in such manner and for such terms as is determined for each by ordinance adopted by the municipality. Any vacancy in such board, including any vacancy in the panel of alternates, unless otherwise provided by ordinance or special act, shall be filled for the unexpired portion of the term, by the board of selectmen of towns or the chief executive officer of cities and boroughs. Such board by vote of its regular members only shall elect a chairman from among its members, unless otherwise provided by special act, and all meetings of such board shall be held at the call of the chairman and at such other times as the board determines and shall be open to the public. Such chairman or in his absence the acting chairman may administer oaths and compel the attendance of witnesses. The board shall keep minutes of its proceedings showing the vote of each member and each alternate member when seated upon each question or, if absent or failing to vote, indicating such fact; and shall also keep records of its examinations and other official actions. Each rule or regulation and each amendment or repeal thereof and each order, requirement or decision of the board shall immediately be filed in the office of the board and shall be a public record.

(b) The zoning board of appeals of any town shall have jurisdiction over that part of the town outside of any city or borough contained therein except that the legislative body of any city or borough may, by ordinance, designate the zoning board of appeals of the town in which such city or borough is situated as the zoning board of appeals of such city or borough.

(1949 Rev., S. 841; 1951, S. 158b; 1953, S. 376d; 1959, P.A. 146, S. 1; 1961, P.A. 271; 1963, P.A. 137; 1971, P.A. 763, S. 4; P.A. 75-629, S. 2; P.A. 89-175, S. 1, 7.)

History: 1959 act required alternate members; 1961 act added panel of alternates in provision for method of selection and determination of terms; 1963 act added “any provision of any special act to the contrary notwithstanding” to the provision governing membership of zoning board of appeals; 1971 act made no changes; P.A. 75-629 added Subsec. (b) concerning jurisdiction of zoning board of appeals; P.A. 89-175 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate provisions re appointment of board members and alternates in cities and boroughs and to provide that board members and alternates may be elected or appointed in any municipality.

See Sec. 9-1 for applicable definitions.

See Sec. 9-209 re certification of terms of office and number of members of planning and zoning boards or commissions.

Cited. 123 C. 264. Board of appeals acts in a quasi-judicial capacity as distinguished from zoning commission. 145 C. 592. Cited. 148 C. 33; 165 C. 185; 219 C. 352.

Cited. 33 CA 281. Local zoning regulation, which mirrors statute, confers only specific narrowly defined powers on the chairman and in this case chairman was not authorized to act on behalf of board as to any substantive matter such as termination of disposition of an appeal. 69 CA 230.

Compared with number 305 of special acts of 1931. 10 CS 194.

Subsec. (a):

Unseated alternate zoning board member is precluded from participating in board deliberations following the close of a public hearing. 127 CA 669.

Sec. 8-5a. Designation of alternate members to act. If a regular member of a zoning board of appeals is absent, he may designate an alternate from the panel of alternates to act in his place. If he fails to make such designation or if he is disqualified, the chairman of the board shall designate an alternate from such panel, choosing alternates in rotation so that they shall act as nearly equal a number of times as possible. If any alternate is not available in accordance with such rotation, such fact shall be recorded in the minutes of the meeting.

(1959, P.A. 146, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 763, S. 5.)

History: 1971 act made no changes.

Fact that minutes failed to show how or by whom alternates who participated in hearing were designated did not invalidate board’s action. 150 C. 539. Cited. 219 C. 352.

Cited. 33 CA 281. Unseated alternate zoning board member’s participation in public hearing was not in contravention of plain language of section. 127 CA 669.

Sec. 8-5b. Ordinance may provide for appointment of alternate members. Any town, city or borough, in addition to such powers as it has under the provisions of the general statutes or any special act, shall have the power to provide by ordinance for the appointment of three alternate members to its zoning board of appeals as is set forth in section 8-5.

(1961, P.A. 253.)

Cited. 219 C. 352.

Sec. 8-6. Powers and duties of board of appeals. (a) The zoning board of appeals shall have the following powers and duties: (1) To hear and decide appeals where it is alleged that there is an error in any order, requirement or decision made by the official charged with the enforcement of this chapter or any bylaw, ordinance or regulation adopted under the provisions of this chapter; (2) to hear and decide all matters including special exceptions and special exemptions under section 8-2g upon which it is required to pass by the specific terms of the zoning bylaw, ordinance or regulation; and (3) to determine and vary the application of the zoning bylaws, ordinances or regulations in harmony with their general purpose and intent and with due consideration for conserving the public health, safety, convenience, welfare and property values solely with respect to a parcel of land where, owing to conditions especially affecting such parcel but not affecting generally the district in which it is situated, a literal enforcement of such bylaws, ordinances or regulations would result in exceptional difficulty or unusual hardship so that substantial justice will be done and the public safety and welfare secured, provided that the zoning regulations may specify the extent to which uses shall not be permitted by variance in districts in which such uses are not otherwise allowed. No such board shall be required to hear any application for the same variance or substantially the same variance for a period of six months after a decision by the board or by a court on an earlier such application.

(b) Any variance granted by a zoning board of appeals shall run with the land and shall not be personal in nature to the person who applied for and received the variance. A variance shall not be extinguished solely because of the transfer of title to the property or the invalidity of any condition attached to the variance that would affect the transfer of the property from the person who initially applied for and received the variance.

(1949 Rev., S. 842; P.A. 77-509, S. 5; P.A. 88-338, S. 4, 5; P.A. 93-385, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 77-509 added provisions concerning variances; P.A. 88-338 added reference to special exemptions under Sec. 8-2g; P.A. 93-385 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) providing that zoning variances shall run with the land.

Action in executive session by four members of board not invalid because full membership did not participate. 125 C. 720. Board of appeals not unreasonable in denying variance for parking lot in residential zone. 126 C. 228. Provision re variance in regulation was in harmony with section. 129 C. 288. “Hardship” construed. 111 C. 616; 114 C. 15; 120 C. 454; 124 C. 525; 125 C. 715; 126 C. 228; 129 C. 280; Id., 285; 130 C. 164; 132 C. 542. Injunctive relief on ground of unconstitutionality of action of zoning authorities cannot be sought until party has been granted or denied a variance by zoning board of appeals. 142 C. 415. Board has power to grant variance under section when its own regulation was limited. 143 C. 132. Zoning board of appeals shall not grant variance unless it can reasonably find that strict application would entail exceptional difficulty or undue hardship on an individual property owner. Id., 542. Similar provision in Bridgeport zoning regulations construed. 144 C. 641. Difference between variance and exception. Accessory use defined. 146 C. 70. Financial loss or hardship is not sufficient reason for granting variance. Id., 547. Conditions permitting an exception must be found in zoning regulations themselves. Id., 665. Variance denied since hardship was of plaintiffs’ own making. Id., 737. In order to warrant a variance, hardship must be shown to differ in kind from hardship imposed on properties in general by regulations. 147 C. 358. Cited. 148 C. 33. Board can grant variance for reasons stated in section; mere financial gain to applicant is not sufficient. Id., 443. Zoning board of appeals should not be permitted to revoke former action unless there has been a change in conditions or new considerations materially affecting merits of subject matter have intervened. That applies even though former action was taken without prejudice. 149 C. 698. Where plaintiff purchased property under conditions and restrictions now complained of, ground of “hardship” without support in evidence. Also motive for seeking variance was greater financial return, and any claimed unsuitability of land for residence purposes did not attach any more particularly to plaintiff’s land than to zoning district in general. Id. Mere financial loss does not constitute hardship warranting granting of variance. But if loss is so great as to amount to confiscation of applicant’s property, variance might be justified. 150 C. 391. Hardship warrants granting of variance only if it is different in kind from hardship imposed by regulations on property in general. It must be peculiarly oppressive to applicant’s property. Id. Zoning board of appeals acting under section must conduct public hearing on every application submitted to it and give timely and adequate notice in accordance with Sec. 8-7. Id., 532. Aggrieved party cannot bypass board by bringing action in superior court seeking review of zoning enforcement officer’s action. 151 C. 27. Board cannot reverse its decision unless aggrieved party can show a change of conditions or circumstances. Id., 34. For granting of variance, hardship imposed must differ in kind from hardship imposed on properties generally by the regulations. Id., 49. If hardship affects all property in general area, the matter can only be acted on legislatively, not administratively. Id. Special exception not allowed where requirements of regulations not met. Id., 144. Variance allowed where owner built on lot with one hundred foot frontage, even where area restricted to one hundred twenty foot frontage and owner had prior opportunity to buy lot at its original one hundred twenty foot frontage. Id., 165. As variance would not materially impair effectiveness of zoning regulations as a whole, court upheld granting of said variance. Id., 166. When claimed hardship arises because of actions of applicant, board is without power to grant variance. Id., 681. Mere statement that application of zoning restriction to named premises constitutes a hardship not sufficient reason for variance. 153 C. 314, 316. Failure to give posted notice as required by Stratford zoning regulations made action by town zoning board granting zoning changes illegal. 154 C. 420. One who has contracted to purchase property has standing to apply for a special exception or variance governing its use. Id., 426. Refusal of zoning board to grant variance was not abuse of its discretion where applicant had bought undersized lot in district zoned to require three-acre lots for building. Id., 380. Board had function of deciding whether plaintiff’s process of assembling small arms ammunition was manufacture of explosives prohibited by zoning regulation in his area and was not bound by definition of explosives in Sec. 29-83. Id., 558. Cited. 155 C. 175, 180. That property previously equipped and leased as restaurant could not now be leased again as restaurant unless variance was granted to permit restoration of its lapsed liquor permit held not such a hardship as justified board of appeals granting a variance. 156 C. 426. Cited. Id., 588. Appeal to court of common pleas without prior proceeding under section upheld where relief sought was equitable in nature for injunction against town officials. 157 C. 548. Cited. 162 C. 44. Considerations of board in granting variances. 163 C. 179. Cited. Id., 237; 453. Notice which incorrectly referred to an appeal hearing as a hearing on a variance request held sufficient. 164 C. 325. Cited. 165 C. 185. Section does not allow a board of appeals when granting a variance to make a new ordinance for a particular property; the statute only allows the board to vary the application of the existing ordinance in enumerated instances. 168 C. 194. Cited. 173 C. 420. Statutory standard of “exceptional difficulty or unusual hardship” interpreted. 174 C. 323. Cited. 178 C. 364; 179 C. 250. Zoning board of appeals lacked authority to grant variance for trailer park since city’s zoning regulations prohibited the enlargement of a nonconforming use. 180 C. 193. Cited. 186 C. 32. Section does not preclude review of actions of a commission by zoning board of appeals, discusses relationship with Secs. 8-9 and 8-10. 186 C. 106. Cited. 213 C. 604; 217 C. 588; 219 C. 352; 221 C. 374; 225 C. 432; Id., 691; 226 C. 80; 233 C. 198; 235 C. 850; 241 C. 180. In reviewing a zoning board’s decision, reviewing court is bound by the substantial evidence rule. The question is not whether trial court would have reached the same conclusion but whether the record before the board supports the decision reached. If trial court finds there is substantial evidence to support board’s findings, it cannot substitute its judgment for that of the board. 281 C. 553. Person who seeks a variance must show that because of some unusual characteristic of a person’s property, literal enforcement of zoning regulations would result in unusual hardship to such person. The hardship must arise directly out of the application of the regulations to circumstances or conditions beyond such person’s control. Where extreme hardship has not been established, the reduction of a nonconforming use to a less offensive prohibited use may constitute independent ground for granting a variance. Conversion of property use from current nonconforming use as a foundry to prohibited use as automobile repair shop would be less offensive to surrounding residents. Decision of board granting variance was proper because it reduced preexisting nonconforming use of property to a less offensive prohibited use. Id.

Cited. 4 CA 271. Action pending under section cannot be used under prior pending action rule to bar action subsequently brought under Sec. 8-12. 9 CA 534. Cited. 15 CA 729; 18 CA 195; Id., 312; 22 CA 255; 24 CA 49; 25 CA 631; 27 CA 297; 29 CA 402; 31 CA 380; 42 CA 272; judgment reversed, see 241 C. 180; 43 CA 545. The threshold issue is whether an order, requirement or decision by zoning enforcement officer was made thus triggering the statutory framework for appeal. 58 CA 74. Cited. 87 CA 143.

