Location:
HOUSING - FINANCE;
Scope:
Connecticut laws/regulations; Program Description;

OLR Research Report


October 12, 2011

 

2011-R-0348

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

By: Kristin Sullivan, Principal Analyst

You asked several questions concerning affordable housing and the affordable housing land use appeals procedure, which we answer separately below.

1. What is the affordable housing land use appeals procedure specified in CGS 8-30g?

The affordable housing land use appeals procedure (“the procedure”) is a set of rules requiring zoning and planning commissions to defend their decisions denying affordable housing developments or approving them with costly conditions. In traditional zoning appeals, the developer must convince the court that the town acted illegally, arbitrarily, or abused its discretion by rejecting his or her proposed development. The procedure instead places the burden of proof on towns.

Under the procedure, “affordable housing development” means a housing development that is (1) assisted housing or (2) a set-aside development. "Assisted housing" means housing that receives government assistance to construct or rehabilitate low- and moderate- income housing, or, housing occupied by individuals receiving rental assistance (i.e., Section 8). A “set-aside development” is a project where at least 30% of the dwelling units are deed restricted as affordable for at least 40 years after initial occupancy.

A developer can use the procedure only in those municipalities that the Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD) determines have little or no affordable housing stock. DECD makes this determination annually based on statutory criteria and publishes a list of municipalities that are subject to the procedure.

2. What is the threshold at which towns are subject to the procedure?

A municipality is subject to the procedure if fewer than 10% of its housing stock:

1. is assisted housing,

2. is currently financed by Connecticut Housing Finance Authority mortgages,

3. is subject to deeds and conditions restricting the sale or rental to low-and moderate-income people, or

4. consists of mobile homes or accessory apartments subject to similar deed restrictions.

In 2010—the latest year for which DECD's list is available—31 municipalities were exempt from the procedure. The remaining 138 were subject to it (see Attachment A).

3. What qualifies as affordable under CGS 8-30g and what are the requirements for developers?

As stated above, affordable housing developed under the procedure must be either developed for low- or moderate-income people with government funds (i.e. assisted housing) or reserved by the developer for such people (i.e. set-aside). Set-aside units qualify as affordable under CGS 8-30g if people earning no more than 80% of the area median income (AMI) or state median income, whichever is less pay no more than 30% of their annual income toward housing. This criterion reflects an assumption about how much money low- and moderate-income people can afford to pay for housing and still meet their other expenses.

Under the procedure, the developer must price at least 30% of the units in this range. But at least 15% of these set-aside units must be affordable to households earning no more than 60% of the AMI or state median income, whichever is less. Consequently, the developer

must make the remaining set-aside units affordable to people earning between 60% and 80% of the AMI or state median income, whichever is less.

The set-aside units must remain affordable to low- and moderate- income people for at least 40 years. They must be subject to deed terms and conditions restricting their subsequent sale or rental to prices these people can afford.

4. How many affordable housing units were added to the state's housing stock under the procedure since it was enacted in 1989?

DECD does not track the number of affordable housing units approved under the procedure. In 2003 written testimony to the Housing Committee, however, Shipman and Goodwin land use attorney Timothy Hollister estimated that 2,500 affordable units were developed under the procedure during the 1990s (see OLR Report 2004-R-0198).

Instead, the agency tracks the number of affordable units that count toward the 10% threshold, which captures but does not differentiate affordable units developed under different laws, including CGS 8-30g (see Questions 1 and 2 above). DECD provided data going back to 2000, when PA 00-206 changed the unit set-aside criteria for CGS 8-30g projects. As Table 1 shows, the number of assisted units and units financed with CHFA mortgages decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conversely, the number of deed restricted units increased. In total, the number of affordable units counting toward the 10% threshold decreased by 5.6% statewide during this period (see Attachment B for a town-by-town comparison).

Table 1: Affordable Housing Units Counting Toward the 10% Threshold:

2000 Compared with 2010

2000

2010

Change

Assisted Units

Deed Restricted Units

CHFA

Mortgages

Total Units

Assisted Units

Deed Restricted Units

CHFA Mortgages

Total Units

#

%

127,035

1,949

35,213 

164,197

123,514

4,828

26,708 

155,050

-9,147

-5.6%

Sources: DECD

According to DECD, the overall decrease in units is due mostly to the large reduction in commercial interest rates. Prior to 2000, the difference between the interest rate that CHFA offered and the rate that a bank or mortgage broker offered was substantial (often 1.5% to 3%). Today the difference is much smaller (0.5% to 0.75%) and consequently, fewer borrowers make use of CHFA loans.

