CHAPTER 283
TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE, ILLUMINATING,
POWER AND WATER COMPANIES

Table of Contents

Sec. 16-231a. Cuts and permanent patches in highway. Inspections. Repairs. Certification.
Sec. 16-243x. Time-of-use meters. Notice of availability.
Sec. 16-244c. Standard offer. Transitional standard offer. Standard service. Alternative transitional standard offer and standard service. Supplier of last resort. Back-up generation service. Participating electric suppliers.
Sec. 16-244m. Procurement plan re standard service.
Sec. 16-244n. Standard service contract buydown.
Sec. 16-244o. Generation evaluation and procurement process.
Sec. 16-244p. Transmission line project review.
Sec. 16-244q. Request for proposal re reliability concerns.
Sec. 16-244r. Long-term contracts re zero emission generation projects. Renewable energy credits.
Sec. 16-244s. Zero emission generation projects solicitation plan. Procurement plan. Noncompliance fee.
Sec. 16-244t. Power purchase contracts re low-emission generation projects. Renewable energy credits.
Sec. 16-244u. Virtual net metering.
Sec. 16-244v. Renewable energy sources generation. Proposals to build, own or operate facilities.
Sec. 16-245. Licensing of electric suppliers. Procedures. Penalties. Registration of electric aggregators. Procedures. Penalties.
Sec. 16-245d. Billing of electric service; standard format; contents.
Sec. 16-245h. Transition property. Surplus competitive transition assessment. Restrictions on use of transition property by electric or electric distribution companies.
Sec. 16-245j. Rate reduction bonds and economic recovery revenue bonds; terms.
Sec. 16-245m. Assessment for conservation and load management programs. Disbursement of funds raised pursuant to financing orders. Establishment of Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Energy Conservation Management Board.
Sec. 16-245n. Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority. Charge assessed against electric customers. Clean Energy Fund.
Sec. 16-245o. Restrictions on use of customer information for marketing. Promotional inserts in electric bills prohibited. Procedures for entering and terminating service contracts. Penalties.
Sec. 16-245r. Discrimination by electric suppliers prohibited.
Sec. 16-245y. Annual reporting re status of electric deregulation.
Sec. 16-245z. Internet links to Energy Star program.
Sec. 16-245ee. Energy conservation and load management and renewable energy projects in lower income communities. Requirements for approval.
Sec. 16-245ff. Residential solar investment program.
Sec. 16-245gg. Residential solar investment program. In-state incentive.
Sec. 16-245hh. Condominium renewable energy grant program.
Sec. 16-245ii. Energy consumption data of nonresidential buildings.
Sec. 16-245jj. Town customer electricity and gas usage information.
Sec. 16-247q. Education outreach program for telecommunications competition, scope. Consumer Education Advisory Council established.
Sec. 16-247r. Discrimination by telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers prohibited.
Sec. 16-256b. Special telecommunications equipment for deaf and hearing impaired persons. Fund. Amplification controls for coin and coinless telephones installed for public or semipublic use.
Sec. 16-261a. Interagency electric and magnetic fields task force; composition; study. Assessment of electric public service companies for specified expenses of task force.
Sec. 16-262c. Termination of utility service for nonpayment, when prohibited. Amortization agreements. Moneys allowed to be deducted from customers' accounts and moneys to be included in rates as an operating expense. Hardship cases. Notice. Regulations. Annual reports. Privacy of individual customer utility usage and billing information.
Sec. 16-262m. Construction specifications for water companies.

      Sec. 16-231a. Cuts and permanent patches in highway. Inspections. Repairs. Certification. A public service company, as defined in section 16-1, a municipal waterworks system established under chapter 102, a district, metropolitan district, municipal district or special services district established under chapter 105 or 105a, any other general statute or any public or special act, which is authorized to supply water, or any other waterworks system owned, leased, maintained, operated, managed or controlled by any unit of local government under any general statute or any public or special act, or a contractor of such entity, that cuts and permanently patches a public highway in the course of repairs or installations shall, one year after such permanent patch is made, (1) inspect such permanent patch, (2) make any additional repairs as may be necessary, and (3) certify to the municipality in which such patch is located that such patch meets generally accepted standards of repair. Any municipality may, by vote of its legislative body, elect not to enforce the requirements of this section.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 95.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-243x. Time-of-use meters. Notice of availability. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall require each electric distribution company to notify its customers on an ongoing basis regarding the availability of time-of-use meters, if applicable.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 105.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244c. Standard offer. Transitional standard offer. Standard service. Alternative transitional standard offer and standard service. Supplier of last resort. Back-up generation service. Participating electric suppliers. (a)(1) On and after January 1, 2000, each electric distribution company shall make available to all customers in its service area, the provision of electric generation and distribution services through a standard offer. Under the standard offer, a customer shall receive electric services at a rate established by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services in accordance with such option to any customer who affirmatively chooses to receive electric generation services pursuant to the standard offer or does not or is unable to arrange for or maintain electric generation services with an electric supplier. The standard offer shall automatically terminate on January 1, 2004. While providing electric generation services under the standard offer, an electric distribution company may provide electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entities or affiliates are licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (2) Not later than October 1, 1999, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall establish the standard offer for each electric distribution company, effective January 1, 2000, which shall allocate the costs of such company among electric transmission and distribution services, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge. The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54 to establish the standard offer. The standard offer shall provide that the total rate charged under the standard offer, including electric transmission and distribution services, the conservation and load management program charge described in section 16-245m, the renewable energy investment charge described in section 16-245n, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge shall be at least ten per cent less than the base rates, as defined in section 16-244a, in effect on December 31, 1996. The standard offer shall be adjusted to the extent of any increase or decrease in state taxes attributable to sections 12-264 and 12-265 and any other increase or decrease in state or federal taxes resulting from a change in state or federal law and shall continue to be adjusted during such period pursuant to section 16-19b. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19b, the provisions of said section 16-19b shall apply to electric distribution companies. The standard offer may be adjusted, by an increase or decrease, to the extent approved by the department, in the event that (A) the revenue requirements of the company are affected as the result of changes in (i) legislative enactments other than public act 98-28*, (ii) administrative requirements, or (iii) accounting standards occurring after July 1, 1998, provided such accounting standards are adopted by entities independent of the company that have authority to issue such standards, or (B) an electric distribution company incurs extraordinary and unanticipated expenses required for the provision of safe and reliable electric service to the extent necessary to provide such service. Savings attributable to a reduction in taxes shall not be shifted between customer classes.

      (3) The price reduction provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection shall not apply to customers who, on or after July 1, 1998, are purchasing electric services from an electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, under a special contract or flexible rate tariff, and the company's filed standard offer tariffs shall reflect that such customers shall not receive the standard offer price reduction.

      (b) (1) (A) On and after January 1, 2004, each electric distribution company shall make available to all customers in its service area, the provision of electric generation and distribution services through a transitional standard offer. Under the transitional standard offer, a customer shall receive electric services at a rate established by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services in accordance with such option to any customer who affirmatively chooses to receive electric generation services pursuant to the transitional standard offer or does not or is unable to arrange for or maintain electric generation services with an electric supplier. The transitional standard offer shall terminate on December 31, 2006. While providing electric generation services under the transitional standard offer, an electric distribution company may provide electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entities or affiliates are licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (B) The authority shall conduct a proceeding to determine whether a practical, effective, and cost-effective process exists under which an electric customer, when initiating electric service, may receive information regarding selecting electric generating services from a qualified entity. The authority shall complete such proceeding on or before December 1, 2005, and shall implement the resulting decision on or before March 1, 2006, or on such later date that the authority considers appropriate. An electric distribution company's costs of participating in the proceeding and implementing the results of the authority's decision shall be recoverable by the company as generation services costs through an adjustment mechanism as approved by the authority.

      (2) (A) Not later than December 15, 2003, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall establish the transitional standard offer for each electric distribution company, effective January 1, 2004.

      (B) The authority shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54 to establish the transitional standard offer. The transitional standard offer shall provide that the total rate charged under the transitional standard offer, including electric transmission and distribution services, the conservation and load management program charge described in section 16-245m, the renewable energy investment charge described in section 16-245n, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge, and excluding federally mandated congestion costs, shall not exceed the base rates, as defined in section 16-244a, in effect on December 31, 1996, excluding any rate reduction ordered by the authority on September 26, 2002.

      (C) (i) Each electric distribution company shall, on or before January 1, 2004, file with the authority an application for an amendment of rates pursuant to section 16-19, which application shall include a four-year plan for the provision of electric transmission and distribution services. The authority shall conduct a contested case proceeding pursuant to sections 16-19 and 16-19e to approve, reject or modify the application and plan. Upon the approval of such plan, as filed or as modified by the authority, the authority shall order that such plan shall establish the electric transmission and distribution services component of the transitional standard offer.

      (ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subparagraph, an electric distribution company that, on or after September 1, 2002, completed a proceeding pursuant to sections 16-19 and 16-19e, shall not be required to file an application for an amendment of rates as required by this subparagraph. The authority shall establish the electric transmission and distribution services component of the transitional standard offer for any such company equal to the electric transmission and distribution services component of the standard offer established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section in effect on July 1, 2003, for such company. If such electric distribution company applies to the authority, pursuant to section 16-19, for an amendment of its rates on or before December 31, 2006, the application of the electric distribution company shall include a four-year plan.

      (D) The transitional standard offer (i) shall be adjusted to the extent of any increase or decrease in state taxes attributable to sections 12-264 and 12-265 and any other increase or decrease in state or federal taxes resulting from a change in state or federal law, (ii) shall be adjusted to provide for the cost of contracts under subdivision (2) of subsection (j) of this section and the administrative costs for the procurement of such contracts, and (iii) shall continue to be adjusted during such period pursuant to section 16-19b. Savings attributable to a reduction in taxes shall not be shifted between customer classes. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19b, the provisions of section 16-19b shall apply to electric distribution companies.

      (E) The transitional standard offer may be adjusted, by an increase or decrease, to the extent approved by the authority, in the event that (i) the revenue requirements of the company are affected as the result of changes in (I) legislative enactments other than public act 03-135* or public act 98-28*, (II) administrative requirements, or (III) accounting standards adopted after July 1, 2003, provided such accounting standards are adopted by entities that are independent of the company and have authority to issue such standards, or (ii) an electric distribution company incurs extraordinary and unanticipated expenses required for the provision of safe and reliable electric service to the extent necessary to provide such service.

      (3) The price provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection shall not apply to customers who, on or after July 1, 2003, purchase electric services from an electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, under a special contract or flexible rate tariff, provided the company's filed transitional standard offer tariffs shall reflect that such customers shall not receive the transitional standard offer price during the term of said contract or tariff.

      (4) (A) In addition to its costs received pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as compensation for providing transitional standard offer service, each electric distribution company shall receive an amount equal to five-tenths of one mill per kilowatt hour. Revenues from such compensation shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under, sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e, including an earnings sharing mechanism. In addition, each electric distribution company may earn compensation for mitigating the prices of the contracts for the provision of electric generation services, as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (B) The authority shall conduct a contested case proceeding pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54 to establish an incentive plan for the procurement of long-term contracts for transitional standard offer service by an electric distribution company. The incentive plan shall be based upon a comparison of the actual average firm full requirements service contract price for electricity obtained by the electric distribution company compared to the regional average firm full requirements service contract price for electricity, adjusted for such variables as the authority deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, differences in locational marginal pricing. If the actual average firm full requirements service contract price obtained by the electric distribution company is less than the actual regional average firm full requirements service contract price for the previous year, the authority shall split five-tenths of one mill per kilowatt hour equally between ratepayers and the company. Revenues from such incentive plan shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under, sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e. The authority may, as it deems necessary, retain a third party entity with expertise in energy procurement to assist with the development of such incentive plan.

      (c) (1) On and after January 1, 2007, each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services through standard service to any customer who (A) does not arrange for or is not receiving electric generation services from an electric supplier, and (B) does not use a demand meter or has a maximum demand of less than five hundred kilowatts.

      (2) Not later than October 1, 2006, and periodically as required by subdivision (3) of this subsection, but not more often than every calendar quarter, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall establish the standard service price for such customers pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall recover the actual net costs of procuring and providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection, provided such company mitigates the costs it incurs for the procurement of electric generation services for customers who are no longer receiving service pursuant to this subsection.

      (3) An electric distribution company providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection shall cooperate with the procurement manager of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and comply with the procurement plan for electric generation services contracts. Such plan shall require that the portfolio of service contracts be procured in such manner and duration as the authority determines to be most likely to produce just, reasonable and reasonably stable retail rates while reflecting underlying wholesale market prices over time. The portfolio of contracts shall be assembled in such manner as to invite competition; guard against favoritism, improvidence, extravagance, fraud and corruption; and secure a reliable electricity supply while avoiding unusual, anomalous or excessive pricing. An affiliate of an electric distribution company may bid for an electric generation services contract, provided such electric distribution company and affiliate are in compliance with the code of conduct established in section 16-244h.

      (4) The procurement manager of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may retain the services of entities as it sees fit to assist with the procurement of electric generation services for standard service. Costs associated with the retention of such third-party entity shall be included in the cost of standard service.

      (5) For standard service contracts procured prior to department approval of the plan developed pursuant to section 16-244m, each bidder for a standard service contract shall submit its bid to the electric distribution company and the third-party entity who shall jointly review the bids and submit an overview of all bids together with a joint recommendation to the department as to the preferred bidders. The department may, within ten business days of submission of the overview, reject the recommendation regarding preferred bidders. In the event that the department rejects the preferred bids, the electric distribution company and the third-party entity shall rebid the service pursuant to this subdivision. The department shall review each bid in an uncontested proceeding that shall include a public hearing and in which the Consumer Counsel and Attorney General may participate.

      (d) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section regarding the electric generation services component of the transitional standard offer or the procurement of electric generation services under standard service, section 16-244h or 16-245o, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection may, from time to time, direct an electric distribution company to offer, through an electric supplier or electric suppliers, before January 1, 2007, one or more alternative transitional standard offer options or, on or after January 1, 2007, one or more alternative standard service options. Such alternative options shall include, but not be limited to, an option that consists of the provision of electric generation services that exceed the renewable portfolio standards established in section 16-245a and may include an option that utilizes strategies or technologies that reduce the overall consumption of electricity of the customer.

      (2) (A) The authority shall develop such alternative option or options in a contested case conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. The authority shall determine the terms and conditions of such alternative option or options, including, but not limited to, (i) the minimum contract terms, including pricing, length and termination of the contract, and (ii) the minimum percentage of electricity derived from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources, if applicable. The electric distribution company shall, under the supervision of the authority, subsequently conduct a bidding process in order to solicit electric suppliers to provide such alternative option or options.

      (B) The authority may reject some or all of the bids received pursuant to the bidding process.

      (3) The authority may require an electric supplier to provide forms of assurance to satisfy the authority that the contracts resulting from the bidding process will be fulfilled.

      (4) An electric supplier who fails to fulfill its contractual obligations resulting from this subdivision shall be subject to civil penalties, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such supplier's license or a prohibition on the acceptance of new customers, following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (e) (1) On and after January 1, 2007, an electric distribution company shall serve customers that are not eligible to receive standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section as the supplier of last resort. This subsection shall not apply to customers purchasing power under contracts entered into pursuant to section 16-19hh.

      (2) An electric distribution company shall procure electricity at least every calendar quarter to provide electric generation services to customers pursuant to this subsection. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall determine a price for such customers that reflects the full cost of providing the electricity on a monthly basis. Each electric distribution company shall recover the actual net costs of procuring and providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection, provided such company mitigates the costs it incurs for the procurement of electric generation services for customers that are no longer receiving service pursuant to this subsection.

      (f) On and after January 1, 2000, and until such time the regional independent system operator implements procedures for the provision of back-up power to the satisfaction of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services to any customer who has entered into a service contract with an electric supplier that fails to provide electric generation services for reasons other than the customer's failure to pay for such services. Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006, an electric distribution company may procure electric generation services through a competitive bidding process or through any of its generation entities or affiliates. On and after January 1, 2007, such company shall procure electric generation services through a competitive bidding process pursuant to a plan submitted by the electric distribution company and approved by the authority. Such company may procure electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entity or affiliate is the lowest qualified bidder and provided further any such entity or affiliate is licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (g) An electric distribution company is not required to be licensed pursuant to section 16-245 to provide standard offer electric generation services in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, transitional standard offer service pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, supplier of last resort service pursuant to subsection (e) of this section or back-up electric generation service pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.

      (h) The electric distribution company shall be entitled to recover reasonable costs incurred as a result of providing standard offer electric generation services pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, transitional standard offer service pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section or back-up electric generation service pursuant to subsection (f) of this section. The provisions of this section and section 16-244a shall satisfy the requirements of section 16-19a until January 1, 2007.

      (i) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall establish, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, procedures for when and how a customer is notified that his electric supplier has defaulted and of the need for the customer to choose a new electric supplier within a reasonable period of time.