Compared with number 305 of special acts of 1931. 10 CS 194. Board is without power to authorize an exception or variance without some basis of fact. 18 CS 48. Possible inconvenience to public and economic disadvantage to owner held not sufficient justification for granting of variance on ground of practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship. 21 CS 102. Where board passed on issue which was not presented to it in any manner cognizable under the act or the regulations, it acted gratuitously and the application was not within its jurisdiction and should have been denied. 25 CS 279. Rule that board cannot reverse a former decision unless there has been a change in conditions did not apply where former decision was invalid because of improper notice. 26 CS 255. Circumstances under which board’s decisions should be overruled discussed. Id., 256. Zoning board of appeals acted in arbitrary and illegal manner in granting variance to defendant where there was no evidence the limitation as to the amount of outdoor storage area was so unbearable a reduction as to be confiscatory or arbitrary. 28 CS 278. Cited. 30 CS 157; 32 CS 223; Id., 625. Zoning board of appeals did not act arbitrarily in denying a variance to use a portion of a residence as a real estate office since a real estate broker is not a “professional person” within purview of zoning regulations. 36 CS 217. Cited. 38 CS 651; 41 CS 218.

Subsec. (a):

Zoning commission’s denial of application for special exception was an enforcement action and therefore administrative in nature and board of appeals has authority to hear appeals re such enforcement actions. 280 C. 274. Zoning board of appeals had jurisdiction to hear and determine administrative appeal concerning whether certificate of zoning compliance conformed with a stipulated judgment; use of “any” before “order” was intended to convey broad jurisdiction over all orders, requirements and decisions of the zoning enforcement officer, without limitation. 296 C. 434.

Planning and zoning commission was engaged in act of “enforcement” when it granted applicant’s site plan application. 58 CA 399. Plaintiff’s claimed financial loss is not valid basis for granting variance from zoning regulations because plaintiff’s loss does not rise to an unusual hardship under section. 62 CA 528. Issuance of certificate of zoning compliance by zoning enforcement officer is decision by such officer, and appeal from such decision is expressly permitted by statute. 106 CA 1. Because there was no record of an application to the zoning enforcement officer for a certificate of zoning compliance claiming that parcel at issue was a preexisting, nonconforming lot, and hence no denial of such application and appeal therefrom to the board, the issue of preexisting, nonconforming use was not properly before court. 117 CA 569. Errors of architect or contractor that resulted in roof exceeding maximum height requirement are attributable to homeowners because the voluntary acts of architect or contractor were on behalf of the homeowners whom the variance would benefit; hardship was self-created and zoning board of appeals was without authority to grant waiver sought; “de minimis” deviation is not recognized in Connecticut. 126 CA 400.

Subsec. (a)(1):

Legislative intent that issue of what constitutes nonconforming use should be handled in the first instance by local administrative officials. 180 C. 575. Cited. 181 C. 556; 225 C. 575; 234 C. 498.

Cited. 12 CA 90; 17 CA 17; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 570; 20 CA 302; 34 CA 552; 43 CA 443.

Subsec. (a)(3):

Power to vary regulations must be sparingly exercised. Financial detriment to a single owner not sufficient reason. 139 C. 116. Cited. 152 C. 661; 155 C. 42; 165 C. 389, 393. Circumstances in which zoning board of appeals may grant a variance are in substance the same as those specified in section 11.6.3 of the zoning regulations of New Haven. 165 C. 749. Cited. 179 C. 650; 181 C. 556; 205 C. 703; 206 C. 362; 218 C. 438; 228 C. 785; 234 C. 498.

Cited. 4 CA 205; Id., 500; 15 CA 387; 20 CA 302; 21 CA 594; 23 CA 441; 25 CA 375; 26 CA 187; 31 CA 270; 34 CA 552; 43 CA 545. Voluntary assumption of hardship does not constitute grounds for a variance. 50 CA 308. Claimed hardship for variance is legal where twenty-foot setback requirement on fifty-foot lot would limit defendant to constructing ten-foot-wide building in commercial zone, perpetuating property’s present nonconforming use as single-family residence in a commercial zone, and where variance is in keeping with town’s comprehensive plan. 66 CA 565. A parcel that was not approved as a buildable lot is not one of the conditions that a variance may be validly used to resolve. 117 CA 569.

Where zoning board granted plaintiffs variance from which a successful appeal was taken, fact that plaintiffs had begun construction did not constitute a hardship under section since such construction was begun before expiration of appeal period. 26 CS 255. No hardship existed by reason of the size, shape and topography of plaintiffs’ lot where all properties in the area were similar in size, shape and grade and regulations affected all similar properties in the same manner. Id. Financial disappointment insufficient to support granting of variance absent showing strict application of zoning regulations would destroy economic utility of property. 29 CS 4. Property owners purchasing, with knowledge, express or implied, of zoning regulations, cannot be deemed to prevent valid case of exceptional difficulty or unusual hardship since they were aware, in law or in fact, of zoning restrictions prior to taking title to premises. Id. It is improper for zoning board of appeals to grant a variance solely on the basis that variance would improve the neighborhood without another finding of hardship. 51 CS 190.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 45 CA 702.

Sec. 8-6a. Appeal to be heard before variance when both joined. Whenever an application to a zoning board of appeals for the grant of a variance is joined with an appeal from any order, requirement or decision made by the official charged with the enforcement of this chapter, or any bylaw, ordinance or regulation adopted under the provisions of this chapter, the board shall first decide the issues presented by such appeal.

(P.A. 75-86, S. 1.)

Cited. 219 C. 352; 225 C. 691; 226 C. 80.

Cited. 20 CA 302; 34 CA 552.

Sec. 8-7. Appeals to board. Hearings. Effective date of exceptions or variances; filing requirements. The concurring vote of four members of the zoning board of appeals shall be necessary to reverse any order, requirement or decision of the official charged with the enforcement of the zoning regulations or to decide in favor of the applicant any matter upon which it is required to pass under any bylaw, ordinance, rule or regulation or to vary the application of the zoning bylaw, ordinance, rule or regulation. An appeal may be taken to the zoning board of appeals by any person aggrieved or by any officer, department, board or bureau of any municipality aggrieved and shall be taken within such time as is prescribed by a rule adopted by said board, or, if no such rule is adopted by the board, within thirty days, by filing with the zoning commission or the officer from whom the appeal has been taken and with said board a notice of appeal specifying the grounds thereof. Such appeal period shall commence for an aggrieved person at the earliest of the following: (1) Upon receipt of the order, requirement or decision from which such person may appeal, (2) upon the publication of a notice in accordance with subsection (f) of section 8-3, or (3) upon actual or constructive notice of such order, requirement or decision. The officer from whom the appeal has been taken shall forthwith transmit to said board all the papers constituting the record upon which the action appealed from was taken. An appeal shall not stay any such order, requirement or decision which prohibits further construction or expansion of a use in violation of such zoning regulations except to such extent that the board grants a stay thereof. An appeal from any other order, requirement or decision shall stay all proceedings in the action appealed from unless the zoning commission or the officer from whom the appeal has been taken certifies to the zoning board of appeals after the notice of appeal has been filed that by reason of facts stated in the certificate a stay would cause imminent peril to life or property, in which case proceedings shall not be stayed, except by a restraining order which may be granted by a court of record on application, on notice to the zoning commission or the officer from whom the appeal has been taken and on due cause shown. The board shall hold a public hearing on such appeal in accordance with the provisions of section 8-7d. Such board may reverse or affirm wholly or partly or may modify any order, requirement or decision appealed from and shall make such order, requirement or decision as in its opinion should be made in the premises and shall have all the powers of the officer from whom the appeal has been taken but only in accordance with the provisions of this section. Whenever a zoning board of appeals grants or denies any special exception or variance in the zoning regulations applicable to any property or sustains or reverses wholly or partly any order, requirement or decision appealed from, it shall state upon its records the reason for its decision and the zoning bylaw, ordinance or regulation which is varied in its application or to which an exception is granted and, when a variance is granted, describe specifically the exceptional difficulty or unusual hardship on which its decision is based. Notice of the decision of the board shall be published in a newspaper having a substantial circulation in the municipality and addressed by certified mail to any person who appeals to the board, by its secretary or clerk, under his signature in any written, printed, typewritten or stamped form, within fifteen days after such decision has been rendered. In any case in which such notice is not published within such fifteen-day period, the person who requested or applied for such special exception or variance or took such appeal may provide for the publication of such notice within ten days thereafter. Such exception or variance shall become effective upon the filing of a copy thereof (A) in the office of the town, city or borough clerk, as the case may be, but, in the case of a district, in the offices of both the district clerk and the town clerk of the town in which such district is located, and (B) in the land records of the town in which the affected premises are located, in accordance with the provisions of section 8-3d.

(1949 Rev., S. 843; 1951, 1953, S. 378d; 1959, P.A. 458; 577, S. 5; 614, S. 4; 1963, P.A. 55, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 622, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 884, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 862, S. 4; P.A. 75-86, S. 2; P.A. 77-450, S. 3; 77-509, S. 6; P.A. 84-122; P.A. 87-215, S. 4, 7; P.A. 89-356, S. 13; P.A. 03-144, S. 2; 03-177, S. 4.)

History: 1959 acts changed “appellant” to “applicant” in first sentence, provided for filing of exception, variance or reversal in case of a district, added requirement of newspaper publication of notice of hearing and added requirement appeal be decided within 60 days; 1963 act added requirement board record reasons for denial of exception or variance and for sustaining of order or decision; 1965 act required notice of board’s decision on appeal to be mailed to appellant and to be published in a newspaper, eliminated requirement for publishing notice of the filing of the variance, exception or reversal and deleted statement that appeals from decisions of board may be made in the manner set forth in Sec. 8-8 within 15 days of their effective date; 1967 act stated in more detail the notification of decision required to be given the appellant and changed deadline for notification from within 3 days of decision to within 10 days of decision; 1971 act required that appeal be heard within 65 days of notice rather than within “a reasonable time”, required that decision be rendered within 65, rather than 60, days of hearing and required publication of decision and notification of appellant within 15 rather than 10 days; P.A. 75-86 required recording of regulation varied or to which exception made and basis for reaching decision; P.A. 77-450 deleted provision requiring that decision be reached within 65 days of hearing and replaced 65-day limit between notice and hearing with reference to time period under Sec. 8-7d; P.A. 77-509 added provision concerning stay of order on appeal where prohibition of construction, expansion, etc. involved and provided that decisions become effective not at time fixed by board but by filing in clerk’s office and in land records; P.A. 84-122 required that appeals be taken within 30 days if no set period for taking appeals is adopted by the board; P.A. 87-215 authorized board to provide by regulation for additional notice by mail to adjacent landowners; P.A. 89-356 added provision authorizing the person who requested or applied for a special exception or variance or took an appeal to provide for the publication of the notice of the decision of the board when such notice is not published in a timely manner; P.A. 03-144 added provisions re time for commencement of appeal; P.A. 03-177 replaced provisions re notice of time and place for public hearing and optional notice by mail to adjacent landowners with provision requiring that the public hearing be held in accordance with Sec. 8-7d, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to applications filed on or after that date.

Cited. 140 C. 527; 142 C. 88; Id., 92; 148 C. 33; Id., 603. Since there was no applicable limitation of time for taking appeal, and since there was failure to show prejudice by any delay in taking appeal and thus doctrine of laches could not be invoked, it could not be said that appeal was barred by lapse of time. 150 C. 113. Cited. Id., 413. Provisions requiring hearing to be held by zoning board of appeals on “any appeal” are not limited to appeals in technical sense. They apply to every application invoking powers conferred on board by Sec. 8-6. Id., 532. Recitation that applicant sought permission to change nonconforming use of his premises as a mink ranch to a “lesser” nonconforming use was insufficient notice to inform those who might be affected by change. Id. Prior to 1965 amendment: Time for taking appeal from zoning board controlled by this section rather than Sec. 8-8. 151 C. 646. Cited. Id., 694; 153 C. 315; Id., 623; 154 C. 32; 155 C. 178. Although condition requiring petitioner to deed part of property for street widening was illegal and of no effect, remainder of board’s decision granting exception for construction of gasoline station was separable and therefore valid. Id., 350. Provisions not applicable to any municipality which has not adopted general enabling act as provided in Sec. 8-1; hence notice of hearing in conformance with Hartford zoning ordinance was proper notice of hearings before zoning board of appeals of city of Hartford. Id., 360. Section not applicable to hearing before municipal zoning board of appeal prior to adoption of chapter by municipality. Id., 422. Provision that board “shall decide” appeals within sixty days after hearing relates to procedure and is directory, not mandatory. Id., 550. Zoning regulations required board to find “that the existing public streets” are adequate to handle additional traffic where an exception is granted and board could not grant exception conditional on determination of adequacy by town traffic commission. 157 C. 420. Board of appeals in hearing plaintiff’s appeal from action of zoning commission was administrative body acting in a quasi-judicial capacity; plaintiff was given a fair hearing, witnesses not required to testify so that she might cross-examine them. 158 C. 158. Notice of hearing sufficient if it sufficiently apprises those interested of action proposed to enable them to prepare for hearing. Id., 202. Compliance with publication requirement by the board is presumed. Id., 331. Cited. Id., 336; 162 C. 74; 163 C. 379; 165 C. 185. Court, upon concluding that action taken by administrative agency was illegal, arbitrary or in abuse of its discretion, should go no further than to sustain appeal. Direction of what action should be taken would be usurpation of administrative function. Id., 749. Cited. 173 C. 420; 174 C. 351; Id., 488; 195 C. 276; 211 C. 78; 212 C. 628; 213 C. 604; 218 C. 65; 219 C. 352. Without subject matter jurisdiction board’s action was a nullity; judgment of Appellate Court in 25 CA 611 reversed. 223 C. 171. Cited. 225 C. 432; Id., 575; 226 C. 80; Id., 913. Judgment of Appellate Court in 30 CA 395 reversed. 230 C. 452. Exhaustion of administrative remedies doctrine not applicable to plaintiffs; judgment of Appellate Court in 42 CA 272 reversed. 241 C. 180. Appeal may be taken to a zoning board of appeals by any aggrieved party during a period established by a rule of that board or, if no such rule is established, within thirty days of notice of the action from which appeal is sought. 261 C. 263. When a landowner receives written notice from a zoning compliance officer that the landowner’s existing use of his property is in violation of applicable zoning ordinances or regulations, that interpretation constitutes a decision from which the landowner can appeal to the local zoning board of appeals; however, when such written notice concerns a proposed future use, such notice is not a decision from which the landowner can appeal. 306 C. 173.

