CHAPTER 248
VEHICLE HIGHWAY USE

Table of Contents

Sec. 14-212a. Highway and municipal road construction zones, utility work zones and traffic incident management zones. Fines.
Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked or in violation of restriction concerning use of ignition interlock device. Penalty.
Sec. 14-223. Failing to stop when signaled or disobeying direction of officer. Increasing speed in attempt to escape or elude officer.
Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug or while having an elevated blood alcohol content.
Sec. 14-227f. Alcohol and drug addiction treatment program. Waiver. Appeal. Regulations.
Sec. 14-227j. Court order prohibiting operation of motor vehicle not equipped with ignition interlock device.
Sec. 14-227k. Avoidance of or tampering with ignition interlock device.
Sec. 14-230a. Restricted use of left-hand lane on divided limited access highways.
Sec. 14-252a. Removal of ice and snow from motor vehicle required. Penalty.
Sec. 14-253a. Special license plates and removable windshield placards for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities. Parking spaces. Penalty. Regulations.
Sec. 14-262. Width and length of vehicles. Exceptions. Permits.
Sec. 14-262b. Permits for operating or towing mobile homes. Width and length of vehicles.
Sec. 14-267a. Weight restrictions for vehicles, trailers or other objects. Highway weighing procedure. Penalties for overweight violations. Fines for failure to comply. Regulations.
Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties.
Sec. 14-270c. Official weighing areas. Staffing requirements.
Sec. 14-270d. Temporary closing of weigh stations.
Sec. 14-270e. Program to implement regularly scheduled and enforced hours of operation for weigh stations.
Sec. 14-270f. Weigh station logs.
Sec. 14-275. Equipment and color of school buses.
Sec. 14-276. School bus operators to hold a valid passenger and school endorsement. Duties of carrier re withdrawal, suspension or revocation of employee's operator's license or endorsement to operate a school bus or student transportation vehicle. Civil penalties.
Sec. 14-279. Vehicles to stop for school bus. Penalties. Written warning or summons.
Sec. 14-279a. Operation of school bus monitoring system by board of education or municipality. Vendor agreement. Report.
Sec. 14-279b. Review of evidence file. Summons. Defenses.
Sec. 14-280. Display of signs and signals by school bus and student transportation vehicle. Portable signs. Penalty.
Sec. 14-283. Rights and duties re emergency vehicles. Obstruction of emergency vehicle.
Sec. 14-283a. Adoption of state-wide policy for pursuits by police officers.
Sec. 14-296aa. Use of hand-held mobile telephones and mobile electronic devices by motor vehicle operators and school bus drivers prohibited or restricted. Exceptions. Penalties. Amounts remitted to municipality.

      Sec. 14-212a. Highway and municipal road construction zones, utility work zones and traffic incident management zones. Fines. (a) The Superior Court shall impose an additional fee equivalent to one hundred per cent of the fine established or imposed for the violation of the provisions of section 14-213, 14-213b, 14-214, 14-215, 14-216, 14-218a, 14-219, 14-220, 14-221, 14-222, 14-222a, 14-223, 14-224, 14-225, 14-227a, 14-230, 14-230a, 14-231, 14-232, 14-233, 14-235, 14-236, 14-237, 14-238, 14-238a, 14-239, 14-240, 14-240a, 14-241, 14-242, 14-243, 14-244, 14-245, 14-246a, 14-247, 14-247a, 14-248a, 14-249, 14-250, 14-250a, 14-257, 14-261, 14-266, 14-271, 14-273, 14-279, 14-281a, subsection (e) or (g) of section 14-283, section 14-289a or 14-289b for any such violation committed (1) while construction work is ongoing within a highway construction zone designated in a conspicuous manner by the Department of Transportation, (2) while construction work is ongoing within a municipal road construction zone designated in a conspicuous manner by such municipality, (3) while utility work is ongoing within a utility work zone designated in a conspicuous manner by a public service company, as defined in section 16-1, or by a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, or (4) while activities are ongoing in a traffic incident management zone.

      (b) (1) The Department of Transportation shall post a sign at the beginning of a highway construction zone which shall read as follows: "ROAD WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and at the end of such zone which shall read as follows: "END ROAD WORK".

      (2) A municipality shall post a sign at the beginning of a municipal road construction zone which shall read as follows: "ROAD WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and at the end of such zone which shall read as follows: "END ROAD WORK".

      (3) A public service company or water company shall post a sign at the beginning of a utility work zone which shall read as follows: "UTILITY WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED", and at the end of such zone which shall read as follows: "END UTILITY WORK".

      (4) As used in this section, "traffic incident management zone" refers to an area of a highway where temporary traffic controls or measures are installed under the authority of the Commissioner of Transportation, Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, or local traffic authority, as defined in section 14-297, in response to a motor vehicle incident, natural disaster, hazardous material spill or other unplanned incident. The traffic incident management zone shall be delineated by the use of one or more temporary traffic control devices or measures such as signs, cones, flares or visible flashing or revolving lights which meet the requirements of sections 14-96p and 14-96q.

      (c) The state or a municipality, or any agency or employee of the state or a municipality, shall not be civilly liable for any injuries or damages to any person or property which may result, either directly or indirectly, from failure on the part of the Department of Transportation or a municipality to post any sign required under subsection (b) of this section.

      (P.A. 95-181, S. 1; P.A. 98-196, S. 2; P.A. 08-101, S. 1; P.A. 11-51, S. 134; 11-256, S. 18.)

      History: P.A. 98-196 added utility work zones to areas where additional fines are imposed (Revisor's note: The Revisors reformatted Subsec. (b) to match the format of Sec. 14-212b(d) and in so doing inserted a comma following "ROAD WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED" and "UTILITY WORK AHEAD FINES DOUBLED"); P.A. 08-101 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re activities ongoing in traffic incident management zone and amended Subsec. (b) to add Subdiv. (3) defining "traffic incident management zone" and requiring delineation of such zone by use of certain traffic control devices or measures; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, "Commissioner of Public Safety" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection" in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-256 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re ongoing construction work in municipal road construction zone and insert numeric Subdiv. designators, amended Subsec. (b) to add new Subdiv. (2) re posting of signs by municipality and redesignate existing Subdivs. (2) and (3) as Subdivs. (3) and (4), and amended Subsec. (c) to include municipality.

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      Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked or in violation of restriction concerning use of ignition interlock device. Penalty. (a) No person to whom an operator's license has been refused, or, except as provided in section 14-215a, whose operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state has been suspended or revoked, shall operate any motor vehicle during the period of such refusal, suspension or revocation. No person shall operate or cause to be operated any motor vehicle, the registration of which has been refused, suspended or revoked, or any motor vehicle, the right to operate which has been suspended or revoked.

      (b) (1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall, for a first offense, be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars or more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than ninety days, or be both fined and imprisoned, and, for any subsequent offense, shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars or more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than one year, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (2) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in addition to the penalty prescribed under subdivision (1) of this subsection, any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section who (A) has, prior to the commission of the present violation, committed a violation of subsection (a) of this section or section 14-36 shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or sentenced to perform not more than one hundred hours of community service, or (B) has, prior to the commission of the present violation, committed two or more violations of subsection (a) of this section or section 14-36, or any combination thereof, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of one year, ninety days of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner.

      (c) (1) Any person who operates any motor vehicle during the period such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation on account of a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or pursuant to section 14-227b, or in violation of a restriction placed on such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a or pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of section 14-227j, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than one year, and, in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court, thirty consecutive days of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced in any manner.

      (2) Any person who operates any motor vehicle during the period such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation on account of a second violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or for the second time pursuant to section 14-227b, or in violation of a restriction placed for the second time on such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a or pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of section 14-227j, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than two years, and, in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court, one hundred twenty consecutive days of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced in any manner.

      (3) Any person who operates any motor vehicle during the period such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation on account of a third or subsequent violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or for the third or subsequent time pursuant to section 14-227b, or in violation of a restriction placed for the third or subsequent time on such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a or pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of section 14-227j, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than three years, and, in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court, one year of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced in any manner.

      (4) The court shall specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or the absence thereof.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2420; 1957, P.A. 421; P.A. 82-258; P.A. 83-534, S. 3; P.A. 85-387, S. 2; P.A. 89-314, S. 3, 5; P.A. 97-291, S. 4, 5; P.A. 03-233, S. 2; P.A. 04-257, S. 100; P.A. 05-215, S. 4; P.A. 07-167, S. 23, 40; P.A. 11-48, S. 56; 11-51, S. 221.)

      History: P.A. 82-258 increased the minimum penalty for a first offense from $100 to $150, and increased the maximum penalty for a subsequent offense from $500 to $600 and from three months to one year imprisonment; P.A. 83-534 added Subsec. (c) re increased penalties when the reason for the suspension or revocation was operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence, refusal to submit to a blood alcohol test or manslaughter or assault with a motor vehicle while intoxicated; P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (c) to increase from 5 to 30 days the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (c) to replace reference to a suspension or revocation "on account of a violation of subsection (d) or (f) of section 14-227b" with "pursuant to section 14-227b" and to specify that the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced is 30 "consecutive" days; P.A. 97-291 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the nonsuspendable sentence of 30 consecutive days is imposed in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court and to require the court to specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or absence thereof, effective July 8, 1997; P.A. 03-233 amended Subsec. (a) to add "except as provided in section 14-215a"; P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-215 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdiv. (2) re additional penalties for persons who have one or more prior violations of Subsec. (a) or Sec. 14-36; P.A. 07-167 amended Subsec. (b)(2)(B) by changing penalty from term of imprisonment of 90 days which may not be suspended or reduced to term of imprisonment of one year, 90 days of which may not be suspended or reduced and amended Subsec. (c) by designating existing penalty provisions as Subdiv. (1), adding Subdivs. (2) and (3) re penalties for second, third and subsequent violations and designating existing provisions re court record of mitigating circumstances as Subdiv. (4); P.A. 11-48 amended Subsec. (c) to make penalties in Subdivs. (1) to (3) applicable to person operating motor vehicle in violation of restriction placed on license or right to operate by commissioner pursuant to Sec. 14-227a(i) or pursuant to order of court under Sec. 14-227j(b), effective January 1, 2012; P.A. 11-51 made identical changes as P.A. 11-48, effective January 1, 2012.

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      Sec. 14-223. Failing to stop when signaled or disobeying direction of officer. Increasing speed in attempt to escape or elude officer. (a) Whenever the operator of any motor vehicle fails promptly to bring his motor vehicle to a full stop upon the signal of any officer in uniform or prominently displaying the badge of his office, or disobeys the direction of such officer with relation to the operation of his motor vehicle, he shall be deemed to have committed an infraction and be fined fifty dollars.

      (b) No person operating a motor vehicle, when signaled to stop by an officer in a police vehicle using an audible signal device or flashing or revolving lights, shall increase the speed of the motor vehicle in an attempt to escape or elude such police officer. Any person who violates this subsection shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor, except that, if such violation causes the death or serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person, such person shall be guilty of a class C felony, and shall have such person's motor vehicle operator's license suspended for one year for the first offense, except that the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may, after a hearing, as provided for in subsection (i) of section 14-111, and upon a showing of compelling mitigating circumstances, reinstate such person's license before the expiration of such one-year period. For any subsequent offense such person shall be guilty of a class C felony, except that if any prior offense by such person under this subsection caused, and such subsequent offense causes, the death or serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person, such person shall be guilty of a class C felony for which one year of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, and shall have such person's motor vehicle operator's license suspended for not less than eighteen months nor more than two years, except that said commissioner may, after a hearing, as provided for in subsection (i) of section 14-111, and upon a showing of compelling mitigating circumstances, reinstate such person's license before such period.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2409; P.A. 78-372, S. 3, 7; P.A. 82-189; 82-223, S. 15; P.A. 83-577, S. 21; P.A. 96-99; P.A. 99-171, S. 4, 5; P.A. 09-191, S. 1; P.A. 10-3, S. 62; P.A. 11-213, S. 35.)

      History: P.A. 78-372 added Subsec. (b) re attempts to elude police vehicles; P.A. 82-189 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting the reference to intentional disregard and endangerment and increasing the minimum penalties from a minimum fine of $100 to $500 and a minimum license suspension from two months to one year for a first offense and a minimum fine from $500 to $1,000 and a minimum license suspension from six to eighteen months for a subsequent offense; P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (a) by specifying that the commission of a first offense constituted an infraction, changing the fine from not less than $5 nor more than $25 to $25 for a first offense, and increasing the minimum fine for a subsequent offense from $10 to $25; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the fine for a first offense from $25 to $35 and the minimum fine for a subsequent offense from $25 to $35; P.A. 96-99 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the maximum fine from $1,000 to $2,000 and establishing a term of imprisonment of not more than one year for a first offense and by establishing a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than five years for a subsequent offense; P.A. 99-171 amended Subsec. (b) by making a violation of this section a class A misdemeanor and deleting specific fine limits and prison terms, by increasing the penalty for violation of this section when such violation causes death or serious injury, by providing for an additional penalty when there is more than one violation of this section causing death or serious injury, and by making technical changes, effective January 1, 2000; P.A. 09-191 amended Subsec. (b) to increase from a class D felony to a class C felony the penalty for first offense that causes death or serious physical injury, increase from a class D felony to a class C felony the penalty for any subsequent offense and increase from a class D felony with a 1-year mandatory minimum sentence to a class C felony with a 1-year mandatory minimum sentence the penalty for any subsequent offense that causes death or serious physical injury where prior offense also caused death or serious physical injury; P.A. 10-3 amended Subsec. (a) to replace fine of $35 for first offense and not less than $35 nor more than $50 for subsequent offense with fine of $50, effective April 14, 2010; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (b) to replace references to Sec. 14-111(k) with references to Sec. 14-111(i).

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      Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. (a) Operation while under the influence or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both. A person commits the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both if such person operates a motor vehicle (1) while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both, or (2) while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content. For the purposes of this section, "elevated blood alcohol content" means a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, except that if such person is operating a commercial motor vehicle, "elevated blood alcohol content" means a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is four-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and "motor vehicle" includes a snowmobile and all-terrain vehicle, as those terms are defined in section 14-379.

      (b) Admissibility of chemical analysis. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in any criminal prosecution for violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's breath, blood or urine shall be admissible and competent provided: (1) The defendant was afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and consented to the taking of the test upon which such analysis is made; (2) a true copy of the report of the test result was mailed to or personally delivered to the defendant within twenty-four hours or by the end of the next regular business day, after such result was known, whichever is later; (3) the test was performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and was performed in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (4) the device used for such test was checked for accuracy in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (5) an additional chemical test of the same type was performed at least ten minutes after the initial test was performed or, if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, an additional chemical test of a different type was performed to detect the presence of a drug or drugs other than or in addition to alcohol, provided the results of the initial test shall not be inadmissible under this subsection if reasonable efforts were made to have such additional test performed in accordance with the conditions set forth in this subsection and such additional test was not performed or was not performed within a reasonable time, or the results of such additional test are not admissible for failure to meet a condition set forth in this subsection; and (6) evidence is presented that the test was commenced within two hours of operation. In any prosecution under this section it shall be a rebuttable presumption that the results of such chemical analysis establish the ratio of alcohol in the blood of the defendant at the time of the alleged offense, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such defendant is ten-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and the analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense.

      (c) Evidence of blood alcohol content. In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, reliable evidence respecting the amount of alcohol in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's blood, breath or urine, otherwise admissible under subsection (b) of this section, shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant.

      (d) Testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine. The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall ascertain the reliability of each method and type of device offered for chemical testing and analysis purposes of blood, of breath and of urine and certify those methods and types which said commissioner finds suitable for use in testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine, respectively, in this state. The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples as said commissioner finds necessary to protect the health and safety of persons who submit to chemical tests and to insure reasonable accuracy in testing results. Such regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because such officer terminates such officer's employment with the law enforcement agency for which certification was originally issued and commences employment with another such agency.

      (e) Evidence of refusal to submit to test. In any criminal prosecution for a violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence that the defendant refused to submit to a blood, breath or urine test requested in accordance with section 14-227b shall be admissible provided the requirements of subsection (b) of said section have been satisfied. If a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section is tried to a jury, the court shall instruct the jury as to any inference that may or may not be drawn from the defendant's refusal to submit to a blood, breath or urine test.

      (f) Reduction, nolle or dismissal prohibited. If a person is charged with a violation of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the charge may not be reduced, nolled or dismissed unless the prosecuting authority states in open court such prosecutor's reasons for the reduction, nolle or dismissal.

      (g) Penalties for operation while under the influence. Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall: (1) For conviction of a first violation, (A) be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars, and (B) be (i) imprisoned not more than six months, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, or (ii) imprisoned not more than six months, with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely and a period of probation imposed requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for forty-five days and, as a condition for the restoration of such license, be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited for the one-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j; (2) for conviction of a second violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than one thousand dollars or more than four thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than two years, one hundred twenty consecutive days of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) (i) if such person is under twenty-one years of age at the time of the offense, have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for forty-five days or until the date of such person's twenty-first birthday, whichever is longer, and, as a condition for the restoration of such license, be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited for the three-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, or (ii) if such person is twenty-one years of age or older at the time of the offense, have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for forty-five days and, as a condition for the restoration of such license, be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited for the three-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j; and (3) for conviction of a third and subsequent violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than two thousand dollars or more than eight thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than three years, one year of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege permanently revoked upon such third offense. For purposes of the imposition of penalties for a second or third and subsequent offense pursuant to this subsection, a conviction under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section in effect on October 1, 1981, or as amended thereafter, a conviction under the provisions of either subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section, a conviction under the provisions of section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d, shall constitute a prior conviction for the same offense.