      (j) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, an electric distribution company providing transitional standard offer service, standard service, supplier of last resort service or back-up electric generation service in accordance with this section shall contract with its wholesale suppliers to comply with the renewable portfolio standards. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall annually conduct a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, in order to determine whether the electric distribution company's wholesale suppliers met the renewable portfolio standards during the preceding year. An electric distribution company shall include a provision in its contract with each wholesale supplier that requires the wholesale supplier to pay the electric distribution company an amount of five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour if the wholesale supplier fails to comply with the renewable portfolio standards during the subject annual period. The electric distribution company shall promptly transfer any payment received from the wholesale supplier for the failure to meet the renewable portfolio standards to the Clean Energy Fund for the development of Class I renewable energy sources. Any payment made pursuant to this section shall not be considered revenue or income to the electric distribution company.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, an electric distribution company providing transitional standard offer service, standard service, supplier of last resort service or back-up electric generation service in accordance with this section shall, not later than July 1, 2008, file with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for its approval one or more long-term power purchase contracts from Class I renewable energy source projects with a preference for projects located in Connecticut that receive funding from the Clean Energy Fund and that are not less than one megawatt in size, at a price that is either, at the determination of the project owner, (A) not more than the total of the comparable wholesale market price for generation plus five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour, or (B) fifty per cent of the wholesale market electricity cost at the point at which transmission lines intersect with each other or interface with the distribution system, plus the project cost of fuel indexed to natural gas futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange at the natural gas pipeline interchange located in Vermillion Parish, Louisiana that serves as the delivery point for such futures contracts, plus the fuel delivery charge for transporting fuel to the project, plus five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour. In its approval of such contracts, the authority shall give preference to purchase contracts from those projects that would provide a financial benefit to ratepayers and would enhance the reliability of the electric transmission system of the state. Such projects shall be located in this state. The owner of a fuel cell project principally manufactured in this state shall be allocated all available air emissions credits and tax credits attributable to the project and no less than fifty per cent of the energy credits in the Class I renewable energy credits program established in section 16-245a attributable to the project. On and after October 1, 2007, and until September 30, 2008, such contracts shall be comprised of not less than a total, apportioned among each electric distribution company, of one hundred twenty-five megawatts; and on and after October 1, 2008, such contracts shall be comprised of not less than a total, apportioned among each electrical distribution company, of one hundred fifty megawatts. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall not issue any order that results in the extension of any in-service date or contractual arrangement made as a part of Project 100 or Project 150 beyond the termination date previously approved by the authority established by the contract, provided any party to such contract may provide a notice of termination in accordance with the terms of, and to the extent permitted under, its contract. The cost of such contracts and the administrative costs for the procurement of such contracts directly incurred shall be eligible for inclusion in the adjustment to the transitional standard offer as provided in this section and any subsequent rates for standard service, provided such contracts are for a period of time sufficient to provide financing for such projects, but not less than ten years, and are for projects which began operation on or after July 1, 2003. Except as provided in this subdivision, the amount from Class I renewable energy sources contracted under such contracts shall be applied to reduce the applicable Class I renewable energy source portfolio standards. For purposes of this subdivision, the department's determination of the comparable wholesale market price for generation shall be based upon a reasonable estimate. On or before September 1, 2011, the authority, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel and the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, shall study the operation of such renewable energy contracts and report its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (k) (1) As used in this section:

      (A) "Participating electric supplier" means an electric supplier that is licensed by the department to provide electric service, pursuant to this subsection, to residential or small commercial customers.

      (B) "Residential customer" means a customer who is eligible for standard service and who takes electric distribution-related service from an electric distribution company pursuant to a residential tariff.

      (C) "Small commercial customer" means a customer who is eligible for standard service and who takes electric distribution-related service from an electric distribution company pursuant to a small commercial tariff.

      (D) "Qualifying electric offer" means an offer to provide full requirements commodity electric service and all other generation-related service to a residential or small commercial customer at a fixed price per kilowatt hour for a term of no less than one year.

      (2) In the manner determined by the authority, residential or small commercial service customers (A) initiating new utility service, (B) reinitiating service following a change of residence or business location, (C) making an inquiry regarding their utility rates, or (D) seeking information regarding energy efficiency shall be offered the option to learn about their ability to enroll with a participating electric supplier. Customers expressing an interest to learn about their electric supply options shall be informed of the qualifying electric offers then available from participating electric suppliers. The electric distribution companies shall describe then available qualifying electric offers through a method reviewed and approved by the authority. The information conveyed to customers expressing an interest to learn about their electric supply options shall include, at a minimum, the price and term of the available electric supply option. Customers expressing an interest in a particular qualifying electric offer shall be immediately transferred to a call center operated by that participating electric supplier.

      (3) Not later than September 1, 2007, the authority shall establish terms and conditions under which a participating electric supplier can be included in the referral program described in subdivision (2) of this subsection. Such terms shall include, but not be limited to, requiring participating electrical suppliers to offer time-of-use and real-time use rates to residential customers.

      (4) Each calendar quarter, participating electric suppliers shall be allowed to list qualifying offers to provide electric generation service to residential and small commercial customers with each customer's utility bill. The authority shall determine the manner such information is presented in customers' utility bills.

      (5) Any customer that receives electric generation service from a participating electric supplier may return to standard service or may choose another participating electric supplier at any time, including during the qualifying electric offer, without the imposition of any additional charges. Any customer that is receiving electric generation service from an electric distribution company pursuant to standard service can switch to another participating electric supplier at any time without the imposition of additional charges.

      (l) Each electric distribution company shall offer to bill customers on behalf of participating electric suppliers and to pay such suppliers in a timely manner the amounts due such suppliers from customers for generation services, less a percentage of such amounts that reflects uncollectible bills and overdue payments as approved by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection.

      (m) On or before July 1, 2007, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall initiate a proceeding to examine whether electric supplier bills rendered pursuant to section 16-245d and any regulations adopted thereunder sufficiently enable customers to compare pricing policies and charges among electric suppliers.

      (n) The authority shall conduct a proceeding to determine the cost of billing, collection and other services provided by the electric distribution companies or the department solely for the benefit of participating electric suppliers and aggregators. The department shall order an equitable allocation of such costs among electric suppliers and aggregators. As part of this same proceeding, the department shall also determine the costs that the electric distribution companies incur solely for the benefit of standard service and last resort service customers. After such determination, the department shall allocate and provide for the equitable recovery of such costs from standard service or last resort service customers.

      (o) Nothing in the provisions of this section shall preclude an electric distribution company from entering into standard service supply contracts or standard service supply components with electric generating facilities.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 20, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 4; 03-221, S. 3, 4; P.A. 04-236, S. 9; 04-247, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 25, 26, 33; P.A. 06-196, S. 233; P.A. 07-242, S. 49, 92, 124; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 91.)

      *Note: Public act 98-28 is entitled "An Act Concerning Electric Restructuring" and public act 03-135 is entitled "An Act Concerning Revisions to the Electric Restructuring Legislation". (See Reference Tables captioned "Public Acts of 1998" and "Public Acts of 2003", respectively, in Volume 16 of the General Statutes of Connecticut, revised to January 1, 2011, which list the sections amended, created or repealed by the acts.)


      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 made technical changes, deleted provision in Subsec. (a) re extension of the standard offer by the General Assembly, deleted former Subsec. (b) re service to customers on and after January 1, 2004, who do not or are unable to arrange for services, added new Subsec. (b) re transitional standard offer, added new Subsec. (c) re standard service, added new Subsec. (d) re alternative transitional standard offer and standard service, added new Subsec. (e) re supplier of last resort, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (f) and amended said Subsec. to change "2003" to "2006" and "2004" to "2007" and to add "pursuant to a plan submitted by the electric distribution company and approved by the department", redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (g) and amended said Subsec. to add reference to transitional standard offer service, standard service, and supplier of last resort service and to delete reference to January 1, 2004, redesignated existing Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (h) and amended said Subsec. to delete reference to default service and back-up electrical generation services, to add reference to transitional standard offer service, standard service and back-up electric generation service and to change "2004" to "2007", redesignated existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (i) and amended said Subsec. to delete provision re standards or procedures for procuring power and competitive bidding, and added new Subsec. (j) re compliance with renewable portfolio standards and purchase of long-term power purchase contracts from Class I renewable energy source projects, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 03-221 amended Subsec. (h) to make a technical change and amended Subsec. (j)(1) to revise provisions re contracting with suppliers to comply with the renewable portfolio standards, responsibility for payment for failure to meet such standards, and treatment of such payment, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to make a technical change, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-247 amended Subsec. (j)(2) to add "for its approval", to add requirement for projects to be not less than one megawatt in size, and to add requirement for a preference for projects that provide financial benefit to ratepayers or enhance reliability of the electric transmission system; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to designate existing language as Subpara. (A) and to add new Subpara. (B) to require the department to conduct a proceeding re receipt of information to select electric generating services, and amended Subsec. (b)(2)(D) to allow the transitional standard offer to be adjusted to provide for the cost of long-term power purchase contracts from certain Class I projects, effective July 1, 2005, and amended Subsec. (j)(2) to change filing deadline from July 1, 2007, to July 1, 2008, to add a new pricing option, to require projects to be located in this state, to provide air emission and tax credits for certain fuel cell projects, to replace language re inclusion of costs of the contracts in the generation service charge with language re the transitional standard offer and standard service, and to make technical changes; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (j)(2), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (e)(1) to delete limitation on any customer receiving electric generation services from electric supplier being eligible to receive supplier of last resort service without a one-year commitment and amended Subsec. (e)(2) to require electric distribution companies to procure electricity "at least every calendar quarter", effective July 1, 2007, amended Subsec. (j)(2) to change total megawatts of contracts to not less than 125 megawatts on and after October 1, 2007, and until September 30, 2008, and to not less than 150 megawatts on and after October 1, 2008, and add provision re study, effective June 4, 2007, and added Subsecs. (k) to (n) re participating electric suppliers, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-80 changed "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" in Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1)(A) and (2)(A), (c)(2), (e)(2), (f), (j)(1), and (2) and (m), changed "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subsecs. (a)(2), (d)(1), (i) and (l), changed "department" to "authority" in Subsecs. (b), (c), (d), (f), (j) and (k), changed "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" to "Clean Energy Fund" and "Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Council" to "Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority" in Subsec. (j), amended Subsec. (c)(3) to delete provisions re mitigating variation of price, procurement plan criteria and timing of bid submittal and to add provisions re companies cooperating with procurement manager and complying with procurement plan and re bid by affiliate, amended Subsec. (c)(4) to allow Public Utilities Regulatory Authority's procurement manager to retain "entities as it sees fit to assist" re procurement of standard service electric generation services, amended Subsec. (c)(5) to add provisions re contracts procured prior to approval of plan developed pursuant to Sec. 16-244m and re department review of each bid, amended Subsec. (j)(2) to add "preference for projects located in Connecticut", prohibit issuance of order that results in extension of in-service date or contractual arrangement re Project 100 or Project 150 and change "2007" to "2011", added new Subsec. (n) re proceeding re billing cost, collection and services by electric distribution companies or department for participating electric suppliers and aggregators, and redesignated existing Subsec. (n) as Subsec. (o), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244m. Procurement plan re standard service. (a) On or before January 1, 2012, and annually thereafter, the procurement manager of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with each electric distribution company and with others at the procurement manager's discretion, including, but not limited to, a municipal energy cooperative established pursuant to chapter 101a, other than entities, individuals and companies or their affiliates potentially involved in bidding on standard service, shall develop a plan for the procurement of electric generation services and related wholesale electricity market products that will enable each electric distribution company to manage a portfolio of contracts to reduce the average cost of standard service while maintaining standard service cost volatility within reasonable levels. Each procurement plan shall provide for the competitive solicitation for load-following electric service and may include a provision for the use of other contracts, including, but not limited to, contracts for generation or other electricity market products and financial contracts, and may provide for the use of varying lengths of contracts. If such plan includes the purchase of full requirements contracts, it shall include an explanation of why such purchases are in the best interests of standard service customers.

      (b) The procurement manager shall, not less than quarterly, meet with the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection and prepare a written report on the implementation of the plan. If the procurement manager finds that an interim amendment to the annual procurement plan might substantially further the goals of reducing the cost or cost volatility of standard service, the procurement manager may petition the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for such an interim amendment. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall provide notice of the proposed amendment to the Office of Consumer Counsel and the electric distribution companies. The Office of Consumer Counsel and the electric distribution companies shall have two business days from the date of such notice to request an uncontested proceeding and a technical meeting of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority regarding the proposed amendment, which proceeding and meeting shall occur if requested. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may approve, modify or deny the proposed amendment, with such approval, modification or denial following the technical meeting if one is requested. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority's ruling shall occur within three business days after the technical meeting, if one is requested, or within three business days of the expiration of the time for requesting a technical meeting if no technical meeting is requested. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may maintain the confidentiality of the technical meeting to the full extent allowed by law.

      (c) The costs of procurement for standard service shall be borne solely by the standard service customers.

      (d) (1) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall conduct an uncontested proceeding to approve, with any amendments it determines necessary, a procurement plan submitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

      (2) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall report annually in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding the procurement plan and its implementation.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 92.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244n. Standard service contract buydown. Upon the request of an electric distribution company, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall initiate a docket to consider the buydown of an electric distribution company's current standard service contract to reduce ratepayer bills and conduct a cost benefit analysis of such a buydown. If the department, as a result of such docket, determines such a buydown is in the best interest of ratepayers, the company shall proceed with such buydown.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 93.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011 (Revisor's note: A reference to "Bureau of Public Utility Control" was deleted editorially by the Revisors for clarity).

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      Sec. 16-244o. Generation evaluation and procurement process. On or before January 1, 2012, and from time to time thereafter, as the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection determines to be in the best interests of Connecticut customers, the department shall initiate a generation evaluation and procurement process. The evaluation process shall entail a nonbinding prequalification process to identify potentially eligible new generators. Interested generators shall submit to the department information demonstrating how the generator will reduce electrical rates for Connecticut ratepayers while maintaining or improving reliability, improving environmental characteristics of the Connecticut generation fleet and providing economic benefit to Connecticut. A determination of eligibility shall be based on a showing of project attributes, including, but not limited to, ratepayer, environmental and economic benefits, as well as a demonstration of reasonable certainty of completion of development, construction and permitting activities. If the department makes a determination of eligibility of one or more generators, it shall issue a request for proposals to consider bilateral purchasing contracts from new generators by pricing such electricity on a cost-of-service basis, power purchase agreement or other mechanism the department determines to be in the best interest of Connecticut customers, which contracts shall directly or indirectly, or in combination with other initiatives, provide electricity at lower rates for Connecticut consumers. Such contracts shall be for a term of not less than five and not more than twenty years and shall provide that development, construction and operation risk be borne by the generator. Generators shall be awarded contracts based on criteria, including, but not limited to, reduction of rates, generator's heat rate, decrease in regulated pollution and cost-effectiveness.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 94.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244p. Transmission line project review. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall review any proposed merchant transmission line project (1) in which a Connecticut electric distribution company may have a financial interest, or (2) that may be constructed in whole or in part in this state to determine whether to procure transmission services from such transmission lines at a rate that will lower electricity rates for Connecticut consumers.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 96.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244q. Request for proposal re reliability concerns. On or after March 1, 2012, and annually thereafter, not later than fifteen days after receiving a report of a reliability concern pursuant to section 16-50r, the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection may issue a request for proposal to seek alternative solutions to the concern. Such request for proposal shall, where relevant, solicit proposals that include energy efficiency measures or generation. The commissioner shall publish such request for proposal in one or more newspapers or periodicals. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the commissioner may determine that a request for proposal is unnecessary. Any determination that a request for proposal is not required shall include the commissioner's reasons for such determination.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 98.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244r. Long-term contracts re zero emission generation projects. Renewable energy credits. (a) Commencing on January 1, 2012, and within the period established in subsection (a) of section 16-244s, each electric distribution company shall solicit and file with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for its approval one or more long-term contracts with owners or developers of Class I generation projects that emit no pollutants and that are less than one thousand kilowatts in size, located on the customer side of the revenue meter and serve the distribution system of the electric distribution company. The authority may give a preference to contracts for technologies manufactured, researched or developed in the state.

      (b) Solicitations conducted by the electric distribution company shall be for the purchase of renewable energy credits produced by eligible customer-sited generating projects over the duration of the long-term contract. For purposes of this section, a long-term contract is a contract for fifteen years.

      (c) (1) The aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits by electric distribution companies pursuant to this section shall (A) be eight million dollars in the first year, and (B) increase by an additional eight million dollars per year in years two to four, inclusive.

      (2) After year four, the authority shall review contracts entered into pursuant to this section and if the cost of the technologies included in such contracts have been reduced, the authority shall seek to enter new contracts for the total of six years.

      (A) If the authority determines such costs have been reduced, the aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits by electric distribution companies pursuant to this subdivision shall (i) increase by an additional eight million dollars per year in years five and six, (ii) be forty-eight million dollars in years seven to fifteen, inclusive, and (iii) decline by eight million dollars per year in years sixteen to twenty-one, inclusive, provided any money not allocated in any given year may roll into the next year's available funds.

      (B) If the authority determines such costs have not been reduced, the aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits by electric distribution companies pursuant to this subdivision shall (i) be thirty-two million dollars in years five to thirteen, inclusive, and (ii) decline by eight million dollars per year in years fourteen to nineteen, inclusive, provided any money not allocated in any given year may roll into the next year's available funds.

      (3) The production of a megawatt hour of electricity from a Class I renewable energy source first placed in service on or after July 1, 2011, shall create one renewable energy credit. A renewable energy credit shall have an effective life covering the year in which the credit was created and the following calendar year. The obligation to purchase renewable energy credits shall be apportioned to electric distribution companies based on their respective distribution system loads at the commencement of the procurement period, as determined by the authority. For contracts entered into in calendar year 2012, an electric distribution company shall not be required to enter into a contract that provides a payment of more than three hundred fifty dollars, per renewable energy credit in any year over the term of the contract. For contracts entered into in calendar years 2013 to 2017, inclusive, at least ninety days before each annual electric distribution company solicitation, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may lower the renewable energy credit price cap specified in this subsection by three to seven per cent annually, during each of the six years of the program over the term of the contract. In the course of lowering such price cap applicable to each annual solicitation, the authority shall, after notice and opportunity for public comment, consider such factors as the actual bid results from the most recent electric distribution company solicitation and reasonably foreseeable reductions in the cost of eligible technologies.

      (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of section 16-244c, an electric distribution company may retire the renewable energy credits it procures through long-term contracting to satisfy its obligation pursuant to section 16-245a.

      (e) Nothing in this section shall preclude the resale or other disposition of energy or associated renewable energy credits purchased by the electric distribution company, provided the distribution company shall net the cost of payments made to projects under the long-term contracts against the proceeds of the sale of energy or renewable energy credits and the difference shall be credited or charged to distribution customers through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority that is nonbypassable when switching electric suppliers.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 107.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244s. Zero emission generation projects solicitation plan. Procurement plan. Noncompliance fee. (a) To procure the long-term contracts described in section 16-244r, each electric distribution company shall, not later than one hundred eighty days after July 1, 2011, propose a six-year solicitation plan that shall include (1) a timetable and methodology for soliciting proposals for the long-term purchase of renewable energy credits from in-state generators of Class I technologies that emit no pollutants and are not more than one megawatt in size, and (2) declining annual incentives during each of the six years of the program. The electric distribution company's solicitation plan shall be subject to the review and approval of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority.