DECD also indicated that the increase in deed restricted units may not be related to CGS 8-30g. For example, there are over 200 deed restricted units in the town of Trumbull that resulted from a local initiative to document previously undocumented accessory apartments; they have no relationship to CGS 8-30g. In addition, a large number of units that were counted as governmentally assisted in 2000 are now counted as deed restricted.

5. What is the cost of rental housing in Connecticut?

Rental costs vary depending on a unit's size, location, amenities, and other factors. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Fair Market Rent (FMR) estimates likely provide the most current and accurate picture of rental costs for low- and moderate-income people. FMRs are gross rent estimates that include shelter and utility costs, except telephone, cable or satellite television service, and internet service. HUD estimates FMRs annually for 530 metropolitan areas and 2,045 nonmetropolitan county areas and sets these estimates to assure that a sufficient supply of rental housing is available to program participants.

FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the federal Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program. However, state law requires developers to use FMRs to determine rents they may charge for the set-aside units developed under CGS 8-30g. Specifically, it limits the rent to 100% of the FMR for those units reserved for people earning 60% or less of the median income. It limits the rents to 120% of the FMR for those people earning between 60% and 80% of the median income. Table 1 shows the 2010 FMRs for Connecticut metropolitan areas. (See Attachment C for a town-by-town list of 2010 FMRs.)

Table 2: HUD 2010 FMRs and Family Median Income Estimates

Metropolitan Area

Efficiency

One-Bedroom

Two-Bedroom

Three-Bedroom

Four-Bedroom

Bridgeport

$833

$1,076

$1,283

$1,533

$1,862

Colchester-Lebanon

739

868

1,139

1,362

1,406

Danbury

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Hartford-West Hartford- East Hartford

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Milford-Ansonia-Seymour

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

New Haven-Meriden

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Norwich-New London

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Southern Middlesex County

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Stamford-Norwalk

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Waterbury

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Source: HUD

6. What is the median household income in Connecticut?

The U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) provides the most recent median household income estimates for metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. According to the ACS, Connecticut's 2010 median household income was $64,032. Table 3 shows the median household income for the state and its metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.

Table 3: Median Household Income

Metropolitan or Micropolitan Statistical Area

Median Household Income

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro Area

$74,831

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

63,104

New Haven-Milford

57,056

Norwich-New London

62,349

Torrington Micro Area

66,307

Willimantic Micro Area

60,026

Statewide

64,032

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 American Community Survey

The ACS does not provide income data at the municipal level. However, the Partnership for Strong Communities—a nonprofit organization focusing on housing issues in Connecticut—issued a report with median town household income data for all 169 municipalities (see Attachment D). The report, “Affordability in Connecticut, 2010,” uses income data provided by the Connecticut Economic Resource Center Data Finder, Applied Geographic Solutions.

KS:ro

Attachment A: Amended* 2010 Affordable Housing Appeals List

2010 Affordable Housing Appeals List - Exempt Municipalities

 