Cited. 2 CA 384; Id., 506; 4 CA 205; Id., 633. Statutory and classical aggrievement discussed. 7 CA 632. Cited. Id., 684; 16 CA 604; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 628; 17 CA 17; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 570; 20 CA 561; 23 CA 232; 25 CA 611; judgment reversed, see 223 C. 171; 26 CA 187; 28 CA 256; judgment affirmed in part and modified in part, see 226 C. 80; 30 CA 395; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 452; Id., 797. Valid vote can occur only when agency members are present and convened together at a public meeting. 33 CA 281. Cited. 34 CA 552; 40 CA 692; 41 CA 89; 42 CA 272; judgment reversed, see 241 C. 180; 43 CA 512; Id., 563. Land use hardship standard is the proper standard of review applicable to an application to modify a variance by removing attached conditions, and four votes are required to approve such application. 54 CA 135. The threshold issue is whether an order, requirement or decision by zoning enforcement officer was made thus triggering the statutory framework for appeal. 58 CA 74. Zoning board required to hold a hearing on plaintiff’s zoning application. 69 CA 230. The determination of whether a letter issued by a zoning enforcement officer amounts to a decision appealable under statute depends on the facts and circumstances of each case, and in this case, the letter was a preliminary advisory opinion and not a decision subject to appeal. 114 CA 13.

Board of zoning appeals members who will make decision must be present at public hearing. 19 CS 307. Cited. 23 CS 7. Appeal stays all proceedings in action appealed from including criminal proceedings provided for in Sec. 8-12. Id., 125. Cited. 25 CS 276. History discussed. 26 CS 88. Plaintiffs’ claim that logic dictates that legislature did not intend that there should be an inconsistent procedure relative to appeals from decisions of zoning boards of appeal and zoning boards and that therefore the running of the appeal period in the case of a zoning regulation should be contingent on the statutory publication is without merit. Id., 90. Cited. Id., 169. Rule that board cannot reverse a former decision unless there has been a change in condition did not apply where former decision was invalid because of improper notice. Id., 255. Circumstances under which board’s decisions should be overruled discussed. Id., 256. Where zoning was controlled by special act with different requirements as to notice of hearing, special act prevails. Id., 262. Equitable relief outside the framework of appeal procedure set up by statute might be granted in the presence of allegations of fraudulent connivance or collusion on the part of local zoning board of appeals. Id., 334, 335. Plaintiffs have been granted equitable relief when the zoning authority lacked the jurisdiction to take the action which plaintiff was challenging. Id. Equitable relief by way of an injunction will not be granted if the court finds that the legal remedy afforded by statute has not been exhausted. Id. Cited. 32 CS 223; Id., 625; 35 CS 246; 38 CS 492; 39 CS 426; Id., 523; 41 CS 398; 43 CS 373.

Sec. 8-7a. Evidence at hearings and meetings to deliberate formal petitions, applications, requests or appeals to be taken by stenographer or recorded. The zoning commission, planning commission, planning and zoning commission and zoning board of appeals shall call in a competent stenographer to take the evidence, or shall cause the evidence to be recorded by a sound-recording device, in each hearing before such commission or board in which the right of appeal lies to the Superior Court and at each meeting in which such commission or board of appeals deliberates any formal petition, application, request or appeal.

(1959, P.A. 460, S. 1; P.A. 76-436, S. 290, 681; P.A. 90-286, S. 6, 9; P.A. 05-287, S. 46.)

History: P.A. 76-436 substituted superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 90-286 made requirements of section applicable to planning commissions and planning and zoning commissions; P.A. 05-287 added provision requiring evidence to be taken by stenographer or recorded at each meeting in which commission or board of appeals deliberates any formal petition, application, request or appeal, effective January 1, 2006.

Cited. 148 C. 600. History discussed; reversal of decision in 23 CS 6; failure of board of appeals to comply with mandate of section renders action voidable at option of an aggrieved person. 150 C. 411. Cited. 153 C. 713; 154 C. 393; 155 C. 268; 162 C. 44; 219 C. 352; Id., 511; 226 C. 80.

Cited. 6 CA 110; 43 CA 563. Zoning board required to hold a hearing on plaintiff’s zoning application. 69 CA 230.

Where, due to mechanical failure of recording machine, no transcript is available, court may permit introduction of additional evidence to determine what considerations were presumptively in minds of board members. 23 CS 6; judgment reversed, see 150 C. 411.

Sec. 8-7b. Notice to contiguous municipalities of variance applications. Section 8-7b is repealed, effective October 1, 2003.

(February, 1965, P.A. 54; P.A. 83-247; P.A. 03-177, S. 14.)

Sec. 8-7c. Disclosure of beneficiaries of real property held in trust. Any person who makes an application to a planning commission, zoning commission or zoning board of appeals pertaining to real property, the record title to which is held by a trustee of an undisclosed trust, shall file with said application a sworn statement disclosing the name of the equitable owner of such real property or the beneficiary of the trust.

(1971, P.A. 782.)

Cited. 219 C. 352.

Zoning board required to hold a hearing on plaintiff’s zoning application. 69 CA 230.

Sec. 8-7d. Hearings and decisions. Time limits. Day of receipt. Notice to adjoining municipality. Public notice registry. (a) In all matters wherein a formal petition, application, request or appeal must be submitted to a zoning commission, planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals under this chapter, a planning commission under chapter 126 or an inland wetlands agency under chapter 440 or an aquifer protection agency under chapter 446i and a hearing is required or otherwise held on such petition, application, request or appeal, such hearing shall commence within sixty-five days after receipt of such petition, application, request or appeal and shall be completed within thirty-five days after such hearing commences, unless a shorter period of time is required under this chapter, chapter 126, chapter 440 or chapter 446i. Notice of the hearing shall be published in a newspaper having a general circulation in such municipality where the land that is the subject of the hearing is located at least twice, at intervals of not less than two days, the first not more than fifteen days or less than ten days and the last not less than two days before the date set for the hearing. In addition to such notice, such commission, board or agency may, by regulation, provide for additional notice. Such regulations shall include provisions that the notice be mailed to persons who own land that is adjacent to the land that is the subject of the hearing or be provided by posting a sign on the land that is the subject of the hearing, or both. For purposes of such additional notice, (1) proof of mailing shall be evidenced by a certificate of mailing, and (2) the person who owns land shall be the owner indicated on the property tax map or on the last-completed grand list as of the date such notice is mailed. All applications and maps and documents relating thereto shall be open for public inspection. At such hearing, any person or persons may appear and be heard and may be represented by agent or by attorney. All decisions on such matters shall be rendered not later than sixty-five days after completion of such hearing, unless a shorter period of time is required under this chapter, chapter 126, chapter 440 or chapter 446i. The petitioner or applicant may consent to one or more extensions of any period specified in this subsection, provided the total extension of all such periods shall not be for longer than sixty-five days, or may withdraw such petition, application, request or appeal.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, whenever the approval of a site plan is the only requirement to be met or remaining to be met under the zoning regulations for any building, use or structure, a decision on an application for approval of such site plan shall be rendered not later than sixty-five days after receipt of such site plan. Whenever a decision is to be made on an application for subdivision approval under chapter 126 on which no hearing is held, such decision shall be rendered not later than sixty-five days after receipt of such application. Whenever a decision is to be made on an inland wetlands and watercourses application under chapter 440 on which no hearing is held, such decision shall be rendered not later than sixty-five days after receipt of such application. Whenever a decision is to be made on an aquifer protection area application under chapter 446i on which no hearing is held, such decision shall be rendered not later than sixty-five days after receipt of such application. The applicant may consent to one or more extensions of such period, provided the total period of any such extension or extensions shall not exceed sixty-five days or may withdraw such plan or application.

(c) For purposes of subsection (a) or (b) of this section and section 7-246a, the date of receipt of a petition, application, request or appeal shall be the day of the next regularly scheduled meeting of such commission, board or agency, immediately following the day of submission to such commission, board or agency or its agent of such petition, application, request or appeal or thirty-five days after such submission, whichever is sooner. If the commission, board or agency does not maintain an office with regular office hours, the office of the clerk of the municipality shall act as the agent of such commission, board or agency for the receipt of any petition, application, request or appeal.

(d) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any action initiated by any zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission regarding adoption or change of any zoning regulation or boundary or any subdivision regulation.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, if an application involves an activity regulated pursuant to sections 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, and the time for a decision by a zoning commission or planning and zoning commission established pursuant to this section would elapse prior to the thirty-fifth day after a decision by the inland wetlands agency, the time period for a decision shall be extended to thirty-five days after the decision of such agency. The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to apply to any extension consented to by an applicant or petitioner.

(f) The zoning commission, planning commission, zoning and planning commission, zoning board of appeals, inland wetlands agency or aquifer protection agency shall notify the clerk of any adjoining municipality of the pendency of any application, petition, appeal, request or plan concerning any project on any site in which: (1) Any portion of the property affected by a decision of such commission, board or agency is within five hundred feet of the boundary of the adjoining municipality; (2) a significant portion of the traffic to the completed project on the site will use streets within the adjoining municipality to enter or exit the site; (3) a significant portion of the sewer or water drainage from the project on the site will flow through and significantly impact the drainage or sewerage system within the adjoining municipality; or (4) water runoff from the improved site will impact streets or other municipal or private property within the adjoining municipality. Such notice shall be made by certified mail, return receipt requested, and shall be mailed within seven days of the date of receipt of the application, petition, request or plan. Such adjoining municipality may, through a representative, appear and be heard at any hearing on any such application, petition, appeal, request or plan.

(g) (1) Any zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission initiating any action regarding adoption or change of any zoning regulation or boundary or any subdivision regulation or regarding the preparation or amendment of the plan of conservation and development shall provide notice of such action in accordance with this subsection in addition to any other notice required under any provision of the general statutes.

(2) A zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission shall establish a public notice registry of landowners, electors and nonprofit organizations qualified as tax-exempt organizations under the provisions of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, requesting notice under this subsection. Each municipality shall notify residents of such registry and the process for registering for notice under this subsection. The zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission shall place on such registry the names and addresses of any such landowner, elector or organization upon written request of such landowner, elector or organization. A landowner, elector or organization may request such notice be sent by mail or by electronic mail. The name and address of a landowner, elector or organization who requests to be placed on the public notice registry shall remain on such registry for a period of three years after the establishment of such registry. Thereafter any land owner, elector or organization may request to be placed on such registry for additional periods of three years.

(3) Any notice under this subsection shall be mailed to all landowners, electors and organizations in the public notice registry not later than seven days prior to the commencement of the public hearing on such action, if feasible. Such notice may be mailed by electronic mail if the zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission or the municipality has an electronic mail service provider.

(4) No zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission shall be civilly liable to any landowner, elector or nonprofit organization requesting notice under this subsection with respect to any act done or omitted in good faith or through a bona fide error that occurred despite reasonable procedures maintained by the zoning commission, planning commission or planning and zoning commission to prevent such errors in complying with the provisions of this section.