      (b) The electric distribution company's approved solicitation plan shall be designed to foster a diversity of project sizes and participation among all eligible customer classes subject to cost-effectiveness considerations. Separate procurement processes shall be conducted for (1) systems up to one hundred kilowatts; (2) systems greater than one hundred kilowatts but less than two hundred fifty kilowatts; and (3) systems between two hundred fifty and one thousand kilowatts. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall give preference to competitive bidding for resources of more than one hundred kilowatts, with bids ranked in order on the basis of lowest net present value of required renewable energy credit price, unless the authority determines that an alternative methodology is in the best interests of the electric distribution company's customers and the development of a competitive and self-sustaining market. Systems up to one hundred kilowatts in size shall be eligible to receive, on an ongoing and continuous basis, a renewable energy credit offer price equivalent to the weighted average accepted bid price in the most recent solicitation for systems greater than one hundred kilowatts but less than two hundred fifty kilowatts, plus an additional incentive of ten per cent.

      (c) Each electric distribution company shall execute its approved six-year solicitation plan and submit to the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for review and approval of its preferred procurement plan comprised of any proposed contract or contracts with independent developers. If an electric distribution company's solicitation does not result in proposed contracts totaling the annual expenditure pursuant to subsection (a) of section 16-244r and the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority has reduced the cap price by more than three per cent pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-244r, the authority shall, within ninety days, issue a request for proposals for additional contracts. The authority shall approve contract proposals submitted in response to such request on a least-cost basis, provided an electric distribution company shall not be required to enter into a contract that provides for a payment in any year of the contract that exceeds the renewable energy price cap for the prior year by less than three per cent.

      (d) The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as an uncontested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to approve, reject or modify an application for approval of the electric distribution company's procurement plan. The authority shall only approve such proposed plan if the authority finds that (1) the solicitation and evaluation conducted by the electric distribution company was the result of a fair, open, competitive and transparent process; (2) approval of the procurement plan would result in the greatest expected ratepayer value from energy from Class I or renewable energy credits at the lowest reasonable cost; and (3) such procurement plan satisfies other criteria established in the approved solicitation plan. The authority shall not approve any proposal made under such plan unless it determines that the plan and proposals encompass all foreseeable sources of revenue or benefits and that such proposals, together with such revenue or benefits, would result in the greatest expected ratepayer value from energy technologies that emit no pollutants or renewable energy credits. The authority may, in its discretion, retain the services of an independent consultant with expertise in the area of energy procurement to assist in such determination. The independent consultant shall be unaffiliated with the electric distribution company or its affiliates and shall not, directly or indirectly, have benefited from employment or contracts with the electric distribution company or its affiliates in the preceding five years, except as an independent consultant. The electric distribution company shall provide the independent consultant immediate and continuing access to all documents and data reviewed, used or produced by the electric distribution company in its bid solicitation and evaluation process. The electric distribution company shall make all its personnel, agents and contractors used in the bid solicitation and evaluation available for interview by the consultant. The electric distribution company shall conduct any additional modeling requested by the independent consultant to test the assumptions and results of the bid evaluation process. The independent consultant shall not participate in or advise the electric distribution company with respect to any decisions in the bid solicitation or bid evaluation process. The authority's administrative costs in reviewing the electric distribution company's procurement plan and the costs of the consultant shall be recovered through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority.

      (e) The electric distribution company shall be entitled to recover its reasonable costs and fees prudently incurred of complying with its approved procurement plan through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority. Nothing in this section shall preclude the resale or other disposition of energy or associated renewable energy credits purchased by the electric distribution company, provided the distribution company shall net the cost of payments made to projects under the long-term contracts against the proceeds of the sale of energy or renewable energy credits and the difference shall be credited or charged to distribution customers through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority that is nonbypassable when switching electric suppliers.

      (f) Failure by the electric distribution company to execute its approved solicitation plan shall result in a noncompliance fee. Unless, upon petition by the electric distribution company, the authority grants the distribution company an extension not to exceed ninety days to correct this deficiency, the electric distribution company shall be assessed a noncompliance fee one hundred twenty-five per cent of the difference between the annual distribution company expenditures required pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-244r and the contractually committed expenditure for renewable energy credits from eligible zero emissions customer-sited generating projects in that year. The noncompliance fees associated with the procurement shortfall shall be collected by the distribution company, maintained in a separate interest-bearing account and disbursed to the department on a quarterly basis. Funds collected by the authority pursuant to this section shall be used to support the deployment of Class I zero emissions generating systems installed in the state with priority given to otherwise underserved market segments, including, but not limited to, low-income housing, schools and other public buildings and nonprofits. The authority may waive a noncompliance fee assessed pursuant to this section if the authority determines that meeting the requirements of this subsection would be commercially infeasible.

      (g) Not later than sixty days after its approval of the distribution company procurement plans submitted on or before January 1, 2013, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall submit a report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy. The report shall document for each distribution company procurement plan: (1) The total number of renewable energy credits bid relative to the number of renewable energy credits requested by the distribution company; (2) the total number of bidders in each market segment; (3) the number and value of contracts awarded; (4) the total weighted average price of the renewable energy credits or energy so purchased; and (5) the extent to which the costs of the technology has been reduced. The authority shall not report individual bid information or other proprietary information.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 108.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244t. Power purchase contracts re low-emission generation projects. Renewable energy credits. (a) Commencing on January 1, 2012, and within one hundred eighty days, each electric distribution company shall solicit and file with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for its approval one or more fifteen-year power purchase contracts with owners or developers of generation projects that are less than two megawatts in size, located on the customer side of the revenue meter, serve the distribution system of the electric distribution company, and use Class I technologies that have no emissions of no more than 0.07 pounds per megawatt-hour of nitrogen oxides, 0.10 pounds per megawatt-hour of carbon monoxide, 0.02 pounds per megawatt-hour of volatile organic compounds, and one grain per one hundred standard cubic feet. The authority may give a preference to contracts for technologies manufactured, researched or developed in the state.

      (b) Solicitations conducted by the electric distribution company shall be for the purchase of renewable energy credits produced by eligible customer-sited generating projects over the duration of the contract.

      (c) (1) The aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits by electric distribution companies pursuant to this section shall (A) be up to four million dollars in year one, and (B) increase by up to an additional four million dollars per year in years two and three. After year three, the authority shall review the contracts entered into pursuant to this section and if the cost of the technologies eligible for such contracts have been reduced, the authority shall seek to enter new contracts for the total of five years.

      (2) If the authority determines that the cost of such technologies have been reduced, the authority shall seek to enter new contracts for a total of five years. The aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits pursuant to this subdivision shall (A) increase by an additional four million dollars per year in years four and five, (B) be twenty million dollars per year in years six through fifteen, and (C) decline by four million dollars per year in years sixteen through twenty.

      (3) If the authority determines that such costs have not been reduced, the aggregate procurement of renewable energy credits pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection shall (A) be twelve million dollars per year in years four through fifteen, and (B) decline by four million dollars per year in years sixteen through eighteen.

      (4) Any money not allocated in any given year may roll into the next year's available funds. The production of a megawatt hour of electricity from a Class I renewable energy source first placed in service on or after July 1, 2011, shall create one renewable energy credit. A renewable energy credit shall have an effective life covering the year in which the credit was created and the following calendar year. The obligation to purchase renewable energy credits shall be apportioned to electric distribution companies based on their respective distribution system loads at the commencement of the procurement period, as determined by the authority. An electric distribution company shall not be required to enter into a contract that provides a payment of more than two hundred dollars per megawatt hour over the term of the contract.

      (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of section 16-244c, an electric distribution company may retire the renewable energy credits it procures through long-term contracting to satisfy its obligation pursuant to section 16-245a.

      (e) Nothing in this section shall preclude the resale or other disposition of energy or associated renewable energy credits purchased by the electric distribution company, provided the distribution company shall net the cost of payments made to projects under the contracts against the proceeds of the sale of energy or renewable energy credits and the difference shall be credited or charged to distribution customers through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority that is nonbypassable when switching electric suppliers.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 110.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (c)(3), a reference to "that subdivision" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "subdivision (1) of this subsection" for accuracy).

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      Sec. 16-244u. Virtual net metering. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Beneficial account" means an in-state retail end user of an electric distribution company designated by a customer host in such electric distribution company's service area to receive virtual net metering credits from a virtual net metering facility;

      (2) "Customer host" means an in-state retail end user of an electric distribution company that owns a virtual net metering facility and participates in virtual net metering;

      (3) "Unassigned virtual net metering credit" means in any given electric distribution company monthly billing period, a virtual net metering credit that remains after both the customer host and its beneficial accounts have been billed for zero kilowatt hours related solely to the generation service charges on such billings through virtual net metering;

      (4) "Virtual net metering" means the process of combining the electric meter readings and billings, including any virtual net metering credits, for a customer host and a beneficial account through an electric distribution company billing process related solely to the generation service charges on such billings;

      (5) "Virtual net metering credit" means a credit equal to the retail cost per kilowatt hour the customer host may have otherwise been charged for each kilowatt hour produced by a virtual net metering facility that exceeds the total amount of kilowatt hours used during an electric distribution company monthly billing period; and

      (6) "Virtual net metering facility" means a Class I renewable energy source that: (A) Is served by an electric distribution company, owned by a customer host and serves the electricity needs of the customer host and its beneficial accounts; (B) is within the same electric distribution company service territory as the customer host and its beneficial accounts; and (C) has a nameplate capacity rating of two megawatts or less.

      (b) Each electric distribution company shall provide virtual net metering to its municipal customers and shall make any necessary interconnections for a virtual net metering facility. Upon request by a municipal customer host to implement the provisions of this section, an electric distribution company shall install metering equipment, if necessary. For each municipal customer host, such metering equipment shall (1) measure electricity consumed from the electric distribution company's facilities; (2) deduct the amount of electricity produced but not consumed; and (3) register, for each monthly billing period, the net amount of electricity produced and, if applicable, consumed. If, in a given monthly billing period, a municipal customer host supplies more electricity to the electric distribution system than the electric distribution company delivers to the municipal customer host, the electric distribution company shall bill the municipal customer host for zero kilowatt hours of generation and assign a virtual net metering credit to the municipal customer host's beneficial accounts for the next monthly billing period. Such credit shall be applied against the generation service component of the beneficial account. Such credit shall be allocated among such accounts in proportion to their consumption for the previous twelve billing periods.

      (c) An electric distribution company shall carry forward any unassigned virtual net metering generation credits earned by the municipal customer host from one monthly billing period to the next until the end of the calendar year. At the end of each calendar year, the electric distribution company shall compensate the municipal customer host for any unassigned virtual net metering generation credits at the rate the electric distribution company pays for power procured to supply standard service customers pursuant to section 16-244c.

      (d) At least sixty days before a municipal customer host's virtual net metering facility becomes operational, the municipal customer host shall provide written notice to the electric distribution company of its beneficial accounts. The municipal customer host may change its list of beneficial accounts not more than once annually by providing another sixty days' written notice. The municipal customer host shall not designate more than five beneficial accounts.

      (e) On or before February 1, 2012, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall conduct a proceeding to develop the administrative processes and program specifications, including, but not limited to, a cap of one million dollars per year apportioned to each electric distribution company based on consumer load for credits provided to beneficial accounts pursuant to subsection (c) of this section and payments made pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

      (f) On or before January 1, 2013, and annually thereafter, each electric distribution company shall report to the department on the cost of its virtual net metering program pursuant to this section and the department shall combine such information and report it annually, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 121.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-244v. Renewable energy sources generation. Proposals to build, own or operate facilities. (a) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of section 16-244e, an electric distribution company, or owner or developer of generation projects that emit no pollutants, may submit a proposal to the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to build, own or operate one or more generation facilities up to an aggregate of thirty megawatts using Class I renewable energy sources as defined in section 16-1 from July 1, 2011, to July 1, 2013. Each facility shall be greater than one megawatt but not more than five megawatts. Each electric distribution company may enter into joint ownership agreements, partnerships or other agreements with private developers to carry out the provisions of this section. The aggregate ownership for an electric distribution company pursuant to this section shall not exceed ten megawatts. The department shall evaluate such proposals pursuant to sections 16-19 and 16-19e and may approve one or more of such proposals if it finds that the proposal serves the long-term interest of ratepayers. The department (1) shall not approve any proposal supported in any form of cross subsidization by entities affiliated with the electric distribution company, and (2) shall give preference to proposals that make efficient use of existing sites and supply infrastructure. No such company may, under any circumstances, recover more than the full costs identified in a proposal, as approved by the department. Nothing in this section shall preclude the resale or other disposition of energy or associated renewable energy credits purchased by the electric distribution company, provided the distribution company shall net the cost of payments made to projects under the long-term contracts against the proceeds of the sale of energy or renewable energy credits and the difference shall be credited or charged to distribution customers through a reconciling component of electric rates as determined by the authority that is nonbypassable when switching electric suppliers.

      (b) The company shall use the power, capacity and related products produced by such facility to meet the needs of customers served pursuant to section 16-244c.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of section 16-244c, the amount of renewable energy produced from such facilities shall be applied to reduce the electric distribution company's Class I renewable energy source portfolio standard obligations.

      (d) The department shall evaluate the proposals approved pursuant to this section and report in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy whether proposals shall be accepted beyond July 1, 2013.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 127.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245. Licensing of electric suppliers. Procedures. Penalties. Registration of electric aggregators. Procedures. Penalties. (a) No person shall execute any contract relating to the sale of electric generation services to be rendered after January 1, 2000, to end use customers located in the state unless such person has been issued a license by the authority in accordance with the provisions of this section. No license shall be valid before July 1, 1999.

      (b) On and after January 1, 2000, no person, no municipality and no regional water authority shall sell or attempt to sell electric generation services to end use customers located in the state using the transmission or distribution facilities of an electric distribution company unless the person has been issued a license by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in accordance with the provisions of this section, provided an electric distribution company is not required to be licensed pursuant to this section to provide electric generation services pursuant to section 16-244c. On and after April 30, 2002, the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority shall not sell or attempt to sell electric generation services to end use customers located in the state using the transmission or distribution facilities of an electric distribution company unless the authority has been issued a license by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in accordance with the provisions of this section. Not later than January 1, 1999, the authority shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, develop licensing procedures. The licensing process shall begin not later than April 1, 1999.

      (c) To ensure the safety and reliability of the supply of electricity in this state, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall not issue a license unless the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the authority that the applicant has the technical, managerial and financial capability to provide electric generation services and provides and maintains a bond or other security in amount and form approved by the authority, to ensure its financial responsibility and its supply of electricity to end use customers in accordance with contracts, agreements or arrangements. A license shall be subject to periodic review on a schedule to be established by the authority.

      (d) An application for a license shall be filed with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, accompanied by a fee pursuant to subsection (e) of this section. The application shall contain such information as the authority may deem relevant, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) The address of the applicant's headquarters and the articles of incorporation, as filed with the state in which the applicant is incorporated; (2) the address of the applicant's principal office in the state, if any, or the address of the applicant's agent for service in the state; (3) the toll-free telephone number for customer service; (4) information about the applicant's corporate structure, including names and financial statements, as appropriate, concerning corporate affiliates; (5) a disclosure of whether the applicant or any of the applicant's corporate affiliates or officers have been or are currently under investigation for violation of any consumer protection law or regulation to which it is subject, either in this state or in another state; (6) a copy of its standard service contract; and (7) a scope of service plan which sets forth, among other things, a description of the geographic area the applicant plans to serve.

      (e) The application fee shall include the costs to investigate and administer the licensing procedure and shall be commensurate with the level of investigation necessary, as determined by regulations adopted by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority.

      (f) Not more than thirty days after receiving an application, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall notify the applicant whether the application is complete or whether the applicant must submit additional information. The authority shall grant or deny a license application not more than ninety days after receiving all information required of an applicant. The authority shall hold a public hearing on an application upon the request of any interested party.

      (g) As conditions of continued licensure, in addition to the requirements of subsection (c) of this section: (1) The licensee shall comply with the National Labor Relations Act and regulations, if applicable; (2) the licensee shall comply with the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act and applicable regulations; (3) each generating facility operated by or under long-term contract to the licensee shall comply with regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection, pursuant to section 22a-174j; (4) the licensee shall comply with the portfolio standards, pursuant to section 16-245a; (5) the licensee shall be a member of the New England Power Pool or its successor or have a contractual relationship with one or more entities who are members of the New England Power Pool or its successor and the licensee shall comply with the rules of the regional independent system operator and standards and any other reliability guidelines of the regional independent systems operator; (6) the licensee shall agree to cooperate with the authority and other electric suppliers in the event of an emergency condition that may jeopardize the safety and reliability of electric service; (7) the licensee shall comply with the code of conduct established pursuant to section 16-244h; (8) for a license to a participating municipal electric utility, the licensee shall provide open and nondiscriminatory access to its distribution facilities to other licensed electric suppliers; (9) the licensee or the entity or entities with whom the licensee has a contractual relationship to purchase power shall be in compliance with all applicable licensing requirements of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; (10) each generating facility operated by or under long-term contract to the licensee shall be in compliance with chapter 277a and state environmental laws and regulations; (11) the licensee shall comply with the renewable portfolio standards established in section 16-245a; (12) the licensee shall offer a time-of-use price option to customers. Such option shall include a two-part price that is designed to achieve an overall minimization of customer bills by encouraging the reduction of consumption during the most energy intense hours of the day. The licensee shall file its time-of-use rates with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority; and (13) the licensee shall acknowledge that it is subject to chapters 208, 212, 212a and 219, as applicable, and the licensee shall pay all taxes it is subject to in this state. Also as a condition of licensure, the authority shall prohibit each licensee from declining to provide service to customers for the reason that the customers are located in economically distressed areas. The authority may establish additional reasonable conditions to assure that all retail customers will continue to have access to electric generation services.

      (h) The authority shall maintain regular communications with the regional independent system operator to effectuate the provisions of this section and to ensure that an adequate, safe and reliable supply of electricity is available.