Town

2000 Census Housing Units

Governmentally Assisted Units

CHFA Mortgages

Deed Restricted Units

Total Assisted Units

Percent

1

Ansonia

7,937

1,040

109

9

1,158

14.59%

2

Bloomfield

8,195

698

299

0

997

12.17%

3

Bridgeport

54,367

9,013

943

8

9,964

18.33%

4

Bristol

26,125

2,508

1,034

0

3,542

13.56%

5

Brooklyn

2,708

244

65

0

309

11.41%

6

Danbury

28,519

2,526

297

223

3,046

10.68%

7

Derby

5,568

562

61

0

623

11.19%

8

East Hartford

21,273

2,245

907

0

3,152

14.82%

9

East Windsor

4,356

604

96

14

714

16.39%

10

Enfield

17,043

1,536

545

7

2,088

12.25%

11

Groton

16,817

3,312

338

10

3,660

21.76%

12

Hartford

50,644

17,428

1,431

0

18,859

37.24%

13

Killingly

6,909

658

248

0

906

13.11%

14

Manchester

24,256

2,603

916

38

3,557

14.66%

15

Mansfield

5,481

576

80

0

656

11.97%

16

Meriden

24,631

2,725

1,046

4

3,775

15.33%

17

Middletown

19,697

3,679

613

0

4,292

21.79%

18

New Britain

31,164

4,322

1,163

0

5,485

17.60%

19

New Haven

52,941

13,775

1,128

453

15,356

29.00%

20

New London

11,560

1,980

452

42

2,474

21.40%

21

Norwalk

33,753

3,114

236

553

3,903

11.56%

22

Norwich

16,600

2,634

517

0

3,151

18.98%

23

Plainfield

5,676

597

254

0

851

14.99%

24

Putnam

3,955

450

98

0

548

13.86%

25

Stamford

47,317

5,342

299

1,143

6,784

14.34%

26

Torrington

16,147

1,375

631

17

2,023

12.53%

27

Vernon

12,867

1,875

371

0

2,246

17.46%

28

Waterbury

46,827

7,590

2,369

378

10,337

22.07%

29

West Haven

22,336

2,280

425

0

2,705

12.11%

30

Winchester

4,922

560

120

0

680

13.82%

31

Windham

8,926

2,150

438

0

2,588

28.99%

Total Exempt Municipalities

639,517

100,001

17,529

2,899

120,429

 