(1971, P.A. 862, S. 12; P.A. 77-450, S. 4; P.A. 78-104, S. 1; P.A. 82-81, S. 1; P.A. 87-533, S. 10, 14; P.A. 93-385, S. 2; P.A. 99-21, S. 1; P.A. 03-177, S. 5; P.A. 04-257, S. 6; P.A. 06-80, S. 1; P.A. 07-85, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 77-450 reworded previous provisions and designated them as Subsec. (c) and inserted new Subsecs. (a) and (b) before and new Subsec. (d) after; P.A. 78-104 amended Subsec. (a) to allow more than one extension and changed maximum extension time from double the original period to a time equaling the original period, made Subsec. (b) applicable to cases where site plan approval is only requirement to be met or remaining to be met and clarified Subsec. (c) by replacing references to “official receipt” with references to “submission”; P.A. 82-81 provided that town clerk would act as agent for receipt of documents for any board or commission not having regular office hours; P.A. 87-533 added Subsec. (e) regarding applications involving activity regulated pursuant to Secs. 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive; P.A. 93-385 amended Subsec. (b) by applying provisions to all buildings, uses or structures instead of limiting applications to proposals; P.A. 99-21 amended Subsec. (a) to extend the time for completion of a hearing from 30 to 35 days after commencement; P.A. 03-177 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to planning commissions and inland wetlands agencies and add provisions re public hearings, amended Subsec. (b) to add provisions re date for rendering decisions, amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to Sec. 7-246a and make conforming changes and added new Subsec. (f) re notification to adjoining municipalities, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to applications filed on or after that date; P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 06-80 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions re mailing and posting of additional notice, amended Subsec. (d) to add reference to planning commission and to any subdivision regulation and added Subsec. (g) re a public notice registry for changes initiated by commissions for zoning regulations or boundaries, subdivision regulations or the plan of conservation and development; P.A. 07-85 amended Subsecs. (a), (b) and (f) to apply provisions to aquifer protection agency and made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b).

Cited. 192 C. 353; 194 C. 187; 206 C. 554; 211 C. 331; 219 C. 352; 222 C. 269; 224 C. 44; 225 C. 432; Id., 575; 230 C. 641. If site plan and accompanying documents are seperable, time constraints in section do not apply. 253 C. 183. When approval for site plan and special exception are separate actions, provisions re statutory timelines do not apply. Id., 195.

Cited. 3 CA 556; 7 CA 684; 15 CA 561; 17 CA 405. Requirements satisfied only by commencement of timely public hearing. 27 CA 412. Cited. 29 CA 469; 35 CA 599; 43 CA 512. When site plan is separable from its accompanying documents and the special permit application is for a use not permitted as of right, section is not applicable, and where the special permit application must contain a site plan, automatic approval under section may not occur if commission does not meet the time limits in Sec. 8-3c. 60 CA 504. Zoning board required to hold a hearing on plaintiff’s zoning application. 69 CA 230. The absence of proposed locations contemplated by an applicant in the public notice renders such notice insufficient. 116 CA 542.

Cited. 42 CS 57.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 209 C. 812; 222 C. 911.

Cited. 14 CA 365; 23 CA 256; 33 CA 281; 35 CA 317; Id., 599. Trial court properly determined that failure of planning and zoning commission to comply with statutory notice and hearing requirements entitled individual plaintiffs to automatic approval of their application for special permit and site plan approval; notice of commission hearing was invalid and because failure to give notice was a jurisdictional defect, action of commission in denying plaintiffs’ application was void. 52 CA 763.

Cited. 41 CS 196.

Subsec. (b):

Cited. 194 C. 152; 209 C. 812; 211 C. 331; 222 C. 269; 226 C. 684. Applicant’s submission of revised site plan did not create a new sixty-five-day period within which planning and zoning commission could act. 278 C. 408.

Cited. 2 CA 489; 21 CA 347; Id., 421; 35 CA 317. Section not unconstitutional just because it does not expressly provide for a right of appeal from automatic approval of site plan applications. Id., 599. Cited. 37 CA 348.

Subsec. (f):

It is implicit in Subdiv. (2) that a zoning commission cannot unilaterally bind an adjoining town to a determination that the streets are adequate to handle traffic from a permitted land use in the first town, therefore adjoining town’s claim that it had no choice but to close adjoining road has no merit. 295 C. 802.

Sec. 8-7e. Notice to adjoining municipalities of applications or requests. Section 8-7e is repealed, effective October 1, 2003.

(P.A. 87-307, S. 2; P.A. 89-175, S. 4, 7; P.A. 03-177, S. 14.)

Sec. 8-8. Appeal from board to court. Mediation. Review by Appellate Court. (a) As used in this section:

(1) “Aggrieved person” means a person aggrieved by a decision of a board and includes any officer, department, board or bureau of the municipality charged with enforcement of any order, requirement or decision of the board. In the case of a decision by a zoning commission, planning commission, combined planning and zoning commission or zoning board of appeals, “aggrieved person” includes any person owning land in this state that abuts or is within a radius of one hundred feet of any portion of the land involved in the decision of the board.

(2) “Board” means a municipal zoning commission, planning commission, combined planning and zoning commission, zoning board of appeals or other board or commission the decision of which may be appealed pursuant to this section, or the chief elected official of a municipality, or such official’s designee, in a hearing held pursuant to section 22a-250, whose decision may be appealed.

(b) Except as provided in subsections (c), (d) and (r) of this section and sections 7-147 and 7-147i, any person aggrieved by any decision of a board, including a decision to approve or deny a site plan pursuant to subsection (g) of section 8-3 or a special permit or special exception pursuant to section 8-3c, may take an appeal to the superior court for the judicial district in which the municipality is located, notwithstanding any right to appeal to a municipal zoning board of appeals under section 8-6. The appeal shall be commenced by service of process in accordance with subsections (f) and (g) of this section within fifteen days from the date that notice of the decision was published as required by the general statutes. The appeal shall be returned to court in the same manner and within the same period of time as prescribed for civil actions brought to that court.

(c) In those situations where the approval of a planning commission must be inferred because of the failure of the commission to act on an application, any aggrieved person may appeal under this section. The appeal shall be taken within twenty days after the expiration of the period prescribed in section 8-26d for action by the commission.

(d) Any person affected by an action of a planning commission taken under section 8-29 may appeal under this section. The appeal shall be taken within thirty days after notice to such person of the adoption of a survey, map or plan or the assessment of benefits or damages.

(e) The proceedings of the court for an appeal may be stayed by agreement of the parties when a mediation conducted pursuant to section 8-8a commences, provided any such stay shall terminate upon termination of the mediation.

(f) Service of legal process for an appeal under this section shall be directed to a proper officer and shall be made as follows:

(1) For any appeal taken before October 1, 2004, process shall be served by leaving a true and attested copy of the process with, or at the usual place of abode of, the chairman or clerk of the board, and by leaving a true and attested copy with the clerk of the municipality. Service on the chairman or clerk of the board and on the clerk of the municipality shall be for the purpose of providing legal notice of the appeal to the board and shall not thereby make the chairman or clerk of the board or the clerk of the municipality a necessary party to the appeal.

(2) For any appeal taken on or after October 1, 2004, process shall be served in accordance with subdivision (5) of subsection (b) of section 52-57. Such service shall be for the purpose of providing legal notice of the appeal to the board and shall not thereby make the clerk of the municipality or the chairman or clerk of the board a necessary party to the appeal.

(g) Service of process shall also be made on each person who petitioned the board in the proceeding, provided such person’s legal rights, duties or privileges were determined therein. However, failure to make service within fifteen days on parties other than the board shall not deprive the court of jurisdiction over the appeal. If service is not made within fifteen days on a party in the proceeding before the board, the court, on motion of the party or the appellant, shall make such orders of notice of the appeal as are reasonably calculated to notify the party not yet served. If the failure to make service causes prejudice to the board or any party, the court, after hearing, may dismiss the appeal or may make such other orders as are necessary to protect the party prejudiced.

(h) The appeal shall state the reasons on which it has been predicated and shall not stay proceedings on the decision appealed from. However, the court to which the appeal is returnable may grant a restraining order, on application, and after notice to the board and cause shown.

(i) Within thirty days after the return date to court, or within any further time the court allows, the board shall transmit the record to the court. The record shall include, without limitation, (1) the original papers acted on by the board and appealed from, or certified copies thereof, (2) a copy of the transcript of the stenographic or sound recording prepared in accordance with section 8-7a, and (3) the written decision of the board including the reasons therefor and a statement of any conditions imposed. If the board does not provide a transcript of the stenographic or the sound recording of a meeting where the board deliberates or makes a decision on a petition, application or request on which a public hearing was held, a certified, true and accurate transcript of a stenographic or sound recording of the meeting prepared by or on behalf of the applicant or any other party shall be admissible as part of the record. By stipulation of all parties to the appeal, the record may be shortened. A party unreasonably refusing to stipulate to limit the record may be taxed by the court for additional costs. The court may require or permit subsequent corrections or additions to the record.

(j) Any defendant may, at any time after the return date of the appeal, make a motion to dismiss the appeal. If the basis of the motion is a claim that the appellant lacks standing to appeal, the appellant shall have the burden of proving standing. The court may, on the record, grant or deny the motion. The court’s order on the motion may be appealed in the manner provided in subsection (o) of this section.

(k) The court shall review the proceedings of the board and shall allow any party to introduce evidence in addition to the contents of the record if (1) the record does not contain a complete transcript of the entire proceedings before the board, including all evidence presented to it, pursuant to section 8-7a, or (2) it appears to the court that additional testimony is necessary for the equitable disposition of the appeal. The court may take the evidence or may appoint a referee or committee to take such evidence as it directs and report the same to the court, with any findings of facts and conclusions of law. Any report of a referee, committee or mediator under subsection (f) of section 8-8a shall constitute a part of the proceedings on which the determination of the court shall be made.

(l) The court, after a hearing thereon, may reverse or affirm, wholly or partly, or may modify or revise the decision appealed from. If a particular board action is required by law, the court, on sustaining the appeal, may render a judgment that modifies the board decision or orders the particular board action. In an appeal from an action of a planning commission taken under section 8-29, the court may also reassess any damages or benefits awarded by the commission. Costs shall be allowed against the board if the decision appealed from is reversed, affirmed in part, modified or revised.

(m) Appeals from decisions of the board shall be privileged cases and shall be heard as soon as is practicable unless cause is shown to the contrary.

(n) No appeal taken under subsection (b) of this section shall be withdrawn and no settlement between the parties to any such appeal shall be effective unless and until a hearing has been held before the Superior Court and such court has approved such proposed withdrawal or settlement.

(o) There shall be no right to further review except to the Appellate Court by certification for review, on the vote of two judges of the Appellate Court so to certify and under such other rules as the judges of the Appellate Court establish. The procedure on appeal to the Appellate Court shall, except as otherwise provided herein, be in accordance with the procedures provided by rule or law for the appeal of judgments rendered by the Superior Court unless modified by rule of the judges of the Appellate Court.

(p) The right of a person to appeal a decision of a board to the Superior Court and the procedure prescribed in this section shall be liberally interpreted in any case where a strict adherence to these provisions would work surprise or injustice. The appeal shall be considered to be a civil action and, except as otherwise required by this section or the rules of the Superior Court, pleadings may be filed, amended or corrected, and parties may be summoned, substituted or otherwise joined, as provided by the general statutes.

(q) If any appeal has failed to be heard on its merits because of insufficient service or return of the legal process due to unavoidable accident or the default or neglect of the officer to whom it was committed, or the appeal has been otherwise avoided for any matter of form, the appellant shall be allowed an additional fifteen days from determination of that defect to properly take the appeal. The provisions of section 52-592 shall not apply to appeals taken under this section.

(r) In any case in which a board fails to comply with a requirement of a general or special law, ordinance or regulation governing the content, giving, mailing, publishing, filing or recording of any notice either of a hearing or of an action taken by the board, any appeal or action by an aggrieved person to set aside the decision or action taken by the board on the grounds of such noncompliance shall be taken not more than one year after the date of that decision or action.

(1949 Rev., S. 844; 1951, 1955, S. 379d; 1959, P.A. 460, S. 2; 1963, P.A. 45; February, 1965, P.A. 622, S. 3; 1967, P.A. 348; 712; 1971, P.A. 870, S. 9; P.A. 74-183, S. 179, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 158, 681; P.A. 77-470; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 81-165; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 13, 82; P.A. 84-227, S. 1; P.A. 85-284, S. 3; P.A. 86-236, S. 2; P.A. 88-79, S. 1, 4; P.A. 89-356, S. 1; P.A. 90-286, S. 1, 2, 9; P.A. 91-219; P.A. 92-249, S. 8; P.A. 99-238, S. 5, 8; P.A. 00-84, S. 3, 6; 00-108, S. 2; P.A. 01-47, S. 1; 01-110; 01-195, S. 112, 181; P.A. 02-74, S. 2; P.A. 04-78, S. 1; P.A. 07-60, S. 1; P.A. 12-146, S. 1.)

