ARTICLE 5*

LETTERS OF CREDIT

*Cited. 203 C. 394. Cited. 232 C. 294. Uniform Commercial Code, Secs. 42a-5-101 through 42a-5-117 cited. Id.

Cited. 28 CA 221. Secs. 42a-5-101–42a-5-117 cited. Id.

Table of Contents

Sec. 42a-5-101. Short title: Uniform Commercial Code–Letters of Credit.

Sec. 42a-5-102. Definitions.

Sec. 42a-5-103. Scope.

Sec. 42a-5-104. Formal requirements.

Sec. 42a-5-105. Consideration.

Sec. 42a-5-106. Issuance, amendment, cancellation and duration.

Sec. 42a-5-107. Confirmer, nominated person and adviser.

Sec. 42a-5-108. Issuer’s rights and obligations.

Sec. 42a-5-109. Fraud and forgery.

Sec. 42a-5-110. Warranties.

Sec. 42a-5-111. Remedies.

Sec. 42a-5-112. Transfer of letter of credit.

Sec. 42a-5-113. Transfer by operation of law.

Sec. 42a-5-114. Assignment of proceeds.

Sec. 42a-5-115. Statute of limitations.

Sec. 42a-5-116. Choice of law and forum.

Sec. 42a-5-117. Subrogation of issuer, applicant and nominated person.

Sec. 42a-5-118. Security interest of issuer or nominated person.

Sec. 42a-5-118a. Applicability.

Sec. 42a-5-119. Savings clause.


Sec. 42a-5-101. Short title: Uniform Commercial Code–Letters of Credit. This article may be cited as “Uniform Commercial Code–Letters of Credit”.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-101; P.A. 96-198, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 96-198 deleted “shall be known and” after “This article”.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-102. Definitions. (a) In this article:

(1) “Adviser” means a person who, at the request of the issuer, a confirmer or another adviser, notifies or requests another adviser to notify the beneficiary that a letter of credit has been issued, confirmed or amended.

(2) “Applicant” means a person at whose request or for whose account a letter of credit is issued. The term includes a person who requests an issuer to issue a letter of credit on behalf of another if the person making the request undertakes an obligation to reimburse the issuer.

(3) “Beneficiary” means a person who under the terms of a letter of credit is entitled to have its complying presentation honored. The term includes a person to whom drawing rights have been transferred under a transferable letter of credit.

(4) “Confirmer” means a nominated person who undertakes, at the request or with the consent of the issuer, to honor a presentation under a letter of credit issued by another.

(5) “Dishonor” of a letter of credit means failure timely to honor or to take an interim action, such as acceptance of a draft, that may be required by the letter of credit.

(6) “Document” means a draft or other demand, document of title, investment security, certificate, invoice or other record, statement or representation of fact, law, right or opinion (A) which is presented in a written or other medium permitted by the letter of credit or, unless prohibited by the letter of credit, by the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of section 42a-5-108, and (B) which is capable of being examined for compliance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. A document may not be oral.

(7) “Honor” of a letter of credit means performance of the issuer’s undertaking in the letter of credit to pay or deliver an item of value. Unless the letter of credit otherwise provides, “honor” occurs (A) upon payment, (B) if the letter of credit provides for acceptance, upon acceptance of a draft and, at maturity, its payment, or (C) if the letter of credit provides for incurring a deferred obligation, upon incurring the obligation and, at maturity, its performance.

(8) “Issuer” means a bank or other person that issues a letter of credit, but does not include an individual who makes an engagement for personal, family or household purposes.

(9) “Letter of credit” means a definite undertaking that satisfies the requirements of section 42a-5-104 by an issuer to a beneficiary at the request or for the account of an applicant or, in the case of a financial institution, to itself or for its own account, to honor a documentary presentation by payment or delivery of an item of value.

(10) “Nominated person” means a person whom the issuer (A) designates or authorizes to pay, accept, negotiate or otherwise give value under a letter of credit, and (B) undertakes by agreement or custom and practice to reimburse.

(11) “Presentation” means delivery of a document to an issuer or nominated person for honor or giving of value under a letter of credit.

(12) “Presenter” means a person making a presentation as or on behalf of a beneficiary or nominated person.

