CHAPTER 960*
INFORMATION, PROCEDURE AND BAIL

      *Until a statement, or an act, or a writing is determined to come within the definition of a confession, there is no requirement that the corpus delicti be established before the admission of the evidence. 22 CS 507.

Table of Contents

Secs. 54-42 to 54-44. Original information in Superior Court. Bench warrant; procedure on arrest; previous bond in Court of Common Pleas. Admissibility of confession. Informations in cases appealed to Superior Court.
Sec. 54-45. When grand jury is required. Selecting grand jury. Alternate grand jurors.
Sec. 54-45a. Record of grand jury proceedings. Transcripts.
Sec. 54-46. Prosecution on complaint or information.
Sec. 54-46a. Probable cause hearing for persons charged with crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment.
Sec. 54-47. Investigations into commission of crime.
Sec. 54-47a. Compelling testimony of witness. Immunity from prosecution.
Sec. 54-47b. Investigatory grand jury. Definitions.
Sec. 54-47c. Application for investigation into commission of crime.
Sec. 54-47d. Appointment of investigatory grand jury. Duration and scope of investigation.
Sec. 54-47e. Sealing of order and application. Summary of scope of investigation. Disclosure.
Sec. 54-47f. Conduct of investigation. Testimony of witnesses.
Sec. 54-47g. Finding and record of investigation. Disclosure. Hearing. Access to testimony.
Sec. 54-47h. Report.
Sec. 54-47i. Authority of investigation ordered prior to October 1, 1985.
Secs. 54-47j to 54-47z.
Sec. 54-47aa. Ex parte court order to compel disclosure of certain telephone and Internet records.
Sec. 54-48. Reward for arrest of capital offender or felon.
Sec. 54-49. Reward for information as to high crime or crime resulting in death of police officer or firefighter.
Sec. 54-50. Reward for information as to unlawful disinterment of corpse.
Sec. 54-51. Reward for information as to theft of motor vehicle, livestock or poultry.
Sec. 54-52. Determination of claims to reward.
Sec. 54-53. Release by correctional officials.
Sec. 54-53a. Detention of persons who have not made bail.
Secs. 54-54 and 54-55. Original information in Court of Common Pleas. Information in cases appealed to Court of Common Pleas.
Sec. 54-56. Dismissal of information by court.
Sec. 54-56a. (Formerly Sec. 54-2b). Pleading by mail in certain motor vehicle cases.
Sec. 54-56b. Right to dismissal or trial on nolle.
Sec. 54-56c. Request for privileged trial status.
Sec. 54-56d. (Formerly Sec. 54-40). Competency to stand trial.
Sec. 54-56e. (Formerly Sec. 54-76p). Accelerated pretrial rehabilitation.
Sec. 54-56f. (Formerly Sec. 54-5). Requirements of sureties of the peace.
Sec. 54-56g. Pretrial alcohol education program.
Sec. 54-56h. Consideration of defendant's contribution to Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund or of community service work hours. Payment of monetary contribution to fund.
Sec. 54-56i. Pretrial drug education program.
Sec. 54-56j. Pretrial school violence prevention program.
Sec. 54-56k. Pretrial account.
Sec. 54-56l. Pretrial supervised diversionary program for persons with psychiatric disabilities.
Sec. 54-56m. Mediation programs.
Sec. 54-57. Joinder of offenses of the same character.
Sec. 54-58. Description of money in complaint or information.
Sec. 54-59. Statement of ownership, partnership or joint tenancy in indictment, information or complaint.
Sec. 54-60. Allegations in criminal cases.
Sec. 54-61. Complaints for offenses specified in special acts, ordinances and bylaws.
Sec. 54-62. Allegation of previous conviction.
Sec. 54-63. Mode of informing against larceny by embezzlement.
Sec. 54-63a. Definitions.
Sec. 54-63b. Pretrial release of arrested persons. Duties of Court Support Services Division. Uniform weighted release criteria.
Sec. 54-63c. Release by law enforcement officer.
Sec. 54-63d. Release by bail commissioner. Information, files and reports held by Court Support Services Division.
Sec. 54-63e. Bond or promise conditioned on appearance.
Sec. 54-63f. Release after conviction and pending sentence or appeal.
Sec. 54-63g. Appeal from court order re release.
Sec. 54-64. Police officials and clerks of court to take promise to appear or bond.
Sec. 54-64a. Release by judicial authority.
Sec. 54-64b. Release following arrest on court warrant.
Sec. 54-64c. Notice of appearance after release.
Sec. 54-64d. Release of person taken into custody on a capias.
Sec. 54-64e. Noncriminal behavior as condition of release. Notice of conditions of release and sanctions for violation.
Sec. 54-64f. Violation of conditions of release. Imposition of different or additional conditions. Revocation of release.
Sec. 54-64g. Surveillance of serious felony offenders released on bond.
Sec. 54-65. Procedure when principal intends to abscond.
Sec. 54-65a. Forfeiture of bond for failure to appear. Issuance of rearrest warrant or capias. Termination or reinstatement of bond. Rebate to surety.
Sec. 54-66. Acceptance and disposition of bail. Pledge of real property as lien. Forfeiture of bond for failure to appear. Issuance of rearrest warrant or capias. Termination or reinstatement of bond.
Sec. 54-66a. Automatic termination of bail bonds.
Sec. 54-67. When attorneys not allowed to give bonds.
Sec. 54-68. Persons charged with gaming to give bonds.
Sec. 54-69. Motion of parties to modify conditions of release.
Sec. 54-69a. Motion of bail commissioner to modify conditions of release.
Sec. 54-69b. Authority of court to modify conditions of release.
Sec. 54-70. Compromise of forfeited bonds.
Sec. 54-71. Mistake in form of recognizance.
Sec. 54-71a. No civil liability for release.
Sec. 54-72. Fines and forfeitures; prosecutions; liability of corporation.
Sec. 54-73. Collection and disposition of forfeitures.
Sec. 54-74. Remission of fine.
Sec. 54-75. Employment of detectives.
Sec. 54-76.
Sec. 54-76a. Procedure at hearing in probable cause.