      (h) Suspension of operator's license or nonresident operating privilege. (1) Each court shall report each conviction under subsection (a) of this section to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of section 14-141. The commissioner shall suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of the person reported as convicted for the period of time required by subsection (g) of this section. The commissioner shall determine the period of time required by said subsection (g) based on the number of convictions such person has had within the specified time period according to such person's driving history record, notwithstanding the sentence imposed by the court for such conviction. (2) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who is under eighteen years of age shall be suspended by the commissioner for the period of time set forth in subsection (g) of this section, or until such person attains the age of eighteen years, whichever period is longer. (3) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who, at the time of the offense, was operating a motor vehicle in accordance with a special operator's permit issued pursuant to section 14-37a shall be suspended by the commissioner for twice the period of time set forth in subsection (g) of this section. (4) If an appeal of any conviction under subsection (a) of this section is taken, the suspension of the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege by the commissioner, in accordance with this subsection, shall be stayed during the pendency of such appeal.

      (i) Ignition interlock device. (1) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall permit a person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C) of subdivision (1) or subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section to operate a motor vehicle if (A) such person has served the suspension required under said subparagraph, notwithstanding that such person has not completed serving any suspension required under subsection (i) of section 14-227b, and (B) such person has installed an approved ignition interlock device in each motor vehicle owned or to be operated by such person. Except as provided in sections 53a-56b and 53a-60d, no person whose license is suspended by the commissioner for any other reason shall be eligible to operate a motor vehicle equipped with an approved ignition interlock device. (2) All costs of installing and maintaining an ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person required to install such device. No court sentencing a person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section may waive any fees or costs associated with the installation and maintenance of an ignition interlock device. (3) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this subsection. The regulations shall establish procedures for the approval of ignition interlock devices, for the proper calibration and maintenance of such devices and for the installation of such devices by any firm approved and authorized by the commissioner and shall specify acts by persons required to install and use such devices that constitute a failure to comply with the requirements for the installation and use of such devices, the conditions under which such noncompliance will result in an extension of the period during which such persons are restricted to the operation of motor vehicles equipped with such devices and the duration of any such extension. The commissioner shall ensure that such firm provide notice to both the commissioner and the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch whenever a person required to install such device commits a violation with respect to the installation, maintenance or use of such device. (4) The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to authorize the continued operation of a motor vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device by any person whose operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is withdrawn, suspended or revoked for any other reason. (5) The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C) of subdivision (1) or subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section on or after January 1, 2012. (6) Whenever a person is permitted by the commissioner under this subsection to operate a motor vehicle if such person has installed an approved ignition interlock device in each motor vehicle owned or to be operated by such person, the commissioner shall indicate in the electronic record maintained by the commissioner pertaining to such person's operator's license or driving history that such person is restricted to operating a motor vehicle that is equipped with an ignition interlock device and the duration of such restriction, and shall ensure that such electronic record is accessible by law enforcement officers. Any such person shall pay the commissioner a fee of one hundred dollars prior to the installation of such device. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require the commissioner to verify that each motor vehicle owned by such person has been equipped with such device. (7) There is established the ignition interlock administration account which shall be a separate, nonlapsing account in the General Fund. The commissioner shall deposit all fees paid pursuant to subdivision (6) of this subsection in the account. Funds in the account may be used by the commissioner for the administration of this subsection. (8) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, upon request of any person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section whose operator's license is under suspension on January 1, 2012, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may reduce the term of suspension prescribed in subsection (g) of this section and place a restriction on the operator's license of such person that restricts the holder of such license to the operation of a motor vehicle that is equipped with an approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, for the remainder of such prescribed period of suspension. (9) Any person required to install an ignition interlock device under this section shall be supervised by personnel of the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch while such person is subject to probation supervision or by personnel of the Department of Motor Vehicles if such person is not subject to probation supervision, and such person shall be subject to any other terms and conditions as the commissioner may prescribe and any provision of the general statutes or the regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection not inconsistent herewith. (10) Notwithstanding the periods prescribed in subsection (g) of this section and subdivision (2) of subsection (k) of section 14-111 during which a person is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, such periods may be extended in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection.

      (j) Participation in alcohol education and treatment program. In addition to any fine or sentence imposed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, the court may order such person to participate in an alcohol education and treatment program.

      (k) Seizure and admissibility of medical records of injured operator. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the blood or urine of an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who has suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, which evidence is derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by such person after such accident at the scene of the accident, while en route to a hospital or at a hospital, shall be competent evidence to establish probable cause for the arrest by warrant of such person for a violation of subsection (a) of this section and shall be admissible and competent in any subsequent prosecution thereof if: (1) The blood sample was taken or the urine sample was provided for the diagnosis and treatment of such injury; (2) if a blood sample was taken, the blood sample was taken in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (3) a police officer has demonstrated to the satisfaction of a judge of the Superior Court that such officer has reason to believe that such person was operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both and that the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample constitutes evidence of the commission of the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both in violation of subsection (a) of this section; and (4) such judge has issued a search warrant in accordance with section 54-33a authorizing the seizure of the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample. Such search warrant may also authorize the seizure of the medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury.

      (l) Participation in victim impact panel program. If the court sentences a person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section to a period of probation, the court may require as a condition of such probation that such person participate in a victim impact panel program approved by the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Department. Such victim impact panel program shall provide a nonconfrontational forum for the victims of alcohol-related or drug-related offenses and offenders to share experiences on the impact of alcohol-related or drug-related incidents in their lives. Such victim impact panel program shall be conducted by a nonprofit organization that advocates on behalf of victims of accidents caused by persons who operated a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both. Such organization may assess a participation fee of not more than twenty-five dollars on any person required by the court to participate in such program.

      (1963, P.A. 616, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 219; 1967, P.A. 612, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 450, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 318; 741; P.A. 73-253, S. 4; P.A. 75-308, S. 1; P.A. 76-6, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-340, S. 8; 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 80-438, S. 2, 3; P.A. 81-144, S. 1, 2; 81-446, S. 2; P.A. 82-408, S. 2; P.A. 83-63, S. 1-3; 83-534, S. 1; 83-571, S. 4; P.A. 84-198, S. 3, 7; 84-429, S. 40; 84-546, S. 43, 173; P.A. 85-387, S. 1; 85-596, S. 1; P.A. 86-345; P.A. 88-85; 88-302; P.A. 89-110, S. 4; 89-314, S. 2, 5; P.A. 90-230, S. 21, 101; P.A. 91-407, S. 9, 42; P.A. 93-271, S. 2, 3; 93-302, S. 1-3; 93-371, S. 2, 4, 5; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-60; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 18, 130; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-314, S. 1; P.A. 99-218, S. 3, 4, 16; 99-255, S. 1; P.A. 00-196, S. 49, 50; P.A. 01-201, S. 1; P.A. 02-70, S. 69; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 108; P.A. 03-265, S. 1; 03-278, S. 47; P.A. 04-199, S. 31; 04-257, S. 101; P.A. 05-218, S. 28; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 111; P.A. 06-147, S. 1; P.A. 09-187, S. 42, 62, 66; P.A. 10-110, S. 6, 45, 46; P.A. 11-48, S. 51, 52; 11-51, S. 134, 216, 217.)

      History: 1965 act added district roads to Subsec. (a); 1967 act prohibited operation of vehicle while under influence of both liquor and intoxicating drug in Subsec. (a); 1969 act included in prohibition operation of vehicle on private roads with established speed limits; 1971 acts included in prohibition operation of vehicle in parking area for ten or more cars, reduced alcohol in blood level from 0.15% to 0.10% of alcohol and clarified evidential aspect of test results in Subsec. (c)(2) and increased minimum fine from $100 to $150; P.A. 73-253 included in prohibition of Subsec. (a) operation of vehicle on school property; P.A. 75-308 amended Subsec. (b)(4) to require testing of device at beginning and end of workday rather than within 30 days of test and immediately after test administered; P.A. 76-6 included reference to amount of drug in system under Subsec. (b) and to urine tests under Subsecs. (b) and (d); P.A. 77-340 replaced reference to Sec. 14-219 in Subsec. (a) with reference to Sec. 14-218a; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner and department of health with commissioner and department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-438 allowed administering of test by emergency medical technician II; P.A. 81-144 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the department of health services to certify individuals other than health services department personnel to check test devices for accuracy; P.A. 81-446 added the requirements that two tests be performed, with the second test performed not less than 30 or more than 40 minutes after the first test, and that evidence be presented which demonstrates that the test results accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense in Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re participation in an alcohol education and treatment program in lieu of the 2-day minimum mandatory sentence, and re violations charged to persons arrested for a second or subsequent violation of section, with a blood alcohol ratio of at least 0.10% or more of alcohol at the time of the alleged offense; P.A. 82-408 eliminated two test requirement in Subsec. (b), added provision in Subsec. (e) re mandatory 2-day sentence if blood alcohol test indicates ratio of alcohol in blood was 0.20% or more of alcohol and changed 2-day minimum mandatory sentence for second offenders to 30-day sentence served by performing community service on fifteen weekends, such service to be approved by office of adult probation, amended Subsec. (f) by changing "in lieu of" to "in addition to" and eliminated consent and payment requirement for participation and added Subsec. (h) providing for 24-hour revocation of license by arresting police officer; P.A. 83-63 amended Subsec. (b) to allow test reports to be personally delivered to the defendant by the close of the next business day, if later than 24 hours and authorized the performance of such tests by persons recertified by persons certified by the commissioner of health services and amended Subsec. (d) to provide regulations for annual recertification of operators; P.A. 83-534 inserted a new Subsec. (b) re operation while impaired, amended Subsec. (c) to permit the test result to be "personally delivered" to the defendant within 24 hours "or by the end of the next regular business day", whichever is later, and to provide that the initial test results will not be excluded if the police made reasonable efforts to have an additional test performed but it was not performed within a reasonable time, amended Subsec. (d) to specify the blood alcohol content that constitutes impairment, inserted a new Subsec. (f) re the admissibility into evidence of a defendant's refusal to submit to a test, inserted a new Subsec. (g) re a prohibition on reducing, nolleing or dismissing the charge, inserted a new Subsec. (h) to replace former penalties for operation while under the influence with new penalties, inserted a new Subsec. (i) re the penalty for operating while impaired, inserted a new Subsec. (j) re the suspension of the operator's license of a person found guilty of operating while under the influence, and relettered the intervening and remaining subsections accordingly; P.A. 83-571 amended new Subsec. (h) to increase the period of license suspension provided in P.A. 83-534 from 6 months to 1 year for a first offense and from 1 year to 2 years for a second offense; P.A. 84-198 amended Subsec. (f) by replacing "the case" with "a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section"; P.A. 84-429 rephrased provisions and made other technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b); P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (i); P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalty for a first violation by mandating a term of imprisonment, 48 consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced on any manner, or a term of 100 hours of community service, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a second violation from 48 consecutive hours to 10 days, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a third violation from 30 to 120 days, and to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within 5 years after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that person commits offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is 0.10% or more of alcohol, by weight", amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the defendant be afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and that the test be performed by or at the direction of a police officer, to make an additional test mandatory rather than optional, to insert "and the analysis thereof" in Subdiv. (6) and to delete the requirement that additional competent evidence be presented bearing on the question of whether or not the defendant was under the influence, amended Subsec. (d) to replace provisions concerning the weight to be given to evidence of certain percentages of blood-alcohol content with provision that in prosecution for violation of Subsec. (a)(1) such evidence shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant, and amended Subsec. (h) to provide that a conviction under either Subdiv. (1) or (2) of Subsec. (a) constitutes a prior offense; P.A. 86-345 added Subsec. (m) re the seizure, admissibility and competency of evidence derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from an injured operator at a hospital; P.A. 88-85 amended Subsec. (c)(4) to require that the device be checked for accuracy immediately before and after the test was performed rather than at the beginning of each workday and no later than the end of each workday; P.A. 88-302 amended Subsec. (h) to provide that the performance of community service for conviction of a first violation is to be as a condition of probation imposed in connection with a sentence to a term of imprisonment of not more than six months with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely; P.A. 89-110 amended Subsec. (h) to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2) and to provide that for purposes of the penalty for a subsequent offense after a prior conviction for the same offense a conviction under Sec. 53a-56b or 53a-60d constitutes a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (h) to insert "consecutive" in Subdivs. (2) and (3) and deleted Subsec. (l) re the 24-hour revocation by the arresting police officer of the license of a person with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.10% or more, and relettered the remaining Subsec. accordingly; P.A. 90-230 made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 91-407 amended Subsec. (l)(2) by adding "a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state" and made technical change in Subsec. (l)(3); P.A. 93-271 amended Subsec. (e) to provide that regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because he transfers from one law enforcement agency to another, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 93-302 amended Subsecs. (c) and (l) by adding phlebotomists to the list of persons qualified to take blood samples and added Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist"; P.A. 93-371 amended Subsec. (c)(6) to require that evidence be presented "that the test was commenced within two hours of operation" rather than that evidence be presented "which demonstrates that the test results and analysis thereof accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense" and to add provision establishing a rebuttable presumption that the results of the chemical analysis indicate the blood alcohol ratio at the time of the alleged offense and requiring additional evidence be presented when the results of the additional test indicate a blood alcohol ratio of 0.12% or less and is higher than the results of the first test and added Subsec. (j)(3) re the period of suspension for a person who, at the time of the offense, was operating under a special operator's permit issued pursuant to Sec. 14-37a, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-60 amended Subsec. (l) to authorize the taking of a blood sample "at the scene of the accident" or "while en route to the hospital" rather than only "at a hospital", to delete the requirement in Subdiv. (1) that the blood sample be taken "in the regular course of business of the hospital" and to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2); May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical change, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-314 amended Subsec. (c)(5) to allow an additional chemical test of a different type to be performed if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, amended Subsec. (d) to eliminate reference to drugs, and amended Subsec. (h)(2) to (4), inclusive, to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within 10 years, in lieu of 5 years, after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 99-218 amended Subsecs. (c) and (e) by replacing the Department and Commissioner of Public Health with the Department and Commissioner of Public Safety and by making technical changes, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-255 amended Subsec. (a) to replace the prohibition in Subdiv. (2) of operating a motor vehicle "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is 0.10% or more of alcohol, by weight" with "while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content" and added definition of "elevated blood alcohol content", amended Subsec. (c)(3) to require that the test be performed "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section", replacing provisions that required the test be performed by persons certified or recertified by the Department of Public Health or recertified by persons certified as instructors by the commissioner of said department and that required a blood test be taken by a physician, phlebotomist, qualified laboratory technician, emergency medical technician II or registered nurse, and amended Subsec. (c)(4) to require that the device was checked for accuracy "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "immediately before and after such test was performed by a person certified by the Department of Public Health", amended Subsec. (e) to make provisions applicable to methods and types of devices for the "analysis" of blood, breath and urine and to replace provision that required the Commissioner of Public Health to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, and the training, certification and annual recertification of operators of such devices" with provision that required the "Commissioner of Public Safety, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health" to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples", amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalties for a second violation by increasing the fine from not less than $500 nor more than $2,000 to not less than $1,000 nor more than $4,000, increasing the term of imprisonment from a maximum of 1 year with a nonsuspendable period of 10 consecutive days to a maximum of 2 years with a nonsuspendable period of 120 consecutive days, adding the requirement that the person perform 100 hours of community service as a condition of probation, and increasing the license suspension from 2 years to "three years or until the date of such person's twenty-first birthday, whichever is longer", to increase the penalties for a third and subsequent violation by deleting former Subdiv. (3) that had specified penalties for a third violation, renumbering former Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (3), amending said Subdiv. (3) to make the penalties applicable to a "third and subsequent violation" rather than a "fourth and subsequent violation" and add requirement that the person perform 100 hours of community service as a condition of probation, and to add provision that "a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or 53a-56b or 53a-60d" constitutes a prior conviction, amended Subsec. (i) to change the penalty from an infraction to a fine of not more than $200, amended Subsec. (j) to replace provisions of Subdiv. (1) requiring that the suspension take effect immediately upon the expiration of the appeal period, providing that the suspension is stayed during the appeal and requiring the defendant to send his license or nonresident operating privilege to the department when the suspension takes effect, with new provisions requiring each court to report each conviction to the department and requiring the commissioner to suspend the license or nonresident operating privilege for the time period required by Subsec. (h), to add Subdiv. (4) requiring the license of a convicted person to indicate that such person is an at-risk operator and defining "at-risk operator" and to add Subdiv. (5) providing that the suspension by the commissioner is stayed during the pendency of an appeal of a conviction, amended Subsec. (l) to make provisions applicable to evidence from an analysis of a urine sample from the injured operator, to require in Subdiv. (2) that the blood sample was taken "in accordance with regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "by a person licensed to practice medicine in this state, a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state, a phlebotomist, a qualified laboratory technician, an emergency medical technician II or a registered nurse", and to add provision that the search warrant may also authorize the seizure of medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury, deleted former Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist", and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsecs. (h) and (l); P.A. 01-201 added Subsec. (m) to authorize the court to require participation in a victim impact panel program as a condition of probation; P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (j)(1) by adding provision requiring that commissioner determine the applicable suspension period based on the number of convictions on the person's driving history record, notwithstanding the sentence imposed by the court for such conviction, deleting former Subdiv. (4) re mandatory indication of "at-risk operator" on reverse side of operator's license and redesignating existing Subdiv. (5) as Subdiv. (4), effective July 1, 2002; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsec. (a) to reduce ratio of alcohol in blood from 0.10% to 0.08% or more of alcohol in definition of "elevated blood alcohol content" and eliminated from such definition Subpara. (A) designator and provisions of Subpara. (B) "if such person has been convicted of a violation of this subsection, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is 0.07% or more of alcohol, by weight", deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (i) re offense of operation while impaired and fine for violation, redesignated existing Subsecs. (c) to (h) as Subsecs. (b) to (g) and existing Subsecs. (j) to (m) as Subsecs. (h) to (k),amended redesignated Subsec. (d) to eliminate reference to Commissioner of Public Health in adopting regulations re chemical tests, and made technical changes throughout, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-265 amended Subsec. (g)(2)(C) to designate existing provision re duration of suspension as clause (i) and to add clause (ii) re license suspension of 1 year followed by a prohibition for 2 years on operating a motor vehicle unless the motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device if the person is convicted of a violation of Subsec. (a)(1) on account of being under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of Subsec. (a)(2); P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subsec. (g), effective July 9, 2003; P.A. 04-199 made a technical change in Subsec. (g), added new Subsec. (i) re installation of an ignition interlock device and redesignated existing Subsecs. (i) to (k) as new Subsecs. (j) to (l), respectively, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-257 made a technical change in Subsec. (g), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (i) by inserting "passenger" re motor vehicle and removing provision re no enrollment in treatment program or obtained waiver in Subdiv. (1), deleting former Subdiv. (2) re condition rendering person incapable of safely operating a motor vehicle, redesignating existing Subdivs. (3) to (6) as new Subdivs. (2) to (5) and, in new Subdiv. (4), inserting "for any other reason"; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (i)(1) by deleting the word "passenger" added by P.A. 05-218; P.A. 06-147 amended Subsec. (a) to delete requirement that the motor vehicle be operated on public highway of state or on road of specified district organized under the provisions of chapter 105 or on private road on which a speed limit has been established pursuant to Sec. 14-218a or in parking area for ten or more cars or on school property, and defined "motor vehicle" to include snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles; P.A. 09-187 amended Subsec. (a) to establish elevated blood alcohol content of .04 for person operating commercial motor vehicle, amended Subsec. (b)(5) to decrease minimum interval between initial test and additional test from 30 minutes to 10 minutes, amended Subsec. (b)(6) to lower exception to rebuttable presumption from .12 or less to .10 or less, and amended Subsec. (i) to insert "Except as provided in sections 53a-56b and 53a-60d" in Subdiv. (1) and to add Subdiv. (6) requiring commissioner to indicate restrictions re ignition interlock device in electronic record of person's operator's license or driving history and to make such record accessible by law enforcement officers; P.A. 10-110 amended Subsec. (i) to establish $100 fee prior to installation of device in Subdiv. (6) and add Subdiv. (7) re establishment of account for administration of subsection, effective July 1, 2010, and amended Subsec. (g)(2) to make provisions of Subpara. (C)(i) applicable to person under age 21 at time of offense and prohibit any such person for 2-year period following completion of suspension period from operating motor vehicle unless vehicle is equipped with ignition interlock device and to make provisions of Subpara. (C)(ii) applicable to person age 21 or older at time of offense and delete applicability to person convicted of violation of Subsec. (a)(1) or (2), and further amended Subsec. (i) to insert "(C)(i) or" in Subdivs. (1) and (5) and replace requirement that person has served not less than 1 year of suspension with requirement that person has served suspension required under subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii) in Subdiv. (1)(A), effective October 1, 2010; P.A. 11-48 amended Subsec. (g) by revising Subdiv. (1)(C) to reduce suspension period from 1 year to 45 days, add condition for license restoration that person install ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and prohibit person for 1-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless it is equipped with such a device, by revising Subdiv. (2)(C)(i) to reduce suspension period from 3 years to 45 days, add condition for license restoration that person install ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person, increase from 2 years to 3 years the period such person is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless it is equipped with such a device and provide that such period runs from "such restoration" rather than "completion of such period of suspension" and by revising Subdiv. (2)(C)(ii) to reduce suspension period from 1 year to 45 days, add condition for license restoration that such person install ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person, increase from 2 years to 3 years the period such person is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless it is equipped with such a device and provide that such period runs from "such restoration" rather than "completion of such period of suspension", and amended Subsec. (i) by revising Subdiv. (1) to include person whose license has been suspended in accordance with Subsec. (g)(1)(C), replace "said subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii)" with "said subparagraph" and include person who has served required suspension "notwithstanding that such person has not completed serving any suspension required under subsection (i) of section 14-227b", by revising Subdiv. (2) to prohibit court from waiving fees or costs associated with installation and maintenance of ignition interlock device, by revising Subdiv. (3) to require regulations to specify acts that constitute noncompliance re installation and use of device, conditions that will result in extension of restriction and duration of any such extension and add provision re notice by firm when person commits violation with respect to installation, maintenance or use of device, by revising Subdiv. (5) to make Subsec. applicable to person whose license has been suspended in accordance with Subsec. (g)(1)(C) and to suspension on or after "January 1, 2012" rather than "September 1, 2003", by revising Subdiv. (6) to add provision that nothing in Subsec. shall be construed to require commissioner to verify that each motor vehicle owned by such person has been equipped with such device, and by adding Subdiv. (8) re authority of commissioner to reduce term of suspension for person whose license is under suspension on January 1, 2012, and restrict person to operation of motor vehicle with ignition interlock device for remainder of prescribed period of suspension, Subdiv. (9) re agency responsible for supervision of persons required to install ignition interlock device and Subdiv. (10) re extension of periods of restricted operation, effective January 1, 2012; P.A. 11-51 made identical changes as P.A. 11-48, effective January 1, 2012; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, "Commissioner of Public Safety" and "Department of Public Safety" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection" and "Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection", respectively, in Subsecs. (b) and (d), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-227f. Alcohol and drug addiction treatment program. Waiver. Appeal. Regulations. Section 14-227f is repealed, effective January 1, 2012.