History: 1959 act deleted qualification in sentence re taking of evidence in addition to record “if said record does not contain a stenographic report or a complete mechanical recording of the entire proceedings before said board including all evidence presented to it”; 1963 act added to the same sentence “if the record does not contain a complete transcript of the entire proceedings before said board, including all evidence presented to it, pursuant to section 8-7a”; 1965 act provided 15 days allowed for taking appeal run from date decision was published rather than from date it was rendered; 1967 acts allowed costs against board if decision “reversed, affirmed in part, modified or revised” rather than allowing costs only when court decides board acted with gross negligence, in bad faith or with malice as previously and allowed appeals by persons owning land adjacent to land involved in decision; 1971 act added provisions concerning appeals to supreme court; P.A. 74-183 included judicial districts; P.A. 76-436 substituted superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-470 allowed appeals by persons whose land is within one-hundred-foot radius of land involved in decision; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; P.A. 81-165 allowed for service of notice upon the clerk of the municipality; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof; P.A. 84-227 inserted Subsec. indicators, added Subsec. (d) re a hearing on a motion to dismiss made by the person who applied for the board’s decision where each appellant has the burden of proving his standing to bring the appeal, and added Subsec. (h) prohibiting withdrawal or settlement without court approval; P.A. 85-284 provided for notice of appeals to be given to the chairman or clerk of the board and the clerk of the municipality, rather than just one; P.A. 86-236 amended Subsec. (c) to require the return of the transcript of the stenographic or sound recording; P.A. 88-79 amended Subsec. (b) to add proviso that service of the notice of the appeal upon the clerk of the municipality is for the purpose of providing additional notice of such appeal to the board and does not thereby make such clerk a necessary party to such appeal; P.A. 89-356 entirely reorganized existing provisions and added Subsec. (a) defining “aggrieved person” and “board”, added Subsec. (c) re the procedure for taking an appeal where the approval of the planning commission must be inferred, formerly part of Sec. 8-28, added Subsec. (d) re the procedure for taking an appeal by a person affected by an action of a planning commission under Sec. 8-29, formerly part of Sec. 8-30, added Subsec. (f) re service of process on parties other than the board and the consequences and court remedies if such service is not made, added provisions in Subsec. (i) requiring the record to include the board’s findings of fact and conclusions of law, authorizing the record to be shortened by stipulation and additional costs to be taxed against a party who unreasonably refuses to stipulate to limit the record and authorizing the court to require or permit subsequent corrections or additions to the record, added provisions in Subsec. (l) authorizing the court in sustaining an appeal to render a judgment that modifies the board decision or orders the particular board action if a particular board action is required by law and authorizing the court in an appeal from an action of a planning commission taken under Sec. 8-29 to reassess damages or benefits awarded by the commission, formerly part of Sec. 8-30, added Subsec. (p) providing for a liberal interpretation of the right to appeal and the appeal procedure and providing that an appeal shall be considered a civil action, and added Subsec. (q) allowing an appellant additional time to take the appeal if the appeal has failed to be heard on its merits because of certain defects and providing that Sec. 52-592 shall not apply to appeals taken under this section; P.A. 90-286 amended Subsec. (b) to replace “The appeal shall be taken” with “The appeal shall be commenced by service of process in accordance with subsections (e) and (f) of this section” and to replace “The appeal shall be commenced and returned to court in the same manner as prescribed for civil actions brought to that court” with “The appeal shall be returned to court in the same manner and within the same period of time as prescribed for civil actions brought to that court” and amended Subsec. (i) to replace requirement that the board transmit the record within 30 days “after the appeal is served” with within 30 days “after the return date to court”; P.A. 91-219 amended Subsec. (i) to require that the record include the written decision of the board rather than the board’s findings of fact and conclusions of law; P.A. 92-249 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to include the chief elected official of a municipality in the definition of “board” re hearings under Sec. 22a-250; P.A. 99-238 amended Subsec. (b) by adding reference to new Subsec. (r), and added new Subsec. (r) re appeal of aggrieved person to set aside decision or action of board for noncompliance with requirement of notice of content, giving, mailing, publishing, filing or recording of hearing or action taken by board within two years of the date of such decision or action, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-84 revised effective date of P.A. 99-238 to specify applicability of section as amended by that act to errors, irregularities and omissions occurring on or after January 1, 1999, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-108 deleted former Subsec. (h) re surety bond, relettered the subsections accordingly and amended new Subsec. (h) to add provision re transcripts of meetings; P.A. 01-47 inserted new Subsec. (e) re mediation, redesignated existing Subsecs. (e) to (q) as Subsecs. (f) to (r) and made technical and conforming changes; P.A. 01-110 amended former Subsec. (q) by reducing the time for appeal from within two years to not more than one year; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes, effective July 11, 2001 (Revisor’s note: In merging the gender-neutral technical changes to Subsec. (a)(2) contained in P.A. 01-47 and P.A. 01-195, the Revisors gave precedence to the changes contained in P.A. 01-195); P.A. 02-74 amended Subsec. (b) to allow appeals of decisions to approve or deny site plans under Sec. 8-3(g), effective June 3, 2002; P.A. 04-78 amended Subsec. (f) by designating existing service requirements as Subdiv. (1), applicable to appeals taken before October 1, 2004, adding Subdiv. (2) re service requirements applicable to appeals taken on or after said date and making conforming changes; P.A. 07-60 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize appeal of special permits and special exceptions and add provision notwithstanding right to appeal under Sec. 8-6; P.A. 12-146 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding “in this state” re land abutting or within 100 feet of land involved in board decision.

Right of appeal under section is from decision of zoning board of appeals under zoning laws contained in chapter and does not extend to decisions of board under another statute. 116 C. 555. Power of court to modify or revise does not include power to substitute its own discretion for that of board; must find that board acted illegally or abused discretion. 120 C. 455. Cited. 123 C. 263. Appeal from zoning board is not an action within meaning of Sec. 54-131 which permits a new action when writ abated. 126 C. 603. Under same language in New Haven charter right of appeal held not to be contingent upon restraining order; no vested right acquired by applicant by virtue of fact no such order was obtained when opponent appealed. 127 C. 309. Recognizance without surety is insufficient; failure to file bond sound ground for abatement of appeal. 131 C. 657. No appeal from zoning commission under former statutes. 133 C. 248. Cited. 135 C. 305. Reasons for decision and transcript of evidence both constitute “proceedings” before board. 136 C. 1. Finding should contain only facts which court finds on basis of evidence taken by it. Id., 452. Cited. 138 C. 500. Plaintiff held an aggrieved person. 139 C. 463. Competitors are not aggrieved persons but owners of residential property in vicinity are. Id., 577. “Any person aggrieved” includes any landowner or resident within city whose situation is such that decision may adversely affect him in use or occupancy of his property. 140 C. 65. Prayer for relief to effect that decision of board of zoning appeals be modified or reversed is not necessary. 142 C. 277. Cited. Id., 415; Id., 659; 143 C. 280; 144 C. 61. If sole basis of plaintiff’s grievance was that new business would create competition, he would not be an aggrieved person. Any taxpayer of a town who feels aggrieved at granting of license for sale of liquors therein has right of appeal. Id., 160. On an appeal from zoning board of appeals, record made before board should be annexed to, and incorporated by reference in, answer of board. Where there is an incompleteness in summary of evidence, court must take evidence to determine what facts and considerations were presumptively in minds of members of board when they acted. Id., 332. Cited. Id., 425, 493. Admissibility of evidence outside of record. Id., 560. Wide and liberal discretion in board. Id. Finding that plaintiff is not an aggrieved person divests court of jurisdiction. 145 C. 136. Admissibility of evidence not on record and of evidence not presented at hearing. Id., 218. Change in comprehensive plan, though not change in zone itself, may adversely affect parties outside immediate vicinity. Id., 237. Cited. Id., 325, 416, 435. Considerations authorizing variance are not identical with those justifying an outright change of zone. Id., 468. Zoning commission cannot appeal unless ruling or order of its own is in issue. Id., 655. To be an aggrieved person, where traffic in intoxicating liquor is not involved, one must be found to have been specially and injuriously affected in his property or other legal rights. Id.; 149 C. 284. On appeal, court cannot conduct a trial de novo and substitute its findings and conclusions for decision of board. 146 C. 27. Denial of motion to present evidence in addition to record held indicative that additional testimony was not necessary for equitable disposition of appeal. Id., 547. When building met zoning requirements, building inspector exceeded his authority in imposing additional conditions for certificate of occupancy. Id., 570. Scope of authority of committee appointed to take evidence. Id., 588. Action of board held an abuse of discretion since facts did not warrant granting of variance. Id., 595. Aggrievement from which one may appeal does not arise until board has acted. Id., 665. Former statute: On appeal admission of testimony not presented to commission is within discretion of court. 147 C. 65. Evidence of former applications admissible only when subsequent application seeks substantially same relief. Id. Limits of court’s power in reviewing refusal of board to grant variance. Id., 469. Cited. 148 C. 33, 299. Plaintiff’s property bordered defendant’s land which had received a zoning variance; plaintiff held to be an aggrieved person. Id., 492. Inferentially requires stenographic transcript or mechanical recording to be filed with court with return of board’s proceedings. Id., 599. Inadequate summary required trial court to hear evidence. Id., 600. Evidence to prove plaintiff aggrieved admissible. Id., 602. One cannot qualify as aggrieved person solely because zone change may permit operation of business in competition with him. 149 C. 284. Motion for permission to offer additional evidence on appeal called for decision, in exercise of court’s discretion, as to whether additional evidence was necessary for equitable disposition of appeal. Id., 413; 150 C. 285. Where court does not hear evidence, but decides appeal on record returned by zoning commission, no finding should be made. 149 C. 414. Cited. Id., 681. Plaintiffs were aggrieved persons within meaning of statute if board’s decision affected them directly or in relation to a specific, personal interest, as distinguished from a general interest, in the subject matter. Id., 698. Although plaintiff could not, in its appeal from denial of permit, attack constitutionality of regulations under which it sought permit, it could attack their constitutionality in an independent proceeding. Id., 712. Under New Haven charter, person aggrieved by decision of zoning enforcement officer may appeal to board of zoning appeals which shall hear and determine reasonableness of decision. In such case, function of court on appeal from board of appeals is to decide whether board correctly interpreted ordinance and applied it with reasonable discretion to facts. 150 C. 113. Plaintiff has burden of proving that it is aggrieved. This burden requires that it establish that it was specially and injuriously affected in its property rights or other legal rights. It is not sufficient to show that action complained of would permit the operation of business in competition with its business. Id., 285. History discussed; reversal of decision in 23 CS 6; failure of board of appeals to comply with mandate of Sec. 8-7a renders action voidable at option of an aggrieved person. Id., 411. Party claiming aggrievement must show he is specifically and injuriously affected, mere generalities and fears are not enough. Id., 696. Right of appeal begins to run from effective date of decision which is controlled by Sec. 8-7. 151 C. 378. Cited. Id., 510; 646. Time for taking appeal from zoning board controlled by Sec. 8-7 rather than this section. Id., 646. Although applicant has burden of proving board acted in abuse of its discretion, board must show justification on record for denial of variance. 152 C. 247. Building inspector is authorized to take appeal from board’s action in granting variance since he is “charged with the enforcement” of the decision of the board. Id., 311. Cited. Id., 660, 661. To be an “aggrieved” person, in a case in which traffic in intoxicating liquor is not involved, one has to be specially and injuriously affected in his property or other legal rights. 153 C. 37. Plaintiff, as a taxpayer, is an aggrieved person in a case in which traffic in liquor is involved without having to show that he has an interest peculiar to himself. Id., 117. Where transcript of board hearing was incomplete and plaintiff raised constitutional issue of confiscation, he should have been permitted to introduce additional evidence. Id., 343, 344. Cited. Id., 433, 437. In order to qualify as aggrieved persons under section, plaintiffs must show that the value of their property would be lessened or that their legal rights would be injuriously affected. 154 C. 46, 47. Right to produce evidence under section may be waived by stipulation of a party. Id., 393. Plaintiffs did not qualify as aggrieved persons to appeal granting of variance where only claim to aggrievement was that their property adjoined that for which variance was granted. 155 C. 241, 242. In light of record and express allegations of impropriety and illegality, additional testimony of what occurred at executive session of board was necessary and permitted. Id., 245. Where plaintiff appealed claiming amendments were an unconstitutional denial of due process since they were confiscatory and would put him out of business, trial court should have permitted introduction of additional evidence limited to question of constitutionality of ordinance, complete transcript of hearings before commission being insufficient evidence in the case. Id., 265. Cited. 155 C. 365. Order of reference for a finding of facts on the issue of aggrievement and to take additional evidence to complete the record is not final judgment from which appeal lies under Sec. 52-263. Id., 617. While plaintiffs were not “aggrieved persons”, appeal was considered because of unusual circumstances of trial below. 157 C. 520. When construction of new building under zoning variance sought would affect use of plaintiff’s parking facilities, plaintiff is an aggrieved person entitled to appeal from zoning board’s decision. 158 C. 187. New evidence may be introduced only on a direct appeal from action of board, not in action to enjoin successful applicants for a zoning variance. Id., 202. Limit of time for appeal prevented retroactive application of procedural amendment giving abutting landowners statutory right to appeal. Id., 331. Appeals must be taken under this section and Sec. 8-9 rather than any city charter sections. Aggrievement means plaintiffs were specially and injuriously affected in their property or other legal rights by board’s decision. 159 C. 1. Trial court may not substitute its judgment for that of town council in granting a change of zone for special development district. Id., 212. When zoning authority gives reasons for action it takes, question for court to determine on appeal is whether reasons assigned are reasonably supported by the record and pertinent to considerations which must be applied under applicable zoning regulations. Id., 534, 540. Abutting landowners have standing to appeal a zoning commission’s decision. 160 C. 239. Cited 161 C. 32; 162 C. 45, 74, 238; 163 C. 379, 615. Abutting landowner who successfully opposed application is not entitled to notice of appeal. 164 C. 187. Record of board proceeding, including exhibits, may be reconstructed by evidence in court. Id., 215. Cited. 165 C. 185; 166 C. 102; Id., 112. A resident taxpayer of a town is an “aggrieved person” with standing to appeal decision of town’s zoning board to extend a nonconforming liquor store use. 167 C. 596. There is no aggrievement which is prerequisite to right of appeal when a “floating zone” is designated without attachment to particular property or area in the town. 168 C. 285. Cited. 171 C. 480; 172 C. 286; 173 C. 408; 174 C. 493; 176 C. 475; 177 C. 440; 178 C. 364; 179 C. 250; Id., 650; 180 C. 296; 181 C. 230; Id., 556; 185 C. 135; 186 C 32; Id., 106. Provisions of statute which are inconsistent with provisions of Sec. 51-197d (11) are repealed by implication. 188 C. 555. Cited. 190 C. 746; 195 C. 276; 196 C. 623. Life tenant has sufficient ownership to be entitled to recognition as a “person owning land” with right of appeal. 203 C. 317. Cited. 205 C. 413; Id., 703; 208 C. 146; Id., 476; Id., 480; 209 C. 652; 211 C. 78; Id., 85; Id., 416; 212 C. 375; 213 C. 604; 214 C. 400; 217 C. 588; 219 C. 511; 220 C. 584; 221 C. 374; 222 C. 262; Id., 380. Upon judicial appeal from zoning board of appeals pursuant to section, trial court must focus on decision of the board because it is the subject of the appeal. Judgment of appellate court in 28 CA 256 affirmed in part and modified in part. 226 C. 80. Cited. Id., 230; Id., 314; 228 C. 476; 229 C. 178; 232 C. 122; Id., 270; 237 C. 184. Where applicant denied for hardship, plaintiff not required to submit alternative plans before submitting claim for inverse condemnation. 247 C. 196.