(13) “Successor of a beneficiary” means a person who succeeds to substantially all of the rights of a beneficiary by operation of law, including a corporation with or into which the beneficiary has been merged or consolidated, an administrator, executor, personal representative, trustee in bankruptcy, debtor in possession, liquidator and receiver.

(b) Definitions in other articles applying to this article and the sections in which they appear are:

“Accept” or “acceptance”. Section 42a-3-409.

“Value”. Sections 42a-3-303, 42a-4-211.

(c) Article 1 contains certain additional general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this article.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-102; P.A. 96-198, S. 2; P.A. 05-109, S. 34.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re scope of article with provisions re definitions, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-103, revised to 1995; P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting definitions of “good faith” and “record” and making technical changes to conform to revisions made to article 1 by the same act.

See Sec. 42a-5-103 for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-102, revised to 1995, re scope of article.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-103. Scope. (a) This article applies to letters of credit and to certain rights and obligations arising out of transactions involving letters of credit.

(b) The statement of a rule in this article does not by itself require, imply or negate application of the same or a different rule to a situation not provided for, or to a person not specified, in this article.

(c) With the exception of this subsection, subsections (a) and (d) of this section, subdivisions (8) and (9) of subsection (a) of section 42a-5-102, subsection (d) of section 42a-5-106 and subsection (d) of section 42a-5-114, and except to the extent prohibited in section 42a-1-302 and subsection (d) of section 42a-5-117, the effect of this article may be varied by agreement or by a provision stated or incorporated by reference in an undertaking. A term in an agreement or undertaking generally excusing liability or generally limiting remedies for failure to perform obligations is not sufficient to vary obligations prescribed by this article.

(d) Rights and obligations of an issuer to a beneficiary or a nominated person under a letter of credit are independent of the existence, performance or nonperformance of a contract or arrangement out of which the letter of credit arises or which underlies it, including contracts or arrangements between the issuer and the applicant and between the applicant and the beneficiary.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-103; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 27, 70; P.A. 96-198, S. 3; P.A. 05-109, S. 35.)

History: May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 amended Subsec. (3) to replace “Section 42a-3-410” as the statutory reference for the definition of “Accept” or “Acceptance” with “Section 41a-3-409” (Revisor’s note: The incorrect reference to Sec. “41a-3-409” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “42a-3-409”); P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re definitions of terms with provisions re scope of article, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-102, revised to 1995; P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (c) by making a technical change and replacing references to Secs. 42a-5-102(a)(10) and 42a-1-102(3) with references to Secs. 42a-5-102(a)(8) and 42a-1-302 to conform to revisions made to article 1 by the same act.

See Secs. 42a-5-102 and 42a-5-106(a) for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-103, revised to 1995, re definitions.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Former Subsec. (1):

Subdiv. (a) cited. 203 C. 394; 232 C. 294.

Former Subsec. (3):

Cited. 203 C. 394.

Sec. 42a-5-104. Formal requirements. A letter of credit, confirmation, advice, transfer, amendment or cancellation may be issued in any form that is a record and is authenticated (i) by a signature, or (ii) in accordance with the agreement of the parties or the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of section 42a-5-108.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-104; P.A. 96-198, S. 4.)

History: P.A. 96-198 substantially revised section.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-105. Consideration. Consideration is not required to issue, amend, transfer or cancel a letter of credit, advice or confirmation.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-105; P.A. 96-198, S. 5.)

History: P.A. 96-198 rephrased provisions.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-106. Issuance, amendment, cancellation and duration. (a) A letter of credit is issued and becomes enforceable according to its terms against the issuer when the issuer sends or otherwise transmits it to the person requested to advise or to the beneficiary. A letter of credit is revocable only if it so provides.

(b) After a letter of credit is issued, rights and obligations of a beneficiary, applicant, confirmer and issuer are not affected by an amendment or cancellation to which that person has not consented except to the extent the letter of credit provides that it is revocable or that the issuer may amend or cancel the letter of credit without that consent.

(c) If there is no stated expiration date or other provision that determines its duration, a letter of credit expires one year after its stated date of issuance or, if none is stated, after the date on which it is issued.