      (P.A. 95-314, S. 5; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 112; P.A. 03-244, S. 10; 03-265, S. 12, 21; P.A. 09-140, S. 3; 09-187, S. 6; P.A. 11-48, S. 307; 11-51, S. 224; 11-213, S. 36.)

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      Sec. 14-227j. Court order prohibiting operation of motor vehicle not equipped with ignition interlock device. (a) For the purposes of this section and section 14-227k: "Ignition interlock device" means a device installed in a motor vehicle that measures the blood alcohol content of the operator and disallows the mechanical operation of such motor vehicle until the blood alcohol content of such operator is less than twenty-five thousandths of one per cent.

      (b) Any person who has been arrested for a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a, section 53a-56b, or section 53a-60d, may be ordered by the court not to operate any motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device. Any such order may be made as a condition of such person's release on bail, as a condition of probation or as a condition of granting such person's application for participation in the pretrial alcohol education program under section 54-56g and may include any other terms and conditions as to duration, use, proof of installation or any other matter that the court determines to be appropriate or necessary.

      (c) All costs of installing and maintaining an ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person who is the subject of an order made pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) No ignition interlock device shall be installed pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of this section unless such device has been approved under the regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a.

      (e) No provision of this section shall be construed to authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose motor vehicle operator's license has been refused, suspended or revoked, or who does not hold a valid motor vehicle operator's license. A court shall inform the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of each order made by it pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. If any person who has been ordered not to operate a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device is the holder of a special operator's permit issued by the commissioner under the provisions of section 14-37a, strict compliance with the terms of the order shall be deemed a condition to hold such permit, and any failure to comply with such order shall be sufficient cause for immediate revocation of the permit by the commissioner.

      (P.A. 03-265, S. 2; P.A. 04-199, S. 32; P.A. 05-218, S. 29; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 112; P.A. 06-152, S. 10; P.A. 10-18, S. 2; 10-30, S. 3; P.A. 11-213, S. 37.)

      History: P.A. 04-199 deleted provisions re approval and use of immobilization devices on vehicles owned, leased or operated by persons arrested for specified violations and made conforming changes throughout; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "passenger" re motor vehicle; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "passenger" added by P.A. 05-218, effective June 30, 2005; P.A. 06-152 amended Subsec. (b) by authorizing court order as a condition of probation; P.A. 10-18 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing "system" with "program"; P.A. 10-30 amended Subsec. (b) to make the same change as P.A. 10-18, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (e) to replace provision re special permit for employment purposes with provision re special operator's permit, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-227k. Avoidance of or tampering with ignition interlock device. (a) No person whose right to operate a motor vehicle has been restricted pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of section 14-227j or by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a shall (1) request or solicit another person to blow into an ignition interlock device or to start a motor vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device for the purpose of providing such person with an operable motor vehicle, or (2) operate any motor vehicle not equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device or any motor vehicle that a court has ordered such person not to operate.

      (b) No person shall tamper with, alter or bypass the operation of an ignition interlock device for the purpose of providing an operable motor vehicle to a person whose right to operate a motor vehicle has been restricted pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of section 14-227j or by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a.

      (c) (1) Any person who violates any provision of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) or subsection (b) of this section shall be guilty of a class C misdemeanor.

      (2) Any person who violates any provision of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the penalties set forth in subsection (c) of section 14-215.

      (d) Each court shall report each conviction under subsection (a) or (b) of this section to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of section 14-141. The commissioner shall suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of the person reported as convicted for a period of one year.

      (P.A. 03-265, S. 3; P.A. 04-199, S. 33; P.A. 11-48, S. 55; 11-51, S. 220.)

      History: P.A. 04-199 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to make provisions applicable to a person whose right to operate a motor vehicle has been restricted by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to Sec. 14-227a(i) and amended Subsec. (b) to delete reference to an immobilization device; P.A. 11-48 amended Subsec. (c) to designate existing provision as Subdiv. (1) and amend same to make applicable to person who violates "subdivision (1) of subsection (a) or subsection (b) of this section", rather than "subsection (a) or (b) of this section", and to add Subdiv. (2) subjecting person who violates Subsec. (a)(2) to penalties of Sec. 14-215(c), effective January 1, 2012; P.A. 11-51 made identical changes as P.A. 11-48, effective January 1, 2012.

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      Sec. 14-230a. Restricted use of left-hand lane on divided limited access highways. On any divided limited access highway which provides more than two lanes for traffic proceeding in the same direction, no operator of any motor vehicle with a commercial registration, motor bus, vehicle with trailer or school bus shall drive in the extreme left lane where the State Traffic Commission so designates, except on the direction of a police officer or except when access to or egress from such highway is provided on the left, in which latter case such operator shall drive in such left lane only for such period as is reasonably necessary to enter or leave such highway safely. Any person who violates any provision of this section shall have committed an infraction and shall be fined eighty-eight dollars.

      (1967, P.A. 740; P.A. 75-577, S. 77, 126; P.A. 87-525, S. 1; P.A. 90-263, S. 68, 74; P.A. 11-213, S. 38.)

      History: P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for $100 maximum fine with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 87-525 amended the penalty provision to require imposition of a fine of $88; P.A. 90-263 substituted "motor vehicle with a commercial registration" for "commercial motor vehicle"; P.A. 11-213 added "school bus" and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-252a. Removal of ice and snow from motor vehicle required. Penalty. (a) The operator of any noncommercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, shall remove any accumulated ice or snow from such motor vehicle, including the hood, trunk and roof of such motor vehicle, so that any ice or snow accumulated on such vehicle does not pose a threat to persons or property while the vehicle is being operated on any street or highway of this state. Any such operator who fails to remove accumulated ice or snow that poses such a threat shall be fined seventy-five dollars.

      (b) If the operator of a noncommercial motor vehicle violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section and snow or ice is dislodged from such vehicle and causes personal injury or property damage, such operator shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars but not more than one thousand dollars for each offense.

      (c) On and after December 31, 2013, the operator of any commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, shall remove any accumulated ice or snow from such motor vehicle, including the hood, trunk and roof of such motor vehicle, so that any ice or snow accumulated on such vehicle does not pose a threat to persons or property while the vehicle is being operated on any street or highway of this state. Any such operator who fails to remove accumulated ice or snow that poses such a threat shall be fined seventy-five dollars.

      (d) On and after December 31, 2013, if the operator of a commercial motor vehicle violates the provisions of subsection (c) of this section and snow or ice is dislodged from such vehicle and causes personal injury or property damage, such operator shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars but not more than twelve hundred fifty dollars for each offense.

      (e) This section shall not apply to (1) any operator of a motor vehicle during a period of snow, sleet or freezing rain if such period began and continued during the period of the motor vehicle's operation, or (2) any operator of a motor vehicle during the time such vehicle is parked.

      (P.A. 10-182, S. 1; P.A. 11-256, S. 19, 56.)

      History: P.A. 10-182 effective December 31, 2013; P.A. 11-256 changed effective date of P.A. 10-182, S. 1, from December 31, 2013, to October 1, 2011, made Subsec. (a) applicable to noncommercial vehicle operators, made technical changes and deleted provision re commercial vehicles in Subsec. (b), added new Subsecs. (c) and (d) re requirements and fines applicable to commercial vehicle operators on and after December 31, 2013, and redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (e).

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      Sec. 14-253a. Special license plates and removable windshield placards for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities. Parking spaces. Penalty. Regulations. (a) For the purposes of this section:

      (1) "Special license plate" means a license plate displaying the international symbol of access in a size identical to that of the letters or numerals on the plate and in a color that contrasts with the background color of the plate;

      (2) "Removable windshield placard" means a two-sided, hanger-style placard which bears on both of its sides: (A) The international symbol of access in a height of three inches or more centered on such placard and colored white on a blue background; (B) a unique identification number; (C) a date of expiration; and (D) a statement indicating that the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles issued such placard;

      (3) "Temporary removable windshield placard" means a placard that is the same as a removable windshield placard except that the international symbol of access appears on a red background; and

      (4) "Person with disabilities" means a person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, as defined in 23 CFR Section 1235.2.

      (b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall accept applications and renewal applications for removable windshield placards from (1) any person who is blind, as defined in section 1-1f; (2) any person with disabilities; (3) any parent or guardian of any person who is blind or any person with disabilities, if such person is under eighteen years of age at the time of application; (4) any parent or guardian of any person who is blind or any person with disabilities, if such person is unable to request or complete an application; and (5) any organization which meets criteria established by the commissioner and which certifies to the commissioner's satisfaction that the vehicle for which a placard is requested is primarily used to transport persons who are blind or persons with disabilities. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, on and after October 1, 2011, the commissioner shall not accept applications for special license plates, but shall accept renewal applications for such plates that were issued prior to October 1, 2011. No person shall be issued a placard in accordance with this section unless such person is the holder of a valid motor vehicle operator's license, or identification card issued in accordance with the provisions of section 1-1h. The commissioner is authorized to adopt regulations for the issuance of placards to persons who, by reason of hardship, do not hold or cannot obtain an operator's license or identification card. The commissioner shall maintain a record of each placard issued to any such person. Such applications and renewal applications shall be on a form prescribed by the commissioner. In the case of persons with disabilities, the application and renewal application shall include: (A) Certification by a licensed physician, a physician assistant, or an advanced practice registered nurse licensed in accordance with the provisions of chapter 378, that the applicant is disabled; (B) certification by a licensed physician, a physician assistant, an advanced practice registered nurse licensed in accordance with the provisions of chapter 378, or a member of the driver training unit for persons with disabilities established pursuant to section 14-11b, that the applicant meets the definition of a person with a disability which limits or impairs the ability to walk, as defined in 23 CFR Section 1235.2. In the case of persons who are blind, the application or renewal application shall include certification of legal blindness made by the Bureau of Rehabilitative Services, an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. Any person who makes a certification required by this subsection shall sign the application or renewal application under penalty of false statement pursuant to section 53a-157b. The commissioner, in said commissioner's discretion, may accept the discharge papers of a disabled veteran, as defined in section 14-254, in lieu of such certification. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may require additional certification at the time of the original application or at any time thereafter. If a person who has been requested to submit additional certification fails to do so within thirty days of the request, or if such additional certification is deemed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles to be unfavorable to the applicant, the commissioner may refuse to issue or, if already issued, suspend or revoke such special license plate or placard. The commissioner shall not issue more than one placard per applicant. The fee for the issuance of a temporary removable windshield placard shall be five dollars. Any person whose application has been denied or whose special license plate or placard has been suspended or revoked shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (c) Any person who meets the requirements to obtain a removable windshield placard pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and who has a motorcycle registered in such person's name shall be issued, upon approval of the application, number plates in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of section 14-21b, which shall bear letters or numerals or any combination thereof followed by the international access symbol. The registration of any motorcycle for which a special license plate is issued shall expire and be renewed as provided in section 14-22 and be subject to the fee provisions of section 14-49. No person shall be issued such number plates for the registration of more than two motorcycles. Any person eligible to obtain a special license plate pursuant to this section who transfers the expired registration of a motorcycle owned by such person and replaces such number plate with a special license plate shall be exempt from payment of any fee for such transfer or replacement. A person who obtains a special plate or plates under this subsection may also obtain a removable windshield placard in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) Any placard issued pursuant to this section shall be displayed by hanging it from the front windshield rearview mirror of the vehicle when utilizing a parking space reserved for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities. If there is no rearview mirror in such vehicle, the placard shall be displayed in clear view on the dashboard of such vehicle.

      (e) Vehicles displaying a special license plate or a placard issued pursuant to this section or by authorities of other states or countries for the purpose of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize parking spaces reserved for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities, shall be allowed to park in an area where parking is legally permissible, for an unlimited period of time without penalty, notwithstanding the period of time indicated as lawful by any (1) parking meter, or (2) sign erected and maintained in accordance with the provisions of chapter 249, provided the operator of or a passenger in such motor vehicle is a person who is blind or a person with disabilities. A placard shall not be displayed on any motor vehicle when such vehicle is not being operated by or carrying as a passenger a person who is blind or a person with disabilities to whom the placard was issued. Vehicles bearing a special license plate shall not utilize parking spaces reserved for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities when such vehicles are not being operated by or carrying as a passenger a person who is blind or a person with disabilities to whom such special license plate was issued.