      Secs. 54-42 to 54-44. Original information in Superior Court. Bench warrant; procedure on arrest; previous bond in Court of Common Pleas. Admissibility of confession. Informations in cases appealed to Superior Court. Sections 54-42 to 54-44, inclusive, are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8764-8766; 1963, P.A. 126, S. 2, 3; 1967, P.A. 656, S. 60; 1969, P.A. 803, S. 1; P.A. 73-116, S. 23; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-106, S. 1; 76-436, S. 536, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 38, 72; 77-576, S. 39, 65; P.A. 80-313, S. 61; 80-483, S. 136, 186.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-45. When grand jury is required. Selecting grand jury. Alternate grand jurors. (a) The Superior Court may, when necessary, order a grand jury of eighteen electors of the judicial district where said court is sitting to be summoned, impaneled and sworn to inquire after and present such offenses as are cognizable by said court. Said court may, in its discretion, order one or two additional electors to be added to the grand jury as alternate grand jurors. Such alternate jurors shall be sworn separately from those constituting the regular panel and shall not counsel or confer with members of the regular panel as to any matters before the grand jury unless they become a part of the regular panel as hereinafter provided. They shall attend the sessions of the grand jury and shall be seated with or near the members of the regular panel, with equal opportunity to see and hear all matters adduced in the proceedings. If for any reason a grand juror is unable to further perform his duty, the court may excuse him and, if any grand juror is so excused or dies, the court may order that the alternate juror or, if more than one, that one who is designated by lot drawn by the clerk of the Superior Court, shall become a part of the regular panel and the inquiry shall then proceed as though such grand juror had been a member of the regular panel from the beginning of the inquiry.

      (b) No person shall be put to plea or held to trial for any crime the punishment of which may be death or imprisonment for life, charged by the state before May 26, 1983, unless an indictment has been found against him for such crime by a grand jury legally impaneled and sworn, and no bill shall be presented by any grand jury unless at least twelve of the jurors agree to it.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8747; February, 1965, P.A. 173; P.A. 73-116, S. 1; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127; P.A. 80-313, S. 3; P.A. 83-210, S. 3, 5.)

      History: 1965 act added provisions for alternate grand jurors; P.A. 73-116 added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; P.A. 80-313 divided section into Subsecs; P.A. 83-210 amended Subsec. (b) to require a grand jury indictment for crimes punishable by death or imprisonment for life "charged by the state before May 26, 1983" to reflect the establishment of a probable cause hearing pursuant to Sec. 54-46a in place of a grand jury proceeding for persons accused of such crimes.

      See Sec. 1-25 re forms of oaths for jurors.