(d) A letter of credit that states that it is perpetual expires five years after its stated date of issuance, or if none is stated, after the date on which it is issued.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-106; P.A. 96-198, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 96-198 substantially revised provisions re when a letter of credit is issued and becomes enforceable and when a letter of credit may be modified or revoked and the effects thereof, and added provisions re expiration of a letter of credit.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-107. Confirmer, nominated person and adviser. (a) A confirmer is directly obligated on a letter of credit and has the rights and obligations of an issuer to the extent of its confirmation. The confirmer also has rights against and obligations to the issuer as if the issuer were an applicant and the confirmer had issued the letter of credit at the request and for the account of the issuer.

(b) A nominated person who is not a confirmer is not obligated to honor or otherwise give value for a presentation.

(c) A person requested to advise may decline to act as an adviser. An adviser that is not a confirmer is not obligated to honor or give value for a presentation. An adviser undertakes to the issuer and to the beneficiary accurately to advise the terms of the letter of credit, confirmation, amendment or advice received by that person and undertakes to the beneficiary to check the apparent authenticity of the request to advise. Even if the advice is inaccurate, the letter of credit, confirmation or amendment is enforceable as issued.

(d) A person who notifies a transferee beneficiary of the terms of a letter of credit, confirmation, amendment or advice has the rights and obligations of an adviser under subsection (c) of this section. The terms in the notice to the transferee beneficiary may differ from the terms in any notice to the transferor beneficiary to the extent permitted by the letter of credit, confirmation, amendment or advice received by the person who so notifies.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-107; P.A. 96-198, S. 7.)

History: P.A. 96-198 substantially revised provisions re rights and obligations of a confirmer and of an adviser, deleted provision re liability of the customer for risks of transmission and reasonable translation or interpretation of any message relating to a letter of credit, added Subsec. (b) re obligation of a nominated person to honor or otherwise give value for presentation and added Subsec. (d) re rights and obligations of a person who notifies a transferee beneficiary.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-108. Issuer’s rights and obligations. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 42a-5-109, an issuer shall honor a presentation that, as determined by the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of this section, appears on its face strictly to comply with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. Except as otherwise provided in section 42a-5-113, and unless otherwise agreed with the applicant, an issuer shall dishonor a presentation that does not appear so to comply.

(b) An issuer has a reasonable time after presentation, but not beyond the end of the seventh business day of the issuer after the day of its receipt of documents: (1) To honor, (2) if the letter of credit provides for honor to be completed more than seven business days after presentation, to accept a draft or incur a deferred obligation, or (3) to give notice to the presenter of discrepancies in the presentation.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section, an issuer is precluded from asserting as a basis for dishonor any discrepancy if timely notice is not given, or any discrepancy not stated in the notice if timely notice is given.

(d) Failure to give the notice specified in subsection (b) of this section or to mention fraud, forgery or expiration in the notice does not preclude the issuer from asserting as a basis for dishonor fraud or forgery as described in subsection (a) of section 42a-5-109 or expiration of the letter of credit before presentation.

(e) An issuer shall observe standard practice of financial institutions that regularly issue letters of credit. Determination of the issuer’s observance of the standard practice is a matter of interpretation for the court. The court shall offer the parties a reasonable opportunity to present evidence of the standard practice.

(f) An issuer is not responsible for: (1) The performance or nonperformance of the underlying contract, arrangement or transaction; (2) an act or omission of others; or (3) observance or knowledge of the usage of a particular trade other than the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of this section.

(g) If an undertaking constituting a letter of credit under subdivision (9) of subsection (a) of section 42a-5-102 contains nondocumentary conditions, an issuer shall disregard the nondocumentary conditions and treat them as if they were not stated.

(h) An issuer that has dishonored a presentation shall return the documents or hold them at the disposal of, and send advice to that effect to, the presenter.