      (f) Only those motor vehicles displaying a plate or placard issued pursuant to this section shall be authorized to park in public or private areas reserved for exclusive use by persons who are blind or persons with disabilities, except that any ambulance, as defined in section 19a-175, which is transporting a patient may park in such area for a period not to exceed fifteen minutes while assisting such patient. Any motor vehicle parked in violation of the provisions of this subsection for the third or subsequent time shall be subject to being towed from such designated area. Such vehicle shall be impounded until payment of any fines incurred is received. No person, firm or corporation engaged in the business of leasing or renting motor vehicles without drivers in this state may be held liable for any acts of the lessee constituting a violation of the provisions of this subsection.

      (g) The State Traffic Commission, on any state highway, or local traffic authority, on any highway or street under its control, shall establish parking spaces in parking areas for twenty or more cars in which parking shall be prohibited to all motor vehicles except vehicles displaying a special license plate or a placard issued pursuant to this section. Parking spaces in which parking shall be prohibited to all motor vehicles except vehicles displaying such special plate or placard shall be established in private parking areas for two hundred or more cars according to the following schedule:

Total Number Of
Parking Lot Spaces
Number of Special
Parking Spaces Required
          0 -   200
Exempt
      201 - 10001.0%
    1001 - 2000
 
10 plus 0.8% of spaces
over 1000
    2001 - 3000
 
18 plus 0.6% of spaces
over 2000
    3001 - 4000
 
24 plus 0.4% of spaces
over 3000
    4001 or more
 
28 plus 0.2% of spaces
over 4000

All such spaces shall be designated as reserved for exclusive use by persons who are blind and persons with disabilities and identified by the use of signs in accordance with subsection (h) of this section. Such parking spaces shall be adjacent to curb cuts or other unobstructed methods permitting sidewalk access to a person who is blind or a person with disabilities and shall be fifteen feet wide, including three feet of cross hatch, or be parallel to a sidewalk. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply (1) in the event the State Building Code imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of the private parking area in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required, or (2) in the event a municipal ordinance imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of existing private parking areas in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required.

      (h) Parking spaces designated for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities on or after October 1, 1979, and prior to October 1, 2004, shall be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and shall be fifteen feet wide including three feet of cross hatch, or parallel to a sidewalk on a public highway. On and after October 1, 2004, parking spaces for passenger motor vehicles designated for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities shall be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and shall be fifteen feet wide including five feet of cross hatch. On and after October 1, 2004, parking spaces for passenger vans designated for persons who are blind and persons with disabilities shall be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and shall be sixteen feet wide including eight feet of cross hatch. Such spaces shall be designated by above grade signs with white lettering against a blue background and shall bear the words "handicapped parking permit required" and "violators will be fined". Such sign shall also bear the international symbol of access. When such a sign is replaced, repaired or erected it shall indicate the minimum fine for a violation of subsection (f) of this section. Such indicator may be in the form of a notice affixed to such a sign.

      (i) Any public parking garage or terminal, as defined in the State Building Code, constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 2004, shall have nine feet six inches' vertical clearance at a primary entrance and along the route to at least two parking spaces which conform with the requirements of subsection (h) of this section and which have nine feet six inches' vertical clearance unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 29-269. Each public parking garage or terminal, as defined in the State Building Code, constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 2004, shall have eight feet two inches' vertical clearance at a primary entrance and along the route to at least two parking spaces for passenger vans which conform with the requirements of subsection (h) of this section and which have eight feet two inches' vertical clearance unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 29-269.

      (j) The commissioner may suspend or revoke any plate or placard issued pursuant to this section when, after affording the person to whom such plate or placard was issued an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with chapter 54, the commissioner or his representative determines that such person has used or permitted the use of such plate or placard in a manner which violates the provisions of this section.

      (k) Nothing in this section may be construed to allow a person who is blind or a person with disabilities who is a bona fide resident of the state to park in a public or private area reserved for the exclusive use of persons who are blind and persons with disabilities as provided in this section if such person does not display upon or within his vehicle a plate or placard issued pursuant to this section.

      (l) Any person who violates any provision of this section for which a penalty or fine is not otherwise provided shall, for a first violation, be subject to a fine of one hundred fifty dollars, and for a subsequent violation, be subject to a fine of two hundred fifty dollars.

      (m) Any placard or special license plate issued pursuant to this section shall be returned to the commissioner upon the subsequent change of residence to another state or death of the person to whom such placard or license plate was issued. Any person who uses a placard or a special license plate issued pursuant to this section after the death of the person to whom such placard or special license plate was issued shall be fined five hundred dollars.

      (n) The commissioner shall develop a procedure for the renewal of existing placards. The procedure may be implemented over a period of several years. Any renewal of such placards shall require the issuance of a new placard in accordance with the provisions of this section.

      (o) The commissioner shall periodically check the Department of Public Health's state registration of deaths and shall cancel any placard issued to an individual identified in such registry as deceased.

      (p) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the provisions of this chapter and to establish a uniform system for the issuance, renewal and regulation of special license plates, removable windshield placards and temporary removable windshield placards. Such plates and placards shall be used only by persons to whom such plates and placards are issued.

      (P.A. 76-427, S. 1-3; P.A. 77-366, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-144; P.A. 80-367, S. 1-3; 80-466, S. 23, 25; P.A. 81-172, S. 14; P.A. 82-420, S. 1, 4; P.A. 83-412, S. 2, 5; P.A. 84-377, S. 1, 4; 84-546, S. 44, 173; P.A. 85-206; P.A. 86-103; 86-388, S. 27, 31; P.A. 87-304, S. 3; P.A. 88-32, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-74, S. 2; P.A. 90-300, S. 1, 2, 8; P.A. 94-189, S. 16; P.A. 95-325, S. 12, 16; P.A. 99-268, S. 24, 25, 34, 44; P.A. 00-169, S. 18, 19, 22, 34, 36; P.A. 02-70, S. 55; P.A. 04-199, S. 19; 04-237, S. 1; P.A. 06-130, S. 14; P.A. 07-52, S. 1; P.A. 08-184, S. 14; P.A. 09-11, S. 1; 09-187, S. 37; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 105; P.A. 10-110, S. 24; P.A. 11-44, S. 45; 11-213, S. 39.)

      History: P.A. 77-366 included reference to vehicles with special license plates in Subsec. (c) and clarified parking permission for vehicles with special plates in Subsec. (e); P.A. 79-144 greatly expanded provisions, revising Subsec. (a), inserting new Subsec. (b), revising former Subsec. (b) and redesignating it as (c), inserting new Subsec. (d), revising former Subsec. (c) and redesignating it as (e), deleting former Subsecs. (d) and (e), inserting new Subsecs. (f) to (i), replacing former provision for $99 maximum fine with statement that violation is an infraction in former Subsec. (f) and redesignating it as Subsec. (j); P.A. 80-367 amended Subsec. (c) to delete reference to plates in provision re display and to add provision prohibiting use of plate for special parking privileges when car not conveying handicapped person and amended Subsec. (e) to add provisions re parking spaces in parking areas for two hundred or more cars; P.A. 80-466 replaced references to set of plates in Subsec. (b) with reference to single plate; P.A. 81-172 amended Subsec. (a) by providing for a five-year, rather than one-year validity period for a special parking identification card; P.A. 82-420 allowed nonprofit organizations that transport handicapped persons to obtain special parking identification cards; P.A. 83-412 deleted all references to nonprofit organizations which transport handicapped persons, thereby eliminating their parking privileges, provided for the phase-out of the special "HP" license plate and its replacement by a special international symbol of access license plate and provided that the provisions of Subsec. (e) are not applicable where an ordinance or state building code specifies more stringent requirements re size of parking area or number of special parking spaces; P.A. 84-377 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a fee of $2 for the original issuance and renewal of special parking identification cards, a period of validity of two, rather than five, years for such cards and different colors for renewal cards, specific information in the physician's certification of impairment of ability to walk, authorization for commissioner to require additional certification, submission of notorized statement or personal appearance by applicant to request identification and issuance of temporary special parking identification cards, amended Subsec. (b) to provide that special license plates may bear letters or any combination of numerals or letters and that identification issued be returned upon death or change in legal residence to another state, amended Subsec. (d) to provide for towing of vehicles parked in violation of Subsec. (d) for third or subsequent time and impounding of such vehicles, amended Subsec. (f) to require a warning and the international symbol of access in above grade signs, and amended Subsec. (g) to insert new language re required vertical clearance for parking garages or terminals constructed on and after October 1, 1985, relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (j); P.A. 85-206 amended Subsec. (g), requiring that parking spaces in garages or terminals conform with the requirements of Subsec. (f); P.A. 86-103 permitted the issuance of special parking identification cards to blind persons and permitted the issuance of special license plates to handicapped persons who own motorcycles; P.A. 86-388 amended Subsecs. (a) to (c), inclusive, substituting "number" plate for license plate and including reference to issuance of a set of plates in accordance with provisions of Sec. 14-21b(a); P.A. 87-304 amended Subsec. (b) to increase fee for issuance of special number plate from $5 to $10 and exempt any handicapped person who transfers an unexpired registration and replaces number plate with special plate from payment of fees for transfer or replacement; P.A. 88-32 amended Subsec. (a) to require M.D. certification of blindness or "permanent" impairment of ability to walk only at time of original application and amended Subsec. (k) to require that the fine for violation of Subsec. (d) be a minimum of $85; P.A. 89-74 amended Subsec. (a) to permit optometrists to certify blindness at the time of original application and to delete requirement that permanent impairment of walking ability be certified at time original application is made; P.A. 90-300 amended Subsec. (e) to add two subdivision designations in the last sentence re exceptions and to insert new language as Subdiv. (2) "in the event a municipal ordinance imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of existing private parking areas ..." and amended Subsec. (g) to insert "public" before "parking garage or terminal" and "as defined in the state building code" thereafter, to require that vertical clearance be provided at a primary entrance and to add language concerning an exemption granted pursuant to Sec. 29-269(b); P.A. 94-189 substantially revised provisions of section deleting former Subsecs. (a), (b), (c) and (j) re special parking identification cards and license plates with new provisions, relettering former Subsecs. (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i) and (k) accordingly and making technical changes; P.A. 95-325 amended Subsec. (f) to specify when ambulances transporting patients may park in reserved area, effective July 13, 1995; P.A. 99-268 amended Subsec. (b) by allowing the commissioner to accept discharge papers of a disabled veteran for establishing that such veteran meets the definition of a person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, amended Subsec. (e) to revise provisions re parking without penalty in legally permissible parking areas for unlimited periods of time, notwithstanding periods indicated by parking meters or signs, and amended Subsec. (h) by increasing designated parking space size from 15 feet wide, including 3 feet of cross hatch, to 16 feet wide, including 7 feet of cross hatch, and by requiring parking space signs to indicate the minimum fine for a violation of Subsec. (f); P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by removing provision stating a placard is valid for a period of five years from the date of issuance, Subsec. (b) by deleting reference to the $5 fee re applications and renewal applications for special license plates and removable windshield placards, and by adding a provision requiring a $5 fee for temporary removable windshield placard, effective October 1, 2000, and Subsec. (h) by changing parking space size requirements from "sixteen feet wide including seven feet of cross hatch" to "fifteen feet wide including three feet of cross hatch", effective June 1, 2000, and revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section; P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 04-199 amended Subsec. (b) to permit advanced practice registered nurse to certify disabilities which limit or impair ability to walk re applications for special license plates and removable windshield placards and to certify that such disabilities meet definition under federal law, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-237 amended Subsec. (h) to insert "and prior to October 1, 2004," and to add requirements re parking spaces for passenger motor vehicles and passenger vans designated for the handicapped, and amended Subsec. (i) to make a technical change, to provide that requirement re 9 feet 6 inches' vertical clearance for public parking garages or terminals apply to those constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 2004, and to add 8 feet 2 inches vertical clearance requirements for public parking garages or terminals constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 2004; P.A. 06-130 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that commissioner is not required to issue more than one placard per applicant, amended Subsec. (d) by removing requirement that commissioner issue an additional placard to an applicant who has no special license plates and made a technical change in Subsec. (l), effective June 2, 2006; P.A. 07-52 amended Subsec. (l) by replacing infraction and minimum fine provisions with a fine of $150 for a first violation and a fine of $250 for a subsequent violation; P.A. 08-184 amended Subsec. (b) by adding "physician's assistant" to health care providers who may issue certification of disability; P.A. 09-11 made a technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 09-187 added Subsec. (a)(4) to define "persons with disabilities", amended Subsec. (b) to add provision re applications from parent or guardian if person is unable to request or complete application, establish requirements for issuance of placards on and after January 1, 2010, add requirement re record, replace former certification language with provision re certification of legal blindness from board, and limit issuance to 1 placard per applicant, amended Subsec. (c) to limit issuance of plates to 2 vehicles per person, added new Subsecs. (m) to (o) re issuance, renewal and cancellation of placards, redesignated existing Subsec. (m) as Subsec. (p), changed "removable windshield placard" to "placard", "blind persons" to "persons who are blind" and "handicapped person" to "person with disabilities" throughout, and made conforming and technical changes, effective July 8, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (b) by authorizing certification of disability from a physician's assistant or advanced practice registered nurse, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 10-110 amended Subsec. (a)(4) to revise reference to 23 CFR by replacing "Part" with "Section" and amended Subsec. (b) to restate application and renewal application process for persons with disabilities and persons with blindness and to provide that any person who makes a required certification shall sign application under penalty of false statement, effective June 5, 2010; P.A. 11-44 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing "Board of Education and Services for the Blind" with "Bureau of Rehabilitative Services" and replacing "commissioner" with "Commissioner of Motor Vehicles", effective July 1, 2011 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (b), a reference to "handicapped driver training unit" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "driver training unit for persons with disabilities" to conform with changes made by P.A. 11-44, S. 46); P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize renewal of special plates issued prior to October 1, 2011, prohibit issuance of new special plates for motor vehicles on and after October 1, 2011, and make conforming changes, and amended Subsec. (c) to replace "motor vehicle" with "motorcycle", authorize issuance and renewal of windshield placards and special plates for motorcycles, and make conforming and technical changes.

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      Sec. 14-262. Width and length of vehicles. Exceptions. Permits. (a) The following vehicles shall not be operated upon any highway or bridge without a special written permit from the Commissioner of Transportation, as provided in section 14-270, specifying the conditions under which they may be so operated:

      (1) A vehicle, combination of vehicle and trailer or commercial vehicle combination, including each such vehicle's load, which is wider than one hundred two inches or its approximate metric equivalent of two and six-tenths meters or one hundred two and thirty-six-hundredths inches, including its load, but not including the following safety devices: Reasonably sized rear view mirrors, turn signals, steps and handholds for entry and egress, spray and splash suppressant devices, load-induced tire bulge and any other state-approved safety device which the Commissioner of Transportation determines is necessary for the safe and efficient operation of such a vehicle or combination, provided no such state-approved safety device protrudes more than three inches from each side of the vehicle or provided no such device has by its design or use the capability to carry cargo. Such permit shall not be required in the case of (A) farm equipment, (B) a vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer loaded with hay or straw, (C) a school bus equipped with a folding stop sign or exterior mirror, as approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, which results in a combined width of bus and sign or bus and mirror in excess of that established by this subsection, (D) a trailer designed and used exclusively for transporting boats when the gross weight of such boats does not exceed four thousand pounds, or (E) a recreation vehicle with appurtenances, including safety devices and retracted shade awnings, no greater than six inches on each side for a maximum allowance of twelve inches; and

      (2) A combination of truck and trailer which is longer than sixty-five feet except (A) a combination of truck and trailer or tractor and semitrailer loaded with utility poles, both trailer and semitrailer having a maximum length of forty-eight feet, utility poles having a maximum length of fifty feet and the overall length not to exceed eighty feet, (B) a trailer designed and used exclusively for transporting boats when the gross weight of such boats does not exceed four thousand pounds, (C) a tractor-trailer unit, (D) a commercial vehicle combination, (E) combinations of vehicles considered as specialized equipment in 23 CFR 658.13(e), as amended, having a maximum overall length of sixty-five feet on traditional automobile transporters, with the fifth wheel located on the tractor frame over the rear axle or axles, including low boys, or a maximum overall length of seventy-five feet on stinger-steered automobile transporters, excluding front and rear cargo overhangs, provided the front cargo overhang shall not exceed three feet and the rear overhang shall not exceed four feet. Extendable ramps used to achieve such three-foot front overhang and four-foot rear overhang shall be excluded from the measurement of overall length and shall be retracted when they are not supporting vehicles, or (F) a tractor equipped with a dromedary box operated in combination with a semitrailer which tractor and semitrailer do not exceed seventy-five feet in overall length.

      (b) A special written permit may not be issued by the Commissioner of Transportation for a combination of vehicles consisting of a vehicle drawing a combination of three or more trailers or semitrailers, except any such combination engaged in the transportation of an indivisible load.

