June 25, 2012
FAMILY CHILD CARE PROVIDERS AND TRAINING
By: Robin K. Cohen, Principal Analyst
Hendrik DeBoer, Research Fellow
Mark Randall, Research Fellow
You asked if Connecticut or any other state requires licensed family day care providers to be trained in child development or a related field.
Connecticut does not require licensed family day care providers to receive training in early childhood education or related areas but it requires them to (1) have basic first aid training and (2) establish a planned program of developmentally appropriate activities at the home that promote each child's development.
We surveyed 23 states and found that all but one (Indiana) require those family child care providers who are required to possess a state-issued license, certification, or registration to have minimal training in early childhood education or a related area as a condition of initial or ongoing authority to operate.
STATES' RULES FOR TRAINING BY FAMILY CHILD CARE CARE PROVIDERS
Connecticut law defines a “family day care home” as a private family home caring for up to six children, including the provider's own children not in school full-time. These homes generally provide between three and 12 hours of care per day, but during the school year, they may care for additional children. In order to get or renew a license, a provider must have a valid certificate from an approved basic first aid course for child care providers. Providers are not required to be trained in early childhood education, but they must establish a planned program of developmentally appropriate activities at the home that promote each child's social, intellectual, emotional, and physical development (CGS § 19a-77; Conn. Agency Regs., § 19a-87b-1, et. seq.)
In Alabama, a person must have a license if he or she cares for children not related to him or her, with or without compensation, away from the child's home for more than four hours a day. “Family day care home” providers may care for no more than six children.
To obtain a license, a provider must have at least 24 hours of training in child care and development, including four hours in each of the following areas: (1) child development; (2) health, safety and universal precautions; (3) quality child care and licensing; (4) the child care professional and the family; (5) language development; and (6) positive discipline and guidance. Providers must complete 20 additional hours of training each year in these areas (Ala. Admin Code R.660-5-27-.05 (2012)).
In Arizona, certified family child care home providers must attend at least six hours of training each year in any of nine subjects, including child development (Ariz. Admin. Code § R6-5-5207 (2011)).
In Arkansas, a “child care family home” is a registered residential facility providing child care for up to five children. Caregivers must attend family child care provider training, which includes some child development training, within six months of being registered. All caregivers who work directly with children at these facilities must complete 15 hours of in-service training or outside workshop training each year in continuing early childhood education. Approved training topics include child development (Ark. Code R. §§ 016.22.4-303, 016.22.6-301 (2012)).
In Colorado, a “family child care home” is a residential facility that provides child care for less than 24 hours at a time for two or more children unrelated to each other or the provider. To obtain a family child care home license, the prospective licensee and primary provider must complete 15 hours of training and pass a test. Those who have a degree in early childhood education or are qualified as child care directors are exempt from these requirements. Licensees must complete 15 hours of training each year, three of which must be in child social emotional development (12 Colo. Code Regs. § 2509-8 (2012)).
In Delaware, a “family child care home” is a licensed residence that provides child care for compensation. The maximum number of children the providers can serve and the children's ages depends on whether the facility has a Level I or Level II license.
To obtain a Level I license, a provider must complete 12 hours of training, with at least three hours in each of the following areas: (1) child development, (2) educational activities for children, (3) positive behavior management, and (4) families and communities.
For a Level II license, a provider must (1) have completed three higher education courses in approved areas, including child development; (2) complete 60 hours of training, with at least three hours in each of the Level I license areas; or (3) be qualified under state law as an early childhood assistant teacher.
Additionally, all providers at either level must complete 12 hours of training each year in approved areas, including child development (9-Del. Code Regs. § 103 (2012)).
Florida law defines a “family day care home” as a residential facility regularly providing care for a maximum of 10 children from at least two unrelated families for compensation.
Home operators must annually complete (1) 30 hours of training in five areas, including child development; (2) five hours of training in early literacy and language development; and (3) 10 hours of in-service training (Fl. Admin. Code Ann. Admin. Code, 65c-20 (2012)).
Georgia defines a “family day care home” as a residential facility providing child care for between three and six children who are not related to the provider and do not live at the facility. Providers must complete 10 hours of training each year in any of four topics, including child development (Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. 290-2-3-.07 (2012)).
Illinois defines a “day care home” as a residential facility providing child care for between four and eight children from at least two unrelated families for compensation. (The facility can provide care for additional children if an assistant is present.) To be licensed, the caregiver must receive six hours of training in caring for children with disabilities. He or she must also receive 15 hours of training before being licensed, and 15 hours annually thereafter, in any of 15 topics, including child development (89 Ill. Admin. Code, §§ 406.9, 408.45 (2011)).
In Indiana, a “child care home” is a residential facility in which child care is provided for between six and 12 children unrelated to the provider. There is no child development training requirement for child care home providers (470 Ind. Admin. Code, § 3-1-21, et. seq. (2012)).
In Iowa, a “registered child development home” is a residential facility in which child care is provided for more than five children.
In order to register, providers must receive 12 hours of training within a year of registration in any of eight areas, including child development. Providers must receive 12 hours of additional training each year and cannot use the same course to satisfy this requirement until five years have passed (Iowa Admin. Code R. § 441, Ch. 110 (2012)).
In Kansas, a “day care home” is a licensed residential facility providing child care for up to 10 children. To obtain a license, a provider must complete at least two hours of training in child development. Additionally, within 60 days of applying for a license, the provider must either (1) obtain a child development associate (CDA) credential, (2) complete at least 15 hours of professional development training, (3) have at least three months of previous employment in a facility or center that has been in continuous operation for three or more years, or (4) have five observation sessions at a licensed facility.