(i) An issuer that has honored a presentation as permitted or required by this article: (1) Is entitled to be reimbursed by the applicant in immediately available funds not later than the date of its payment of funds; (2) takes the documents free of claims of the beneficiary or presenter; (3) is precluded from asserting a right of recourse on a draft under sections 42a-3-414 and 42a-3-415; (4) except as otherwise provided in sections 42a-5-110 and 42a-5-117, is precluded from restitution of money paid or other value given by mistake to the extent the mistake concerns discrepancies in the documents or tender which are apparent on the face of the presentation; and (5) is discharged to the extent of its performance under the letter of credit unless the issuer honored a presentation in which a required signature of a beneficiary was forged.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-108; P.A. 96-198, S. 8; P.A. 05-109, S. 36.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re notation credit and exhaustion of credit with provisions re rights and obligations of an issuer, in part a restatement of Secs. 42a-5-109(1) and (2), 42a-5-112(1) and (2), and 42a-5-114(1) and (3), revised to 1995; P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing reference to Sec. 42a-5-102(a)(10) with reference to Sec. 42a-5-102(a)(9) to conform to revisions made to article 1 by the same act.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-109. Fraud and forgery. (a) If a presentation is made that appears on its face strictly to comply with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit, but a required document is forged or materially fraudulent, or honor of the presentation would facilitate a material fraud by the beneficiary on the issuer or applicant: (1) The issuer shall honor the presentation, if honor is demanded by (i) a nominated person who has given value in good faith and without notice of forgery or material fraud, (ii) a confirmer who has honored its confirmation in good faith, (iii) a holder in due course of a draft drawn under the letter of credit which was taken after acceptance by the issuer or nominated person, or (iv) an assignee of the issuer’s or nominated person’s deferred obligation that was taken for value and without notice of forgery or material fraud after the obligation was incurred by the issuer or nominated person; and (2) the issuer, acting in good faith, may honor or dishonor the presentation in any other case.

(b) If an applicant claims that a required document is forged or materially fraudulent or that honor of the presentation would facilitate a material fraud by the beneficiary on the issuer or applicant, a court of competent jurisdiction may temporarily or permanently enjoin the issuer from honoring a presentation or grant similar relief against the issuer or other persons only if the court finds that: (1) The relief is not prohibited under the law applicable to an accepted draft or deferred obligation incurred by the issuer; (2) a beneficiary, issuer or nominated person who may be adversely affected is adequately protected against loss that it may suffer because the relief is granted; (3) all of the conditions to entitle a person to the relief under the law of this state have been met; and (4) on the basis of the information submitted to the court, the applicant is more likely than not to succeed under its claim of forgery or material fraud and the person demanding honor does not qualify for protection under subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-109; P.A. 96-198, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re the obligation of the issuer to its customer with provisions re the honoring of a presentation when there is fraud or forgery, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-114(2), revised to 1995, and the standards for the issuance of injunctive or other relief.

See Sec. 42a-5-108 for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-109, revised to 1995, re issuer’s obligation to its customer.

Cited. 173 C. 492. Cited. 203 C. 394.

Sec. 42a-5-110. Warranties. (a) If its presentation is honored, the beneficiary warrants: (1) To the issuer, any other person to whom presentation is made and the applicant that there is no fraud or forgery of the kind described in subsection (a) of section 42a-5-109; and (2) to the applicant that the drawing does not violate any agreement between the applicant and the beneficiary or any other agreement intended by them to be augmented by the letter of credit.

(b) The warranties in subsection (a) of this section are in addition to warranties arising under articles 3, 4, 7 and 8 because of the presentation or transfer of documents covered by any of those articles.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-110; P.A. 96-198, S. 10.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re the availability of credit in portions and the relinquishment by a presenter of all claims to the documents with provisions re warranties, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-111, revised to 1995.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-111. Remedies. (a) If an issuer wrongfully dishonors or repudiates its obligation to pay money under a letter of credit before presentation, the beneficiary, successor or nominated person presenting on its own behalf may recover from the issuer the amount that is the subject of the dishonor or repudiation. If the issuer’s obligation under the letter of credit is not for the payment of money, the claimant may obtain specific performance or, at the claimant’s election, recover an amount equal to the value of performance from the issuer. In either case, the claimant may also recover incidental damages and, if appropriate under the circumstances, consequential damages. The claimant is not obligated to take action to avoid damages that might be due from the issuer under this subsection. If, although not obligated to do so, the claimant avoids damages, the claimant’s recovery from the issuer must be reduced by the amount of damages avoided. The issuer has the burden of proving the amount of damages avoided. In the case of repudiation the claimant need not present any document.

(b) If an issuer wrongfully dishonors a draft or demand presented under a letter of credit or honors a draft or demand in breach of its obligation to the applicant, the applicant may recover damages resulting from the breach, including incidental damages and, if appropriate under the circumstances, consequential damages, less any amount saved as a result of the breach.