      Powers and duties of grand jury. 1 C. 428. Where imprisonment for life or death is not penalty, no grand jury necessary. 3 C. 112. Inquiry before grand jury must be secret. 16 C. 467. Not necessary that accused be present. 21 C. 279. Quaere, whether member of grand jury may be challenged for favor. 47 C. 106. If absolute disqualification is discovered after indictment found, it may be pleaded in avoidance. Id. The endorsement of a "true bill" on an indictment cannot be contradicted by parol evidence on habeas corpus proceedings; 67 C. 553; and, in habeas corpus proceedings in United States courts, failure to so endorse is not regarded. 160 U.S. 231. When required, an interpreter may be present in the grand jury room. 106 C. 721. When an accused person is confined for a crime punishable by death or life imprisonment, it is the duty of the court to order a grand jury; and this may be done before opening of term to which accused was bound over. Id., 719. Court may select members of grand jury, when. 126 C. 64. In a general investigation by grand jury state's attorney may be present to aid in examination of witnesses. Id., 66. Jury may have stenographer present. Id., 71. What evidence jury may elicit. Id. Constitution does not protect a person from being questioned by grand jury but only gives immunity from answering particular questions. Id., 72. History and nature of grand jury. Id. Cited. 135 C. 269. Requires an indictment by a grand jury in all cases in which the penalty to be imposed may be life imprisonment. 144 C. 295. Grand jury in which 7 out of 18 are attorneys not in itself illegal where there is no evidence of an intentional and systematic exclusion of any group. 146 C. 137. Cited. 146 C. 227; 153 C. 325. There is no federal constitutional impediment to dispensing entirely with grand jury in state prosecutions. 155 C. 367. In absence of contrary evidence, presumption arises that selection of grand jury was made without discrimination and fairly by officer in charge of selection. 158 C. 341. Cited. 159 C. 264. Cited. 164 C. 402. Cited. 176 C. 270. Cited. 181 C. 268. Cited. 183 C. 299. Presence of counsel before grand jury discussed. 187 C. 281. Trial court's denial of the motion to quash the ordering of the second grand jury is not one of those few presentence orders deemed final for purposes of appeal. 191 C. 27. During period between November 24, 1982, and May 26, 1983, statute provided authorization for use of grand juries in cases punishable by death or life imprisonment. 192 C. 671. Cited. Id., 700. Cited. 194 C. 416. Cited. 197 C. 280; Id., 507. Cited. 199 C. 163. Cited. 203 C. 641.

      Cited. 10 CA 103. Cited. 27 CA 643; Id., 675.

      Cited. 6 CS 221. Cited. 22 CS 6, 7. Person not given right to counsel before grand jury decision. This is not "critical stage" in proceedings against him. 25 CS 61. Grand jury is not prohibited from receiving hearsay evidence. That such evidence may have been considered by the grand jury would not entitle one who had been indicted to have the indictment quashed. Id., 388, 389. Counsel for the accused may not accompany him before the grand jury. Id., 389. This section was fully complied with by the court and its officers in summoning grand jury in absence of a showing that any of the members were disqualified for any reason. 26 CS 211. Nature of grand jury discussed. Id., 213. Not the state's burden to prove that the method of selection of grand jury was fair and nondiscriminatory. Id. Charge to grand jury that presumption of sanity was adequate basis on which to find, so far as element of soundness of mind was concerned, probable cause to hold accused for trial, was accurate. Id., 214. Constitutional right of accused to counsel does not include representation by counsel before a grand jury. Id. Indictment insufficient in law may be attacked by demurrer. Provision that grand jurors come from county where court sits is broad enough to comply with federal constitutional requirement that there must be no intentional or systematic exclusion of group or class from grand jury. 29 CS 119. Exclusion of aliens from grand jury service does not make statute unconstitutional since citizenship requirement bears rational relationship to demands of jury service. 35 CS 98. Cited. 36 CS 141. Cited. 45 CS 1.

      Subsec. (a):

      Grand jury transcript available to a defendant under this subsection is made available under the inherent supervisory powers of the superior court and evidentiary uses of it by the defendant are restricted to impeaching a witness, attacking the credibility of a witness or proving inconsistent statements of a witness. 187 C. 281. Cited. 204 C. 259.

      Cited. 4 CA 544.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 184 C. 597. Cited. 194 C. 692. Cited. 197 C. 247. Cited. 202 C. 18. Cited. 207 C. 276. Cited. 226 C. 601.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-45a. Record of grand jury proceedings. Transcripts. (a) In any grand jury proceeding ordered pursuant to the provisions of section 54-45, the official stenographer of the Superior Court or his assistant shall make a record of the proceedings excluding the deliberations, which shall be confidential and filed with the court. Access to the transcript shall be available only to the prosecutorial official or any person accused of crime as a result of the grand jury investigation or the accused person's attorney. The prosecutorial official or the person accused of a crime as a result of such grand jury investigation or the accused person's attorney may obtain a copy of the transcript by paying for it.

      (b) The transcript of such proceedings may not be used as evidence in any proceeding against the accused except for the purpose of impeaching a witness, attacking the credibility of a witness or proving inconsistent statements of a witness. The transcript may also be used as evidence in a prosecution for perjury committed by a witness while giving such testimony.

      (P.A. 78-289, S. 1; P.A. 80-313, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 divided section into Subsecs. and reworded provisions.