      (i) Each licensee shall, at such times as the authority requires but not less than annually, submit to the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, on a form prescribed by the authority, an update of information the authority deems relevant. Each licensee shall notify the authority at least ten days before: (1) A change in corporate structure that affects the licensee; (2) a change in the scope of service, as provided in the licensee's scope of service plan submitted to the authority as part of the application process; and (3) any other change the authority deems relevant.

      (j) No license may be transferred without the prior approval of the authority. The authority may assess additional licensing fees to pay the administrative costs of reviewing a request for such transfer.

      (k) Any licensee who fails to comply with a license condition or who violates any provision of this section, except for the renewable portfolio standards contained in subsection (g) of this section, shall be subject to civil penalties by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in accordance with section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such license or a prohibition on accepting new customers following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of section 16-244c regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, the authority shall require a payment by a licensee that fails to comply with the renewable portfolio standards in accordance with subdivision (4) of subsection (g) of this section in the amount of five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour. The authority shall allocate such payment to the Clean Energy Fund for the development of Class I renewable energy sources.

      (l) (1) An electric aggregator shall not be subject to the provisions of subsections (a) to (k), inclusive, of this section.

      (2) No electric aggregator shall negotiate a contract for the purchase of electric generation services from an electric supplier unless such aggregator has (A) obtained a certificate of registration from the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in accordance with this subsection, or (B) in the case of a municipality, regional water authority and the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority, registered in accordance with section 16-245b. An electric aggregator that was licensed pursuant to this section prior to July 1, 2003, shall receive a certificate of registration on July 1, 2003.

      (3) An application for a certificate of registration shall be filed with the authority, accompanied by a fee as determined by the authority. The application shall contain such information as the authority may deem relevant, including, but not limited to, the following: (A) The address of the applicant's headquarters and the articles of incorporation, if applicable, as filed with the state in which the applicant is incorporated; (B) the address of the applicant's principal office in the state, if any, or the address of the applicant's agent for service in the state; (C) the toll-free or in-state telephone number of the applicant; (D) information about the applicant's corporate structure, if applicable, including financial names and financial statements, as relevant, concerning corporate affiliates; (E) disclosure of whether the applicant or any of the applicant's corporate affiliates or officers, if applicable, have been or are currently under investigation for violation of any consumer protection law or regulation to which it is subject, either in this state or in another state. Each registered electric aggregator shall update the information contained in this subdivision as necessary.

      (4) Not more than thirty days after receiving an application for a certificate of registration, the authority shall notify the applicant whether the application is complete or whether the applicant must submit additional information. The authority shall grant or deny the application for a certificate of registration not more than ninety days after receiving all information required of an applicant. The authority shall hold a public hearing on an application upon the request of any interested party.

      (5) As a condition for maintaining a certificate of registration, the registered electric aggregator shall ensure that, where applicable, it complies with the National Labor Relations Act and regulations, if applicable, and it complies with the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act and applicable regulations.

      (6) Any registered electric aggregator that fails to comply with a registration condition or violates any provision of this section shall be subject to civil penalties by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in accordance with the procedures contained in section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such registration, or a prohibition on accepting new customers following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5657; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 106, 348; P.A. 98-28, S. 22, 117; P.A. 00-53, S. 13; P.A. 02-46, S. 6; P.A. 03-135, S. 6; 03-221, S. 5; P.A. 04-236, S. 10, 11; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 104.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 98-28 deleted former provisions re notice of intent to sell and distribute electricity and added new Subsecs. (a) to (l) re licensing of electric suppliers, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-53 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to regional water authorities; P.A. 02-46 amended Subsec. (b) by making a technical change, deleting "and the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority" and inserting provisions re licensing requirements for, and restrictions on, said authority, effective April 30, 2002; P.A. 03-135 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to delete provision re municipalities and regional water authorities and to delete provision re aggregation, bordering or marketing the sale of electric generation services, amended Subsec. (c) to delete Subdivs. (2) to (6), inclusive, re factors an applicant must demonstrate to the department to obtain a license, amended Subsec. (d) to add provision in Subdiv. (5) re corporate affiliates or officers of an applicant, to delete former Subdiv. (7) re attestation re certain chapters of the general statutes to which the applicant is subject and to redesignate existing Subdiv. (8) as new Subdiv. (7), amended Subsec. (f) to delete reference to notice and hearing and provision re contested case and to add provision re public hearing upon request of interested party, amended Subsec. (g) to reword provisions re license conditions, to add provisions re membership of the New England Power Pool and the rules of the regional independent system operator and to add new Subdivs. (9) to (12), deleted former Subsec. (k) re provisions to which an electric aggregator are subject, redesignated existing Subsec. (l) as new Subsec. (k) and amended said Subsec. to clarify provisions re penalties and to add provisions re penalties for failure to comply with renewable portfolio standards, and added new Subsec. (l) re certificates of registration for electric aggregators, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 03-221 amended Subsec. (k) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsecs. (g) and (l)(6) to make technical changes, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing "Commissioner of Environmental Protection" with "Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subdiv. (3), by adding new Subdiv. (12) re time-of-use price option and by redesignating existing Subdiv. (12) as Subdiv. (13), effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "Department of Public Utility Control" and "department" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" and "authority", respectively, and "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Clean Energy Fund", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245d. Billing of electric service; standard format; contents. (a) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, develop a standard billing format that enables customers to compare pricing policies and charges among electric suppliers. The department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to provide that an electric supplier, until July 1, 2012, may provide direct billing and collection services for electric generation services and related federally mandated congestion charges that such supplier provides to its customers with a maximum demand of not less than one hundred kilowatts that choose to receive a bill directly from such supplier and, on and after July 1, 2012, shall provide direct billing and collection services for electric generation services and related federally mandated congestion charges that such suppliers provide to their customers or may choose to obtain such billing and collection service through an electric distribution company and pay its pro rata share in accordance with the provisions of subsection (h) of section 16-244c. Any customer of an electric supplier, which is choosing to provide direct billing, who paid for the cost of billing and other services to an electric distribution company shall receive a credit on their monthly bill.

      (1) An electric supplier that chooses to provide billing and collection services shall, in accordance with the billing format developed by the department, include the following information in each customer's bill: (A) The total amount owed by the customer, which shall be itemized to show (i) the electric generation services component and any additional charges imposed by the electric supplier, and (ii) federally mandated congestion charges applicable to the generation services; (B) any unpaid amounts from previous bills, which shall be listed separately from current charges; (C) the rate and usage for the current month and each of the previous twelve months in bar graph form or other visual format; (D) the payment due date; (E) the interest rate applicable to any unpaid amount; (F) the toll-free telephone number of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for questions or complaints; and (G) the toll-free telephone number and address of the electric supplier. On or before February 1, 2012, the authority shall conduct a review of the costs and benefits of suppliers billing for all components of electric service, and report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding the results of such review.

      (2) An electric distribution company shall, in accordance with the billing format developed by the authority, include the following information in each customer's bill: (A) The total amount owed by the customer, which shall be itemized to show, (i) the electric generation services component if the customer obtains standard service or last resort service from the electric distribution company, (ii) the distribution charge, including all applicable taxes and the systems benefits charge, as provided in section 16-245l, (iii) the transmission rate as adjusted pursuant to subsection (d) of section 16-19b, (iv) the competitive transition assessment, as provided in section 16-245g, (v) federally mandated congestion charges, and (vi) the conservation and renewable energy charge, consisting of the conservation and load management program charge, as provided in section 16-245m, and the renewable energy investment charge, as provided in section 16-245n; (B) any unpaid amounts from previous bills which shall be listed separately from current charges; (C) except for customers subject to a demand charge, the rate and usage for the current month and each of the previous twelve months in the form of a bar graph or other visual form; (D) the payment due date; (E) the interest rate applicable to any unpaid amount; (F) the toll-free telephone number of the electric distribution company to report power losses; (G) the toll-free telephone number of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for questions or complaints; and (H) if a customer has a demand of five hundred kilowatts or less during the preceding twelve months, a statement about the availability of information concerning electric suppliers pursuant to section 16-245p.

      (b) The regulations shall provide guidelines for determining until October 1, 2011, the billing relationship between the electric distribution company and electric suppliers, including, but not limited to, the allocation of partial bill payments and late payments between the electric distribution company and the electric supplier. An electric distribution company that provides billing services for an electric supplier shall be entitled to recover from the electric supplier all reasonable transaction costs to provide such billing services as well as a reasonable rate of return, in accordance with the principles in subsection (a) of section 16-19e.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 21, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 22; P.A. 04-86, S. 2; 04-257, S. 30; P.A. 05-210, S. 31; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 7; P.A. 06-196, S. 235; P.A. 11-80, S. 114.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and, in Subdiv. (1), to add new Subpara. (D) re federally mandated congestion costs and to redesignate existing Subpara. (D) as new Subpara. (E), effective June 26, 2003; P.A. 04-86 amended Subsec. (a) to require department to adopt regulations re direct billing and collection services by electric supplier and to make conforming changes, and amended Subsec. (b) to add "that provides billing services for an electric supplier" and to make a technical change; P.A. 04-257 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1)(D), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to make a technical change in Subpara. (B), add new Subpara. (C) re the transmission rate, and redesignate existing Subparas. (C) to (E), inclusive, as Subparas. (D) to (F), inclusive, effective July 6, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a) to change deadline for adoption of regulations from January 1, 2005, to January 1, 2006, to change threshold by deleting customers that "use a demand meter" and by changing maximum demand from not less than five hundred kilowatts to not less than one hundred kilowatts, and to make technical changes, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1)(B), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "Department of Public Utility Control" with "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection", to replace former deadline date for adopting regulations with provision applying existing regulations until July 1, 2012, to add provisions re suppliers to provide billing or pay pro rata share of expense if electric distribution companies provide billing on and after July 1, 2012, to add Subdiv. (1) re electric suppliers that choose to provide billing, to redesignate provisions re what electric distribution company must include on its bills as Subdiv. (2) and amend same to make technical changes, require itemization of electric generation services component only if customer obtains standard service or last resort service from the electric distribution company, delete provision re toll-free number and address of supplier, and apply provision re statement about availability of information to customers with a demand of 500 kilowatts or less in past 12 months, and amended Subsec. (b) to add "until October 1, 2011", effective July 1, 2011 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a)(2)(G), a reference to "Department of Public Utility Control" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" to conform with changes made by P.A. 11-80).

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      Sec. 16-245h. Transition property. Surplus competitive transition assessment. Restrictions on use of transition property by electric or electric distribution companies. (a) The competitive transition assessment described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e shall constitute transition property when, and to the extent that, a financing order authorizing such portion of the competitive transition assessment has become effective in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, and the transition property shall thereafter continuously exist as property for all purposes with all of the rights and privileges of sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, for the period and to the extent provided in the financing order, but in any event until the rate reduction bonds are paid in full, including all principal, interest, premium, costs, and arrearages on such bonds. Prior to its sale or other transfer by the electric company or electric distribution company pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, transition property, other than transition property in respect of the economic recovery transfer or in respect to disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs, shall be a vested contract right of the electric company or electric distribution company, notwithstanding any contrary treatment thereof for accounting, tax, or other purpose. Transition property in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs shall immediately upon its creation vest solely in the financing entity. Transition property in respect to the economic recovery transfer shall immediately upon its creation vest solely in the financing entity. The electric company or electric distribution company shall have no right, title or interest in transition property in respect to the economic recovery transfer or in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs, and in respect of such transition property shall be only a collection agent on behalf of the financing entity.

      (b) Any surplus competitive transition assessment described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e in excess of the amounts necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of the rate reduction bonds shall be remitted to the financing entity and may be used to benefit customers if this would not result in a recharacterization of the tax, accounting, and other intended characteristics of the financing, including, but not limited to, the following:

      (1) Avoiding the recognition of debt on the electric company's or the electric distribution company's balance sheet for financial accounting and regulatory purposes;

      (2) Treating the rate reduction bonds as debt of the electric company or electric distribution company or its affiliates for federal income tax purposes;

      (3) Treating the transfer of the transition property by the electric company or electric distribution company as a true sale for bankruptcy purposes; or

      (4) Avoiding any adverse impact of the financing on the credit rating of the rate reduction bonds or the electric company or electric distribution company.

      (c) Electric companies and electric distribution companies may sell and assign all or portions of their interest in transition property to an affiliate. Electric companies and electric distribution companies or their affiliates may sell or assign their interests to one or more financing entities that make that property the basis for issuance of rate reduction bonds to the extent approved in the pertinent financing orders. Electric companies, electric distribution companies, their affiliates, or financing entities may pledge transition property as collateral, directly or indirectly, for rate reduction bonds to the extent approved in the pertinent financing orders providing for a security interest in the transition property, in the manner as set forth in section 16-245k. In addition, transition property may be sold or assigned by (1) the financing entity or a trustee for the holders of rate reduction bonds in connection with the exercise of remedies upon a default, or (2) any person acquiring the transition property after a sale or assignment pursuant to this subsection.

      (d) To the extent that any interest in transition property is so sold or assigned, or is so pledged as collateral, the authority shall authorize the electric company or electric distribution company to contract with the financing entity that it will continue to operate its system to provide service to its customers, will collect amounts in respect of the competitive transition assessment for the benefit and account of the financing entity, and will account for and remit these amounts to or for the account of the financing entity. Contracting with the financing entity in accordance with that authorization shall not impair or negate the characterization of the sale, assignment, or pledge as an absolute transfer, a true sale, or security interest, as applicable.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 11, 117; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 5; P.A. 04-180, S. 2; P.A. 10-179, S. 128; P.A. 11-61, S. 50; 11-80, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions re transition property in respect of disbursements to the General Fund, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and to replace "described in this subsection" with "in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs", effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re economic recovery transfer, and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for treatment of surplus competitive transition assessment re economic recovery revenue bonds, effective May 7, 2010; P.A. 11-61 amended Subsec. (b) to delete provisions re payment of economic recovery revenue bonds and use of surplus competitive transition assessment, effective June 21, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "authority" in Subsec. (d), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245j. Rate reduction bonds and economic recovery revenue bonds; terms. (a)(1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, a financing entity may issue rate reduction bonds upon approval by the authority in the pertinent financing order. Rate reduction bonds shall be nonrecourse to the credit or any assets of the electric company, electric distribution company or the finance authority, other than the transition property as specified in the pertinent financing order.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, on and after June 21, 2011, no financing entity has the power or is authorized to issue economic recovery revenue bonds. No competitive transition assessment shall be assessed to secure and pay economic recovery revenue bonds.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the state of Connecticut does hereby pledge and agree with the owners of transition property and holders of rate reduction bonds that the state shall neither limit nor alter the competitive transition assessment, transition property, financing orders, and all rights thereunder until the obligations, together with the interest thereon, are fully met and discharged, provided nothing contained in this subsection shall preclude the limitation or alteration if and when adequate provision shall be made by law for the protection of the owners and holders. The finance authority as agent for the state is authorized to include this pledge and undertaking for the state in these obligations.

      (c) (1) Financing orders and rate reduction bonds shall not be deemed to constitute a debt or liability of the state or of any political subdivision thereof, other than the financing entity, shall not constitute a pledge of the full faith and credit of the state or any of its political subdivisions, other than the financing entity, but shall be payable solely from the funds provided under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, and shall not constitute an indebtedness of the state within the meaning of any constitutional or statutory debt limitation or restriction and, accordingly, shall not be subject to any statutory limitation on the indebtedness of the state and shall not be included in computing the aggregate indebtedness of the state in respect to and to the extent of any such limitation. This subsection shall in no way preclude bond guarantees or enhancements pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. All rate reduction bonds shall contain on the face thereof a statement to the following effect: "Neither the full faith and credit nor the taxing power of the State of Connecticut is pledged to the payment of the principal of, or interest on, this bond."

      (2) The issuance of rate reduction bonds under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall not directly, indirectly, or contingently obligate the state or any political subdivision thereof to levy or to pledge any form of taxation therefor or to make any appropriation for their payment.

      (3) The exercise of the powers granted by sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall be in all respects for the benefit of the people of this state, for the increase of their commerce, welfare, and prosperity, and as the exercise of such powers shall constitute the performance of an essential public function, neither the finance authority, any electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate of any electric company or electric distribution company, any financing entity, or any collection or other agent of any of the foregoing shall be required to pay any taxes or assessments upon or in respect of any revenues or property received, acquired, transferred, or used by the finance authority, any electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate of any electric company or electric distribution company, any financing entity, or any collection or other agent of any of the foregoing under the provisions of sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, or upon or in respect of the income therefrom, and any rate reduction bonds shall be treated as issued by or on behalf of a public instrumentality created under the laws of the state for purposes of chapter 229.

      (4) (A) The proceeds of any rate reduction bonds, other than economic recovery revenue bonds, shall be used for the purposes approved by the authority in the financing order, including, but not limited to, disbursements to the General Fund in substitution for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Clean Energy Fund established by section 16-245n, the costs of refinancing or retiring of debt of the electric company or electric distribution company, and associated federal and state tax liabilities; provided such proceeds shall not be applied to purchase generation assets or to purchase or redeem stock or to pay dividends to shareholders or operating expenses other than taxes resulting from the receipt of such proceeds.

      (B) The proceeds of any economic recovery revenue bonds shall be used for the purposes approved by the authority in the financing order, including, but not limited to, funding the economic recovery transfer, provided such proceeds shall not be applied to purchase generation assets or to purchase or redeem stock or to pay dividends to shareholders or operating expenses other than taxes resulting from the receipt of such proceeds.

      (5) Rate reduction bonds are made and declared (A) securities in which all public officers and public bodies of the state and its political subdivisions, all insurance companies, state banks and trust companies, national banking associations, savings banks, savings and loan associations, investment companies, executors, administrators, trustees and other fiduciaries may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them, and (B) securities which may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state or municipal officer or any agency or political subdivision of the state for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds or obligations of the state is now or may be authorized.

      (6) Rate reduction bonds, other than economic recovery revenue bonds, shall mature at such time or times approved by the authority in the financing order; provided that such maturity shall not be later than December 31, 2011. Economic recovery revenue bonds shall mature at such time or times approved by the authority in the financing order, provided such maturity shall not be later than eight years after the date of issuance, provided such maturity may be extended for economic reasons, upon the advice of the financing entity.