      (c) The maximum length, including load, of a single unit vehicle shall be forty-five feet and the maximum length, including load, of the semitrailer portion of a tractor-trailer unit shall be forty-eight feet. A trailer greater than forty-eight feet and less than or equal to fifty-three feet in length, that has a distance of no more than forty-three feet between the kingpin and the center of the rearmost axle with wheels in contact with the road surface, may be operated on (1) unless posted otherwise, United States and Connecticut routes numbered from 1 to 399, inclusive, 450, 476, 508, 693 and 695 and the national system of interstate and defense highways, and (2) state and local roads for up to one mile from the routes and system specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection for access to terminals, facilities for food, fuel, repair and rest, and points of loading and unloading. The Commissioner of Transportation shall permit additional routes upon application of carriers or shippers provided the proposed additional routes meet the permit criteria of the Department of Transportation. Such length limitation shall be exclusive of safety and energy conservation devices, such as refrigeration units, air compressors or air shields and other devices, which the Secretary of the federal Department of Transportation may interpret as necessary for the safe and efficient operation of such vehicles, provided no such device has by its design or use the capability to carry cargo.

      (d) Violation of any provision of this section shall be subject to a fine of five hundred dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2500; 1959, P.A. 542, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 429; 1967, P.A. 42; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 1; 768, S. 144; P.A. 74-153; P.A. 75-577, S. 99, 126; P.A. 76-342; P.A. 81-366, S. 2; P.A. 82-354; P.A. 84-372, S. 4, 9; P.A. 85-126, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-15; P.A. 93-307, S. 9, 34; P.A. 94-188, S. 10; P.A. 97-304, S. 27, 31; P.A. 99-181, S. 17, 18, 21, 40; P.A. 02-123, S. 10; P.A. 03-115, S. 80; P.A. 04-143, S. 8; P.A. 06-133, S. 1; P.A. 11-256, S. 10.)

      History: 1959 act extended permissible length from 45 to 50 feet, deleted exception in first sentence for combination of passenger motor vehicle and trailer for camping or living purposes (but see section 14-263) and substituted "piling or structural units" for "structural steel or iron"; 1965 act added provision re trailers exceeding 40 feet and increased permissible length from 50 to 55 feet; 1967 act placed 80-foot length limit on vehicle or vehicle and trailer loaded with poles, lumber, piling or structural units; 1969 acts made all limits applicable to combination of vehicle and trailer and replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 74-153 added exceptions re farm equipment and school buses; P.A. 75-577 stated that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 76-342 exempted from permit requirement automobile trailers designed and used for transporting new or used vehicles; P.A. 81-366 clarified those types of vehicles which are prohibited on state highways without special permits and increased the maximum length of a vehicle not requiring a special permit to 60 feet provided that the trailer is no longer than 45 feet; P.A. 82-354 added Subsec. (b) providing for a special permit for vehicles towing trailers between 45 and 48 feet in length; P.A. 84-372 made provisions of section consistent with federal law governing width and length of vehicles and rearranged provisions for clarity; P.A. 85-126 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by changing the width of a vehicle from 8 feet 6 inches to 102 inches or its metric equivalent not including various safety devices, amended Subsec. (a)(2) by prohibiting vehicle combinations engaged in transporting automobiles from allowing such automobiles to overhang more than 3 feet from the front of the vehicle or more than 4 feet from the rear of the vehicle, and amended Subsec. (b) by deleting exclusions in computing the maximum length of a semitrailer for various safety devices; P.A. 91-15 added a new Subsec. (b) prohibiting the department from issuing a permit for vehicles drawing a combination of three or more trailers or semitrailers and relettered the remaining Subsecs.; P.A. 93-307 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by making the Subdiv. inapplicable to a single vehicle, deleting Subparas. (A), (D) and (E) in their entirety, relettering the remaining Subparas. (B) and (C) accordingly and adding a new Subpara. (C) re commercial vehicles defined as specialized equipment, amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the maximum length of a single unit vehicle shall be 45 feet and the maximum length of the semitrailer portion of a tractor-trailer unit shall be 48 feet, adding provision permitting trailers greater than 48 feet and less than or equal to 53 feet to be operated on state and local roads for various reasons as long as the "distance from the kingpin to the center of the rearmost axle" does not exceed 41 feet and providing that the commissioner of transportation "shall permit additional routes" upon the application of carriers or shippers provided the additional routes meet the permit criteria of the department of transportation, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 94-188 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(C) to read "commercial vehicle combination", adding Subpara. (D) and changing the citation to the Code of Federal Regulations from "Part 658" to "658.13(d)"; P.A. 97-304 added Subsec. (a)(2)(E) re tractors equipped with a dromedary box operated in combination with a semitrailer, effective July 8, 1997; P.A. 99-181 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by making the provisions of subdivision applicable to a combination of a "truck and trailer" in lieu of a "vehicle and trailer" and added a new Subpara. (A) re a combination of truck and trailer or trailer and semitrailer loaded with utility poles, relettering existing Subparas. accordingly, amended Subsec. (c) by changing the maximum allowed distance from the kingpin to the center of the rearmost axle from 41 to 43 feet and amended Subsec. (d) by changing penalty for violation from an infraction to a fine of $500, effective June 23, 1999; P.A. 02-123 amended Subsec. (c) to allow the operation of a trailer greater than 48 feet and less than or equal to 53 feet long that has a distance of no more than 43 feet between the kingpin and the center of the rearmost axle on US and CT routes 1 to 399, inclusive, 450, 476, 508, 693 and 695 and on state and local roads for up to one mile from the specified routes and system and to make technical and conforming changes; P.A. 03-115 amended Subsec. (c) to add "with wheels in contact with the road surface", effective June 18, 2003; P.A. 04-143 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to prohibit combination trucks and trailers longer than 65 feet, rather than 60 feet, from operation on any highway or bridge without a special written permit and to make a technical change; P.A. 06-133 added Subsec. (a)(1)(E) re recreation vehicles with appurtenances, effective June 6, 2006; P.A. 11-256 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(E) to insert description of vehicle combinations requiring special written permit from Commissioner of Transportation and amended Subsec. (c) to include "load" in maximum length determination of single unit vehicle and semitrailer portion of tractor-trailer unit.

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      Sec. 14-262b. Permits for operating or towing mobile homes. Width and length of vehicles. Notwithstanding section 14-270, the Commissioner of Transportation shall establish a program for the purpose of issuing permits allowing the following vehicles to be operated upon any highway or bridge: (1) A mobile home with a width greater than fourteen feet but no greater than sixteen feet; (2) a mobile home attached to a towing vehicle which has a combined length of one hundred feet or less if such mobile home has a length over eighty feet; or (3) a mobile home attached to a towing vehicle which has a combined length of one hundred four feet if such mobile home has a length of eighty feet or less. Such permit shall specify conditions under which such mobile home shall be permitted to operate, including, but not limited to, the period of time such operation shall be authorized. For the purposes of this section, "mobile home" shall have the same meaning as in section 21-64a. The Commissioner of Transportation shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (P.A. 03-96, S. 1; P.A. 11-256, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 11-256 amended Subdivs. (2) and (3) to replace "towing vehicle" with "mobile home", effective July 13, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-267a. Weight restrictions for vehicles, trailers or other objects. Highway weighing procedure. Penalties for overweight violations. Fines for failure to comply. Regulations. (a) A vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or semitrailer or any other object may be operated upon any highway or bridge, subject to the provisions of section 13a-151, provided such vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or semitrailer or other object meets all the applicable requirements of this section or has been granted a permit under section 14-270.

      (b) The axle weight on any axle and the gross weight of any vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer or any other object, including its load, may not exceed the lesser of the manufacturer's axle weight rating, the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating or the following axle and gross weight limits: (1) The weight on any single axle shall not exceed twenty-two thousand four hundred pounds or, in the case of axles spaced less than six feet apart, eighteen thousand pounds on each axle; (2) a two-axle vehicle shall comply with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection, and shall not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of thirty-six thousand pounds; (3) a three-axle vehicle shall comply with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection and shall not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of fifty-three thousand eight hundred pounds; (4) a three-axle combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer shall comply with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection and shall not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of fifty-eight thousand four hundred pounds; (5) a four-or-more-axle vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer shall comply with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection and shall not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of sixty-seven thousand four hundred pounds; (6) a four-or-more-axle vehicle or combination of vehicle and trailer or vehicle and semitrailer where the distance between the first and last axle is not less than twenty-eight feet shall comply with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection and shall not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of seventy-three thousand pounds; (7) the gross vehicle weight of a bulk milk pickup tanker shall not exceed ninety-nine thousand pounds, provided the weight of the bulk milk pickup tanker is permitted under the federal-aid highway amendments of 1974, 88 Stat. 2281, 23 USC 101 et seq., as amended from time to time; and (8) notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, a vehicle or combination of vehicle and semitrailer may be operated on any highway or bridge without a written permit, provided it is in compliance with the axle requirements specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection, and provided such vehicle or combination is in compliance with the federal-aid highway amendments of 1974, 88 Stat. 2281, 23 USC 101 et seq., as amended from time to time, including the gross vehicle weight limit of eighty thousand pounds and the following weight distribution formula:

Where W = overall gross weight on any group of two or more consecutive axles to the nearest five hundred pounds, L = distance in feet between the extreme of any group of two or more consecutive axles, and N = number of axles in group under consideration, except that two consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry a gross load of sixty-eight thousand pounds, provided the overall distance between the first and last axles of such consecutive sets of tandem axles is thirty-six feet or more.

      (c) The weight per inch width of tire on any single vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with pneumatic tires, when loaded, shall be not more than six hundred pounds. The sum of the widths of all the tires on a wheel or combination of wheels shall be taken in determining tire width. For the purposes of this section, the width of pneumatic tires shall be determined in conformity with the manufacturer's designated width on the tire. A vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with any solid rubber tires shall not have weights more than eighty per cent of those permitted in this section for pneumatic tires. The width of solid rubber tires shall be ascertained by measuring the width of the tire base channel or between the flanges of the metal rim. No vehicle equipped with solid tires which have at any point less than one inch of rubber above the top or beyond the flange or rim shall be operated upon a public highway.

      (d) The owner of any vehicle or other object operated or moved over any highway or bridge in violation of any provision of this section shall be liable for all damages to such highway or bridge resulting from such violation and such damages may be recovered in an action at law by the authority in charge of the maintenance of such highway or bridge.

      (e) No person shall operate any commercial motor vehicle, nor shall the owner or lessee of any commercial motor vehicle allow such motor vehicle to be operated, on any public highway or bridge, when the combined weight of vehicle and load exceeds the gross weight, as registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles, the tire capacity or the axle load, except that the gross vehicle weight shall not exceed eighty thousand pounds, or as provided by statute, or, in the case of a vehicle registered in any other state or country, as so registered or provided in such state or country or as designated as legal for a like motor vehicle of Connecticut registration, whichever is the lesser, without a written permit from the Commissioner of Transportation, which shall prescribe the condition under which such vehicle shall be operated.

      (f) (1) The penalties provided for in this subsection shall be assessed against the owner of a commercial motor vehicle when the owner, the owner's agent or employee is the operator, or against the lessee of such vehicle when the lessee, the lessee's agent or employee is the operator of a leased or rented commercial motor vehicle.

      (2) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be subject to the following penalties: (A) For an overweight violation of not more than five per cent of the gross weight or axle weight limits in subsection (b) of this section, a fine of three dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight; (B) for an overweight violation of more than five per cent and not more than ten per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of five dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of fifty dollars; (C) for an overweight violation of more than ten per cent but not more than fifteen per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of six dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of one hundred dollars; (D) for an overweight violation of more than fifteen per cent but not more than twenty per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of seven dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of two hundred dollars; (E) for an overweight violation of more than twenty per cent but not more than twenty-five per cent of either such weight limit, a fine of ten dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of three hundred dollars; (F) for an overweight violation of more than twenty-five per cent but not more than thirty per cent of either such overweight limit, a fine of twelve dollars per hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of five hundred dollars; and (G) for an overweight violation of more than thirty per cent of either such overweight limit, a fine of fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight or a minimum fine of one thousand dollars.

      (3) The court shall note on the record any conviction for an overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of the gross weight limits in subsection (b) of this section with respect to any vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of eighteen thousand pounds or more and shall cause such information to be transmitted to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. Upon receipt of such information with respect to a third or subsequent conviction for such overweight violation in a calendar year, the commissioner may schedule a hearing, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to review the record of the motor vehicle registrant and shall notify the registrant of the hearing. In such cases, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may review information and evidence presented at the hearing including, but not limited to, frequency of the registrant's commercial vehicle operations, the size of the registrant's fleet and the culpability, if any, of the shipper. After the hearing, the commissioner may impose a civil penalty on the owner or lessee of such motor vehicle in the amount of two thousand dollars or revoke the registration, for a period of thirty days, of any commercial motor vehicle so operated and may refuse to issue a registration for such motor vehicle during such further time as the commissioner deems reasonable.

      (4) An owner or lessee who is assessed penalties pursuant to this subsection for an overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of the gross weight limits in subsection (b) of this section five times during any calendar year shall be assessed by the court an additional five thousand dollars for the fifth violation and an additional five thousand dollars for each subsequent overweight violation in excess of fifteen per cent of such limits in such calendar year.

      (5) No more than twenty-five per cent of any fine imposed pursuant to this subsection may be remitted unless the court determines that there are mitigating circumstances and specifically states such circumstances for the record.

      (g) For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this section, any state police officer, Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection employee designated by the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, local police officer, Department of Motor Vehicles inspector, or Department of Transportation employee designated by the Commissioner of Transportation, may require the driver to stop and submit to a weighing by means of either portable or stationary scales and may require that such vehicle be driven to a scale or safety inspection site.

      (h) Whenever signs are displayed on a public highway, indicating that a scale is in operation and directing the driver of a commercial vehicle to stop at the weighing area, the driver shall stop and, in accordance with the directions of any state police officer, Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection employee designated by the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, local police officer, Department of Motor Vehicles inspector, or Department of Transportation employee designated by the Commissioner of Transportation, allow the vehicle to be weighed or inspected.

      (i) The driver of a vehicle which is weighed may remove from such vehicle any material, including, but not limited to, sand, debris, ice or snow, which may have accumulated on the outside of such vehicle, before any such official determines that the weight of such vehicle is unlawful.

      (j) Whenever such an official, upon weighing a vehicle and load, determines that the weight is unlawful, such official may require the driver to remove from the vehicle that portion of the load that may be necessary to reduce the gross or axle weight of such vehicle to the limit permitted under this chapter, provided if the vehicle is in violation of an axle weight limit in subsection (b) of this section but not a gross weight limit under said subsection, such official shall allow the driver to manually shift the load in order to comply with such axle weight limit without penalty.

      (k) (1) Any driver of a vehicle who fails or refuses when directed by such official, upon a weighing of the vehicle, to comply with such official's directions shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars or more than two hundred dollars for the first offense and not less than two hundred dollars or more than five hundred dollars for each subsequent offense.

      (2) Any driver of a vehicle who (A) exits a limited access highway on which a scale or safety inspection site is in operation with intent to circumvent the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, without a bona fide business purpose, (B) parks on a limited access highway on which a scale or safety inspection site is in operation with intent to circumvent the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, without a bona fide reason requiring such vehicle to be parked, or (C) fails to comply with the provisions of subsection (h) of this section shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars or more than five hundred dollars for the first offense and not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars for each subsequent offense.

      (l) The Commissioner of Transportation may adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 necessary to implement the purposes of this section. The Commissioner of Transportation, after consultation with the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection and the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 defining safety standards and inspection procedures to assure compliance with the safety requirements of 10 CFR 71 and 49 CFR 100 through 199 and the fines for noncompliance. The Department of Transportation shall coordinate development of state policy and regulations concerning the trucking industry.