Source: List provided by DECD

Attachment B: Change in Affordable Housing Units 2000 to 2010

Town

2000

2010

Change

Assisted Units

Deed Restricted Units

CHFA Mortgages

Total Units

Assisted Units

Deed Restricted Units

CHFA Mortgages

Total Units

Whole Number

Percent

Andover

25

0

30

55

25

0

109

134

79

143.6%

Ansonia

1173

0

192

1,365

1,040

9

21

1,070

-295

-21.6%

Ashford

35

0

71

106

34

0

35

69

-37

-34.9%

Avon

137

0

29

166

142

0

21

163

-3

-1.8%

Barkhamsted

4

0

17

21

3

0

12

15

-6

-28.6%

Beacon Falls

4

0

37

41

7

0

26

33

-8

-19.5%

Berlin

76

0

101

177

495

6

84

585

408

230.5%

Bethany

0

0

3

3

0

0

2

2

-1

-33.3%

Bethel

157

0

119

276

261

63

61

385

109

39.5%

Bethlehem

24

0

4

28

24

0

0

24

-4

-14.3%

Bloomfield

927

0

366

1,293

698

0

299

997

-296

-22.9%

Bolton

0

0

32

32

2

0

13

15

-17

-53.1%

Bozrah

4

0

22

26

4

0

14

18

-8

-30.8%

Branford

428

0

155

583

270

0

178

448

-135

-23.2%

Bridgeport

11037

76

1,861

12,974

9,013

8

943

9,964

-3,010

-23.2%

Bridgewater

0

0

1

1

0

0

2

2

1

100.0%

Bristol

2400

17

1,249

3,666

2,508

0

1,034

3,542

-124

-3.4%

Brookfield

38

0

86

124

41

27

39

107

-17

-13.7%

Brooklyn

260

0

109

369

244

0

65

309

-60

-16.3%

Burlington

19

0

40

59

30

0

23

53

-6

-10.2%

Canaan

3

1

7

11

0

1

9

10

-1

-9.1%

Canterbury

78

0

72

150

78

0

27

105

-45

-30.0%

Canton

134

0

43

177

230

32

52

314

137

77.4%

Chaplin

4

0

23

27

1

0

25

26

-1

-3.7%

Cheshire

149

43

80

272

240

17

77

334

62

22.8%

Chester

24

0

12

36

25

0

9

34

-2

-5.6%

Clinton

87

0

57

144

92

0

41

133

-11

-7.6%

Colchester

487

0

161

648

390

0

84

474

-174

-26.9%

Colebrook

0

0

4

4

0

0

6

6

2

50.0%

Columbia

28

0

44

72

28

0

39

67

-5

-6.9%

Cornwall

18

0

3

21

18

0

0

18

-3

-14.3%

Coventry

93

20

170

283

107

20

119

246

-37

-13.1%

Cromwell

153

0

157

310

217

0

213

430

120

38.7%

Danbury

2243

24

735

3,002

2,526

223

297

3,046

44

1.5%

Darien

83

0

4

87

91

80

1

172

85

97.7%

Deep River

33

0

21

54

29

0

22

51

-3

-5.6%

Derby

396

0

91

487

562

0

61

623

136

27.9%

Durham

25

0

17

42

34

0

11

45

3

7.1%

East Granby

73

0

29

102

73

0

33

106

4

3.9%

East Haddam

40

0

39

79

74

1

26

101

22

27.8%

East Hampton

74

0

81

155

75

25

71

171

16

10.3%

East Hartford

2679

0

1,157

3,836

2,245

0

907

3,152

-684

-17.8%

East Haven

432

0

437

869

544

0

298

842

-27

-3.1%

East Lyme

227

0

116

343

350

10

87

447

104

30.3%

East Windsor

576

14

133

723

604

14

96

714

-9

-1.2%

Eastford

0

0

18

18

0

0

16

16

-2

-11.1%

Easton

0

0

0

0

0

11

0

11

11

N/A

Ellington

250

0

120

370

271

0

74

345

-25

-6.8%

Enfield

1255

7

995

2,257

1,536

7

545

2,088

-169

-7.5%

Essex

38

0

14

52

40

0

5

45

-7

-13.5%

Fairfield

389

116

62

567

422

111

32

565

-2

-0.4%

Farmington

454

56

137

647

574

152

120

846

199

30.8%

Franklin

1

0

15

16

0

0

16

16

0

0.0%

Glastonbury

661

35

133

829

626

0

130

756

-73

-8.8%

Goshen

2

0

2

4

2

0

6

8

4

100.0%

Granby

105

4

46

155

89

5

34

128

-27

-17.4%

Greenwich

1224

12

6

1,242

1,195

54

2

1,251

9

0.7%

Griswold

174

0

213

387

198

0

142

340

-47

-12.1%

Groton

3331

9

422

3,762

3,312

10

338

3,660

-102

-2.7%

Guilford

117

0

38

155

172

0

29

201

46

29.7%

Haddam

22

0

14

36

23

0

16

39

3

8.3%

Hamden

1437

2

546

1,985

1,165

4

457

1,626

-359

-18.1%

Hampton

2

0

18

20

0

0

17

17

-3

-15.0%

Hartford

18359

0

1,776

20,135

17,428

0

1,431

18,859

-1,276

-6.3%

Hartland

13

0

7

20

2

0

5

7

-13

-65.0%

Harwinton

26

0

25

51

24

0

21

45

-6

-11.8%

Hebron

32

0

48

80

62

0

28

90

10

12.5%

Kent

25

1

9

35

25

24

4

53

18

51.4%

Killingly

688

0

395

1,083

658

0

248

906

-177

-16.3%

Killingworth

0

0

4

4

0

5

5

10

6

150.0%

Lebanon

43

0

69

112

31

0

46

77

-35

-31.3%

Ledyard

42

0

221

263

39

4

161

204

-59

-22.4%

Lisbon

7

0

79

86

2

0

36

38

-48

-55.8%

Litchfield

133

39

21

193

144

29

11

184

-9

-4.7%

Lyme

0

4

1

5

0

7

0

7

2

40.0%

Madison

90

19

21

130

92

29

5

126

-4

-3.1%

Manchester

1872

32

1,061

2,965

2,603

38

916

3,557

592

20.0%

Mansfield

321

0

95

416

576

0

80

656

240

57.7%

Marlborough

25

0

25

50

24

0

13

37

-13

-26.0%

Meriden

3601

4

1,360

4,965

2,725

4

1,046

3,775

-1,190

-24.0%

Middlebury

148

0

16

164

79

8

9

96

-68

-41.5%

Middlefield

31

0

25

56

30

0

11

41

-15

-26.8%

Middletown

3267

0

591

3,858

3,679

0

613

4,292

434

11.2%

Milford

945

17

327

1,289

1,101

107

219

1,427

138

10.7%

Monroe

36

0

19

55

36

1

19

56

1

1.8%

Montville

96

0

296

392

111

0

183

294

-98

-25.0%

Morris

20

0

6

26

20

0

0

20

-6

-23.1%

Naugatuck

895

0

416

1,311

762

0

319

1,081

-230

-17.5%

New Britain

4439

0

1,452

5,891

4,322

0

1,163

5,485

-406

-6.9%

New Canaan

140

0

2

142

146

31

3

180

38

26.8%

New Fairfield

0

0

69

69

0

13

23

36

-33

-47.8%

New Hartford

9

0

30

39

12

15

39

66

27

69.2%

New Haven

16074

206

1,543

17,823

13,775

453

1,128

15,356

-2,467

-13.8%

New London

1819

0

512

2,331

1,980

42

452

2,474

143

6.1%

New Milford

159

0

197

356

248

0

103

351

-5

-1.4%

Newington

461

0

466

927

478

36

392

906

-21

-2.3%

Newtown

233

15

27

275

138

15

18

171

-104

-37.8%

Norfolk

29

0

4

33

28

0

3

31

-2

-6.1%

North Branford

62

0

56

118

69

0

59

128

10

8.5%

North Canaan

78

0

6

84

101

0

7

108

24

28.6%

North Haven

174

0

85

259

371

1

77

449

190

73.4%

North Stonington

0

0

25

25

2

0

16

18

-7

-28.0%

Norwalk

3206

399

465

4,070

3,114

553

236

3,903

-167

-4.1%

Norwich

2446

0

599

3,045

2,634

0

517

3,151

106

3.5%

Old Lyme

63

0

12

75

60

3

4

67

-8

-10.7%

Old Saybrook

53

0

36

89

51

1

14

66

-23

-25.8%

Orange

85

0

10

95

50

0

9

59

-36

-37.9%

Oxford

35

0

8

43

38

0

10

48

5

11.6%

Plainfield

503

0

416

919

597

0

254

851

-68

-7.4%

Plainville

268

32

416

716

244

53

317

614

-102

-14.2%

Plymouth

175

0

217

392

184

0

143

327

-65

-16.6%

Pomfret

65

0

21

86

35

0

12

47

-39

-45.3%

Portland

194

0

55

249

276

0

44

320

71

28.5%

Preston

42

0

38

80

43

0

32

75

-5

-6.3%

Prospect

1

0

29

30

5

0

23

28

-2

-6.7%

Putnam

662

0

169

831

450

0

98

548

-283

-34.1%

Redding