      (7) Rate reduction bonds issued and at any time outstanding may, if and to the extent permitted under the indenture or other agreement pursuant to which they are issued, be refunded by other rate reduction bonds.

      (d) Any rate reduction bonds issued or sold pursuant to or in reliance on and in accordance with any financing order issued by the authority pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall be valid and binding in accordance with their terms notwithstanding such financing order is later vacated, modified, or otherwise held to be wholly or partly invalid, unless operation of such financing order has been enjoined, stayed, or suspended by the authority or a court of competent jurisdiction prior to such issuance.

      (e) In conjunction with the issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds or state rate reduction bonds: (1) The Treasurer may enter into a trust indenture for the benefit of holders of the rate reduction bonds with a corporate trustee, which may be any trust company or commercial bank qualified to do business within or without the state; such trust indenture shall be consistent with the financing order and may contain such other provisions as may be appropriate including those regulating the investment of funds and the remedies of bondholders; (2) the Treasurer may make representations and agreements for the benefit of the holders of rate reduction bonds to make secondary market disclosures; (3) the Treasurer may enter into interest rate swap agreements and other agreements for the purpose of moderating interest rate risk on rate reduction bonds as permitted elsewhere within sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, provided the obligations under such agreements are payable from the transition property; (4) the Treasurer may enter into such other agreements and instruments to secure the rate reduction bonds as provided in sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive; and (5) the Treasurer may take such other actions as necessary or appropriate for the issuance and distribution of the rate reduction bonds pursuant to the financing order and the Treasurer and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management may make representations and agreements for the benefit of the holders of the rate reduction bonds which are necessary or appropriate to ensure exclusion of the interest payable on the rate reduction bonds from gross income under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 13, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 48; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 6; P.A. 04-180, S. 3; P.A. 10-179, S. 130-132; P.A. 11-61, S. 49; 11-80, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (c) to provide consistency with a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management and Renewable Energy Investment funds to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 added Subsec. (e) re powers of Treasurer and Secretary of Office of Policy and Management when the state is the authorized financing entity, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 amended Subsec. (e) to make technical changes, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "or the finance authority", amended Subsec. (c) by designating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (4)(A), inserting reference to economic recovery revenue bonds therein, adding Subdiv. (4)(B) re use of proceeds of economic recovery revenue bonds and adding provisions re economic recovery revenue bonds in Subdiv. (6), and amended Subsec. (e) by replacing provision re authorized financing entity with provision re issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds or state rate reduction bonds, effective May 7, 2010; P.A. 11-61 amended Subsec. (a) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and amending same to add exception re Subdiv. (2), and by adding Subdiv. (2) withdrawing authority to issue economic recovery revenue bonds or to charge competitive transition assessment for such bonds, effective June 21, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "department" and "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "authority" and "Clean Energy Fund", respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245m. Assessment for conservation and load management programs. Disbursement of funds raised pursuant to financing orders. Establishment of Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Energy Conservation Management Board. (a)(1) On and after January 1, 2000, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall assess or cause to be assessed a charge of three mills per kilowatt hour of electricity sold to each end use customer of an electric distribution company to be used to implement the program as provided in this section for conservation and load management programs but not for the amortization of costs incurred prior to July 1, 1997, for such conservation and load management programs.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, receipts from such charge shall be disbursed to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005, unless the authority shall, on or before October 30, 2003, issue a financing order for each affected electric distribution company in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, to sustain funding of conservation and load management programs by substituting an equivalent amount, as determined by the authority in such financing order, of proceeds of rate reduction bonds for disbursement to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005. The authority may authorize in such financing order the issuance of rate reduction bonds that substitute for disbursement to the General Fund for receipts of both the charge under this subsection and under subsection (b) of section 16-245n and also may, in its discretion, authorize the issuance of rate reduction bonds under this subsection and subsection (b) of section 16-245n that relate to more than one electric distribution company. The authority shall, in such financing order or other appropriate order, offset any increase in the competitive transition assessment necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of such rate reduction bonds by making an equivalent reduction to the charge imposed under this subsection, provided any failure to offset all or any portion of such increase in the competitive transition assessment shall not affect the need to implement the full amount of such increase as required by this subsection and by sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. Such financing order shall also provide if the rate reduction bonds are not issued, any unrecovered funds expended and committed by the electric distribution companies for conservation and load management programs, provided such expenditures were approved by the authority after August 20, 2003, and prior to the date of determination that the rate reduction bonds cannot be issued, shall be recovered by the companies from their respective competitive transition assessment or systems benefits charge but such expenditures shall not exceed four million dollars per month. All receipts from the remaining charge imposed under this subsection, after reduction of such charge to offset the increase in the competitive transition assessment as provided in this subsection, shall be disbursed to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund commencing as of July 1, 2003. Any increase in the competitive transition assessment or decrease in the conservation and load management component of an electric distribution company's rates resulting from the issuance of or obligations under rate reduction bonds shall be included as rate adjustments on customer bills.

      (3) Repealed by P.A. 11-61, S. 187.

      (b) The electric distribution company shall establish an Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund which shall be held separate and apart from all other funds or accounts. Receipts from the charge imposed under subsection (a) of this section shall be deposited into the fund. Any balance remaining in the fund at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in the fiscal year next succeeding. Disbursements from the fund by electric distribution companies to carry out the plan developed under subsection (d) of this section shall be authorized by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority upon its approval of such plan.

      (c) The Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection shall appoint and convene an Energy Conservation Management Board which shall include representatives of: (1) An environmental group knowledgeable in energy conservation program collaboratives; (2) a representative of the Office of Consumer Counsel; (3) the Attorney General; (4) the electric distribution companies in whose territories the activities take place for such programs; (5) a state-wide manufacturing association; (6) a chamber of commerce; (7) a state-wide business association; (8) a state-wide retail organization; (9) a representative of a municipal electric energy cooperative created pursuant to chapter 101a; (10) two representatives selected by the gas companies in this state; and (11) residential customers. Such members shall serve for a period of five years and may be reappointed. Representatives of gas companies, electric distribution companies and the municipal electric energy cooperative shall be nonvoting members of the board. The commissioner shall serve as the chairperson of the board.

      (d) (1) The Energy Conservation Management Board shall advise and assist the electric distribution companies in the development and implementation of a comprehensive plan, which plan shall be approved by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, to implement cost-effective energy conservation programs and market transformation initiatives. Such plan shall include steps that would be needed to achieve the goal of weatherization of eighty per cent of the state's residential units by 2030. Each program contained in the plan shall be reviewed by the electric distribution company and either accepted or rejected by the Energy Conservation Management Board prior to submission to the department for approval. The Energy Conservation Management Board shall, as part of its review, examine opportunities to offer joint programs providing similar efficiency measures that save more than one fuel resource or otherwise to coordinate programs targeted at saving more than one fuel resource. Any costs for joint programs shall be allocated equitably among the conservation programs. The Energy Conservation Management Board shall give preference to projects that maximize the reduction of federally mandated congestion charges. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall, in an uncontested proceeding during which the department may hold a public hearing, approve, modify or reject the comprehensive plan prepared pursuant to this subsection.

      (2) There shall be a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the board of directors of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority. The board and the advisory committee shall each appoint members to such joint committee. The joint committee shall examine opportunities to coordinate the programs and activities funded by the Clean Energy Fund pursuant to section 16-245n with the programs and activities contained in the plan developed under this subsection to reduce the long-term cost, environmental impacts and security risks of energy in the state. Such joint committee shall hold its first meeting on or before August 1, 2005.

      (3) Programs included in the plan developed under subdivision (1) of this subsection shall be screened through cost-effectiveness testing that compares the value and payback period of program benefits to program costs to ensure that programs are designed to obtain energy savings and system benefits, including mitigation of federally mandated congestion charges, whose value is greater than the costs of the programs. Program cost-effectiveness shall be reviewed annually, or otherwise as is practicable, and shall incorporate the results of the evaluation process set forth in subdivision (4) of this subsection. If a program is determined to fail the cost-effectiveness test as part of the review process, it shall either be modified to meet the test or shall be terminated. On or before March 1, 2005, and on or before March first annually thereafter, the board shall provide a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and the environment that documents (A) expenditures and fund balances and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of such programs conducted in the preceding year, and (B) the extent to and manner in which the programs of such board collaborated and cooperated with programs, established under section 7-233y, of municipal electric energy cooperatives. To maximize the reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, programs in the plan may allow for disproportionate allocations between the amount of contributions to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds by a certain rate class and the programs that benefit such a rate class. Before conducting such evaluation, the board shall consult with the board of directors of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority. The report shall include a description of the activities undertaken during the reporting period jointly or in collaboration with the Clean Energy Fund established pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-245n.

      (4) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall adopt an independent, comprehensive program evaluation, measurement and verification process to ensure the Energy Conservation Management Board's programs are administered appropriately and efficiently, comply with statutory requirements, programs and measures are cost effective, evaluation reports are accurate and issued in a timely manner, evaluation results are appropriately and accurately taken into account in program development and implementation, and information necessary to meet any third-party evaluation requirements is provided. An annual schedule and budget for evaluations as determined by the board shall be included in the plan filed with the department pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection. The electric distribution and gas company representatives and the representative of a municipal electric energy cooperative may not vote on board plans, budgets, recommendations, actions or decisions regarding such process or its program evaluations and their implementation. Program and measure evaluation, measurement and verification shall be conducted on an ongoing basis, with emphasis on impact and process evaluations, programs or measures that have not been studied, and those that account for a relatively high percentage of program spending. Evaluations shall use statistically valid monitoring and data collection techniques appropriate for the programs or measures being evaluated. All evaluations shall contain a description of any problems encountered in the process of the evaluation, including, but not limited to, data collection issues, and recommendations regarding addressing those problems in future evaluations. The board shall contract with one or more consultants not affiliated with the board members to act as an evaluation administrator, advising the board regarding development of a schedule and plans for evaluations and overseeing the program evaluation, measurement and verification process on behalf of the board. Consistent with board processes and approvals and department decisions regarding evaluation, such evaluation administrator shall implement the evaluation process by preparing requests for proposals and selecting evaluation contractors to perform program and measure evaluations and by facilitating communications between evaluation contractors and program administrators to ensure accurate and independent evaluations. In the evaluation administrator's discretion and at his or her request, the electric distribution and gas companies shall communicate with the evaluation administrator for purposes of data collection, vendor contract administration, and providing necessary factual information during the course of evaluations. The evaluation administrator shall bring unresolved administrative issues or problems that arise during the course of an evaluation to the board for resolution, but shall have sole authority regarding substantive and implementation decisions regarding any evaluation. Board members, including electric distribution and gas company representatives, may not communicate with an evaluation contractor about an ongoing evaluation except with the express permission of the evaluation administrator, which may only be granted if the administrator believes the communication will not compromise the independence of the evaluation. The evaluation administrator shall file evaluation reports with the board and with the department in its most recent uncontested proceeding pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection and the board shall post a copy of each report on its Internet web site. The board and its members, including electric distribution and gas company representatives, may file written comments regarding any evaluation with the department or for posting on the board's Internet web site. Within fourteen days of the filing of any evaluation report, the department, members of the board or other interested persons may request in writing, and the department shall conduct, a transcribed technical meeting to review the methodology, results and recommendations of any evaluation. Participants in any such transcribed technical meeting shall include the evaluation administrator, the evaluation contractor and the Office of Consumer Counsel at its discretion. On or before November 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, the board shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy, with the results and recommendations of completed program evaluations.

      (5) Programs included in the plan developed under subdivision (1) of this subsection may include, but not be limited to: (A) Conservation and load management programs, including programs that benefit low-income individuals; (B) research, development and commercialization of products or processes which are more energy-efficient than those generally available; (C) development of markets for such products and processes; (D) support for energy use assessment, real-time monitoring systems, engineering studies and services related to new construction or major building renovation; (E) the design, manufacture, commercialization and purchase of energy-efficient appliances and heating, air conditioning and lighting devices; (F) program planning and evaluation; (G) indoor air quality programs relating to energy conservation; (H) joint fuel conservation initiatives programs targeted at reducing consumption of more than one fuel resource; (I) public education regarding conservation; and (J) demand-side technology programs recommended by the integrated resources plan approved by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection pursuant to section 16a-3a. The board shall periodically review contractors to determine whether they are qualified to conduct work related to such programs. Such support may be by direct funding, manufacturers' rebates, sale price and loan subsidies, leases and promotional and educational activities. The plan shall also provide for expenditures by the Energy Conservation Management Board for the retention of expert consultants and reasonable administrative costs provided such consultants shall not be employed by, or have any contractual relationship with, an electric distribution company. Such costs shall not exceed five per cent of the total revenue collected from the assessment.

      (e) Deleted by P.A. 11-80, S. 33.

      (f) No later than December 31, 2006, and no later than December thirty-first every five years thereafter, the Energy Conservation Management Board shall, after consulting with the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, conduct an evaluation of the performance of the programs and activities of the fund and submit a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, of the evaluation to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (g) Repealed by P.A. 06-186, S. 91.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 33, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 9; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 49; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 9; P.A. 04-129, S. 1; 04-236, S. 12, 13; 04-247, S. 3; P.A. 05-251, S. 89; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 5; P.A. 06-186, S. 91; P.A. 07-152, S. 3; 07-242, S. 105; P.A. 10-179, S. 134; P.A. 11-61, S. 187; 11-80, S. 33.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (d) to divide existing provisions into Subdivs. (1) to (3) and make conforming changes, to add provision re review of each program and acceptance or rejection by the Energy Conservation Management Board in Subdiv. (1), to add provision re cost-effectiveness testing in Subdiv. (2), and to add "real-time monitoring systems" in Subdiv. (3), effective July 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 9 re disbursements to the General Fund for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, was added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (e), effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-129 amended Subsec. (d)(3) to redesignate existing Subpara. (G) as Subpara. (H) and to add new Subpara. (G) re indoor air quality programs; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsecs. (a) and (d)(2) to make technical changes, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-247 amended Subsec. (d)(2) to change reporting date from January 31, 2001, and annually thereafter until January 31, 2006, to March 1, 2005, and March 1, 2006, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-251, S. 89 added provisions, designated by the Revisors as Subsec. (g), re monthly disbursements to General Fund from August 1, 2006, to July 31, 2007, effective June 30, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a), (c) and (d), amended Subsec. (c) to add new Subdivs. (10) and (11) re a representative of a municipal electric energy cooperative and two representatives selected by gas companies and to add provisions re voting on unrelated matters, amended Subsec. (d)(1) to require plan to be consistent with the comprehensive energy plan, to require examination of opportunities for joint programs, and to require preference for projects that maximize reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, added new Subsec. (d)(2) establishing a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee, renumbering former Subsec. (d)(2) as new Subsec. (d)(3), amended Subsec. (d)(3) to add language re system benefits, to change the deadline for providing report, to require report to contain information on cooperation with municipal electric energy cooperatives, to allow disproportionate allocations from the funds, to require consultation with the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee, and to require the report to describe collaboration with the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, renumbering former Subsec. (d)(3) as new Subsec. (d)(4), amended Subsec. (d)(4) to add language re programs to benefit low-income individuals and joint fuel conservation initiatives, and to revise language re expenditures for consultants and administrative costs, and added Subsec. (f) re evaluation of the performance of programs, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-186 repealed P.A. 05-251, S. 89, previously designated by the Revisors as Subsec. (g), re monthly disbursements to General Fund from August 1, 2006, to July 31, 2007, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 07-152 amended Subsec. (d)(1) to require Department of Public Utility Control to review comprehensive plan and amended Subsecs. (d) and (f) to change Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee to Renewable Energy Investments Board; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (d)(1) to delete provision re comprehensive energy plan approved pursuant to Sec. 16a-7a, amended Subsec. (d)(3) to add "Such testing shall include an analysis of the effects of investments on increasing the state's load factor" and added Subsec. (d)(4)(J) re demand-side technology programs, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re financing order for economic recovery revenue bonds and use of funds raised thereby, effective May 7, 2010; P.A. 11-61 repealed Subsec. (a)(3) re financing order for economic recovery revenue bonds, effective June 21, 2011; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by changing "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" and "department" to "authority", amended Subsec. (c) by changing "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection", by deleting former Subdiv. (4) re Department of Environmental Protection, by redesignating existing Subdivs. (5) to (12) as Subdivs. (4) to (11), by making representatives of gas and electric companies nonvoting members, rather than nonvoting on issues re gas and electricity conservation, respectively, and by designating commissioner as chairperson of board, amended Subsec. (d) by changing "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection", changing "Renewable Energy Investments Board" to "board of directors of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority" and changing "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" to "Clean Energy Fund", by adding requirement that plan include steps to achieve weatherization goal in Subdiv. (1), by deleting requirement that cost-effectiveness testing use information from real-time monitoring systems, adding requirement that program cost-effectiveness incorporate results of Subdiv. (4) evaluation process and making technical changes in Subdiv. (3), by adding new Subdiv. (4) re program evaluation, measurement and verification, and by redesignating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (5) and amending same by replacing reference to procurement plan with reference to integrated resources plan and adding provision re board to periodically review contractors, deleted former Subsec. (e) re disbursements from July, 2003, to July, 2005, and amended Subsec. (f) by changing "Renewable Energy Investments Board" to "Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245n. Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority. Charge assessed against electric customers. Clean Energy Fund. (a) For purposes of this section, "clean energy" means solar photovoltaic energy, solar thermal, geothermal energy, wind, ocean thermal energy, wave or tidal energy, fuel cells, landfill gas, hydropower that meets the low-impact standards of the Low-Impact Hydropower Institute, hydrogen production and hydrogen conversion technologies, low emission advanced biomass conversion technologies, alternative fuels, used for electricity generation including ethanol, biodiesel or other fuel produced in Connecticut and derived from agricultural produce, food waste or waste vegetable oil, provided the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection determines that such fuels provide net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, usable electricity from combined heat and power systems with waste heat recovery systems, thermal storage systems, other energy resources and emerging technologies which have significant potential for commercialization and which do not involve the combustion of coal, petroleum or petroleum products, municipal solid waste or nuclear fission, financing of energy efficiency projects, and projects that seek to deploy electric, electric hybrid, natural gas or alternative fuel vehicles and associated infrastructure and any related storage, distribution, manufacturing technologies or facilities.