      (P.A. 79-188, S. 1, 10; P.A. 80-71, S. 22, 30; P.A. 81-472, S. 23, 159; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 1, 4; P.A. 84-516, S. 2-4, 7; P.A. 85-198; 85-533, S. 1; P.A. 86-403, S. 30, 132; P.A. 88-320, S. 1; P.A. 94-188, S. 11; P.A. 02-70, S. 58, 59, 64; P.A. 03-190, S. 1; P.A. 07-217, S. 52; P.A. 11-51, S. 134; 11-213, S. 40; 11-256, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 80-71 amended Subsec. (b) to include provisions re weight distribution formula, raised maximum weight in Subsec. (e) from 73,000 to 80,000 pounds, completely changed fine provisions of Subsec. (f), made technical corrections in Subsecs. (g) and (h) and expanded regulation powers in Subsec. (k); P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 entirely replaced Subsec. (f) provisions re penalties with new provisions; P.A. 84-516 deleted Subsec. (b)(9), which required use of the federal bridge formula in computing gross weight for all commercial vehicles on and after January 1, 1990, completely changed the fines in Subsec. (f)(2), limited the applicability of Subsec. (f)(3) and (5) to violations of gross weight limits and added the provision in Subsec. (i) re shifting of loads; P.A. 85-198 inserted a new Subsec. (i) which allows drivers to remove material which may have accumulated on the outside of a vehicle before such vehicle is weighed and relettered former Subsecs. (i) to (k) accordingly; P.A. 85-533 amended Subsec. (f)(3) by requiring a bond of an out-of-state owner or lessee of a motor vehicle and requiring a fine of $2,000 of an in-state owner or lessee upon a second conviction; P.A. 86-403 replaced numeric Subpara. indicators with alphabetic Subpara. indicators in Subsec. (f)(3); P.A. 88-320 added Subsec. (k)(2) to require a penalty for any driver of a vehicle who attempts to avoid a scale or safety inspection site or fails to comply with the provisions of Subsec. (h); P.A. 94-188 amended Subsec. (b) by eliminating the 2% tolerance in the weight calculation formula, providing that axle weight and gross weight, including load weight, may not "exceed the manufacturer's axle weight rating, the gross vehicle weight rating or the following gross weight limits", amended Subdiv. (1) by deleting language concerning a 26,000 pound weight limit for a two-axle vehicle equipped with solid tires, and making what was formerly Subdiv. (2) the new Subdiv. (1), renumbering the remaining Subdivs., eliminating language concerning "all enforcement tolerances", and increasing the gross load that two consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry from 34,000 pounds each to 68,000 pounds. Further, the act amended Subsec. (e) by eliminating the 2% tolerance in the weight calculation formula and revising Subsec. (j) to provide that the driver be allowed to shift the load manually; (Revisor's note: In 1997 references in Subsecs. (g) and (h) to "Motor Vehicles Department" and "Transportation Department" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Motor Vehicles" and "Department of Transportation" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (f) by making technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality in Subdiv. (1), by rewriting Subdiv. (3) to delete requirement that court note on the record any forfeiture of bond for failure to appear for an overweight violation, to require court to transmit to Commissioner of Motor Vehicles information re convictions for overweight violations in excess of 15% of the gross weight limits, to allow commissioner to schedule a hearing review record of the registrant upon receipt of information re a third or subsequent conviction for overweight violation in a calendar year, to allow commissioner to review information and evidence presented at the hearing including, but not limited to, frequency of registrant's operations, size of fleet and culpability of shipper, to allow commissioner, after hearing, to impose a civil penalty in amount of $2,000, to delete former Subparas. (A) and (B) re out-of-state owners or lessees to provide a bond in the sum of $2,000 and re commissioner to fine an in-state owner or lessee $2,000 upon a second conviction, and to delete provisions re revocation of registration and bond requirements, by deleting former Subdiv. (4) re revocation of registration upon third conviction or forfeiture of a bond for failure to appear for overweight violations re vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of less than 18,000 pounds, by redesignating existing Subdivs. (5) and (6) as Subdivs. (4) and (5) and by amending redesignated Subdiv. (4) to delete reference to "forfeits a bond for failure to appear" and to reduce the assessment by the court from $10,000 to $5,000 for a fifth, instead of a fourth, overweight violation in a calendar year, and amended Subsecs. (g) and (h) to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-190 added new Subsec. (b)(7) increasing permissible weight of bulk milk pickup tankers to 99,000 pounds, subject to applicable federal law, redesignating existing Subdiv. (7) as Subdiv. (8); P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (k), effective July 12, 2007; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, "Commissioner of Public Safety" and "Department of Public Safety" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection" and "Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection", respectively, in Subsecs. (g), (h) and (l), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that axle weight on any axle and gross weight of any vehicle or certain combinations may not exceed the lesser of manufacturer's axle weight rating, manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating or axle and gross weight limits in Subdivs. (1) to (8) and, in Subdiv. (1), to establish weight limit on any axle of 22,400 pounds or, for axles spaced less than 6 feet apart, 18,000 pounds on each axle and, in Subdivs. (2) to (6) and (8), to delete maximum axle weights and substitute requirement for compliance with axle requirements in Subdiv. (1), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-256 amended Subsec. (k)(2) to add new Subpara. (B) re parking with intent to circumvent Subsec. (h) and to redesignate existing Subpara. (B) as Subpara. (C), effective July 13, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties. (a) The Commissioner of Transportation or other authority having charge of the repair or maintenance of any highway or bridge is authorized to grant permits for transporting vehicles or combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load, or other objects not conforming to the provisions of sections 14-98, 14-262, 14-262a, 14-264, 14-267a and 14-269 but, in the case of motor vehicles, only the Commissioner of Transportation shall be authorized to issue such permits. Such permits shall be written, and may limit the highways or bridges which may be used, the time of such use and the maximum rate of speed at which such vehicles or objects may be operated, and may contain any other condition considered necessary by the authority granting the same, provided the Department of Transportation shall not suffer any loss of revenue granted or to be granted from any agency or department of the federal government for the federal interstate highway system or any other highway system.

      (b) Any permit issued in respect to any vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer on account of its excessive weight shall be limited to the gross weight shown or to be shown on the registration certificate. A permit granted under this section for a vehicle or load, greater than twelve feet, but no greater than thirteen feet six inches in width and traveling on undivided highways, shall require a single escort motor vehicle to precede such vehicle or load. No escort motor vehicle shall be required to follow such vehicle or load on such highways.

      (c) Any permit issued under this section or a legible copy or facsimile shall be retained in the possession of the operator of the vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer for which such permit was issued, except that an electronic confirmation of the existence of such permit or the use of the special number plates described in section 14-24 and any regulations adopted thereunder shall be sufficient to fulfill the requirements of this section.

      (d) (1) The owner or lessee of any vehicle may pay either a fee of twenty-three dollars for each permit issued for such vehicle under this section or a fee as described in subdivision (3) of this subsection for such vehicle, payable to the Department of Transportation. (2) An additional transmittal fee of three dollars shall be charged for each permit issued under this section and transmitted via transceiver or facsimile equipment. (3) The commissioner may issue an annual permit for any vehicle transporting (A) a divisible load, (B) an overweight or oversized-overweight indivisible load, or (C) an oversize indivisible load. The owner or lessee shall pay an annual fee of seven dollars per thousand pounds or fraction thereof for each such vehicle. A permit may be issued in any increment up to one year, provided the owner or lessee shall pay a fee of one-tenth of the annual fee for such vehicle for each month or fraction thereof. (4) The annual permit fee for any vehicle transporting an oversize indivisible load shall not be less than five hundred dollars. (5) The commissioner may issue permits for divisible loads in the aggregate not exceeding fifty-three feet in length.

      (e) The Commissioner of Transportation shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 prescribing standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with divisible or indivisible loads not conforming to the provisions of section 14-267a.

      (f) The provisions of subsection (d) of this section shall not apply to the federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments.

      (g) Any person who violates the provisions of any permit issued under this section or fails to obtain such a permit, when operating any motor vehicle or combination of vehicles described in section 14-163c, shall be subject to the following penalties:

      (1) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the weight specified in such permit shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the permitted weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;

      (2) A person who fails to obtain a permit issued under section 14-262 or 14-264 and who is operating a vehicle at a weight that exceeds the statutory limit for weight shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory limit for weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;

      (3) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the length specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;

      (4) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the width specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;

      (5) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the height specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of one thousand dollars;

      (6) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section on routes not specified in such permit, shall be fined (A) one thousand five hundred dollars for each violation of the statutory limit for length, width, height or weight, and (B) shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory weight limit of subsection (b) of section 14-267a from the actual vehicle weight and such weight difference shall be fined at the rate provided for in subparagraph (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of section 14-267a; or

      (7) A person (A) operating a vehicle with an indivisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to obtain a permit, or (B) operating a vehicle with a divisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to be off loaded to the permit limit.

      (h) (1) If the origin, destination, load description, tractor registration, trailer registration, hours of travel, number of escorts, signs or flags of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or required by regulations adopted pursuant to this section, a minimum fine of two hundred dollars shall be assessed for each such violation.

      (2) If the days of travel of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or the vehicle is operated under a false or fraudulent permit, a minimum fine of one thousand five hundred dollars shall be assessed for such violation in addition to any other penalties assessed.

      (i) A person operating a vehicle under a forged permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of ten thousand dollars, in addition to any other penalties which may be assessed, and such vehicle shall be impounded until payment of such fine or fines, or until order of the Superior Court. As used in this subsection, "forged permit" means a permit for a nonconforming vehicle that is subject to the provisions of this section, that has been falsely made, completed or altered, and "falsely made", "falsely completed" and "falsely altered" have the same meaning as set forth in section 53a-137.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2497; 1951, 1955, S. 1378d; 1957, P.A. 514; 1959, P.A. 467; 1961, P.A. 361; 1963, P.A. 420; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 5; 768, S. 150; P.A. 79-188, S. 8, 10; P.A. 80-71, S. 27, 30; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 3, 4; P.A. 84-516, S. 5, 7; P.A. 92-177, S. 11, 12; P.A. 94-188, S. 12; P.A. 98-196, S. 1; P.A. 99-181, S. 19, 20, 40; P.A. 00-169, S. 12; P.A. 04-143, S. 9; P.A. 05-210, S. 32; P.A. 08-101, S. 7; P.A. 09-186, S. 54; 09-187, S. 22; P.A. 11-256, S. 13.)

      History: Public acts of 1959, 1961 and 1963 each extended effective period of permits in effect April 30, 1947; 1969 acts added Subsecs. (b) to (d), deleted provisions re extensions of permits, made provisions applicable to "combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load", deleted requirement for written application, added reference to Secs. 14-98, 14-262, 14-264 and 14-265 and replaced highway commissioner and department with commissioner and department of transportation; P.A. 79-188 replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-268 with reference to Sec. 14-267a; P.A. 80-71 inserted new Subsec. (d) re fees and relettered former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e); Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 inserted new Subsec. (e) requiring transportation commissioner to adopt regulations re standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with loads not conforming to provisions of Sec. 14-267a, relettering former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f); P.A. 84-516 applied penalties in Sec. 14-267a to permit violations, in Subsec. (f), where previously violators were "deemed to have no permit"; P.A. 92-177 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 14-269 and to delete reference to Sec. 14-265, amended Subsec. (c) to add phrase "and any regulations adopted thereunder" after Sec. 14-24, amended Subsec. (d)(1) to increase permit fee from $15 to $23 and to substitute a fee as described in Subdiv. (3) for an annual fee in amount equal to 30% of registration fee for such vehicle, amended Subsec. (d)(2) to eliminate requirement that owner of out-of-state vehicle pay $15 fee per permit and to increase additional fee from $2 to $3, designating it as an additional transmittal fee, amended Subsec. (d) to add new Subdiv. (3), authorizing commissioner to issue annual permits for vehicles transporting various loads and requiring owner or lessee to pay annual fee for each such vehicle, and to add Subdiv. (4), requiring that annual permit fee for vehicle transporting oversize indivisible load be a minimum of $500 and amended Subsec. (e) to delete obsolete phrase; P.A. 94-188 inserted a new Subsec. (f) re inapplicability of Subsec. (d) to federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments, and relettered the remaining Subsec.; P.A. 98-196 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing penalties under Sec. 14-267a(f) with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive; P.A. 99-181 amended Subsec. (g) by making provisions applicable to a person who fails to obtain a permit, by adding new Subpara. (2) re penalty for exceeding the statutory limit for weight, by adding new Subpara. (4) re penalty for exceeding width specified in permit, by adding new Subpara. (7) re requirements for permit on off loading, by changing the formula for the penalty for a person operating a vehicle on a route not specified in the vehicle's permit in Subpara. (6) (formerly (4)) and by renumbering existing Subparas. and making other technical changes and added Subsec. (h), effective June 23, 1999; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (c) to allow a permit issued to be retained in the form of a "legible copy or facsimile" in the possession of the vehicle operator; P.A. 04-143 added Subsec. (d)(5) permitting commissioner to issue permits for divisible loads in the aggregate not exceeding 53 feet in length; P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re permit granted for vehicle or load greater than 12 feet but no greater than 13 feet 6 inches in width shall require a leading escort vehicle on undivided highways, but need not have a following escort vehicle, and made a technical change in Subsec. (d)(1) (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (b), a reference to "greater that" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "greater than", for accuracy); P.A. 08-101 amended Subsec. (c) to replace "telegraphic confirmation" with "electronic confirmation", effective July 1, 2008; P.A. 09-186 amended Subsec. (a) to include reference to Sec. 14-262a, effective July 20, 2009; P.A. 09-187 amended Subsec. (g) to replace reference to a commercial motor vehicle with reference to any motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 11-256 added Subsec. (i) re operation of vehicle under forged permit, effective July 13, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-270c. Official weighing areas. Staffing requirements. (a) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall staff, and shall coordinate coverage and hours of operation of, the official weighing areas as follows:

      (1) Greenwich: Eight work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday. No such shifts shall be worked consecutively, except that two shifts may be worked consecutively on not more than three days;

      (2) Danbury: The Department of Motor Vehicles shall staff six work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall, whenever possible, coordinate coverage between this official weighing area and the official weighing area in Greenwich in order to ensure concurrent coverage;

      (3) Union: Between five and eight work shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday; and

      (4) Portable scale locations: The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall assign troopers to work ten shifts in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday to conduct commercial motor vehicle enforcement throughout the four geographical areas established by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles with concentration in areas that have fewer hours of operation for the permanent weighing areas.

      (b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adjust the work shifts required in subsection (a) of this section on a daily basis in order to effectuate an unpredictable schedule.

      (c) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may assign personnel to the permanent weighing areas in Waterford and Middletown or to the portable scale operations.

      (d) The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, in consultation with the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall assign one trooper to each weighing area working shift in each seven-day period from Sunday through Saturday to enforce laws relative to the safe movement of all vehicles on the highways of the state.

      (e) In addition to the weighing area commercial motor vehicle enforcement activities, the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall perform roaming commercial motor vehicle enforcement on the highways of the state and such work shall be assigned to troopers trained in commercial motor vehicle enforcement.

      (P.A. 98-248, S. 1; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 59; P.A. 11-51, S. 38, 134.)

      History: Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by providing that Departments of Public Safety and Motor Vehicles shall each staff 3 work shifts in each 7-day period from Sunday through Saturday, effective September 1, 2010; P.A. 11-51 deleted references to Commissioner and Department of Public Safety, required Commissioner of Motor Vehicles to coordinate coverage and hours of operation and established responsibilities of Commissioner and Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-270d. Temporary closing of weigh stations. The Commercial Vehicle Safety Division within the Department of Motor Vehicles shall temporarily close any weigh station located within the state that develops a backlog of traffic entering such weigh station and therefore creates a traffic hazard.

      (P.A. 98-248, S. 3; P.A. 11-51, S. 39, 134.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In codifying P.A. 98-248, the Revisors editorially changed the phrase "... and therefor creates a traffic hazard." to "... and therefore creates a traffic hazard."); P.A. 11-51 replaced Division of State Police within Department of Public Safety with Commercial Vehicle Safety Division within Department of Motor Vehicles, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-270e. Program to implement regularly scheduled and enforced hours of operation for weigh stations. On or before January 1, 2012, the Commissioner of Transportation, in consultation with the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and the Department of Motor Vehicles, shall establish a program to implement regularly scheduled and enforced hours of operation for weigh stations. Not later than October 1, 2012, and annually thereafter, the commissioner shall submit a report, in accordance with section 11-4a, on the planned program to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to transportation.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-4, S. 6; P.A. 04-177, S. 10; P.A. 11-51, S. 40, 134.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-4 effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 04-177 required that commissioner's report be submitted on October 1, 2004, rather than October 1, 2003, and that report comply with Sec. 11-4a, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 11-51 replaced "Department of Public Safety" with "Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection", replaced "January 1, 2004" with "January 1, 2012" and replaced "October 1, 2004" with "October 1, 2012", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-270f. Weigh station logs. (a) On and after January 1, 2008, logs shall be maintained for each shift at all weigh stations located in the state. Each log shall contain the following information with respect to each weigh station: (1) The location and date of each shift, (2) the hours the "OPEN" sign is illuminated, (3) the number of Department of Motor Vehicles and Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection officers or civilian technicians for each shift, (4) the number of all vehicles weighed, (5) the number and type of safety inspections, (6) the number and types of citations issued, (7) the amount of fines that may be imposed for overweight or other violations, and (8) the number of vehicles that pass through the weigh station during each shift. Each log shall be submitted to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. Not later than December 15, 2011, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall develop and distribute a form for the recording of such information.

      (b) Not later than January 1, 2012, and semiannually thereafter, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall submit, in accordance with section 11-4a, a written report that contains a summary of the information specified in subsection (a) of this section for the preceding six-month period to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to transportation. Such report shall also be posted on the Internet web site of the Department of Motor Vehicles.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-7, S. 99; P.A. 11-51, S. 41, 134.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-7 effective November 2, 2007; P.A. 11-51 replaced "Department of Public Safety" with "Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection" or "Department of Motor Vehicles", replaced "Commissioner of Public Safety" with "Commissioner of Motor Vehicles", amended Subsec. (a) to delete former Subdiv. (8) re shift operating costs, redesignate existing Subdiv. (9) as Subdiv. (8), change "December 15, 2007" to "December 15, 2011" and make technical changes, and amended Subsec. (b) to change "January 1, 2008" to "January 1, 2012", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-275. Equipment and color of school buses. (a) The term "school bus" means any motor bus painted, constructed, equipped and registered as hereinafter provided, which is regularly used for transporting school children to and from school or school activities whether or not for compensation or under contract to provide such service. No vehicle shall be registered as a school bus unless it complies with all requirements of sections 14-275 to 14-281, inclusive, as to color, markings, equipment and inspection, and each such vehicle shall be inspected prior to such registration in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, provided any new school bus that is registered between August first and the start of the next succeeding school year and is inspected prior to such registration, in accordance with such regulations, shall be exempt from further inspection until September of the following year. The commissioner or the commissioner's designee may also conduct random, unannounced inspections of any registered school bus. Any school bus that transports individuals in wheelchairs shall meet the requirements of subsection (e) of section 14-100a in order to pass inspection. The provisions of said sections requiring other vehicles to stop at the signal of the operator of a registered school bus shall not apply to a signal by the operator of any vehicle not registered as a school bus and not complying with all requirements for such registration.

      (b) Each school bus shall be painted a uniform yellow color known as "National School Bus Glossy Yellow", except for the fenders and trim which may be painted black and the roof which may be painted white, and shall have conspicuously painted on the rear and on the front of such vehicle, in black lettering of a size to be determined by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, the words "School Bus-Stop on Signal", except that each school bus equipped with an eight-light warning system shall have the words "School Bus" painted on the rear and on the front of such vehicle in such lettering. The sides of such vehicles may be inscribed with the words "School Bus", the school name or such other legend or device as may be necessary for purposes of identification or safety. Each school bus shall have conspicuously painted on the rear and sides of such vehicle, in black lettering of a size to be determined by the commissioner, the name of the school bus company, the school bus company's telephone number and the school bus number.