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

N/A

Ridgefield

139

0

13

152

179

5

7

191

39

25.7%

Rocky Hill

239

0

157

396

254

0

188

442

46

11.6%

Roxbury

3

0

1

4

19

0

1

20

16

400.0%

Salem

0

0

22

22

1

0

23

24

2

9.1%

Salisbury

18

0

6

24

16

8

3

27

3

12.5%

Scotland

0

0

28

28

0

0

9

9

-19

-67.9%

Seymour

207

0

96

303

285

0

76

361

58

19.1%

Sharon

20

0

6

26

21

0

4

25

-1

-3.8%

Shelton

357

82

86

525

267

82

86

435

-90

-17.1%

Sherman

0

0

3

3

0

0

2

2

-1

-33.3%

Simsbury

242

0

62

304

251

0

65

316

12

3.9%

Somers

55

0

31

86

59

0

18

77

-9

-10.5%

South Windsor

101

0

196

297

474

0

249

723

426

143.4%

Southbury

78

0

19

97

91

0

13

104

7

7.2%

Southington

793

0

406

1,199

640

51

292

983

-216

-18.0%

Sprague

28

0

31

59

28

0

30

58

-1

-1.7%

Stafford

200

0

203

403

192

0

141

333

-70

-17.4%

Stamford

5802

104

359

6,265

5,342

1,143

299

6,784

519

8.3%

Sterling

5

0

82

87

2

0

22

24

-63

-72.4%

Stonington

244

0

133

377

314

0

51

365

-12

-3.2%

Stratford

1264

1

413

1,678

878

33

261

1,172

-506

-30.2%

Suffield

119

4

67

190

215

15

45

275

85

44.7%

Thomaston

99

0

91

190

94

0

88

182

-8

-4.2%

Thompson

160

0

122

282

160

0

49

209

-73

-25.9%

Tolland

35

0

135

170

99

3

71

173

3

1.8%

Torrington

1353

0

681

2,034

1,375

17

631

2,023

-11

-0.5%

Trumbull

225

0

19

244

321

289

35

645

401

164.3%

Union

0

0

6

6

2

0

4

6

0

0.0%

Vernon

2173

85

460

2,718

1,875

0

371

2,246

-472

-17.4%

Voluntown

20

0

48

68

21

0

24

45

-23

-33.8%

Wallingford

519

2

457

978

623

35

313

971

-7

-0.7%

Warren

0

0

2

2

1

0

2

3

1

50.0%

Washington

176

0

5

181

14

23

0

37

-144

-79.6%

Waterbury

7805

0

2,566

10,371

7,590

378

2,369

10,337

-34

-0.3%

Waterford

82

0

271

353

137

0

192

329

-24

-6.8%

Watertown

277

0

218

495

229

0

140

369

-126

-25.5%

West Hartford

1062

373

423

1,858

1,254

277

319

1,850

-8

-0.4%

West Haven

2147

0

683

2,830

2,280

0

425

2,705

-125

-4.4%

Westbrook

145

24

25

194

146

24

12

182

-12

-6.2%

Weston

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0.0%

Westport

167

0

14

181

218

13

2

233

52

28.7%

Wethersfield

634

0

247

881

709

0

223

932

51

5.8%

Willington

3

0

55

58

165

0

32

197

139

239.7%

Wilton

164

70

3

237

89

70

6

165

-72

-30.4%

Winchester

529

0

112

641

560

0

120

680

39

6.1%

Windham

2004

0

400

2,404

2,150

0

438

2,588

184

7.7%

Windsor

309

0

369

678

354

0

383

737

59

8.7%

Windsor Locks

223

0

213

436

275

0

187

462

26

6.0%

Wolcott

164

0

200

364

315

0

130

445

81

22.3%

Woodbridge

16

0

5

21

36

0

5

41

20

95.2%

Woodbury

53

0

14

67

62

0

18

80

13

19.4%

Woodstock

38

0

54

92

28

0

38

66

-26

-28.3%

TOTAL

127,035

1,949

35,213

164,197

123,514

4,828

26,708

155,050

-9,147

-5.6%

Attachment C: 2010 HUD Fair Market Rents

Town

Efficiency

One-Bedroom

Two-Bedroom

Three-Bedroom

Four-Bedroom

Andover

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Ansonia

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Ashford

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Avon

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Barkhamsted

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Beacon Falls

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Berlin

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Bethany

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Bethel

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Bethlehem

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Bloomfield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Bolton

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Bozrah

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Branford

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Bridgeport

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Bridgewater

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Bristol

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Brookfield

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Brooklyn

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Burlington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Canaan

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Canterbury

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Canton

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Chaplin

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Cheshire

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Chester

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Clinton

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Colchester

739

868

1,139

1,362

1,406

Colebrook

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Columbia

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Cornwall

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Coventry

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Cromwell

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Danbury

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Darien

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Deep River

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Derby

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Durham

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

East Granby

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

East Haddam

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

East Hampton

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

East Hartford

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

East Haven

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

East Lyme

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

East Windsor

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Eastford

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Easton

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Ellington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Enfield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Essex

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Fairfield

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Farmington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Franklin

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Glastonbury

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Goshen

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Granby

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Greenwich

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Griswold