      (b) On and after July 1, 2004, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall assess or cause to be assessed a charge of not less than one mill per kilowatt hour charged to each end use customer of electric services in this state which shall be deposited into the Clean Energy Fund established under subsection (c) of this section. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, receipts from such charges shall be disbursed to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005, unless the authority shall, on or before October 30, 2003, issue a financing order for each affected distribution company in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, to sustain funding of renewable energy investment programs by substituting an equivalent amount, as determined by the authority in such financing order, of proceeds of rate reduction bonds for disbursement to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005. The authority may authorize in such financing order the issuance of rate reduction bonds that substitute for disbursement to the General Fund for receipts of both charges under this subsection and subsection (a) of section 16-245m and also may in its discretion authorize the issuance of rate reduction bonds under this subsection and subsection (a) of section 16-245m that relate to more than one electric distribution company. The authority shall, in such financing order or other appropriate order, offset any increase in the competitive transition assessment necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of such rate reduction bonds by making an equivalent reduction to the charges imposed under this subsection, provided any failure to offset all or any portion of such increase in the competitive transition assessment shall not affect the need to implement the full amount of such increase as required by this subsection and sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. Such financing order shall also provide if the rate reduction bonds are not issued, any unrecovered funds expended and committed by the electric distribution companies for renewable resource investment through deposits into the Clean Energy Fund, provided such expenditures were approved by the authority following August 20, 2003, and prior to the date of determination that the rate reduction bonds cannot be issued, shall be recovered by the companies from their respective competitive transition assessment or systems benefits charge, except that such expenditures shall not exceed one million dollars per month. All receipts from the remaining charges imposed under this subsection, after reduction of such charges to offset the increase in the competitive transition assessment as provided in this subsection, shall be disbursed to the Clean Energy Fund commencing as of July 1, 2003. Any increase in the competitive transition assessment or decrease in the renewable energy investment component of an electric distribution company's rates resulting from the issuance of or obligations under rate reduction bonds shall be included as rate adjustments on customer bills.

      (c) There is hereby created a Clean Energy Fund which shall be within the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority. The fund may receive any amount required by law to be deposited into the fund and may receive any federal funds as may become available to the state for clean energy investments. Upon authorization of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority established pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, any amount in said fund may be used for expenditures that promote investment in clean energy in accordance with a comprehensive plan developed by it to foster the growth, development and commercialization of clean energy sources, related enterprises and stimulate demand for clean energy and deployment of clean energy sources that serve end use customers in this state and for the further purpose of supporting operational demonstration projects for advanced technologies that reduce energy use from traditional sources. Such expenditures may include, but not be limited to, providing low-cost financing and credit enhancement mechanisms for clean energy projects and technologies, reimbursement of the operating expenses, including administrative expenses incurred by the authority and the corporation, and capital costs incurred by the authority in connection with the operation of the fund, the implementation of the plan developed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section or the other permitted activities of the authority, disbursements from the fund to develop and carry out the plan developed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, grants, direct or equity investments, contracts or other actions which support research, development, manufacture, commercialization, deployment and installation of clean energy technologies, and actions which expand the expertise of individuals, businesses and lending institutions with regard to clean energy technologies.

      (d) (1) There is established the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, which shall be deemed a quasi-public agency for purposes of chapters 5, 10 and 12 and within Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, for administrative purposes only. The authority shall (A) develop separate programs to finance and otherwise support clean energy investment in residential, municipal, small business and larger commercial projects and such others as the authority may determine; (B) support financing or other expenditures that promote investment in clean energy sources in accordance with a comprehensive plan developed by it to foster the growth, development and commercialization of clean energy sources and related enterprises; and (C) stimulate demand for clean energy and the deployment of clean energy sources within the state that serve end-use customers in the state. Said authority shall constitute a successor agency to the corporation for the purposes of administrating the Clean Energy Fund in accordance with section 4-38d. Said authority shall have all the privileges, immunities, tax exemptions and other exemptions of the corporation. Said authority shall be subject to suit and liability solely from the assets, revenues and resources of the authority and without recourse to the general funds, revenues, resources or other assets of the corporation. Said authority may assume or take title to any real property, convey or dispose of its assets and pledge its revenues to secure any borrowing, convey or dispose of its assets and pledge its revenues to secure any borrowing, for the purpose of developing, acquiring, constructing, refinancing, rehabilitating or improving its assets or supporting its programs, provided each such borrowing or mortgage, unless otherwise provided by the board or the authority, shall be a special obligation of the authority, which obligation may be in the form of bonds, bond anticipation notes or other obligations which evidence an indebtedness to the extent permitted under this chapter to fund, refinance and refund the same and provide for the rights of holders thereof, and to secure the same by pledge of revenues, notes and mortgages of others, and which shall be payable solely from the assets, revenues and other resources of the authority and in no event shall such bonds be secured by a special capital reserve fund of any kind which is in any way contributed to by the state. The authority shall have the purposes as provided by resolution of the authority's board of directors, which purposes shall be consistent with this section. No further action is required for the establishment of the authority, except the adoption of a resolution for the authority.

      (2) (A) The authority may seek to qualify as a Community Development Financial Institution under Section 4702 of the United States Code. If approved as a Community Development Financial Institution, the authority would be treated as a qualified community development entity for purposes of Section 45D and Section 1400N(m) of the Internal Revenue Code.

      (B) Before making any loan, loan guarantee, or such other form of financing support or risk management for a clean energy project, the authority shall develop standards to govern the administration of the authority through rules, policies and procedures that specify borrower eligibility, terms and conditions of support, and other relevant criteria, standards or procedures.

      (C) Funding sources specifically authorized include, but are not limited to:

      (i) Funds repurposed from existing programs providing financing support for clean energy projects, provided any transfer of funds from such existing programs shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly and shall be used for expenses of financing, grants and loans;

      (ii) Any federal funds that can be used for the purposes specified in subsection (c) of this section;

      (iii) Charitable gifts, grants, contributions as well as loans from individuals, corporations, university endowments and philanthropic foundations;

      (iv) Earnings and interest derived from financing support activities for clean energy projects backed by the authority;

      (v) If and to the extent that the authority qualifies as a Community Development Financial Institution under Section 4702 of the United States Code, funding from the Community Development Financial Institution Fund administered by the United States Department of Treasury, as well as loans from and investments by depository institutions seeking to comply with their obligations under the United States Community Reinvestment Act of 1977; and

      (vi) The authority may enter into contracts with private sources to raise capital. The average rate of return on such debt or equity shall be set by the authority's board of directors.

      (D) The authority may provide financing support under this subsection if the authority determines that the amount to be financed by the authority and other nonequity financing sources do not exceed eighty per cent of the cost to develop and deploy a clean energy project or up to one hundred per cent of the cost of financing an energy efficiency project.

      (E) The authority may assess reasonable fees on its financing activities to cover its reasonable costs and expenses, as determined by the board.

      (F) The authority shall make information regarding the rates, terms and conditions for all of its financing support transactions available to the public for inspection, including formal annual reviews by both a private auditor conducted pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of this section and the Comptroller, and providing details to the public on the Internet, provided public disclosure shall be restricted for patentable ideas, trade secrets, proprietary or confidential commercial or financial information, disclosure of which may cause commercial harm to a nongovernmental recipient of such financing support and for other information exempt from public records disclosure pursuant to section 1-210.

      (3) No director, officer, employee or agent of the authority, while acting within the scope of his or her authority, shall be subject to any personal liability resulting from exercising or carrying out any of the authority's purposes or powers.

      (e) The powers of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall be vested in and exercised by a board of directors, which shall consist of eleven voting and two nonvoting members each with knowledge and expertise in matters related to the purpose and activities of the authority appointed as follows: The Treasurer or the Treasurer's designee, the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection or the commissioner's designee and the Commissioner of Economic and Community Development or the commissioner's designee, each serving ex officio, one member who shall represent a residential or low-income group appointed by the speaker of the House of Representatives for a term of four years, one member who shall have experience in investment fund management appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives for a term of three years, one member who shall represent an environmental organization appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate for a term of four years, and one member who shall have experience in the finance or deployment of renewable energy appointed by the minority leader of the Senate for a term of four years. Thereafter, such members of the General Assembly shall appoint members of the board to succeed such appointees whose terms expire and each member so appointed shall hold office for a period of four years from the first day of July in the year of his or her appointment. The Governor shall appoint four members to the board as follows: Two for two years who shall have experience in the finance of renewable energy; one for four years who shall be a representative of a labor organization; and one who shall have experience in research and development or manufacturing of clean energy. Thereafter, the Governor shall appoint members of the board to succeed such appointees whose terms expire and each member so appointed shall hold office for a period of four years from the first day of July in the year of his or her appointment. The president of the authority and a member of the board of Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, appointed by the chairperson of the corporation shall serve on the board in an ex-officio, nonvoting capacity. The Governor shall appoint the chairperson of the board. The board shall elect from its members a vice chairperson and such other officers as it deems necessary and shall adopt such bylaws and procedures it deems necessary to carry out its functions. The board may establish committees and subcommittees as necessary to conduct its business.

      (f) (1) The board shall issue annually a report to the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection reviewing the activities of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority in detail and shall provide a copy of such report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and commerce. The report shall include a description of the programs and activities undertaken during the reporting period jointly or in collaboration with the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds established pursuant to section 16-245m.

      (2) The Clean Energy Fund shall be audited annually. Such audits shall be conducted with generally accepted auditing standards by independent certified public accountants certified by the State Board of Accountancy. Such accountants may be the accountants for the corporation.

      (3) Any entity that receives financing for a clean energy project from the fund shall provide the board an annual statement, certified as correct by the chief financial officer of the recipient of such financing, setting forth all sources and uses of funds in such detail as may be required by the authority of such project. The authority shall maintain any such audits for not less than five years. Residential projects for buildings with one to four dwelling units are exempt from this and any other annual auditing requirements, except that residential projects may be required to grant their utility companies' permission to release their usage data to the authority.

      (g) There shall be a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority board of directors, as provided in subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of section 16-245m.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 44, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 10, 11; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 50; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 6; P.A. 07-152, S. 1; 07-242, S. 15, 120; P.A. 11-51, S. 134; 11-80, S. 1, 99.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 added "hydrogen production and hydrogen conversion technologies" in Subsec. (a) and added "the Department of Public Utility Control and the Office of Consumer Counsel" in Subsec. (d), effective July 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (b) to provide for a plan to avoid disbursements from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re certain usable energy and thermal storage systems, amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and to change assessment on and after July 1, 2004, from one mill to not less than one mill, amended Subsec. (d) to require preference for projects that maximize reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, to require consistency with the comprehensive energy plan, to require report to describe collaboration with the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds, and to make technical changes, and added Subsec. (e) establishing a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee and Subsec. (f) re evaluation of the programs, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 07-152 amended Subsec. (c) to put fund within Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, for administrative purposes only and to make reimbursement for services provided by administrator a permissible expenditure, amended Subsec. (d) to change advisory committee to board, to move board appointees to new Subsec. (e) and to list requirements for the comprehensive plan, added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re appointments and reporting, redesignated existing Subsecs. (e) and (f) as Subsecs. (g) and (h) and made conforming changes therein; P.A. 07-242 added photovoltaic energy, solar thermal, geothermal energy, hydropower that meets low-impact standards of Low-Impact Hydropower Institute, and certain alternative fuels in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (c) to add certain operational demonstration projects to list of permissible fund expenditures, and deleted provision re comprehensive energy plan approved pursuant to Sec. 16a-7a in Subsec. (d), effective June 4, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to change defined term from "renewable energy" to "clean energy", to change "Commissioner of Environmental Protection" to "Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection" and to add provisions re financing of energy efficiency projects and projects that seek to deploy electric, electric hybrid, natural gas or alternative fuel vehicles and associated infrastructure and related storage, distribution or manufacturing, amended Subsec. (b) to replace "Department of Public Utility Control" with "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" and to replace "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" with "Clean Energy Fund", amended Subsec. (c) to replace "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" with "Clean Energy Fund", to place fund within Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, rather than Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated for administrative purposes, to change "renewable energy" to "clean energy", to add provision re providing low-cost financing and credit enhancement, to delete provision re reimbursement of fund administrator and management fee and to add provision re reimbursement of operating expenses, amended Subsec. (d) to replace former provisions re Renewable Energy Investments Board with provisions establishing Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, amended Subsec. (e) to replace former provisions re Renewable Energy Investments Board with provisions re board of directors of Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority, amended Subsec. (f) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and amending same to require report to be issued to Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, rather than Department of Public Utility Control, and to replace "Renewable Energy Investment Fund" with "Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority", by adding Subdiv. (2) re annual audits and by adding Subdiv. (3) re annual statement and exemption, amended Subsec. (g) to change "Renewable Energy Investments Board" to "Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority board of directors" and deleted former Subsec. (h) re performance evaluation, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "authority" in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245o. Restrictions on use of customer information for marketing. Promotional inserts in electric bills prohibited. Procedures for entering and terminating service contracts. Penalties. (a) To protect a customer's right to privacy from unwanted solicitation, each electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, shall distribute to each customer a form approved by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection which the customer shall submit to the customer's electric or electric distribution company in a timely manner if the customer does not want the customer's name, address, telephone number and rate class to be released to electric suppliers. On and after July 1, 1999, each electric or electric distribution company, as the case may be, shall make available to all electric suppliers customer names, addresses, telephone numbers, if known, and rate class, unless the electric company or electric distribution company has received a form from a customer requesting that such information not be released. Additional information about a customer for marketing purposes shall not be released to any electric supplier unless a customer consents to a release by one of the following: (1) An independent third-party telephone verification; (2) receipt of a written confirmation received in the mail from the customer after the customer has received an information package confirming any telephone agreement; (3) the customer signs a document fully explaining the nature and effect of the release; or (4) the customer's consent is obtained through electronic means, including, but not limited to, a computer transaction.

      (b) All electric suppliers shall have equal access to customer information required to be disclosed under subsection (a) of this section. No electric supplier shall have preferential access to historical distribution company customer usage data.

      (c) No electric or electric distribution company shall include in any bill or bill insert anything that directly or indirectly promotes a generation entity or affiliate of the electric distribution company. No electric supplier shall include a bill insert in an electric bill of an electric distribution company.

      (d) All marketing information provided pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be formatted electronically by the electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, in a form that is readily usable by standard commercial software packages. Updated lists shall be made available within a reasonable time, as determined by the department, following a request by an electric supplier. Each electric supplier seeking the information shall pay a fee to the electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, which reflects the incremental costs of formatting, sorting and distributing this information, together with related software changes. Customers shall be entitled to any available individual information about their loads or usage at no cost.

      (e) Each electric supplier shall, prior to the initiation of electric generation services, provide the potential customer with a written notice describing the rates, information on air emissions and resource mix of generation facilities operated by and under long-term contract to the supplier, terms and conditions of the service, and a notice describing the customer's right to cancel the service, as provided in this section. No electric supplier shall provide electric generation services unless the customer has signed a service contract or consents to such services by one of the following: (1) An independent third-party telephone verification; (2) receipt of a written confirmation received in the mail from the customer after the customer has received an information package confirming any telephone agreement; (3) the customer signs a contract that conforms with the provisions of this section; or (4) the customer's consent is obtained through electronic means, including, but not limited to, a computer transaction. Each electric supplier shall provide each customer with a demand of less than one hundred kilowatts, a written contract that conforms with the provisions of this section and maintain records of such signed service contract or consent to service for a period of not less than two years from the date of expiration of such contract, which records shall be provided to the department or the customer upon request. Each contract for electric generation services shall contain all material terms of the agreement, a clear and conspicuous statement explaining the rates that such customer will be paying, including the circumstances under which the rates may change, a statement that provides specific directions to the customer as to how to compare the price term in the contract to the customer's existing electric generation service charge on the electric bill and how long those rates are guaranteed. Such contract shall also include a clear and conspicuous statement providing the customer's right to cancel such contract not later than three days after signature or receipt in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, describing under what circumstances, if any, the supplier may terminate the contract and describing any penalty for early termination of such contract. Each contract shall be signed by the customer, or otherwise agreed to in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. A customer who has a maximum demand of five hundred kilowatts or less shall, until midnight of the third business day after the latter of the day on which the customer enters into a service agreement or the day on which the customer receives the written contract from the electric supplier as provided in this section, have the right to cancel a contract for electric generation services entered into with an electric supplier.

      (f) (1) Any third-party agent who contracts with or is otherwise compensated by an electric supplier to sell electric generation services shall be a legal agent of the electric supplier. No third-party agent may sell electric generation services on behalf of an electric supplier unless (A) the third-party agent is an employee or independent contractor of such electric supplier, and (B) the third-party agent has received appropriate training directly from such electric supplier.

      (2) On or after July 1, 2011, all sales and solicitations of electric generation services by an electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator to a customer with a maximum demand of one hundred kilowatts or less conducted and consummated entirely by mail, door-to-door sale, telephone or other electronic means, during a scheduled appointment at the premises of a customer or at a fair, trade or business show, convention or exposition in addition to complying with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section shall:

      (A) For any sale or solicitation, including from any person representing such electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator (i) identify the person and the electric generation services company or companies the person represents; (ii) provide a statement that the person does not represent an electric distribution company; (iii) explain the purpose of the solicitation; and (iv) explain all rates, fees, variable charges and terms and conditions for the services provided; and

      (B) For door-to-door sales to customers with a maximum demand of one hundred kilowatts, which shall include the sale of electric generation services in which the electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator solicits the sale and receives the customer's agreement or offer to purchase at a place other than the seller's place of business, be conducted (i) in accordance with any municipal and local ordinances regarding door-to-door solicitations, (ii) between the hours of ten o'clock a.m. and six o'clock p.m. unless the customer schedules an earlier or later appointment, and (iii) with both English and Spanish written materials available. Any representative of an electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator shall prominently display or wear a photo identification badge stating the name of such person's employer or the electric supplier the person represents.