      (c) Each school bus shall be equipped with special automatic, electrically-operated flashing stop signals, which shall be independent and separate from the braking, stop and tail lights of standard equipment. Such flashing lights may include automatic traffic signalling devices showing red and amber lights and shall be so located that adequate warning will be afforded to both oncoming and overtaking traffic, except that each school bus manufactured on and after October 1, 1984, and registered for use in this state shall be equipped with an eight-light warning system, showing two red flashing stop signals and two amber flashing warning signals on the front and rear of the bus, and a stop semaphore. The commissioner may adopt standards for an eight-light warning system and standards and specifications for the construction of school buses and for equipment to be maintained on school buses consistent with the provisions of sections 14-275 to 14-281, inclusive. Both public and private owners of school buses shall maintain a record of such kinds of repairs made to such buses as the commissioner may require and such work record shall be available at all times to the commissioner and the commissioner's designated assistants. All such maintenance records shall be retained for a period of two years. Each school bus shall be equipped with emergency lighting equipment as provided by section 14-97a, with a defrosting device as provided by section 14-97, with a system of mirrors as provided in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Section 571.111, as amended, or with an outside mirror as provided by section 14-99 and a system of crossover mirrors designed and mounted so as to give the driver a view of the road from the front bumper forward to a point where direct observation is possible and along the left and right sides of the bus, with a signalling device as provided by section 14-101, and with chain nonskid devices for immediate use on at least one outside or inside rear tire on each side or tires designed to prevent skidding on all rear wheels when weather and highway conditions require such use. Commencing February 1, 1974, each new school bus with a vehicle air brake system shall be so equipped that the brake system is operated from a separate air reservoir tank other than the air reservoir tank used to operate any other compressed air or vacuum operated devices with which the school bus may be equipped. The seating requirements of section 14-273 shall be observed. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 14-98, school buses may be equipped with tires incorporating a metal nonskid device during the period from October fifteenth to April thirtieth, inclusive. Each school bus that is model year 2007 or newer shall be equipped with a crossing control arm mounted on the right end of the front bumper. The commissioner shall establish additional standards and requirements for such devices in regulations adopted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

      (1955, S. 1319d; 1957, P.A. 481; 1959, P.A. 62, S. 8; 1961, P.A. 279; 1967, P.A. 395; 661; 1969, P.A. 639, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 149; 1972, P.A. 286, S. 1; P.A. 73-150; P.A. 75-161, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-108; P.A. 81-182; 81-256, S. 2; S.A. 81-57, S. 4, 5; P.A. 82-223, S. 20; P.A. 83-577, S. 25; P.A. 84-18, S. 1, 3; P.A. 85-118; P.A. 87-169; P.A. 91-272, S. 3, 8; 91-272, S. 3, 8; P.A. 92-47; P.A. 93-341, S. 25, 38; P.A. 96-167, S. 37, 44, 49; P.A. 00-169, S. 9; P.A. 07-134, S. 4; 07-224, S. 6; P.A. 08-150, S. 44; P.A. 10-32, S. 50; P.A. 11-130, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act amended Subsec. (c) by removing provision for approval by the commissioner of stop signs and signals; 1961 act deleted authority for manually or mechanically operated stop signs in lieu of automatic signals; 1967 acts required school buses to have at least one convex mirror in Subsec. (c) and required maintenance of repair record on school buses; 1969 act replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-95 with reference to Sec. 14-97a in Subsec. (c); 1971 act clarified requirement re chains and alternatively allowed use of studded tires in Subsec. (c); 1972 act replaced "applicable to lighting equipment on, and special warning devices to be carried by" with "for the construction of school buses and for equipment to be maintained on" school buses in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-150 amended Subsec. (c) to require air brake systems operated by separate air reservoir tanks as of February 1, 1974; P.A. 75-161 amended Subsec. (a) to require inspection of buses before registration; P.A. 77-108 allowed use of studded tires on school buses regardless of any general prohibition against their use; P.A. 81-182 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the commissioner to conduct random, unannounced inspections of registered school buses; P.A. 81-256 added provision to Subsec. (c) prohibiting the commissioner from adopting or enforcing minimum seating width requirements for school children; S.A. 81-57 changed effective date of P.A. 81-256 from October 1, 1981, to its date of passage, June 2, 1981; P.A. 82-223 added Subsec. (d) concerning fines for violations of the section; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting the provision specifying the fine for an infraction is not less than $25 nor more than $90; P.A. 84-18 amended Subsec. (c), requiring that school buses manufactured on and after October 1, 1984, be equipped with an eight light warning system and a stop semaphore and also deleted an obsolete reference to green flashing lights; P.A. 85-118 amended Subsec. (b), requiring that school buses with eight-light warning systems have the words "School Bus" painted thereon; P.A. 87-169 amended Subsec. (c) to permit the use of tire chains on the inside rear tires; P.A. 91-272 amended Subsec. (c) to require each school bus to be equipped with a system of crossover mirrors to give driver a view of the road from front bumper forward to a point where direct observation is possible and along left and right sides of the bus; P.A. 92-47 amended Subsec. (c) to authorize the use of tires designed to prevent skidding on rear wheels in lieu of studded snow tires; P.A. 93-341 amended Subsec. (a) to delete conditional definitions of "registered school bus" and "registered as a school bus", effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-167 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the roof to be painted white, effective July 1, 1996, and amended Subsec. (c) to require each school bus to be equipped with a system of mirrors as provided in CFR Title 49, Sec. 571.111 as an alternative to an outside mirror as provided by Sec. 14-99, effective October 1, 1996; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (b) to change the required color of school buses from "National School Bus Chrome" to "National School Bus Glossy Yellow", Subsec. (c) to delete provision prohibiting commissioner from adopting or enforcing any standard or specification re seating width, and to require maintenance records be retained for a period of two years, and made technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 07-134 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision requiring that school buses that transport individuals in wheelchairs meet the requirements of Sec. 14-100a(e); P.A. 07-224 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provisions requiring name and telephone number of school bus company and bus number to be painted on rear and sides of school buses; P.A. 08-150 amended Subsec. (c) by requiring model year 2007 or newer school buses to be equipped with crossing control arm mounted on right end of the front bumper and by requiring commissioner to establish additional standards and requirements for such devices; P.A. 10-32 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 11-130 amended Subsec. (a) to exempt new school bus registered between August first and start of school year, and inspected prior to such registration, from inspection until September of following year, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-276. School bus operators to hold a valid passenger and school endorsement. Duties of carrier re withdrawal, suspension or revocation of employee's operator's license or endorsement to operate a school bus or student transportation vehicle. Civil penalties. (a) Registered school buses while transporting school children shall be operated by holders of a valid passenger and school endorsement issued in accordance with section 14-44. Such endorsement shall be held in addition to the commercial driver's license required for the operation of such motor vehicles. A person who has attained the age of seventy shall be allowed to hold a passenger and school endorsement for the purpose of operating a school bus, provided such person meets the minimum physical requirements set by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and agrees to submit to a physical examination at least twice a year or when requested to do so by the superintendent of the school system in which such person intends to operate a school bus. Any person to whom a town has awarded a contract for the transportation of school children who permits the operation of a registered school bus while transporting school children by any person who does not hold a passenger and school endorsement shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars or more than five thousand dollars.

      (b) Not less than twice per month, a carrier shall review the report made by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (h) of section 14-44, with reference to the name and motor vehicle operator's license number of each person such carrier employs to operate a school bus, as defined in section 14-275, or a student transportation vehicle, as defined in section 14-212. If, according to such report, any such employee's motor vehicle operator's license or endorsement to operate a school bus or student transportation vehicle has been withdrawn, suspended or revoked, such carrier shall prohibit such employee from operating a school bus or student transportation vehicle.

      (c) Any carrier who fails to review the report made by the commissioner, pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, shall be subject to a civil penalty of one thousand dollars for the first violation, and two thousand five hundred dollars for each subsequent violation. Any carrier who fails to remove as an operator, pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, not later than forty-eight hours after reviewing such report, any employee whose motor vehicle operator's license or endorsement to operate a school bus or student transportation vehicle has been withdrawn, suspended or revoked, shall be subject to a civil penalty of two thousand five hundred dollars for the first violation, and five thousand dollars for each subsequent violation. Upon appropriate justification presented to the commissioner by any carrier, the commissioner may make a determination to reduce any such penalty.

      (1955, S. 1320d; 1967, P.A. 859; 1969, P.A. 110, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 21; P.A. 81-256, S. 1; S.A. 81-57, S. 4, 5; P.A. 82-223, S. 21; P.A. 83-340, S. 1, 4; 83-577, S. 26; P.A. 90-263, S. 29, 74; P.A. 93-341, S. 27, 38; P.A. 94-189, S. 19, 34; P.A. 06-130, S. 11; P.A. 07-217, S. 53; 07-224, S. 3; P.A. 11-213, S. 41.)

      History: 1967 act prohibited persons 70 or older from holding license to operate school bus; 1969 act required minimum age of 19 for holding license to operate school bus; 1972 act deleted minimum age requirement; P.A. 81-256 removed provision which had made board of education members subject to fine for permitting unlicensed person to transport children and added Subsec. (b) requiring commissioner to furnish names of those whose licenses are suspended or revoked upon request; S.A. 81-57 revised effective date of P.A. 81-256 but did not change October 1, 1981, effective date of amendments to this section; P.A. 82-223 amended Subsec. (a) by lowering the maximum fine from $100 to $90 and added Subsec. (c) to specify that violation of the section is an infraction; P.A. 83-340 amended Subsec. (a) to allow a person age 70 or older to operate a school bus provided he meets physical requirements set by the commissioner and agrees to take a physical examination at least twice a year, where previously operation of bus by person 70 or older was prohibited; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the minimum fine from $25 to $35; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to substitute public passenger transportation permits for public service operators' licenses and to insert commercial driver's license in lieu of regular operator's license in Subsec. (a); P.A. 93-341 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to replace references to public passenger transportation permits with references to passenger and school endorsements, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 94-189 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 06-130 deleted former Subsec. (b) which had required commissioner to furnish names of those whose passenger and school endorsements are suspended or revoked and redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as new Subsec. (b); P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective July 12, 2007; P.A. 07-224 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing minimum fine from $35 to $2,500 and maximum fine from $90 to $5,000, deleted former Subsec. (b) re infraction and added new Subsecs. (b) re review of report by carrier and prohibiting employees whose operator's license or school bus or student transportation vehicle endorsement has been withdrawn, suspended or revoked from operating such vehicles and (c) re civil penalties for failure to review report or remove employee as operator of a school bus or student transportation vehicle, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (c) to change time limit for removal of operator from 10 days to 48 hours, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-279. Vehicles to stop for school bus. Penalties. Written warning or summons. (a) The operator of any vehicle, motor vehicle, or authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, shall immediately bring such vehicle to a stop not less than ten feet from the front when approaching and not less than ten feet from the rear when overtaking or following any registered school bus on any highway or private road or in any parking area or on any school property when such bus is displaying flashing red signal lights, except at the specific direction of a traffic officer. Vehicles so stopped for a school bus shall not proceed until such bus no longer displays flashing red signal lights. At the intersection of two or more highways vehicular turns toward a school bus receiving or discharging passengers are prohibited. The operator of a vehicle upon a highway with separate roadways need not stop upon meeting or passing a school bus which is on a different roadway.

      (b) Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined four hundred fifty dollars for the first offense and for each subsequent offense, not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days or both.

      (c) Upon receipt of a written report from any school bus operator or an evidence file from a live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring system, as defined in section 14-279a, specifying the license plate number, color and type of any vehicle observed by such operator or recorded by a camera affixed to such school bus violating any provision of subsection (a) of this section and the date, approximate time and location of such violation, a police officer shall issue a written warning or a summons to the owner of any such vehicle. A photographic or digital still or video image that clearly shows the license plate number of a vehicle violating any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be sufficient proof of the identity of such vehicle for purposes of subsection (b) of section 14-107.

      (1955, S. 1323d; February, 1965, P.A. 574, S. 21; 1967, P.A. 380; P.A. 80-245; P.A. 85-71; P.A. 86-155; P.A. 01-192, S. 3; P.A. 04-217, S. 29; P.A. 11-255, S. 1.)

      History: 1965 act deleted "stop signal" as alternative to signal lights on school buses; 1967 act prohibited vehicle's moving until bus no longer displays "flashing" lights; P.A. 80-245 added Subsec. (b) re penalties for violation of provisions; P.A. 85-71 amended Subsec. (a) to include reference to flashing "red" signal lights and added Subsec. (c), providing for the issuance of a written warning to the owner of a vehicle violating Subsec. (a) upon receipt of a written report; P.A. 86-155 amended Subsec. (a) to require vehicle operator to stop when overtaking or following a school bus on any highway, private road or in any parking area or on school property when bus is displaying flashing red lights, and amended Subsec. (c) to eliminate reference to "other person eighteen years of age or older" making written report and to require police officer to issue written warning or summons upon receipt of written report; P.A. 01-192 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in Sec. 14-1(a)(4) and making a technical change for the purpose of gender neutrality (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a), "subsection (a) of" was added editorially by the Revisors before "section 14-1" for accuracy); P.A. 04-217 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate reference to Sec. 14-1(a)(4), effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 11-255 amended Subsec. (b) to replace minimum $100 and maximum $500 fine for first offense with $450 fine, and amended Subsec. (c) to require issuance of warning or summons upon receipt of evidence file from live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring system, to add provision re vehicle observed by operator or recorded by camera and to add provision re criteria for sufficient proof for purposes of Sec. 14-107(b), effective July 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 14-279a. Operation of school bus monitoring system by board of education or municipality. Vendor agreement. Report. (a) As used in subsection (c) of section 14-279, this section and section 14-279b, "live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring system" or "monitoring system" means a system with one or more camera sensors and computers that produce live digital and recorded video images of motor vehicles being operated in violation of section 14-279. Such monitoring system shall produce a live visual image that is viewable remotely and a recorded image of the license plate number of a motor vehicle violating said section 14-279. Such recorded image shall indicate the date, time and location of the violation.

      (b) A municipality or local or regional board of education may install, operate and maintain live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring systems, or may enter into an agreement with a private vendor for the installation, operation and maintenance of such monitoring systems. Such agreement shall provide for the compensation to the vendor for the expense of the monitoring services and cost of equipment provided by the vendor and for the reimbursement of the vendor for the expenses of installing, operating and maintaining the monitoring system. Such agreement shall provide that the vendor shall, on an annual basis, submit a report to such municipality or local or regional board of education that includes, but is not limited to: (1) The total number of citations issued as a result of a violation detected and recorded by the monitoring system, and (2) the total amount of funds collected. The municipality or local or regional board of education shall, within thirty days, submit such report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to transportation. A municipality or local or regional board of education serving a municipality that has entered into an agreement with a private vendor for the installation, operation and maintenance of a live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring system shall use amounts remitted to such municipality in accordance with subsection (e) of section 51-56a, in respect to the violation of section 14-279, to reimburse the private vendor for the expenses for installing, operating and maintaining the monitoring system.

      (c) A warning sign shall be posted on all school buses in which a monitoring system is installed and operational indicating the use of such system.

      (d) A monitoring system shall be installed so as to record images of the license plate number of a motor vehicle only, and shall not record images of the occupants of such motor vehicle or of any other persons or vehicles in the vicinity at the time the images are recorded.

      (P.A. 11-255, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 11-255 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-279b. Review of evidence file. Summons. Defenses. (a) Whenever a violation of section 14-279 is detected and recorded by a live digital video school bus violation detection monitoring system, a state or municipal police officer shall review the evidence file which shall include two or more digital photographs, recorded video or other recorded images and a signed affidavit of a person who witnessed such violation live. If, after such review, such officer determines that there are reasonable grounds to believe that a violation of said section 14-279 has occurred, such officer shall authorize the issuance of a summons for such alleged violation. If such officer authorizes the issuance of a summons for such alleged violation, the law enforcement agency shall, not later than ten days after the alleged violation, mail a summons to the registered owner of the motor vehicle together with a copy of two or more digital photographs, recorded video or other recorded images and a signed affidavit of a person who witnessed such violation live.

      (b) As provided in subsection (b) of section 14-107, proof of the registration number of the motor vehicle therein concerned shall be prima facie evidence that the owner was the operator thereof, except that, in the case of a leased or rented motor vehicle, such proof shall be prima facie evidence that the lessee was the operator thereof.

      (c) Any person who is alleged to have committed a violation of section 14-279 and receives a summons pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall follow the procedures set forth in section 51-164n.

      (d) A recorded image produced by a monitoring system shall be sufficient evidence of a violation of section 14-279 and shall be admitted without further authentication.

      (e) All defenses shall be available to any person who is alleged to have committed a violation of section 14-279 that is detected and recorded by a monitoring system, including, but not limited to, that (1) the violation was necessary to allow the passage of an emergency vehicle, (2) the violation was necessary to avoid injuring the person or property of another, (3) the violation was incurred while participating in a funeral procession, (4) the violation was incurred during a period of time in which the motor vehicle had been reported as being stolen to an organized local police department or the state police and had not been recovered prior to the time of the violation, (5) the operator was convicted of a violation of section 14-279 for the same incident based upon a separate and distinct summons issued by a sworn police officer, or (6) the violation was necessary in order for the operator to comply with any other general statute or regulation concerning the operation of a motor vehicle.