(c) If an adviser or nominated person other than a confirmer breaches an obligation under this article or an issuer breaches an obligation not covered in subsection (a) or (b) of this section, a person to whom the obligation is owed may recover damages resulting from the breach, including incidental but not consequential damages, less any amount saved as a result of the breach. To the extent of the confirmation, a confirmer has the liability of an issuer specified in this subsection and subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(d) An issuer, nominated person or adviser who is found liable under subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section shall pay interest on the amount owed thereunder from the date of wrongful dishonor or other appropriate date.

(e) Reasonable attorney’s fees and other expenses of litigation may be awarded to the prevailing party in an action in which a remedy is sought under this article.

(f) Damages that would otherwise be payable by a party for breach of an obligation under this article may be liquidated by agreement or undertaking, but only in an amount or by a formula that is reasonable in light of the harm anticipated.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-111; P.A. 96-198, S. 11.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re warranties of transfer and presentment with provisions re remedies, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-115, revised to 1995.

See Sec. 42a-5-110 for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-111, revised to 1995, re warranties.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-112. Transfer of letter of credit. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 42a-5-113, unless a letter of credit provides that it is transferable, the right of a beneficiary to draw or otherwise demand performance under a letter of credit may not be transferred.

(b) Even if a letter of credit provides that it is transferable, the issuer may refuse to recognize or carry out a transfer if: (1) The transfer would violate applicable law; or (2) the transferor or transferee has failed to comply with any requirement stated in the letter of credit or any other requirement relating to transfer imposed by the issuer which is within the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of section 42a-5-108 or is otherwise reasonable under the circumstances.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-112; P.A. 96-198, S. 12.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re the time allowed for honor or rejection, the withholding of honor or rejection by consent and the definition of “presenter” with provisions re the transfer of a letter of credit, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-116(1), revised to 1995.

See Secs. 42a-5-102(a)(12) and 42a-5-108(b), (c) and (h) for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-112, revised to 1995, re time allowed for honor or rejection, withholding honor or rejection by consent and the definition of “presenter”.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-113. Transfer by operation of law. (a) A successor of a beneficiary may consent to amendments, sign and present documents, and receive payment or other items of value in the name of the beneficiary without disclosing its status as a successor.

(b) A successor of a beneficiary may consent to amendments, sign and present documents, and receive payment or other items of value in its own name as the disclosed successor of the beneficiary. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) of this section, an issuer shall recognize a disclosed successor of a beneficiary as beneficiary in full substitution for its predecessor upon compliance with the requirements for recognition by the issuer of a transfer of drawing rights by operation of law under the standard practice referred to in subsection (e) of section 42a-5-108 or, in the absence of such a practice, compliance with other reasonable procedures sufficient to protect the issuer.

(c) An issuer is not obliged to determine whether a purported successor is a successor of a beneficiary or whether the signature of a purported successor is genuine or authorized.

(d) Honor of a purported successor’s apparently complying presentation under subsection (a) or (b) of this section has the consequences specified in subsection (i) of section 42a-5-108 even if the purported successor is not the successor of a beneficiary. Documents signed in the name of the beneficiary or of a disclosed successor by a person who is neither the beneficiary nor the successor of the beneficiary are forged documents for the purposes of section 42a-5-109.

(e) An issuer whose rights of reimbursement are not covered by subsection (d) of this section or substantially similar law and any confirmer or nominated person may decline to recognize a presentation under subsection (b) of this section.

(f) A beneficiary whose name is changed after the issuance of a letter of credit has the same rights and obligations as a successor of a beneficiary under this section.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-113; P.A. 96-198, S. 13.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re indemnities to induce honor, negotiation or reimbursement with provisions re transfer by operation of law.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-114. Assignment of proceeds. (a) In this section, “proceeds of a letter of credit” means the cash, check, accepted draft or other item of value paid or delivered upon honor or giving of value by the issuer or any nominated person under the letter of credit. The term does not include a beneficiary’s drawing rights or documents presented by the beneficiary.

(b) A beneficiary may assign its right to part or all of the proceeds of a letter of credit. The beneficiary may do so before presentation as a present assignment of its right to receive proceeds contingent upon its compliance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit.