Cited as June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 13. 1 CA 285. Cited. 2 CA 384; Id., 506; Id., 595; 3 CA 172; Id., 496. A coholder of a life interest in property is a “person owning land” entitled to appeal under statute. Id., 550. Cited. Id., 576; 4 CA 205; Id., 271; Id., 500; 5 CA 455; Id., 520; 6 CA 110; Id., 317; Id., 715; 9 CA 538; 13 CA 699; 15 CA 729; 16 CA 281; Id., 604; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 628; 17 CA 150; 18 CA 69; Id., 85; Id., 159; Id., 195; Id., 488; Id., 549; Id., 722. P.A. 88-79 cited. Id. Cited. 20 CA 302; Id., 474; Id., 561; 21 CA 340; 22 CA 407; Id., 606; 23 CA 75; Id., 232; Id., 256; Id., 258; 24 CA 172; 25 CA 199; 27 CA 297; Id., 590; 28 CA 344; 29 CA 402; 32 CA 799; 34 CA 685; 35 CA 204; Id., 317; 43 CA 545; Id., 563. Zoning board required to hold a hearing on plaintiff’s zoning application. 69 CA 230. Plaintiff’s failure to appeal imposition of required “sidewalk fund” contribution did not meet exceptions to rule against collateral attacks on zoning commission actions and thus was properly dismissed. 85 CA 606.

Wide discretion in board. 1 CS 89. Compared with number 305 of special acts of 1931. 10 CS 194. Superior court has jurisdiction to hear appeals from board. 11 CS 489. Mode of service on board discussed. Notice to chairman sufficient compliance; time for appeal excludes day of act. 17 CS 116. Officer of corporation which would be affected by variance is not “person aggrieved”. 15 CS 362. Building inspector is. 19 CS 349. Resident landowner of town not living in borough is “aggrieved person” in action by borough zoning board. Id., 446. In an appeal from granting of variance for sale of liquor, a “person aggrieved” held to include any landowner, resident or taxpayer of municipality affected. 21 CS 102. History discussed; where, due to mechanical failure of the recording machine no transcript is available, court may not remand case for rehearing, but it may permit introduction of additional evidence to determine what considerations were presumptively in minds of board members. 23 CS 6; judgment reversed, see 150 C. 411. Cited. 25 CS 276. This section and Secs. 8-3 and 8-9 are not so linked that the date of publication of notice must be considered as the date the decision was rendered. 26 CS 88. Part owner of property is not precluded, merely because her co-owners have not joined with her, from showing that she, as an aggrieved person, has the right to appeal to the court. Id., 170. Circumstances under which board’s decisions should be overruled discussed. Id., 256. Equitable relief outside the framework of appeal procedure set up by statute might be granted in the presence of allegations of fraudulent connivance or collusion on the part of local zoning board of appeals. Id., 334, 335. Plaintiffs have been granted equitable relief when the zoning authority lacked the jurisdiction to take the action which plaintiff was challenging. Id. Equitable relief by way of an injunction will not be granted if the court finds that the legal remedy afforded by statute has not been exhausted. Id. Chairman of town planning and zoning commission is aggrieved person within section and may appeal variance granted defendant by zoning board of appeals of town. 28 CS 278. Cited. 29 CS 5; 30 CS 157; 31 CS 197; 32 CS 104; Id., 223; Id., 625; 33 CS 175; Id., 607; 35 CS 246. Portion of section in conflict with amendment to Sec. 51-197d is repealed by implication. 38 CS 356. Cited. Id., 492; 39 CS 426; Id., 523; 41 CS 218; Id., 398; 42 CS 256; 43 CS 373. Claim re denial of permit to establish a public parking lot does not require recognition of a state Bivens action because plaintiff’s existing remedy under section is appropriate. 51 CS 636.

Subsec. (a):

Failure to allege publication provisions is not a jurisdictional defect requiring dismissal of appeal. 211 C. 78; Id., 416; Id., 662. Cited. 212 C. 628; 214 C. 407; 218 C. 65; Id., 265; Id., 438; 225 C. 1; 230 C. 140. Subdiv. (1) cited. 233 C. 198. Court reaffirmed long-standing interpretation of “aggrieved person” that provides that any taxpayer has automatic standing to appeal decisions involving the sale of liquor in community. 262 C. 393. When zoning decision affects a single property within a zone, “land involved in the decision of the board,” as used in Subdiv. (1), does not include the entire zone of which the affected property is part. 271 C. 152. Party was not “aggrieved” because he did not own the property that was subject to zoning application and did not own land abutting or within 100 feet of the property. 285 C. 381. Party was aggrieved under Subdiv. (1) because “land involved” language refers to the entire property abutted, even when the parcel at issue is distinct in terms of its use within a multiuse development and in terms of the application to commission. 290 C. 313. The phrase “any person” includes persons who own land in another state. 297 C. 414.

Cited. 4 CA 633. Statutory aggrievement and classical aggrievement discussed. 7 CA 632. Cited. 18 CA 99; 19 CA 357. Subdiv. (1) cited. 30 CA 511; 31 CA 643; 45 CA 653. Since zoning is meant to protect the public at large, without some particular harm, such as the maintenance of a nuisance affecting the land of plaintiff or a statute allowing the maintenance of plaintiff’s lawsuit, plaintiff can have no standing. 49 CA 669. Court had subject matter jurisdiction to hear appeal. 87 CA 277. Plaintiff, as town’s zoning enforcement officer, was statutorily aggrieved and had standing to bring appeal challenging approval of a variance granted by town’s zoning board of appeals. Id., 533. Plaintiff’s access easement did not give plaintiff undisturbed possession of the land or a right to the profit of the land. Accordingly, plaintiff did not fit into the category of an owner of land, for purposes of determining standing, because his rights and privileges did not confer a sufficient benefit. 109 CA 777. Plaintiff’s failure to state factual basis for statutory aggrievement in complaint deprived court of subject matter jurisdiction. 113 CA 502. Subdiv. (1): Text amendment created a defined, bounded zoning district, and landed plaintiff is statutorily aggrieved because his property falls within the particular zone to which the text amendment pertained, regardless of his ability to opt out of amendments because his decision to opt out does not affect whether his neighbors opt out. 127 CA 87. Plaintiffs’ allegations that they own property in the country residential zone and that defendant redefined buildable area solely in the country residential zone is sufficient to establish statutory aggrievement. 130 CA 587.

Subdiv. (1) cited. 41 CS 593. The trustee of a revocable trust has a sufficient ownership interest to be considered an owner for statutory aggrievement purposes. 51 CS 190.

Subsec. (b):

Failure to name statutorily mandated necessary party in citation is a jurisdictional defect. 205 C. 413. Mandates that clerk of municipality be properly cited and served as a necessary party. 206 C. 374. Cited. 207 C. 67. Clerk of fire district is a clerk of municipality required to be served. 212 C. 375. Cited. Id., 471; Id., 628; 218 C. 438; 220 C. 455; 222 C. 374; 224 C. 823; 225 C. 1; Id., 691; Id., 731; 227 C. 71; 228 C. 785; 232 C. 419; 235 C. 448. Planning commission’s decision to settle pending appeal by entering into a stipulated judgment is not a “decision” within meaning of Subsec., and therefore is not appealable. 259 C. 607. Does not shorten legislatively prescribed time period within which plaintiff must serve process on the commission and the municipality, when fifteenth day falls on a day when municipal offices are closed, since to do so would deny plaintiff any remedy and leave it without recourse for what may be an otherwise meritorious appeal. 270 C. 42. Plain language of Subsec. clearly provides that any person statutorily aggrieved may take an appeal. Thus, there was no merit to planning and zoning commission’s claim that J Co. must be an applicant or partner in proposed project in order to be aggrieved by commission’s denial of M’s applications. 278 C. 660.

Cited. 13 CA 165; 18 CA 99. P.A. 88-79 cited. 24 CA 172. Cited. 29 CA 28; 31 CA 643; 35 CA 646; judgment reversed, see 235 C. 448; 45 CA 89; Id., 653. Trial court improperly held that special permit was not supported by substantial evidence in the record, substituted its interpretation of town’s regulations and its judgment for those of the commission. 53 CA 636. Plaintiff appealing planning and zoning commission decision did not fail to exhaust his administrative remedies where he had no actual or constructive notice of commission’s findings that defendant complied with town’s zoning regulations. 66 CA 508. Court had subject matter jurisdiction to hear appeal. 87 CA 277.

Subsec. (c):

Cited. 212 C. 471; 236 C. 681.

Cited. 35 CA 599; 37 CA 105.

Subsec. (d):

Cited. 212 C. 628.

Subsec. (e):

Cited. 211 C. 662; 234 C. 498.

Cited. 45 CA 653.

Subsec. (f):

Cited. 215 C. 58. Trial court’s dismissal of plaintiff’s zoning appeal for lack of subject matter jurisdiction reversed. Right to appeal decision of zoning board to Superior Court and procedure prescribed in section shall be liberally interpreted in any case where strict adherence to these provisions would work surprise or injustice. Although plaintiffs’ zoning appeal citation should have named town clerk, plaintiffs had in fact served citation on town clerk, thus plaintiffs’ failure to so name town clerk is not a defect that deprived trial court of subject matter jurisdiction over the appeal. 278 C. 751. In passing P.A. 04-78, legislature clearly and specifically provided that for any zoning appeal taken prior to October 1, 2004, process was to be served in accordance with Subsec. only; since appeal was served on July 15, 2003, and plaintiffs’ marshal followed the service requirements of Sec. 52-57(b)(5), leaving two copies of appeal papers with town clerk, plaintiffs did not comply with service requirements of this Subsec. which sets forth exclusive method for service of process in zoning appeals taken before October 1, 2004, and plaintiffs failed to make proper service of process for their zoning appeal. 279 C. 672. Where marshal filed one copy of process on town clerk, actual service was made and failure to file two copies of process on town clerk constituted formal defect that could be corrected pursuant to Subsec. (p). 297 C. 414.