      (f) No recorded image produced by a monitoring system pursuant to this section may be introduced as evidence in any other civil or criminal proceedings.

      (g) A recorded image produced by a monitoring system shall be destroyed (1) ninety days after the date of the alleged violation if a summons is not issued for such alleged violation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or (2) upon final disposition of the case to which it pertains if a summons is issued for such alleged violation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

      (P.A. 11-255, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 11-255 effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-280. Display of signs and signals by school bus and student transportation vehicle. Portable signs. Penalty. (a) When a school bus is used for any purpose other than the transportation of children to and from schools or school activities, private or public camps or any other activities for which groups of children are transported, the special signals normally used when so engaged shall be left unused or disconnected. Any student transportation vehicle when engaged in the transportation of children to and from private or public camps or the transportation exclusively of children to activities, except school activities, may display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any motor vehicle, other than a registered school bus, not owned by a public, private or religious school, or under contract to such school, when engaged in the transportation of school children to and from school or school activities, may display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any student transportation vehicle, when engaged in the transportation of school children to and from school or school activities, shall display a sign or signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section. Any portable signs, as described in subsection (b) of this section, that are permitted or required under this section shall be removed or covered when the vehicle is not being used for the purposes requiring or allowing the use of such signs as specified in this section.

      (b) The sign or signs permitted or required under subsection (a) of this section may be portable signs securely mounted on the roof or decal or painted signs, either of which shall be placed at a height of at least four feet and shall display the wording "CARRYING SCHOOL CHILDREN" in black lettering at least three inches high on yellow background visible to operators of vehicles approaching from front and rear. The words "Stop" or "Stop on signal" shall not be used. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 establishing standards for the construction and attachment of such portable signs.

      (c) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, for a first offense, be deemed to have committed an infraction, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

      (1955, S. 1324d; 1959, P.A. 418, S. 1; P.A. 79-331, S. 1, 2; P.A. 81-172, S. 15; P.A. 82-223, S. 24; P.A. 83-577, S. 29; P.A. 89-320, S. 5, 12; P.A. 90-112, S. 6, 14; P.A. 11-213, S. 42.)

      History: 1959 act included transportation of children to other than school activities; P.A. 79-331 divided section into subsections, clarified provisions re use of portable signs and specified wording of signs; P.A. 81-172 allowed for decal or painted signs on vehicles transporting school children in addition to portable signs mounted on the roof and reduced required size of lettering "CARRYING SCHOOL CHILDREN" from four to three inches; P.A. 82-223 added Subsec. (c) specifying the penalties for a first and subsequent violation; P.A. 83-577 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting the provision specifying the fine for an infraction is not less than $25 nor more than $90; P.A. 89-320 amended Subsec. (b) to require that portable signs be securely mounted on roof and that commissioner adopt regulations establishing standards for construction and attachment of portable signs; P.A. 90-112 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute "student transportation vehicle" for reference to motor vehicle, other than a registered school bus; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (a) to delete requirement to cover identifying lettering on bus when used for purposes other than transportation of children, to limit requirement to remove or cover signs to "portable" signs and to rephrase existing provisions, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-283. Rights and duties re emergency vehicles. Obstruction of emergency vehicle. (a) "Emergency vehicle", as used in this section, means any ambulance or vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization responding to an emergency call, any vehicle used by a fire department or by any officer of a fire department while on the way to a fire or while responding to an emergency call but not while returning from a fire or emergency call, any state or local police vehicle operated by a police officer or inspector of the Department of Motor Vehicles answering an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators or any Department of Correction vehicle operated by a Department of Correction officer while in the course of such officer's employment and while responding to an emergency call.

      (b) The operator of any emergency vehicle may (1) park or stand such vehicle, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter, (2) proceed past any red light or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down or stopping to the extent necessary for the safe operation of such vehicle, (3) exceed the posted speed limits or other speed limits imposed by or pursuant to section 14-218a or 14-219 as long as such operator does not endanger life or property by so doing, and (4) disregard statutes, ordinances or regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specific directions.

      (c) The exemptions herein granted shall apply only when an emergency vehicle is making use of an audible warning signal device, including but not limited to a siren, whistle or bell which meets the requirements of subsection (f) of section 14-80, and visible flashing or revolving lights which meet the requirements of sections 14-96p and 14-96q, and to any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not relieve the operator of an emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property.

      (e) Upon the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle making use of such an audible warning signal device and such visible flashing or revolving lights or of any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only, the operator of every other vehicle in the immediate vicinity shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in such position until the emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise directed by a state or local police officer or a firefighter.

      (f) Any person who is (1) operating a motor vehicle that is not an emergency vehicle, as defined in subsection (a) of this section, and (2) following an ambulance that is using flashing lights or a siren, shall not follow such vehicle more closely than one hundred feet.

      (g) Any officer of a fire department may remove, or cause to be removed, any vehicle upon any public or private way which obstructs or retards any fire department, or any officer thereof, in controlling or extinguishing any fire.

      (h) Any person who wilfully or negligently obstructs or retards any ambulance or vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization while answering any emergency call or taking a patient to a hospital, or any vehicle used by a fire department or any officer or member of a fire department while on the way to a fire, or while responding to an emergency call, or any vehicle used by the state police or any local police department, or any officer of the Division of State Police within the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection or any local police department while on the way to an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than seven days, or both.

      (i) Nothing in this section shall be construed as permitting the use of a siren upon any motor vehicle other than an emergency vehicle, as defined in subsection (a) of this section, or a rescue service vehicle which is registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to section 19a-181.

      (j) A police officer may issue a written warning or a summons to the owner of a vehicle based upon an affidavit signed by the operator of an emergency vehicle specifying (1) the license plate number, color and type of any vehicle observed violating any provision of subsection (e) or (h) of this section, and (2) the date, approximate time and location of such violation.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2424; 1957, P.A. 542, S. 1, 2; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 7; 1963, P.A. 112; 1969, P.A. 452, S. 7; 1971, P.A. 538; P.A. 77-340, S. 9; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-3; P.A. 80-483, S. 64, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 66; P.A. 85-217, S. 3; P.A. 00-169, S. 11; P.A. 01-59; 01-192, S. 2; P.A. 05-288, S. 238, 239; P.A. 11-51, S. 134; 11-256, S. 17.)

      History: 1963 act included fire department vehicles responding to emergency calls; 1969 act increased fine from $50 to $500 maximum and imprisonment from seven days to one year maximum in Subsec. (c); 1971 act replaced previous provisions with new provisions re right-of-way granted to emergency vehicles; P.A. 77-340 added reference to Sec. 14-218a in Subsec. (b); P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 made state police department a division within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-3 replaced reference to ambulances and vehicles used by police and fire departments with reference to emergency vehicles and rescue service vehicles in Subsec. (h); P.A. 80-483 replaced reference to Sec. 14-96g with reference to Sec. 14-96q in Subsec. (c); P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; P.A. 85-217 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g), including emergency medical service organization vehicles in the definition of "emergency vehicle" and imposing a fine on persons who obstruct such vehicles while answering emergency calls; P.A. 00-169 redefined "emergency vehicle" to include vehicles operated by inspectors of the Department of Motor Vehicles; P.A. 01-59 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "emergency vehicle" to include any Department of Correction vehicle operated by a Department of Correction officer while in the course of such officer's employment and while responding to an emergency call and amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 01-192 amended Subsec. (g) by changing the fine from $50 to $200, added Subsec. (i) re allowing a police officer to issue a written warning for violations of Subsec. (e) or (g) and made technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality in Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 05-288 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g) by replacing "emergency medical service organization vehicle" with "vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization" and made a technical change in Subsec. (g), effective July 13, 2005; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, "Department of Public Safety" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection" in Subsec. (g), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-256 added new Subsec. (f) re following of ambulance, redesignated existing Subsecs. (f) to (i) as Subsecs. (g) to (j), and amended Subsec. (j) to make a technical change.

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      Sec. 14-283a. Adoption of state-wide policy for pursuits by police officers. (a) As used in this section, "police officer" means a sworn member of an organized local police department or a state police officer, which member or officer is assigned to patrol duties on public streets or highways, and "pursuit" means an attempt by a police officer in an authorized emergency vehicle to apprehend any occupant of another moving motor vehicle, when the driver of the fleeing vehicle is attempting to avoid apprehension by maintaining or increasing the speed of such vehicle or by ignoring the police officer's attempt to stop such vehicle.

      (b) The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, in conjunction with the Chief State's Attorney, the Police Officer Standards and Training Council, the Connecticut Police Chiefs Association and the Connecticut Coalition of Police and Correctional Officers, shall adopt in accordance with chapter 54 a uniform, state-wide policy for handling pursuits by police officers. Such policy shall specify: (1) The conditions under which a police officer may engage in a pursuit and discontinue a pursuit, (2) alternative measures to be employed by any such police officer in order to apprehend any occupant of the fleeing motor vehicle or to impede the movement of such motor vehicle, (3) the coordination and responsibility, including control over the pursuit, of supervisory personnel and the police officer engaged in such pursuit, (4) in the case of a pursuit that may proceed and continue into another municipality, (A) the requirement to notify and the procedures to be used to notify the police department in such other municipality or, if there is no organized police department in such other municipality, the officers responsible for law enforcement in such other municipality, that there is a pursuit in progress, and (B) the coordination and responsibility of supervisory personnel in each such municipality and the police officer engaged in such pursuit, (5) the type and amount of training in pursuits, that each police officer shall undergo, which may include training in vehicle simulators, if vehicle simulator training is determined to be necessary, and (6) that a police officer immediately notify supervisory personnel or the officer in charge after the police officer begins a pursuit. The chief of police or Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, as the case may be, shall inform each officer within such chief's or said commissioner's department and each officer responsible for law enforcement in a municipality in which there is no such department of the existence of the policy of pursuit to be employed by any such officer and shall take whatever measures that are necessary to assure that each such officer understands the pursuit policy established.

      (P.A. 78-372, S. 1, 2, 7; P.A. 99-171, S. 1, 5; P.A. 11-51, S. 155.)

      History: P.A. 99-171 defined "police officer" in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (b) by changing the requirement that each police department adopt a pursuit policy to a requirement that a uniform, state-wide pursuit policy be adopted, adding Subdivs. (1) to (6), inclusive, and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 11-51 amended Subsec. (b) by removing "Not later than January 1, 2000," and by replacing "Commissioner of Public Safety" with "Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 14-296aa. Use of hand-held mobile telephones and mobile electronic devices by motor vehicle operators and school bus drivers prohibited or restricted. Exceptions. Penalties. Amounts remitted to municipality. (a) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

      (1) "Mobile telephone" means a cellular, analog, wireless or digital telephone capable of sending or receiving telephone communications without an access line for service.

      (2) "Using" or "use" means holding a hand-held mobile telephone to, or in the immediate proximity of, the user's ear.

      (3) "Hand-held mobile telephone" means a mobile telephone with which a user engages in a call using at least one hand.

      (4) "Hands-free accessory" means an attachment, add-on, built-in feature, or addition to a mobile telephone, whether or not permanently installed in a motor vehicle, that, when used, allows the vehicle operator to maintain both hands on the steering wheel.

      (5) "Hands-free mobile telephone" means a hand-held mobile telephone that has an internal feature or function, or that is equipped with an attachment or addition, whether or not permanently part of such hand-held mobile telephone, by which a user engages in a call without the use of either hand, whether or not the use of either hand is necessary to activate, deactivate or initiate a function of such telephone.

      (6) "Engage in a call" means talking into or listening on a hand-held mobile telephone, but does not include holding a hand-held mobile telephone to activate, deactivate or initiate a function of such telephone.

      (7) "Immediate proximity" means the distance that permits the operator of a hand-held mobile telephone to hear telecommunications transmitted over such hand-held mobile telephone, but does not require physical contact with such operator's ear.

      (8) "Mobile electronic device" means any hand-held or other portable electronic equipment capable of providing data communication between two or more persons, including a text messaging device, a paging device, a personal digital assistant, a laptop computer, equipment that is capable of playing a video game or a digital video disk, or equipment on which digital photographs are taken or transmitted, or any combination thereof, but does not include any audio equipment or any equipment installed in a motor vehicle for the purpose of providing navigation, emergency assistance to the operator of such motor vehicle or video entertainment to the passengers in the rear seats of such motor vehicle.

      (b) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection and subsections (c) and (d) of this section, no person shall operate a motor vehicle upon a highway, as defined in section 14-1, while using a hand-held mobile telephone to engage in a call or while using a mobile electronic device while such vehicle is in motion. An operator of a motor vehicle who types, sends or reads a text message with a hand-held mobile telephone or mobile electronic device while such vehicle is in motion shall be in violation of this section, except that if such operator is driving a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, such operator shall be charged with a violation of subsection (e) of this section.

      (2) An operator of a motor vehicle who holds a hand-held mobile telephone to, or in the immediate proximity of, his or her ear while such vehicle is in motion is presumed to be engaging in a call within the meaning of this section. The presumption established by this subdivision is rebuttable by evidence tending to show that the operator was not engaged in a call.

      (3) The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed as authorizing the seizure or forfeiture of a hand-held mobile telephone or a mobile electronic device, unless otherwise provided by law.

      (4) Subdivision (1) of this subsection shall not apply to: (A) The use of a hand-held mobile telephone for the sole purpose of communicating with any of the following regarding an emergency situation: An emergency response operator; a hospital, physician's office or health clinic; an ambulance company; a fire department; or a police department, or (B) any of the following persons while in the performance of their official duties and within the scope of their employment: A peace officer, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 53a-3, a firefighter or an operator of an ambulance or authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, or a member of the armed forces of the United States, as defined in section 27-103, while operating a military vehicle, or (C) the use of a hands-free mobile telephone.

      (c) No person shall use a hand-held mobile telephone or other electronic device, including those with hands-free accessories, or a mobile electronic device while operating a moving school bus that is carrying passengers, except that this subsection shall not apply to (1) a school bus driver who places an emergency call to school officials, or (2) the use of a hand-held mobile telephone as provided in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) No person under eighteen years of age shall use any hand-held mobile telephone, including one with a hands-free accessory, or a mobile electronic device while operating a moving motor vehicle on a public highway, except as provided in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of this section.

      (e) No person shall type, read or send text or a text message with or from a mobile telephone or mobile electronic device while operating a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, except for the purpose of communicating with any of the following regarding an emergency situation: An emergency response operator; a hospital; physician's office or health clinic; an ambulance company; a fire department or a police department.

      (f) Except as provided in subsections (b) to (e), inclusive, of this section, no person shall engage in any activity not related to the actual operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that interferes with the safe operation of such vehicle on any highway, as defined in section 14-1.

      (g) Any law enforcement officer who issues a summons for a violation of this section shall record on such summons the specific nature of any distracted driving behavior observed by such officer.

      (h) Any person who violates this section shall be fined one hundred twenty-five dollars for a first violation, two hundred fifty dollars for a second violation and four hundred dollars for a third or subsequent violation.

      (i) An operator of a motor vehicle who commits a moving violation, as defined in subsection (a) of section 14-111g, while engaged in any activity prohibited by this section shall be fined in accordance with subsection (h) of this section, in addition to any penalty or fine imposed for the moving violation.

      (j) The state shall remit to a municipality twenty-five per cent of the amount received with respect to each summons issued by such municipality for a violation of this section. Each clerk of the Superior Court or the Chief Court Administrator, or any other official of the Superior Court designated by the Chief Court Administrator, shall, on or before the thirtieth day of January, April, July and October in each year, certify to the Comptroller the amount due for the previous quarter under this subsection to each municipality served by the office of the clerk or official.

      (P.A. 05-159, S. 1-7; 05-220, S. 2, 3; P.A. 06-196, S. 284; P.A. 09-54, S. 1; P.A. 10-32, S. 51, 52; 10-109, S. 1; P.A. 11-213, S. 53.)

      History: P.A. 05-220 amended Subsec. (a) to make definitions applicable to Subsecs. (c) and (d) and add new Subdiv. (8) defining "mobile electronic device", amended Subsec. (b) to add references to a mobile electronic device in Subdivs. (1) and (3) and delete exemption for "the operator of a taxi cab, tow truck or bus without passengers" in Subdiv. (4)(B) and amended Subsec. (c) to make prohibition applicable to the use of a mobile electronic device and make a technical change and amended Subsec. (d) to apply prohibition to a person under 18 years of age rather than to a person who holds a learner's permit or any holder of a motor vehicle license subject to the requirements of Sec. 14-36(d) and make prohibition applicable to the use of a mobile electronic device; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes, effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 09-54 amended Subsec. (b)(4) to add members of the armed forces, effective May 21, 2009; P.A. 10-32 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (e), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 10-109 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to establish violation re operator of vehicle in motion who types, sends or reads text message with hand-held mobile telephone or mobile electronic device, made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (e), amended Subsec. (g) to replace fine of not more than $100 and provision suspending fine for first-time violator who acquires hands-free accessory with fine of $100 for first violation, $150 for second violation and $200 for third or subsequent violation, and added Subsec. (j) to require state to remit to municipalities 25% of amount received by state for each summons issued by such municipality; P.A. 11-213 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to add provision re operator driving commercial motor vehicle to be charged with violation of Subsec. (e), added new Subsec. (e) to prohibit texting while operating commercial motor vehicle, except for emergency situations, redesignated existing Subsecs. (e) to (g) as Subsecs. (f) to (h), deleted former Subsec. (h) re $100 fine for violation of Subsec. (c) or (d), amended redesignated Subsec. (h) to increase fines for violations from $100, $150 and $200 to $125, $250 and $400, respectively, and made conforming and technical changes, effective July 13, 2011.

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