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Groton

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Guilford

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Haddam

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Hamden

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Hampton

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Hartford

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Hartland

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Harwinton

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Hebron

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Kent

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Killingly

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Killingworth

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Lebanon

739

868

1,139

1,362

1,406

Ledyard

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Lisbon

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Litchfield

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Lyme

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Madison

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Manchester

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Mansfield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Marlborough

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Meriden

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Middlebury

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Middlefield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Middletown

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Milford

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Monroe

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Montville

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Morris

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Naugatuck

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

New Britain

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

New Canaan

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

New Fairfield

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

New Hartford

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

New Haven

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

New London

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

New Milford

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Newington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Newtown

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Norfolk

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

North Branford

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

North Canaan

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

North Haven

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

North Stonington

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Norwalk

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Norwich

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Old Lyme

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Old Saybrook

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Orange

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Oxford

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Plainfield

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Plainville

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Plymouth

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Pomfret

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Portland

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Preston

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Prospect

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Putnam

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Redding

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Ridgefield

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Rocky Hill

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Roxbury

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Salem

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Salisbury

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Scotland

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Seymour

909

1,054

1,179

1,501

1,648

Sharon

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Shelton

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Sherman

1,033

1,254

1,591

1,904

2,361

Simsbury

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Somers

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

South Windsor

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Southbury

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Southington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Sprague

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Stafford

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Stamford

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Sterling

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Stonington

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Stratford

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Suffield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Thomaston

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Thompson

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Tolland

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Torrington

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Trumbull

833

1,076

1,283

1,533

1,862

Union

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Vernon

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Voluntown

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Wallingford

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Warren

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Washington

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Waterbury

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Waterford

740

878

1,016

1,244

1,374

Watertown

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

West Hartford

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

West Haven

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Westbrook

870

916

1,166

1,496

1,706

Weston

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Westport

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Wethersfield

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Willington

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Wilton

1,183

1,440

1,800

2,345

2,833

Winchester

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Windham

617

747

899

1,131

1,200

Windsor Locks

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Windsor

748

896

1,095

1,315

1,633

Wolcott

616

796

947

1,134

1,180

Woodbridge

862

978

1,181

1,414

1,616

Woodbury

668

870

1,027

1,319

1,483

Woodstock

617

747

899

1,131

1,200