      (3) No electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator shall advertise or disclose the price of electricity to mislead a reasonable person into believing that the electric generation services portion of the bill will be the total bill amount for the delivery of electricity to the customer's location. When advertising or disclosing the price for electricity, the electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator shall also disclose the electric distribution company's current charges, including the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge, for that customer class.

      (4) No entity, including an aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator, who sells or offers for sale any electric generation services for or on behalf of an electric supplier, shall engage in any deceptive acts or practices in the marketing, sale or solicitation of electric generation services.

      (5) Each electric supplier shall disclose to the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority in a standardized format (A) the amount of additional renewable energy credits such supplier will purchase beyond required credits, (B) where such additional credits are being sourced from, and (C) the types of renewable energy sources that will be purchased. Each electric supplier shall only advertise renewable energy credits purchased beyond those required pursuant to section 16-245a and shall report to the authority the renewable energy sources of such credits and whenever the mix of such sources changes.

      (6) No contract for electric generation services by an electric supplier shall require a residential customer to pay any fee for termination or early cancellation of a contract in excess of (A) one hundred dollars; or (B) twice the estimated bill for energy services for an average month, whichever is less, provided when an electric supplier offers a contract, it provides the residential customer an estimate of such customer's average monthly bill.

      (7) An electric supplier shall not make a material change in the terms or duration of any contract for the provision of electric generation services by an electric supplier without the express consent of the customer. Nothing in this subdivision shall restrict an electric supplier from renewing a contract by clearly informing the customer, in writing, not less than thirty days or more than sixty days before the renewal date, of the renewal terms and of the option not to accept the renewal offer, provided no fee pursuant to subdivision (6) of this section shall be charged to a customer who terminates or cancels such renewal not later than seven business days after receiving the first billing statement for the renewed contract.

      (8) Each electric supplier shall file annually with the authority a list of any aggregator or agent working on behalf of such supplier.

      (g) Each electric supplier, aggregator or agent of an electric supplier or aggregator shall comply with the provisions of the telemarketing regulations adopted pursuant to 15 USC 6102.

      (h) Any violation of this section shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b. Any contract for electric generation services that the authority finds to be the product of unfair or deceptive marketing practices or in material violation of the provisions of this section shall be void and unenforceable. Any waiver of the provisions of this section by a customer of electric generation services shall be deemed void and unenforceable by the electric supplier.

      (i) Any violation or failure to comply with any provision of this section shall be subject to (1) civil penalties by the department in accordance with section 16-41, (2) the suspension or revocation of an electric supplier or aggregator's license, or (3) a prohibition on accepting new customers following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54.

      (j) The department may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to include, but not be limited to, abusive switching practices, solicitations and renewals by electric suppliers.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 26, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 12, 13; P.A. 11-80, S. 113.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, including technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, and to replace provisions re signed release made available to department with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive, re means of consenting to a release and amended Subsec. (e) to replace provision re consent to services pursuant to Sec. 16-245s with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive, re means of consenting to services and to add "who has a maximum demand of five hundred kilowatts or less", effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "Department of Public Utility Control" with "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection", amended Subsec. (e) to delete provision re customer to sign document fully explaining nature and effect of initiation of service and add provision re customer to sign contract that conforms with section in Subdiv. (3), and to add requirements for contracts and that customers with maximum demand of 500 kilowatts or less have the right to cancel on day they receive the contract in addition to the third business day after entering agreement, replaced former Subsec. (f) re advertising prices with new Subsec. (f) re sales of electric generation services, amended Subsec. (g) to include aggregator or agent of electric supplier or aggregator, amended Subsec. (h) to add provisions re void contracts and waivers resulting from unfair or deceptive marketing practices, and added Subsec. (i) re penalties and Subsec. (j) re regulations, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245r. Discrimination by electric suppliers prohibited. No electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, shall refuse to provide electric generation services to, or refuse to negotiate to provide such services to any customer because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, gender identity or expression, marital status, sexual orientation, lawful source of income, disability or familial status. No electric supplier shall decline to provide electric generation services to a customer for the sole reason that the customer is located in an economically distressed geographic area or the customer qualifies for hardship status under section 16-262c. No electric supplier shall terminate or refuse to reinstate electric generation services except in accordance with the provisions of this title.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 29, 117; P.A. 11-55, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 11-55 prohibited discrimination on basis of gender identity or expression.

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      Sec. 16-245y. Annual reporting re status of electric deregulation. (a) Not later than October 1, 1999, and annually thereafter, each electric company and electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, shall report to the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority its system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) and its system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) for the preceding twelve months. For purposes of this section: (1) Interruptions shall not include outages attributable to major storms, scheduled outages and outages caused by customer equipment, each as determined by the department; (2) SAIDI shall be calculated as the sum of customer interruptions in the preceding twelve-month period, in minutes, divided by the average number of customers served during that period; and (3) SAIFI shall be calculated as the total number of customers interrupted in the preceding twelve-month period, divided by the average number of customers served during that period. Not later than January 1, 2000, and annually thereafter, the authority shall report on the SAIDI and SAIFI data for each electric company and electric distribution, and all state-wide SAIDI and SAIFI data to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (b) Not later than October 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, each electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, shall report to the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority the following information regarding the preceding twelve-month period or any part thereof that the supplier has been licensed pursuant to section 16-245: (1) Total megawatt hours of electricity produced from generating facilities owned by the supplier or under long-term contract to the supplier that are sold to end use customers in the state; (2) total megawatt hours of electricity purchased by the supplier from other sources and sold to end use customers in the state; (3) the proportion of such production from facilities listed under subdivision (1) of this subsection that use nuclear fuels, oil, coal, natural gas, hydropower and other fuels as the principal generation fuel; and (4) the amount of emissions from facilities listed under subdivision (1) of this subsection of the pollutants identified by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, which shall include, but not be limited to: (A) Volatile organic compounds; (B) nitrogen oxides; (C) sulfur oxides; (D) carbon dioxide; (E) carbon monoxide; (F) particulates; and (G) heavy metals. Not later than January 1, 2000, and annually thereafter, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, shall report state-wide data for these variables to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to the environment and energy.

      (c) Not later than January 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy the number of applicants for licensure pursuant to section 16-245 during the preceding twelve months, the number of applicants licensed by the department and the average period of time taken to process a license application.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 77, 117; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 34.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to change "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" and replace a reference to "department" with "authority", amended Subsec. (b) to make report date not later than October 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, to require report to be made to Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, rather than to Departments of Public Utility Control and Environmental Protection, to change "Department of Environmental Protection" to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subdiv. (4), and to require Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to consult with Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, rather than Public Utilities Control Authority, when reporting state-wide data, deleted former Subsec. (c) re dislocated workers report and redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (c) and amended same to change "January 1, 1999", to "January 1, 2011", and "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245z. Internet links to Energy Star program. Not later than October 1, 2005, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and the Energy Conservation Management Board, established in section 16-245m, shall establish links on their Internet web sites to the Energy Star program or successor program that promotes energy efficiency and each electric distribution company shall establish a link under its conservation programs on its Internet web site to the Energy Star program or such successor program.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 20; P.A. 11-80, S. 117.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 11-80 changed "Department of Public Utility Control" to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245ee. Energy conservation and load management and renewable energy projects in lower income communities. Requirements for approval. Before approving any plan for energy conservation and load management and renewable energy projects issued to it by the Energy Conservation and Management Board, the board of directors of the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority or an electric distribution company, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall determine that an equitable amount of the funds administered by each such board are to be deployed among small and large customers with a maximum average monthly peak demand of one hundred kilowatts in census tracts in which the median income is not more than sixty per cent of the state median income. The department shall determine such equitable share and such projects may include a mentoring component for such communities. On and after January 1, 2012, and annually thereafter, the department shall report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding the distribution of funds to such communities.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 101.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245ff. Residential solar investment program. (a) The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority established pursuant to section 16-245n shall structure and implement a residential solar investment program established pursuant to this section, which shall result in a minimum of thirty megawatts of new residential solar photovoltaic installations located in this state on or before December 31, 2022, the annual procurement of which shall be determined by the authority and the cost of which shall not exceed one-third of the total surcharge collected annually pursuant to said section 16-245n.

      (b) The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall offer direct financial incentives, in the form of performance-based incentives or expected performance-based buydowns, for the purchase or lease of qualifying residential solar photovoltaic systems. For the purposes of this section, "performance-based incentives" means incentives paid out on a per kilowatt-hour basis, and "expected performance-based buydowns" means incentives paid out as a one-time upfront incentive based on expected system performance. The authority shall consider willingness to pay studies and verified solar photovoltaic system characteristics, such as operational efficiency, size, location, shading and orientation, when determining the type and amount of incentive. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of section 16-244c, the amount of renewable energy produced from Class I renewable energy sources receiving tariff payments or included in utility rates under this section shall be applied to reduce the electric distribution company's Class I renewable energy source portfolio standard. Customers who receive expected performance-based buydowns under this section shall not be eligible for a credit pursuant to section 16-243b.

      (c) Beginning with the comprehensive plan covering the period from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013, the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall develop and publish in each such plan a proposed schedule for the offering of performance-based incentives or expected performance-based buydowns over the duration of any such solar incentive program. Such schedule shall: (1) Provide for a series of solar capacity blocks the combined total of which shall be a minimum of thirty megawatts and projected incentive levels for each such block; (2) provide incentives that are sufficient to meet reasonable payback expectations of the residential consumer, taking into consideration the estimated cost of residential solar installations, the value of the energy offset by the system and the availability and estimated value of other incentives, including, but not limited to, federal and state tax incentives and revenues from the sale of solar renewable energy credits; (3) provide incentives that decline over time and will foster the sustained, orderly development of a state-based solar industry; (4) automatically adjust to the next block once the board has issued reservations for financial incentives provided pursuant to this section from the board fully committing the target solar capacity and available incentives in that block; and (5) provide comparable economic incentives for the purchase or lease of qualifying residential solar photovoltaic systems. The authority may retain the services of a third-party entity with expertise in the area of solar energy program design to assist in the development of the incentive schedule or schedules. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall review and approve such schedule. Nothing in this subsection shall restrict the authority from modifying the approved incentive schedule before the issuance of its next comprehensive plan to account for changes in federal or state law or regulation or developments in the solar market when such changes would affect the expected return on investment for a typical residential solar photovoltaic system by twenty per cent or more.

      (d) The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall establish and periodically update program guidelines, including, but not limited to, requirements for systems and program participants related to: (1) Eligibility criteria; (2) standards for deployment of energy efficient equipment or building practices as a condition for receiving incentive funding; (3) procedures to provide reasonable assurance that such reservations are made and incentives are paid out only to qualifying residential solar photovoltaic systems demonstrating a high likelihood of being installed and operated as indicated in application materials; and (4) reasonable protocols for the measurement and verification of energy production.

      (e) The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall maintain on its web site the schedule of incentives, solar capacity remaining in the current block and available funding and incentive estimators.

      (f) Funding for the residential performance-based incentive program and expected performance-based buydowns shall be apportioned from the moneys collected under the surcharge specified in section 16-245n, provided such apportionment shall not exceed one-third of the total surcharge collected annually, and supplemented by federal funding as may become available.

      (g) The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall identify barriers to the development of a permanent Connecticut-based solar workforce and shall make provision for comprehensive training, accreditation and certification programs through institutions and individuals accredited and certified to national standards.

      (h) On or before January 1, 2014, and every two years thereafter for the duration of the program, the Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy on progress toward the goals identified in subsection (a) of this section.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 106.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245gg. Residential solar investment program. In-state incentive. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall provide an additional incentive of up to five per cent of the then-applicable incentive provided pursuant to section 16-245ff for the use of major system components manufactured or assembled in Connecticut, and another additional incentive of up to five per cent of the then-applicable incentive provided pursuant to section 16-245ff for the use of major system components manufactured or assembled in a distressed municipality, as defined in section 32-9p, or a targeted investment community, as defined in section 32-222.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 109.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245hh. Condominium renewable energy grant program. The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority created pursuant to section 16-245n, in consultation with the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, shall establish a program to be known as the "condominium renewable energy grant program". Under such program, the board shall provide grants to residential condominium associations and residential condominium owners, within available funds, for purchasing clean energy sources, including solar energy, geothermal energy and fuel cells or other energy-efficient hydrogen-fueled energy.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 111.)

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      Sec. 16-245ii. Energy consumption data of nonresidential buildings. Commencing January 1, 2012, each electric distribution, electric and gas company shall maintain and make available to the public, free of charge, records of the energy consumption data of all typical nonresidential buildings to which such company provides service. This data shall be maintained in a format (1) compatible for uploading to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star portfolio manager or similar system, for at least the most recent thirty-six months, and (2) that preserves the confidentiality of the customer.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 125.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-245jj. Town customer electricity and gas usage information. Commencing January 1, 2012, each electric distribution, electric and gas company shall provide aggregate town customer usage information by customer class that preserves the confidentiality of individual customers to any legislative body of a municipality that requests such information.

      (P.A. 11-80, S. 126.)

      History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-247q. Education outreach program for telecommunications competition, scope. Consumer Education Advisory Council established. Section 16-247q is repealed, effective July 1, 2011.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 8, 19; P.A. 00-53, S. 4; P.A. 11-80, S. 140.)

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      Sec. 16-247r. Discrimination by telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers prohibited. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider, as defined in section 16-1, shall refuse to provide telecommunications services to, or refuse to negotiate to provide such services to any customer because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, gender identity or expression, marital status, sexual orientation, lawful source of income, disability or familial status. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider shall decline to provide telecommunications services to a customer for the sole reason that the customer is located in an economically distressed geographic area or the customer qualifies for hardship status under section 16-262c. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider shall terminate or refuse to reinstate telecommunications services except in accordance with the provisions of this title.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 18, 19; P.A. 11-55, S. 13.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 11-55 prohibited discrimination on basis of gender identity or expression.

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      Sec. 16-256b. Special telecommunications equipment for deaf and hearing impaired persons. Fund. Amplification controls for coin and coinless telephones installed for public or semipublic use. Section 16-256b is repealed, effective July 1, 2011.

      (P.A. 79-156; P.A. 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 82-254, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-125, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-228, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-50, S. 2; P.A. 87-388, S. 1, 3; P.A. 88-158, S. 1, 2; P.A. 92-146, S. 4, 5; P.A. 93-34, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-74, S. 7, 11; P.A. 99-286, S. 10, 19; P.A. 00-53, S. 6; P.A. 11-44, S. 38; 11-48, S. 306; 11-80, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 16-261a. Interagency electric and magnetic fields task force; composition; study. Assessment of electric public service companies for specified expenses of task force. Section 16-261a is repealed, effective July 1, 2011.

      (P.A. 91-317, S. 1-3; P.A. 92-169, S. 1-3; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-250, S. 1; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-211, S. 1, 5, 6; 96-245, S. 12, 44; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 140.)

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      Sec. 16-262c. Termination of utility service for nonpayment, when prohibited. Amortization agreements. Moneys allowed to be deducted from customers' accounts and moneys to be included in rates as an operating expense. Hardship cases. Notice. Regulations. Annual reports. Privacy of individual customer utility usage and billing information. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes no electric, electric distribution, gas, telephone or water company, no electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider, and no municipal utility furnishing electric, gas, telephone or water service shall cause cessation of any such service by reason of delinquency in payment for such service (1) on any Friday, Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day before any legal holiday, provided such a company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility may cause cessation of such service to a nonresidential account on a Friday which is not a legal holiday or the day before a legal holiday when the business offices of the company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility are open to the public the succeeding Saturday, (2) at any time during which the business offices of said company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility are not open to the public, or (3) within one hour before the closing of the business offices of said company, electric supplier or municipal utility.

      (b) (1) From November first to May first, inclusive, no electric or electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electricity shall terminate, deny or refuse to reinstate residential electric service in hardship cases where the customer lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account. From November first to May first, inclusive, no gas company and no municipal utility furnishing gas shall terminate, deny or refuse to reinstate residential gas service in hardship cases where the customer uses such gas for heat and lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account, except a gas company that, between May second and October thirty-first, terminated gas service to a residential customer who uses gas for heat and who, during the previous period of November first to May first, had gas service maintained because of hardship status, may refuse to reinstate the gas service from November first to May first, inclusive, only if the customer has failed to pay, since the preceding November first, the lesser of: (A) Twenty per cent of the outstanding principal balance owed the gas company as of the date of termination, (B) one hundred dollars, or (C) the minimum payments due under the customer's amortization agreement. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes to the contrary, no electric, electric distribution or gas company, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electricity or gas shall terminate, deny or refuse to reinstate residential electric or gas service where the customer lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account and for which customer or a member of the customer's household the termination, denial of or failure to reinstate such service would create a life-threatening situation. No electric, electric distribution or gas company, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electricity or gas shall terminate, deny or refuse to reinstate residential electric or gas service where the customer is a hardship case and lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account and a child not more than twenty-four months old resides in the customer's household and such child has been admitted to the hospital and received discharge papers on which the attending physician has indicated such service is a necessity for the health and well being of such child.

      (2) During any period in which a residential customer is subject to termination, an electric, electric distribution or gas company, an electric supplier or a municipal utility furnishing electricity or gas shall provide such residential customer whose account is delinquent an opportunity to enter into a reasonable amortization agreement with such company, electric supplier or utility to pay such delinquent account and to avoid termination of service. Such amortization agreement shall allow such customer adequate opportunity to apply for and receive the benefits of any available energy assistance program. An amortization agreement shall be subject to amendment on customer request if there is a change in the customer's financial circumstances.

      (3) As used in this section, (A) "household income" means the combined income over a twelve-month period of the customer and all adults, except children of the customer, who are and have been members of the household for six months or more, and (B) "hardship case" includes, but is not limited to: (i) A customer receiving local, state or federal public assistance; (ii) a customer whose sole source of financial support is Social Security, Veterans' Administration or unemployment compensation benefits; (iii) a customer who is head of the household and is unemployed, and the household income is less than three hundred per cent of the poverty level determined by the federal government; (iv) a customer who is seriously ill or who has a household member who is seriously ill; (v) a customer whose income falls below one hundred twenty-five per cent of the poverty level determined by the federal government; and (vi) a customer whose circumstances threaten a deprivation of food and the necessities of life for himself or dependent children if payment of a delinquent bill is required.