Cited. 43 CA 606; 45 CA 653.

Subsec. (g):

Cited. 206 C. 374; 239 C. 515.

Cited. 3 CA 556; 8 CA 556; 21 CA 421.

Subsec. (i):

Nothing in the language of section explicitly indicates that filing the record with the court was intended to be the only requirement placed on zoning authorities regarding service or that, having authorized appeals to the Superior Court, the legislature intended that the court’s normal procedural rules as to service were not to be operative. 50 CS 453.

Subsec. (j):

Cited. 226 C. 757.

Cited. 35 CA 599.

Subsec. (k):

Cited. 218 C. 438; 233 C. 198.

Cited. 25 CA 137; 35 CA 599; 40 CA 840; 43 CA 105; Id., 512. Statute does not say that trial court is required to hold evidentiary hearing. 78 CA 561. Trial court did not abuse its discretion in allowing additional evidence to be presented in zoning appeal where plaintiff was specific in spelling out the nature of his claim and who was a pro se individual objecting to a petition before the commission. 110 CA 349.

Subsec. (l):

Court reiterated previous holdings that based on evidence presented at trial, the judgment of a planning and zoning commission denying site plan application can be affirmed, reversed, modified or revised where there is no evidence or basis to support commission’s decision re qualification as permitted basic neighborhood store and re evaluation of provision of parking that met zoning regulations. 287 C. 746.

Subsec. (m):

Hearing held pursuant to Subsec. serves to protect the public interest by guarding against any attempt by settling parties to evade judicial review and scrutiny by potentially aggrieved landowners. 259 C. 607.

Subsec. (n):

Purpose of hearing is to protect public interest and neither a pretrial conference nor a court hearing to enforce a settlement met the statutory requirement. 247 C. 732.

Plaintiff’s appeal was moot since remand hearing was the proper forum for plaintiff to challenge the proposed settlement based on alleged negative environmental impact. 133 CA 173.

Subsec. (o):

Cited. 220 C. 61; 222 C. 374; 224 C. 823; 225 C. 1; Id., 691; Id., 731; 226 C. 757; 228 C. 498. Requirement of certification by Appellate Court held applicable to affordable housing land use appeals. 245 C. 257. Failure to make service of process on clerk of the municipality is fatal jurisdictional flaw not remedied by savings clause. 257 C. 604.

Cited. 25 CA 572; 35 CA 646; judgment reversed, see 235 C. 448.

Subsec. (p):

Cited. 220 C. 929; 222 C. 541.

Cited. 45 CA 653.

Subsec. (q):

Plaintiff’s failure to serve the borough clerk was not a technical defect in form but a substantive defect in service that could not be cured by the savings provision of Subsec. It is the duty of plaintiff rather than the marshal to identify who must be served. 285 C. 240.

Cited. 45 CA 653.

Subsec. (r):

Legislature specifically intended the limitation period to apply only to challenges of failures of notice postdating January 1, 1999, as expressed in P.A. 00-84. 98 CA 213. Subsec. prohibits an appeal made more than one year from an action of the commission claimed to have been made without proper notice. 120 CA 50.

Sec. 8-8a. Process for mediation. (a) As used in this section, “mediation” means the process where the parties in an appeal filed under section 8-8, 22a-34 or 22a-43 meet with an impartial third party to work toward resolution of the issues in the decision that was the subject of the appeal in accordance with generally accepted principles of mediation.

(b) At any time after filing of the appeal, the parties may agree to mediate the decision that was appealed. The parties shall file a statement advising the court that the dispute may be resolved by mediation. Mediation shall take place with the consent of each party.

(c) Mediation shall begin on the date the statement is filed under subsection (b) of this section and conclude not more than one hundred eighty days after such filing. Such period may be extended for an additional one hundred eighty days upon mutual agreement of the parties. A party may submit a petition to the court requesting another extension or stating why no other extension should be granted. The court, in its discretion, may extend the time for mediation after the second period of one hundred eighty days has elapsed. A party may withdraw from mediation at any time after notification to other parties and to the Superior Court.

(d) The contents of mediating sessions shall not be admissible as evidence. A mediator shall not act as or be summoned as a witness in a court proceeding on an appeal if mediation has not resolved the issues of the appeal.

(e) A mediator may request the participation in mediation of any person deemed by the mediator necessary for effective resolution of the issues, including representatives of governmental agencies not a party to the action, abutting property owners, intervenors or other persons significantly involved in the decision being appealed.

(f) Not more than fifteen days after the conclusion of mediation, the mediators shall file a report with the court describing the proceedings and specifying the issues resolved. If no resolution is made, the mediators shall file a report with the court stating that the issues have not been resolved.

(g) The cost of mediation shall be distributed equally among the parties.

(P.A. 01-47, S. 2; P.A. 02-132, S. 64.)

History: P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to Secs. 22a-34 and 22a-43 and deleting “of the board” and amended Subsec. (b) by deleting provisions re publication of newspaper notice and petition of aggrieved party to participate in mediation process.

Sec. 8-9. Appeals from zoning commissions and planning and zoning commissions. Review by Appellate Court. Appeals from zoning commissions and planning and zoning commissions may be taken to the Superior Court and, upon certification for review, to the Appellate Court in the manner provided in section 8-8.

(1949 Rev., S. 845; 1953, S. 381d; February, 1965, P.A. 622, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 870, S. 13; P.A. 74-183, S. 180, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 159, 681; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 19, 82.)

History: 1965 act included planning and zoning commissions; 1971 act added language allowing appeal to supreme court; P.A. 74-183 made no change; P.A. 76-436 substituted superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof.

Cited. 136 C. 90; 143 C. 280; 145 C. 218, 237, 416, 435; 146 C. 665; 148 C. 33. Standard used by court in reviewing action of zoning commission. 148 C. 172. Cited. 149 C. 681; 151 C. 484; 155 C. 365; 157 C. 522. Determination that keeping of chickens and goats was not an “accessory use” to residential property was within discretion of local zoning board and, where board did not act illegally or in abuse of its discretion, will not be reversed on appeal. 158 C. 509. This section and Sec. 8-8 govern appeals from final zoning authority of municipality. 159 C. 1. Amendment of Sec. 8-8 is operative as to this adopting statute and does not remain unmodified in relation to this statute. 160 C. 239; 249. Cited. 162 C. 74; 165 C. 185; 168 C. 285; 173 C. 408; 174 C. 493; 179 C. 250; 186 C. 106; 211 C. 85; 214 C. 400; 221 C. 374; 225 C. 731; 226 C. 80; Id., 230; 232 C. 122; Id., 419.

Cited. 2 CA 506; Id., 595; 3 CA 172; Id., 576; 4 CA 271; 5 CA 520; 6 CA 317; 43 CA 606.

Cited. 17 CS 116; 19 CS 29. This section and Secs. 8-3 and 8-8 are not so linked that date of publication of notice must be considered as date decision was rendered. 26 CS 88. Plaintiffs’ claim that logic dictates that legislature did not intend that there should be an inconsistent procedure relative to appeal from decisions of zoning boards of appeal and zoning boards and that therefore running of appeal period in case of zoning regulation should be contingent on statutory publication is without merit. Id., 90. Equitable relief outside the framework of appeal procedure set up by statute might be granted in the presence of allegations of fraudulent connivance or collusion on the part of local zoning board of appeals. 26 CS 334. Plaintiffs have been granted equitable relief when the zoning authority lacked the jurisdiction to take the action which plaintiff was challenging. Id. Equitable relief by way of an injunction will not be granted if the court finds that the legal remedy afforded by statute has not been exhausted. Id. Cited. 38 CS 492.

Sec. 8-10. Appeals procedure to apply to all municipalities. The provisions of sections 8-8 and 8-9 shall apply to appeals from zoning boards of appeals, zoning commissions or other final zoning authority of any municipality whether or not such municipality has adopted the provisions of this chapter and whether or not the charter of such municipality or the special act establishing zoning in such municipality contains a provision giving a right of appeal from zoning boards of appeals or zoning commissions and any provision of any special act, inconsistent with the provisions of said sections, is repealed.

(1953, S. 380d; November, 1955, S. N11.)

Legislative intent was to create right of appeal from every zoning commission in state. 143 C. 280. If sole basis of plaintiff’s grievance was that new business would create competition, he would not be an aggrieved person. Any taxpayer of a town who feels aggrieved at granting of a license for sale of liquors therein has right of appeal. 144 C. 160. Appeal from zoning commission in New Haven county heard in court of common pleas in judicial district of Waterbury. Id., 600. Finding that plaintiff is not aggrieved person divests court of jurisdiction. 145 C. 136. Cited. Id., 237, 416, 435; 146 C. 588, 665; 148 C. 33, 299; 149 C. 681; 151 C. 635; 155 C. 365. Appeals from final zoning authority in Stamford are governed by Secs. 8-8 and 8-9 rather than any provisions of city’s charter. 159 C. 1. Legislative intent is to make Secs. 8-8 and 8-9 applicable to every municipality in state. 160 C. 239; 249. Cited. 165 C. 185. Includes right of appeal from Norwich city council acting as a zoning commission pursuant to a city charter granted under a special act. 167 C. 579. Section does not intend to prohibit local arrangements by which commission decision may be appealed to a board of appeals, discusses appeals routes of zoning cases. 186 C. 106. Cited. 214 C. 400; 221 C. 374; 226 C. 230.

Cited. 2 CA 595; 19 CA 357; 27 CA 412.

Sec. 8-11. Disqualification of members of zoning authorities. No member of any zoning commission or board and no member of any zoning board of appeals or of any municipal agency exercising the powers of any zoning commission or board of appeals, whether existing under the general statutes or under any special act, shall appear for or represent any person, firm, corporation or other entity in any matter pending before the planning or zoning commission or board or said board of appeals or any agency exercising the powers of any such commission or board in the same municipality, whether or not he is a member of the board or commission hearing such matter. No member of any zoning commission or board and no member of any zoning board of appeals shall participate in the hearing or decision of the board or commission of which he is a member upon any matter in which he is directly or indirectly interested in a personal or financial sense. In the event of such disqualification, such fact shall be entered on the records of the commission or board and, unless otherwise provided by special act, any municipality may provide by ordinance that an elector may be chosen, in a manner specified in the ordinance, to act as a member of such commission or board in the hearing and determination of such matter, except that replacement shall first be made from alternate members pursuant to the provisions of sections 8-1b and 8-5a.

(1951, S. 382d; 1959, P.A. 146, S. 3; 1971, P.A. 763, S. 6; P.A. 74-192.)

History: 1959 act required that when member or alternate is disqualified, replacement must first be made from alternates; 1971 act deleted provision concerning replacement of disqualified member by elector and added reference to Sec. 8-1b; P.A. 74-192 restored provision concerning selection of elector as replacement if authorized by ordinance.

See Sec. 8-21 re disqualification of planning commission members.

Cited. 144 C. 493; 146 C. 531; 148 C. 603. Evidence of statement of member of board before planning and zoning commission on same matter admissible for development of disqualification. Id., 604. Cited. 150 C. 147. Where zoning commission voted to amend regulations to make proposed use a permitted use in zone, and one of commission members who voted had a financial interest in proposed change, held participation by interested member in action rendered attempted amendment invalid. Id., 495. Previous showing by commission member of open opposition to plaintiff, coupled with other acts of interest, sufficient to disqualify him. 151 C. 476. Failure of commissioner to disqualify himself renders commission’s action invalid. Id. Zoning commission’s upgrading of residential zone invalid where chairman of commission who was owner of eight per cent of the land in area upgraded refused to disqualify himself and participated in decision of commission. 155 C. 497. The decision as to whether a particular interest is sufficient to disqualify a member is a factual one depending on the circumstances of the particular case. 157 C. 285. That chairman of zoning commission was chairman of town mental health fund and son of a member of the zoning appeals board had received psychiatric treatment at defendant institution did not disqualify either from reviewing application of defendant educational institution for emotionally maladjusted children. 158 C. 158. Where two members of commission had, prior to becoming members, signed petitions opposing applicant’s request for zoning change but applicant’s lawyer refused to challenge their qualifications at hearings, saying he would raise question on appeal if his client had unfavorable decision, decision was confirmed. Id., 497. Member of zoning commission did not have such personal or financial interest, either directly or indirectly, as would disqualify him under this section. 159 C. 585. Permissible for municipal official who, by virtue of his office is an ex-officio member of board, to appear before zoning commission on matter as long as he represents municipality and not applicant. 160 C. 295. Member of the Granby Conservation Commission not unqualified to serve as zoning and planning commissioner for personal or financial interests conflict. 161 C. 182. Cited. 165 C. 185. The intent of section is that a disinterested member or alternate attend a hearing and participate in the decision. 166 C. 207. Where zoning authority’s action is held to be illegal, arbitrary or abuse of discretion, reviewing court cannot substitute own judgment of what authority’s action should be unless as matter of law only one conclusion could reasonably be reached by authority. 178 C. 198. Cited. 196 C. 192; 199 C. 231; 209 C. 544.