(c) An issuer or nominated person need not recognize an assignment of proceeds of a letter of credit until it consents to the assignment.

(d) An issuer or nominated person has no obligation to give or withhold its consent to an assignment of proceeds of a letter of credit, but consent may not be unreasonably withheld if the assignee possesses and exhibits the letter of credit and presentation of the letter of credit is a condition to honor.

(e) Rights of a transferee beneficiary or nominated person are independent of the beneficiary’s assignment of the proceeds of a letter of credit and are superior to the assignee’s right to the proceeds.

(f) Neither the rights recognized by this section between an assignee and an issuer, transferee beneficiary or nominated person nor the issuer’s or nominated person’s payment of proceeds to an assignee or a third person affect the rights between the assignee and any person other than the issuer, transferee beneficiary or nominated person. The mode of creating and perfecting a security interest in or granting an assignment of a beneficiary’s rights to proceeds is governed by article 9 or other law. Against persons other than the issuer, transferee beneficiary or nominated person, the rights and obligations arising upon the creation of a security interest or other assignment of a beneficiary’s right to proceeds and its perfection are governed by article 9 or other law.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-114; P.A. 79-435, S. 54; P.A. 96-198, S. 14.)

History: P.A. 79-435 specified securities as “certificated” securities in Subsec. (2); P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re an issuer’s duty and privilege to honor and a right to reimbursement with provisions re assignment of proceeds, in part a restatement of Sec. 42a-5-116(2) and (3), revised to 1995.

See Secs. 42a-5-108(a) and (i) and 42a-5-109(a) for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-114, revised to 1995, re issuer’s duty and privilege to honor and issuer’s right to reimbursement.

Cited. 173 C. 492. Cited. 203 C. 394.

Former Subsec. (1):

Cited. 232 C. 294.

Former Subsec. (3):

Cited. 225 C. 447.

Sec. 42a-5-115. Statute of limitations. An action to enforce a right or obligation arising under this article must be commenced within one year after the expiration date of the relevant letter of credit or one year after the cause of action accrues, whichever occurs later. A cause of action accrues when the breach occurs, regardless of the aggrieved party’s lack of knowledge of the breach.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-115; P.A. 96-198, S. 15.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re the remedy for improper dishonor or anticipatory repudiation with provisions re the statute of limitations for actions to enforce a right or obligation arising under this article.

See Sec. 42a-5-111 for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-115, revised to 1995, re remedies for improper dishonor or anticipatory repudiation.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-116. Choice of law and forum. (a) The liability of an issuer, nominated person or adviser for action or omission is governed by the law of the jurisdiction chosen by an agreement in the form of a record signed or otherwise authenticated by the affected parties in the manner provided in section 42a-5-104 or by a provision in the person’s letter of credit, confirmation or other undertaking. The jurisdiction whose law is chosen need not bear any relation to the transaction.

(b) Unless subsection (a) of this section applies, the liability of an issuer, nominated person or adviser for action or omission is governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the person is located. The person is considered to be located at the address indicated in the person’s undertaking. If more than one address is indicated, the person is considered to be located at the address from which the person’s undertaking was issued. For the purpose of jurisdiction, choice of law and recognition of interbranch letters of credit, but not enforcement of a judgment, all branches of a bank are considered separate juridical entities and a bank is considered to be located at the place where its relevant branch is considered to be located under this subsection.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the liability of an issuer, nominated person or adviser is governed by any rules of custom or practice, such as the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, to which the letter of credit, confirmation or other undertaking is expressly made subject. If (i) this article would govern the liability of an issuer, nominated person or adviser under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, (ii) the relevant undertaking incorporates rules of custom or practice, and (iii) there is conflict between this article and those rules as applied to that undertaking, those rules govern except to the extent of any conflict with the nonvariable provisions specified in subsection (c) of section 42a-5-103.

(d) If there is conflict between this article and article 3, 4, 4a or 9, this article governs.

(e) The forum for settling disputes arising out of an undertaking within this article may be chosen in the manner and with the binding effect that governing law may be chosen in accordance with subsection (a) of this section.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-116; P.A. 76-369, S. 6; P.A. 96-198, S. 16; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 31, 121.)