      (4) In order for a residential customer of a gas or electric distribution company using gas or electricity for heat to be eligible to have any moneys due and owing deducted from the customer's delinquent account pursuant to this subdivision, the company furnishing gas or electricity shall require that the customer (A) apply and be eligible for benefits available under the Connecticut energy assistance program or state appropriated fuel assistance program; (B) authorize the company to send a copy of the customer's monthly bill directly to any energy assistance agency for payment; (C) enter into and comply with an amortization agreement, which agreement is consistent with decisions and policies of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority. Such an amortization agreement shall reduce a customer's payment by the amount of the benefits reasonably anticipated from the Connecticut energy assistance program, state appropriated fuel assistance program or other energy assistance sources. Unless the customer requests otherwise, the company shall budget a customer's payments over a twelve-month period with an affordable increment to be applied to any arrearage, provided such payment plan will not result in loss of any energy assistance benefits to the customer. If a customer authorizes the company to send a copy of his monthly bill directly to any energy assistance agency for payment, the energy assistance agency shall make payments directly to the company. If, on April thirtieth, a customer has been in compliance with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, during the period starting on the preceding November first, or from such time as the customer's account becomes delinquent, the company shall deduct from such customer's delinquent account an additional amount equal to the amount of money paid by the customer between the preceding November first and April thirtieth and paid on behalf of the customer through the Connecticut energy assistance program and state appropriated fuel assistance program. Any customer in compliance with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, on April thirtieth who continues to comply with an amortization agreement through the succeeding October thirty-first, shall also have an amount equal to the amount paid pursuant to such agreement and any amount paid on behalf of such customer between May first and the succeeding October thirty-first deducted from the customer's delinquent account. In no event shall the deduction of any amounts pursuant to this subdivision result in a credit balance to the customer's account. No customer shall be denied the benefits of this subdivision due to an error by the company. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall allow the amounts deducted from the customer's account pursuant to the implementation plan, described in subdivision (5) of this subsection, to be recovered by the company in its rates as an operating expense, pursuant to said implementation plan. If the customer fails to comply with the terms of the amortization agreement or any decision of the authority rendered in lieu of such agreement and the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, the company may terminate service to the customer, pursuant to all applicable regulations, provided such termination shall not occur between November first and May first.

      (5) Each gas and electric distribution company shall submit to the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority annually, on or before July first, an implementation plan which shall include information concerning amortization agreements, counseling, reinstatement of eligibility, rate impacts and any other information deemed relevant by the authority. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may, in consultation with the Office of Policy and Management, approve or modify such plan within ninety days of receipt of the plan. If the authority does not take any action on such plan within ninety days of its receipt, the plan shall automatically take effect at the end of the ninety-day period, provided the authority may extend such period for an additional thirty days by notifying the company before the end of the ninety-day period. Any amount recovered by a company in its rates pursuant to this subsection shall not include any amount approved by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority as an uncollectible expense. The authority may deny all or part of the recovery required by this subsection if it determines that the company seeking recovery has been imprudent, inefficient or acting in violation of statutes or regulations regarding amortization agreements.

      (6) On or after January 1, 1993, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority may require gas companies to expand the provisions of subdivisions (4) and (5) of this subsection to all hardship customers. Any such requirement shall not be effective until November 1, 1993.

      (7) (A) All electric, electric distribution and gas companies, electric suppliers and municipal utilities furnishing electricity or gas shall collaborate in developing, subject to approval by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, standard provisions for the notice of delinquency and impending termination under subsection (a) of section 16-262d. Each such company and utility shall place on the front of such notice a provision that the company, electric supplier or utility shall not effect termination of service to a residential dwelling for nonpayment of disputed bills during the pendency of any complaint. In addition, the notice shall state that the customer must pay current and undisputed bill amounts during the pendency of the complaint. (B) At the beginning of any discussion with a customer concerning a reasonable amortization agreement, any such company or utility shall inform the customer (i) of the availability of a process for resolving disputes over what constitutes a reasonable amortization agreement, (ii) that the company, electric supplier or utility will refer such a dispute to one of its review officers as the first step in attempting to resolve the dispute, and (iii) that the company, electric supplier or utility shall not effect termination of service to a residential dwelling for nonpayment of a delinquent account during the pendency of any complaint, investigation, hearing or appeal initiated by the customer, unless the customer fails to pay undisputed bills, or undisputed portions of bills, for service received during such period. (C) Each such company, electric supplier and utility shall inform and counsel all customers who are hardship cases as to the availability of all public and private energy conservation programs, including programs sponsored or subsidized by such companies and utilities, eligibility criteria, where to apply, and the circumstances under which such programs are available without cost.

      (8) The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to carry out the provisions of this subsection. Such regulations shall include, but not be limited to, criteria for determining hardship cases and for reasonable amortization agreements, including appeal of such agreements, for categories of customers. Such regulations may include the establishment of a reasonable rate of interest which a company may charge on the unpaid balance of a customer's delinquent bill and a description of the relationship and responsibilities of electric suppliers to customers.

      (c) Each electric, electric distribution and gas company, electric supplier and municipal utility shall, not later than December first, annually, submit a report to the authority and the General Assembly indicating (1) the number of customers in each of the following categories and the total delinquent balances for such customers as of the preceding May first: (A) Customers who are hardship cases and (i) who made arrangements for reasonable amortization agreements, (ii) who did not make such arrangements, and (B) customers who are nonhardship cases and who made arrangements for reasonable amortization, (2) (A) the number of heating customers receiving energy assistance during the preceding heating season and the total amount of such assistance, and (B) the total balance of the accounts of such customers after all energy assistance is applied to the accounts, (3) the number of hardship cases reinstated between November first of the preceding year and May first of the same year, the number of hardship cases terminated between May first of the same year and November first and the number of hardship cases reinstated during each month from May to November, inclusive, of the same year, (4) the number of reasonable amortization agreements executed and the number breached during the same year by (A) hardship cases, and (B) nonhardship cases, and (5) the number of accounts of (A) hardship cases, and (B) nonhardship cases for which part or all of the outstanding balance is written off as uncollectible during the preceding year and the total amount of such uncollectibles.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall (1) prohibit a public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility from terminating residential utility service upon request of the customer or in accordance with section 16-262d upon default by the customer on an amortization agreement or collecting delinquent accounts through legal processes, including the processes authorized by section 16-262f, or (2) relieve such company, electric supplier or municipal utility of its responsibilities set forth in sections 16-262d and 16-262e to occupants of residential dwellings or, with respect to a public service company or electric supplier, the responsibilities set forth in section 19a-109.

      (e) No provision of the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in section 1-200, shall be construed to require or permit a municipal utility furnishing electric, gas or water service, a municipality furnishing water or sewer service, a district established by special act or pursuant to chapter 105 and furnishing water or sewer service or a regional authority established by special act to furnish water or sewer service to disclose records under the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in section 1-200, which identify or could lead to identification of the utility usage or billing information of individual customers, to the extent such disclosure would constitute an invasion of privacy.

      (f) If an electric supplier suffers a loss of revenue by operation of this section, the supplier may make a claim for such revenue to the authority. The electric distribution company shall reimburse the electric supplier for such losses found to be reasonable by the authority at the lower of (1) the price of the contract between the supplier and the customer, or (2) the electric distribution company's price to customers for default service, as determined by the authority. The electric distribution company may recover such reimbursement, along with transaction costs, through the systems benefits charge.

      (1969, P.A. 194, S. 1; P.A. 75-625, S. 2, 8; P.A. 79-362, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-505, S. 1, 3; P.A. 90-338; P.A. 91-150, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-39, S. 1, 3; 95-274, S. 2; P.A. 96-46, S. 3; 96-204; P.A. 97-9, S. 1, 2; 97-20, S. 1, 2; 97-47, S. 32; P.A. 98-28, S. 38, 117; P.A. 99-222, S. 14, 19; P.A. 03-47, S. 1; P.A. 07-242, S. 67; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 120.)

      History: P.A. 75-625 included telephone companies and service and municipal utilities providing gas, electric, telephone or water service in provisions and added "notwithstanding" phrase; P.A. 79-362 prohibited cessation of services to any customer because of delinquent payment "within one hour before the closing" of business office and added Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 83-505 renumbered Subsec. (b)(4) as Subdiv. (5) and inserted new Subdiv. (4) setting forth requirements re notice to customers of termination and reasonable amortization agreement procedures and energy conservation programs and relettered Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and inserted new Subsec. (c) requiring companies and utilities to submit annual report consisting of data re delinquencies and terminations; P.A. 90-338 added Subsec. (e) re nondisclosure of certain customer information; P.A. 91-150 inserted new Subsec. (b)(4) to (6) establishing procedures which allow a gas company to deduct moneys from a customer's bill upon compliance with certain conditions and authorizing gas companies to include such moneys deducted as an operating expense, requiring each gas company to annually submit a report to the department concerning the procedures and authorizing the department to expand the procedures to apply to all hardship customers, renumbering as necessary; P.A. 95-39 amended Subsec. (a) by dividing Subsec. into Subdivs. and adding proviso in Subdiv. (1) re nonresidential accounts, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-274 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by adding provision re life-threatening termination or refusal to reinstate and Subdiv. (b)(3) by adding definition of "household income", changing lettering and numbering and in new (iii) adding provision re federal poverty level; P.A. 96-46 amended Subsec. (b)(5) to make the approval or modification of plans by the department discretionary rather than mandatory and to add provision re effect of plan if department takes no action on it; P.A. 96-204 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to add exception allowing gas companies to refuse to reinstate service in certain circumstances and made technical changes to Subsec. (b)(2); P.A. 97-9 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to delete termination date of July 1, 1997, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-20 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to substitute "the preceding November first" for "April fifteenth", effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-47 substituted "the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in Sec. 1-18a" for "chapter 3"; P.A. 98-28 added provisions re electric suppliers and electric distribution companies, made technical changes and added new Subsec. (f) re electric supplier losses, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "certified telecommunications provider" and making a technical change, effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 03-47 amended Subsec. (b)(4) and (5) to include electric distribution companies and make conforming changes; P.A. 07-242 changed "April fifteenth" to "May first" and made conforming and technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by changing "terminate or refuse to reinstate" to "terminate, deny or refuse to reinstate" and by prohibiting termination, denial or refusal for households where customer is a hardship case and a child not more than 24 months old resides in the household and such child has discharge papers from the hospital that indicate that service is a health necessity, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "Department of Public Utility Control" and "department" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" and "authority", respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 16-262m. Construction specifications for water companies. (a) As used in this section and section 8-25a, "water company" means a corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership, municipality, state agency, other entity or person, or lessee thereof, owning, leasing, maintaining, operating, managing or controlling any pond, lake, reservoir, stream, well or distributing plant or system employed for the purpose of supplying water to fifteen or more service connections or twenty-five or more persons for at least sixty days in any one year.

      (b) No water company may begin the construction of a water supply system for the purpose of supplying water to fifteen or more service connections or twenty-five or more persons for at least sixty days in any one year, and no person or entity, except a water company supplying more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons, may begin expansion of such a water supply system, without having first obtained a certificate of public convenience and necessity.

      (c) For systems serving twenty-five or more residents that are not the subject of proceedings under subsection (c) of section 16-262n or section 16-262o, an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be on a form prescribed by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, in consultation with the Department of Public Health, and accompanied by a copy of the applicant's construction or expansion plans, a fee of one hundred dollars and when an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, a copy of a signed ownership agreement between the applicant and provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g, detailing those terms and conditions under which the system will be constructed or expanded and for which the provider will assume service and ownership responsibilities. When an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, the application shall also be accompanied by a written confirmation from the exclusive service area provider, as the person that will own the water supply system, that such exclusive service area provider has received the application and is prepared to assume responsibility for the water supply system subject to the terms and conditions of the ownership agreement. Written confirmation from the exclusive service area provider shall be on a form prescribed by said authority and department. Said authority and department shall issue a certificate to an applicant upon determining, to their satisfaction, that (1) no interconnection is feasible with a water system owned by, or made available through arrangement with, the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g or with another existing water system where no exclusive service area has been assigned, (2) the applicant will complete the construction or expansion in accordance with engineering standards established by regulation by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority for water supply systems, (3) ownership of the system will be assigned to the provider for the exclusive service area, when an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, (4) the proposed construction or expansion will not result in a duplication of water service in the applicable service area, (5) the applicant meets all federal and state standards for water supply systems, (6) the person that will own the water supply system has the financial, managerial and technical resources to (A) operate the proposed water supply system in a reliable and efficient manner, and (B) provide continuous adequate service to consumers served by the water supply system, (7) the proposed water supply system will not adversely affect the adequacy of nearby water supply systems, and (8) any existing or potential threat of pollution that the Department of Public Health deems to be adverse to public health will not affect any new source of water supply. Any construction or expansion with respect to which a certificate is required shall thereafter be built, maintained and operated in conformity with the certificate and any terms, limitations or conditions contained therein.

      (d) The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority and the Department of Public Health shall each adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of subsections (a) to (c), inclusive, of this section.

      (e) (1) For systems serving twenty-five or more persons, but not twenty-five or more residents, at least sixty days in any one year an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be on a form prescribed by the Department of Public Health and accompanied by a copy of the construction or expansion plans. The Department of Public Health shall issue a certificate to an applicant upon determining, to its satisfaction, that (A) no interconnection is feasible with a water system owned by, or made available through arrangement with, the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g or with another existing water system where no existing exclusive service area has been assigned, (B) the applicant will complete the construction or expansion in accordance with engineering standards established by regulation for water supply systems, (C) ownership of the system will be assigned to the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g, if agreeable to the exclusive service area provider and the Department of Public Health, or may remain with the applicant, if agreeable to the Department of Public Health, until such time as the water system for the exclusive service area, as determined by section 25-33g, has made an extension of the water main, after which the applicant shall obtain service from the provider for the exclusive service area, (D) the proposed construction or expansion will not result in a duplication of water service in the applicable service area, (E) the applicant meets all federal and state standards for water supply systems, (F) the person that will own the water supply system has the financial, managerial and technical resources to (i) operate the proposed water supply system in a reliable and efficient manner, and (ii) provide continuous adequate service to consumers served by the water supply system, (G) the proposed water supply system will not adversely affect the adequacy of nearby water supply systems, and (H) any existing or potential threat of pollution that the Department of Public Health deems to be adverse to public health will not affect any new source of water supply. Any construction or expansion with respect to which a certificate is required shall thereafter be built, maintained and operated in conformity with the certificate and any terms, limitation or conditions contained therein. Properties held by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and used for or in support of fish culture, natural resource conservation or outdoor recreational purposes shall be exempt from the requirements of subdivisions (1), (3) and (4) of subsection (c) of this section and subparagraphs (A), (C) and (D) of subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of this section.

      (2) The Department of Public Health shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of this subsection. Such regulations may include measures that encourage water conservation and proper maintenance.

      (P.A. 81-427, S. 1, 3; P.A. 84-330, S. 1; P.A. 86-247, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-245; 93-381, S. 9, 39; 93-435, S. 59, 95; P.A. 94-219, S. 3; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 98-250, S. 22, 39; P.A. 07-244, S. 1; P.A. 09-220, S. 1; P.A. 11-80, S. 1; 11-242, S. 69.)

      History: P.A. 84-330 amended Subsec. (a) to apply definition of water company "to sections 16-262n to 16-262q, inclusive, and section 8-25a", to include municipalities in such definition and to expand the definition by including companies supplying water to not less than 15 service connections or 25 persons nor more than 250 service connections or 1,000 persons, amended Subsec. (b) to require, as a condition for issuing a certificate that determination be made that no feasible interconnection with an existing system is available and that applicant meets all federal and state standards for community water supply and amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to require departments of public utility control and health services to jointly carry out purposes of the section; P.A. 86-247 added provision in Subsec. (b) re certificate for a community water supply system for an elderly housing project; P.A. 93-245 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting exception for elderly housing projects and adding provisions regarding excepted community water supply systems and voluntarily transferring ownership of community water supply systems; P.A. 93-381 and 93-435 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-219 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 98-250 amended Subsec. (a) to delete "nor more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons", amended Subsec. (b) to add exception re "a water company supplying more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons" and delete reference to "community" water supply systems, and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 07-244 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "water company" to include state agencies and substitute "for at least sixty days in any one year" for "on a regular basis", amended Subsec. (b) to limit its provisions to systems supplying water to 15 or more service connections or 25 or more persons, and to move provisions re application for certificate of public convenience and necessity into newly designated Subsec. (c), added provisions in new Subsec. (c) re agreement between water company and provider for exclusive service area, and factors to be used by department in determining whether to issue certificate, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and added Subsec. (e) specifying application requirements for systems serving 25 or more persons, but not 25 or more residents, and requiring adoption of regulations pertaining to such systems; P.A. 09-220 amended Subsec. (c) by providing that application for certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be accompanied by signed ownership agreement between applicant and exclusive service area provider when such provider has been determined pursuant to Sec. 25-33g, by requiring that, in applicable cases, application shall be accompanied by written confirmation from exclusive service area provider confirming receipt of application and that such provider is prepared to assume responsibility for water supply system, by revising criteria that departments consider when granting certificate of public convenience and necessity, by specifying that Subdiv. (3) is applicable when exclusive service area provider has been determined, by adding Subdiv. (6) re financial, managerial and technical resources required of owner of water system and by making conforming changes, amended Subsec. (d) by making a technical change and amended Subsec. (e)(1)(C) by deleting language re financial, managerial and technical resources required of owner of water system and redesignating such language as Subsec. (e)(1)(F); pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "Department of Public Utility Control" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" in Subsecs. (c) and (d), and "Department of Environmental Protection" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subsec. (e)(1), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-242 amended Subsec. (c) by adding Subdivs. (7) and (8), and amended Subsec. (e)(1) by adding Subparas. (G) and (H), re determination that proposed water supply system will not adversely affect adequacy of nearby water supply systems and that new water supply source will not be affected by threat of pollution.

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