Each year, a provider must (1) complete five hours of professional development training, (2) maintain accreditation by the National Association for Family Child Care, or (3) hold a current CDA credential (Kan. Admin. Regs. § 28-4-113 (2012)).
In Kentucky, a certified “family child-care home” provides child care to up to six unrelated children and an additional four related children. A provider must (1) complete six hours of training before being certified and (2) develop and implement a plan to complete nine hours of state- approved training annually (922 Ky Admin. Regs., § 2:110 (2012)).
In Maine, a certified “family child care provider” is someone who obtains a state certificate to provide child care generally for three to 12 children in his or her own home. Before receiving a certificate, a provider must take part in six hours of approved training in the operation of a child care program. After the first year of operation and each following year, the provider and staff must participate in a minimum of 12 hours of training in child care and early education areas or other areas related to the operation of a child care facility (Me. Code R., § 10-148, Ch. 33, § 3 (2012)).
In Maryland, a registered “family child care provider” can provide child care for up to eight children, no more than two of whom may be under two years old. Within two years of applying for registration, a provider must complete four hours of training in each of six core areas, including child development (24 hours total) or hold a credential with similar qualifications. A provider must complete 18 hours of continuing training in the first year of registration, and 12 hours in each successive year in any of the core areas (Md. Code Regs., 13a.15.06.02 (2012)).
Montana law defines a "family day care home" as a private residence in which a person regularly provides day care for three to six children. These providers must receive state certification to operate.
Within 60 days of certification, providers must attend a state-run or –approved basic day care orientation. This orientation must include the following areas: (1) health, (2) safety, (3) child development and well being, (4) discipline and guidance, and (5) nutrition and food safety.
Additionally, providers must complete a minimum of eight hours of approved education and training annually. The training may be obtained from the state licensing agency or an agency-approved professional child care education and development program. Approved education and training must relate to the Montana Early Care and Education Knowledge Base and must fall within the following categories: (1) personal attributes and characteristics; (2) health, safety, and nutrition; (3) child growth and development; (4) child guidance; and (5) cultural and developmental diversity (Mont. Admin. R. 37.95.102 (2011)).
In Nebraska, the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) regulates child care programs that serve more than three children. A Family Child Care Home “I” is one located in the provider's residence and authorized to care for up to eight children. These providers must be licensed.
Providers must complete training before receiving a license. The training includes (1) a DHHS orientation program, (2) CPR, and (3) first-aid. Providers must also complete 12 hours of in-service training annually. This must include (1) physical development, (2) cognitive learning, (3) creative learning, and (4) social development (391 Neb. Admin. Code, § 6-000 (2012)).
In Nevada, a “family home” is a facility in which a licensee regularly cares for five or six children. Within the first year of (1) becoming a director, (2) obtaining a license, or (3) becoming a caretaker, a provider must receive at least three hours in child development training and three hours of child care training (Nev. Admin. Code, § 432a.077) (2012)).
In New Hampshire, a “family child care home” provides care for up to six children. Starting on July 1, 2012, all child care personnel must complete 18 hours of in-service professional development annually. Professional development includes (1) training, workshops, or college courses totaling at least two-thirds of the total professional development hours; (2) self-study projects based on current child development or early childhood research; or (3) meetings and volunteer activities with early childhood education organizations. New personnel must complete an orientation program.
Additionally, providers between ages 18 and 21, in addition to submitting proof of having obtained a high school diploma or its equivalent, must prove they have successfully completed a two-year child care curriculum or college courses totaling six credits in human growth and development or early childhood education (N.H. Code Admin. R. Ann., He-C 4002.30 (2012)).
In New York, a “family day care home” is a state-registered residence in which child day care is provided on a regular compensated basis for more than three hours per day, per child for three to six children. Each registered family day care provider must complete at least 15 hours of training during the first six months after registration and at least 30 hours of training during each registration period. This training must cover several topics, including principles of childhood development (N.Y. Soc. Serv. Law § 390-A (2012)).
In North Carolina, a “family child care home” is a licensed child care arrangement located in a residence providing day care to between three and eight children.
Each licensed provider must complete 12 hours of annual in-service training in topic areas such as:
1. steps to advance children's physical and intellectual development,
2. positive ways to support children's social and emotional development,
3. maintaining a commitment to professionalism,
4. observing and recording children's behavior, and
5. principles of child growth and development
(N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. §§ 110-86, -110-91 (2012)).
In Ohio, a “type B certified child care provider” cares for one to six children in his or her personal residence. Anyone can operate a type B home without a license, but the operator must be certified if the child care is paid for with public funds.
Type B providers must complete the licensing agency's “Health and Safety in Family Child Care” course. They must complete six hours of training annually in (1) management of communicable disease, (2) child abuse recognition and prevention, and (3) child growth and development (Ohio Admin. Code 5101:2-14-01 (2012)).
In Oregon, a “registered family child care” provider takes care of four to 10 children at any one time. Such providers must complete a Family Child Care Overview session and complete an additional eight hours of approved child care-related training every two years to maintain the registration. At least four of the eight hours must be in child development or early childhood education (Or. Admin. R. 414-205-0000, et. seq. (2011)).
South Dakota requires family day care providers to receive six hours of training each year. The training includes child growth and development (S.D. Admin. R., Ch. 7:42:03:01 (2012)).