Cited. 2 CA 551; 26 CA 943; 43 CA 512.

Where board member had no personal or financial interest in application before board and plaintiff’s attorney made no formal request at the hearing that he disqualify himself, facts do not justify his disqualification under section. 26 CS 254. Where one of petitioners for zone change was personal accountant and professional advisor of commission member, latter should have disqualified himself. Id., 502. Court must expect commissioner’s testimony that actions claimed by plaintiff did not, in their cumulative effect, constitute direct or indirect undue influence on commission members. 28 CS 426. Statements and conduct of chairman of zoning commission at board’s hearing, coupled with prior activities on his part, were such that he could be said to “represent” within meaning of section opponents of plaintiff’s application. M’s appearance for board was violation of section, and board’s denial of variance sought by plaintiff was thereby rendered illegal and invalid. 29 CS 32. Cited. 41 CS 196; 43 CS 373.

Sec. 8-11a. Disqualification of board member as enforcement officer. No person may serve as zoning enforcement officer in any municipality wherein he is a member of the zoning board of appeals.

(1963, P.A. 628.)

Cited. 186 C. 106; 221 C. 374.

Sec. 8-12. Procedure when regulations are violated. If any building or structure has been erected, constructed, altered, converted or maintained, or any building, structure or land has been used, in violation of any provision of this chapter or of any bylaw, ordinance, rule or regulation made under authority conferred hereby, any official having jurisdiction, in addition to other remedies, may institute an action or proceeding to prevent such unlawful erection, construction, alteration, conversion, maintenance or use or to restrain, correct or abate such violation or to prevent the occupancy of such building, structure or land or to prevent any illegal act, conduct, business or use in or about such premises. Such regulations shall be enforced by the officer or official board or authority designated therein, who shall be authorized to cause any building, structure, place or premises to be inspected and examined and to order in writing the remedying of any condition found to exist therein or thereon in violation of any provision of the regulations made under authority of the provisions of this chapter or, when the violation involves grading of land, the removal of earth or soil erosion and sediment control, to issue, in writing, a cease and desist order to be effective immediately. The owner or agent of any building or premises where a violation of any provision of such regulations has been committed or exists, or the lessee or tenant of an entire building or entire premises where such violation has been committed or exists, or the owner, agent, lessee or tenant of any part of the building or premises in which such violation has been committed or exists, or the agent, architect, builder, contractor or any other person who commits, takes part or assists in any such violation or who maintains any building or premises in which any such violation exists, shall be fined not less than ten dollars or more than one hundred dollars for each day that such violation continues; but, if the offense is wilful, the person convicted thereof shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars or more than two hundred fifty dollars for each day that such violation continues, or imprisoned not more than ten days for each day such violation continues not to exceed a maximum of thirty days for such violation, or both; and the Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of all such offenses, subject to appeal as in other cases. Any person who, having been served with an order to discontinue any such violation, fails to comply with such order within ten days after such service, or having been served with a cease and desist order with respect to a violation involving grading of land, removal of earth or soil erosion and sediment control, fails to comply with such order immediately, or continues to violate any provision of the regulations made under authority of the provisions of this chapter specified in such order shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, payable to the treasurer of the municipality. In any criminal prosecution under this section, the defendant may plead in abatement that such criminal prosecution is based on a zoning ordinance or regulation which is the subject of a civil action wherein one of the issues is the interpretation of such ordinance or regulations, and that the issues in the civil action are such that the prosecution would fail if the civil action results in an interpretation different from that claimed by the state in the criminal prosecution. If the court renders judgment for such municipality and finds that the violation was wilful, the court shall allow such municipality its costs, together with reasonable attorney’s fees to be taxed by the court. The court before which such prosecution is pending may order such prosecution abated if it finds that the allegations of the plea are true.

(1949 Rev., S. 846; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 46; February, 1965, P.A. 109, S. 1; P.A. 73-434; P.A. 74-183, S. 181, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 160, 681; P.A. 77-509, S. 7; P.A. 79-348; P.A. 87-244; 87-347; P.A. 12-80, S. 5.)

History: 1959 act changed jurisdiction of violations from local police court to circuit court; 1965 act added provisions concerning civil and criminal actions involving violation of one zoning regulation; P.A. 73-434 added provision allowing issuance of cease and desist orders for violations involving land grading or earth removal; P.A. 74-183 substituted court of common pleas for circuit court; P.A. 76-436 substituted superior court for court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-509 made no change; P.A. 79-348 increased civil penalty for violation of order from $250 to $500 and added provision re costs and attorneys’ fees; P.A. 87-244 authorized soil erosion and sediment control orders to be effective immediately; P.A. 87-347 changed amount of civil penalty from $500 to an amount not to exceed $2,500; P.A. 12-80 added provision establishing maximum term of imprisonment of 30 days for wilful offense and made technical changes.

Cited. 135 C. 423. Plea in abatement overruled where town named as plaintiff as no substantive rights affected. 146 C. 178. Structural alterations on nonconforming use change building into substantially different structure adapted to an extension of the nonconforming use. Id. Cited. 150 C. 439. When ordinance requires approval for extension of nonconforming use, extension without approval is prohibited. Id., 584. Judgment denying plaintiff injunctive relief based on unsound proposition of law set aside. 155 C. 431. Cited. 165 C. 185. Measure of damages for breach of contact and warranty deed in that house was constructed in violation of zoning regulations; ripening of use under Sec. 8-13a after breach does not affect damages. 170 C. 177. Cited. 180 C. 575; 181 C. 556; 186 C. 106; 199 C. 575; 208 C. 1; Id., 696; 221 C. 374; 225 C. 575; 230 C. 622; 232 C. 122; 239 C. 515. Although federal regulations allow a local zoning commission to consider compliance with local health regulations in evaluating recreational uses within a hydroelectric power project, federal regulations do not require that licensee obtain local zoning and building permits for development of recreational resources. 285 C. 498. Probable cause is necessary to justify search for zoning violations that target a single residence; administrative searches of residences must comply with fourth amendment of U.S. Constitution; injunction is an appropriate procedural vehicle through which a municipality may seek judicial authorization to conduct a zoning inspection. 303 C. 676.

Held to be unnecessary for zoning enforcement officer to allege and prove irreparable harm and lack of an adequate legal remedy in order for injunction to issue. 1 CA 176. Cited. Id., 285; 2 CA 515; 4 CA 252. Application of prior pending action rule to bar action under section is neither equitable nor just where prior action was brought under Sec. 8-6. 9 CA 534. Cited. 10 CA 41; Id., 190; 15 CA 550; 17 CA 17; judgment reversed, see 212 C. 570; Id., 344; 19 CA 208; 28 CA 379; 41 CA 89; 46 CA 5. Imposition of fine for violation of zoning ordinance when defendant also violated State Building Code not double jeopardy since zoning ordinance and code are distinct and fines characterized as remedial. 65 CA 265. There is a legitimate remedial purpose in imposing fines for zoning violations; such fines are civil fines, not criminal penalties. Id. Does not require court to impose fines and to award attorney’s fees, despite use of word “shall”. 78 CA 818. Because the enforcement of zoning regulations is an act performed wholly for the direct benefit of the public, it is a discretionary and not ministerial act and therefore not amenable to mandamus relief. 122 CA 465.

In criminal action for alleged violation of order of zoning board of appeals, accused must be charged with violation of provision of ordinance, not merely order of board. 6 CS 375. Board’s power to institute legal proceedings held to include right to engage counsel. 12 CS 192. Cited. 15 CS 485. Where two permits for “all liquor package store” were issued by liquor control commission in violation of 1,500 foot requirement of local ordinance, injunction against one permittee on action brought by building inspector refused. 16 CS 349. Appeal under Sec. 8-7 stays all proceedings in action appealed from including criminal proceedings provided for in this section. 23 CS 125. Information which didn’t specify crime or section of zoning ordinance held defective. Court could not take judicial notice of ordinance or of order of building inspector which defendant was charged with violating. Id. Allows for injunctive relief where fines provided by law would not deter violation. 29 CS 62. Cited. 34 CS 69; 39 CS 334.

School dormitory has educational purpose and is itself a school, rather than an accessory use, within zoning ordinance. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 294.

Sec. 8-12a. Establishment of municipal penalties for violations of regulations. (a) Any municipality may, by ordinance adopted by its legislative body, establish penalties for violations of zoning regulations adopted under section 8-2 or by special act. The ordinance shall establish the types of violations for which a citation may be issued and the amount of any fine to be imposed thereby and shall specify the time period for uncontested payment of fines for any alleged violation under any such regulation. No fine imposed under the authority of this section may exceed one hundred fifty dollars for each day a violation continues. Any fine shall be payable to the treasurer of the municipality.

(b) The hearing procedure for any citation issued pursuant to this section shall be in accordance with section 7-152c except that no zoning enforcement officer, building inspector or employee of the municipal body exercising zoning authority may be appointed to be a hearing officer.

(P.A. 91-398, S. 6, 7; P.A. 92-180; P.A. 93-435, S. 90, 95; P.A. 96-210; P.A. 02-74, S. 3; P.A. 12-47, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 92-180 amended Subsec. (a) to include violations of zoning regulations adopted “by special act”; P.A. 93-435 amended the section by deleting Subsec. (d), which had terminated provisions of section as of October 1, 1993, effective June 28, 1993; P.A. 96-210 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting phrase “concerning primary uses and buildings and structures which pose an immediate and substantive threat to public safety” modifying “special act”; P.A. 02-74 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing “a single citation” with “each day a violation continues”; P.A. 12-47 deleted former Subsec. (c) re liability of zoning enforcement officer for treble damages.

Sec. 8-13. Controlling requirement in case of variation. If the regulations made under authority of the provisions of this chapter require a greater width or size of yards, courts or other open spaces or a lower height of building or a fewer number of stories or a greater percentage of lot area to be left unoccupied or impose other and higher standards than are required in any other statute, bylaw, ordinance or regulation, the provisions of the regulations made under the provisions of this chapter shall govern. If the provisions of any other statute, bylaw, ordinance or regulation require a greater width or size of yards, courts or other open spaces or a lower height of building or a fewer number of stories or a greater percentage of lot area to be left unoccupied or impose other and higher standards than are required by the regulations made under authority of the provisions of this chapter, the provisions of such statute, bylaw, ordinance or regulation shall govern.

(1949 Rev., S. 847.)

Cited. 165 C. 185.

Cited. 15 CA 550.

Sec. 8-13a. Nonconforming buildings and land uses. (a) When a building is so situated on a lot that it violates a zoning regulation of a municipality which prescribes the location of such a building in relation to the boundaries of the lot or when a building is situated on a lot that violates a zoning regulation of a municipality which prescribes the minimum area of the lot, and when such building has been so situated for three years without the institution of an action to enforce such regulation, such building shall be deemed a nonconforming building in relation to such boundaries or to the area of such lot, as the case may be.

(b) When a use of land or building (1) is on a parcel that is fifteen or more acres, (2) is included in industry numbers 1795, 2951, 3272 or 4953 of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1987 edition, (3) is not permitted by the zoning regulations of a municipality, (4) has been established and continued in reasonable reliance on the actions of the municipality, and (5) has been in existence for twenty years prior to July 8, 1997, without the institution of court action to enforce the regulations regarding the use, such use shall be deemed a legally existing nonconforming use and may be continued. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to exempt such use from the requirements of the general statutes or of any other municipal ordinance.

(1967, P.A. 896; 1971, P.A. 388; P.A. 77-509, S. 8; P.A. 91-199; P.A. 97-296, S. 3, 4.)

History: 1971 act changed period after which nonconforming use established from five to three years; P.A. 77-509 substituted “such building shall be deemed a nonconforming building ...” for “such building location shall be deemed a nonconforming use”; P.A. 91-199 included as a nonconforming building a building situated on a lot that violates a zoning regulation which prescribes the minimum area of the lot; P.A. 97-296 added new Subsec. (b) re nonconforming land use, effective July 8, 1997.

Since damages for breach of contract are measured as of date of breach, subsequent ripening of use under section does not affect damages. 170 C. 177.

Cited. 46 CA 148.

Subsec. (a):

Statute requires institution of civil action for an injunction within a three-year limitations period and that neither variance appeal by abutting landowner nor issuance of cease and desist order by town zoning enforcement officer will suffice. 89 CA 324.