History: P.A. 76-369 substituted “an account” for “a contract right” under Art. 9 in Subsec. (2); P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re transfer and assignment with provisions re choice of law and forum; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 24, 1998.

See Secs. 42a-5-112 and 42a-5-114 for successor provisions to Sec. 42a-5-116, revised to 1995, re transfer and assignment.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-117. Subrogation of issuer, applicant and nominated person. (a) An issuer that honors a beneficiary’s presentation is subrogated to the rights of the beneficiary to the same extent as if the issuer were a secondary obligor of the underlying obligation owed to the beneficiary and of the applicant to the same extent as if the issuer were the secondary obligor of the underlying obligation owed to the applicant.

(b) An applicant that reimburses an issuer is subrogated to the rights of the issuer against any beneficiary, presenter or nominated person to the same extent as if the applicant were the secondary obligor of the obligations owed to the issuer and has the rights of subrogation of the issuer to the rights of the beneficiary stated in subsection (a) of this section.

(c) A nominated person who pays or gives value against a draft or demand presented under a letter of credit is subrogated to the rights of: (1) The issuer against the applicant to the same extent as if the nominated person were a secondary obligor of the obligation owed to the issuer by the applicant; (2) the beneficiary to the same extent as if the nominated person were a secondary obligor of the underlying obligation owed to the beneficiary; and (3) the applicant to the same extent as if the nominated person were a secondary obligor of the underlying obligation owed to the applicant.

(d) Notwithstanding any agreement or term to the contrary, the rights of subrogation stated in subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not arise until the issuer honors the letter of credit or otherwise pays and the rights in subsection (c) of this section do not arise until the nominated person pays or otherwise gives value. Until then, the issuer, nominated person and the applicant do not derive under this section present or prospective rights forming the basis of a claim, defense or excuse.

(1959, P.A. 133, S. 5-117; P.A. 96-198, S. 17; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 32, 121.)

History: P.A. 96-198 entirely replaced former provisions re insolvency of a bank holding funds for documentary credit with provisions re subrogation; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective June 24, 1998.

Cited. 173 C. 492.

Sec. 42a-5-118. Security interest of issuer or nominated person. (a) An issuer or nominated person has a security interest in a document presented under a letter of credit to the extent that the issuer or nominated person honors or gives value for the presentation.

(b) So long as and to the extent that an issuer or nominated person has not been reimbursed or has not otherwise recovered the value given with respect to a security interest in a document under subsection (a), the security interest continues and is subject to article 9, but:

(1) A security agreement is not necessary to make the security interest enforceable under section 42a-9-203(b)(3);

(2) If the document is presented in a medium other than a written or other tangible medium, the security interest is perfected; and

(3) If the document is presented in a written or other tangible medium and is not a certificated security, chattel paper, a document of title, an instrument or a letter of credit, the security interest is perfected and has priority over a conflicting security interest in the document so long as the debtor does not have possession of the document.

(P.A. 96-198, S. 26; P.A. 01-132, S. 144.)

History: P.A. 01-132 replaced former provisions re applicability of P.A. 96-198 with provisions re security interest of issuer or nominated person in a document presented under a letter of credit.

Sec. 42a-5-118a. Applicability. Public act 96-198* applies to a letter of credit that is issued on or after October 1, 1996. Public act 96-198* does not apply to a transaction, event, obligation or duty arising out of or associated with a letter of credit that was issued before October 1, 1996.

(P.A. 01-132, S. 181.)

*Note: Public act 96-198 is entitled “An Act Revising Article 5 of the Uniform Commercial Code Concerning Letters of Credit”. (See Reference Table captioned “Public Acts of 1996” in Volume 16 which lists the sections amended, created or repealed by the act.)

Sec. 42a-5-119. Savings clause. A transaction arising out of or associated with a letter of credit that was issued before October 1, 1996, and the rights, obligations and interests flowing from that transaction are governed by any statute or other law amended or repealed by public act 96-198* as if repeal or amendment had not occurred and may be terminated, completed, consummated or enforced under that statute or other law.

(P.A. 96-198, S. 27.)

*Note: Public act 96-198 is entitled “An Act Revising Article 5 of the Uniform Commercial Code Concerning Letters of Credit”. (See Reference Table captioned “Public Acts of 1996” in Volume 16 which lists the sections amended, created or repealed by the act.)