      Cited. 177 C. 677. Cited. 181 C. 268. Cited. 186 C. 476. Availability and use of grand jury transcripts discussed. 187 C. 281. Cited. 193 C. 350. Cited. 194 C. 469; Id., 530. Cited. 197 C. 698. Cited. 200 C. 323. Cited. 201 C. 534.

      Cited. 10 CA 103.

      Transcript may not be used to impeach a grand jury finding of a true bill. 36 CS 141. Cited. 42 CS 10. Cited. 45 CS 1.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 198 C. 644. Statute governs indicting grand juries and expressly prohibits subsequent use of grand jury testimony. 250 C. 188.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-46. Prosecution on complaint or information. For all crimes charged by the state on or after May 26, 1983, the prosecution may be by complaint or information. For all crimes punishable by death or imprisonment for life charged by the state before May 26, 1983, the prosecution shall be by indictment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8775; P.A. 75-376; P.A. 76-336, S. 15; 76-436, S. 537, 681; P.A. 79-157; P.A. 80-313, S. 7; P.A. 83-210, S. 4, 5.)

      History: P.A. 75-376 added provisions re trial on nolle prosequi; P.A. 76-336 clarified nolle provisions, substituting "At any stage in such prosecution" for "In any such prosecution"; P.A. 76-436 removed from exception cases involving nolle entered in common pleas court on matter bound over to superior court or upon recommendation of prosecutor that bench warrant is being requested or issued by superior court for arrest for same transaction, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-157 designated previous provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (b) and added Subsec. (c) re effect of not guilty plea on privilege with respect to assignment for trial; P.A. 80-313 specified prosecution by indictment required for all crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment and deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) re nolle prosequi and assignment for trial; P.A. 83-210 amended the section to reflect the establishment of a probable cause hearing to replace a grand jury proceeding by providing that prosecution by complaint or information would apply to all crimes "charged by the state on or after May 26, 1983" and prosecution by indictment would only apply to persons accused of crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment "charged by the state before May 26, 1983".

      See Sec. 54-56b re right to dismissal or trial on nolle.

      See Sec. 54-56c re request for privileged trial status.


      This section is constitutional. 60 C. 94; 135 C. 262. Information may be amended after evidence has been offered. 35 C. 319. As to particularity required. 39 C. 230; 93 C. 646. Must charge all essential elements of crime; 72 C. 606; 73 C. 407; thus, specific intent must be charged. 66 C. 250; 80 C. 614; 81 C. 699. Charging offense in words of statute. 66 C. 9; id., 657; 72 C. 606; 73 C. 18; 80 C. 321; 81 C. 696; 83 C. 304; 97 C. 730, 735; 99 C. 117; or of city ordinance. 60 C. 106; 88 C. 715; 91 C. 68. If effect is to include acts not in purview of statute, it is not sufficient; 82 C. 321; 93 C. 646; a more particular description may limit proof. 80 C. 321. Necessity of negativing exception. 69 C. 198; 88 C. 353. Old rules as to strictness relaxed; 81 C. 696; general rule as to certainty. 85 C. 322. Aider by verdict; 68 C. 512; 81 C. 696; amendable defect not ground for new trial. 80 C. 614. Necessity of identifying person with reference to whom crime is committed; 66 C. 558; of correctly alleging date of crime. 81 C. 98. Alleging matters by legal effect; act of principal as act of agent. 69 C. 86. Allegation of former conviction. 68 C. 512; 94 C. 701; 96 C. 172. Against one as accessory. 82 C. 213. Conspiracy and acts done in pursuance of it may be alleged in one count; 75 C. 206; so keeping disorderly house and one where lewd persons resort, 66 C. 8; so keeping place for registering bets and selling pools. 66 C. 250. See note to section 54-61. Merger defined; is a doctrine of very limited application. 99 C. 114; 108 C. 215. Identity of offenses. Id., 214. Cited. 151 C. 524. Cited. 153 C. 325; Id., 451. There is no federal constitutional impediment to dispensing entirely with grand jury in state prosecutions. 155 C. 367. Prosecution by information for infamous crime was not violation of defendant's rights under U.S. constitution. 156 C. 391. Cited. 159 C. 264. Cited. 184 C. 597. Cited. 192 C. 671. Cited. 202 C. 443. Cited. 229 C. 691.

      Cited. 22 CS 7. Not a denial of equal protection clause of fourteenth amendment of federal constitution to indict person by an information in larceny case. 25 CS 509.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-46a. Probable cause hearing for persons charged with crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment. (a) No person charged by the state, who has not been indicted by a grand jury prior to May 26, 1983, shall be put to plea or held to trial for any crime punishable by death or life imprisonment unless the court at a preliminary hearing determines there is probable cause to believe that the offense charged has been committed and that the accused person has committed it. The accused person may knowingly and voluntarily waive such preliminary hearing to determine probable cause.

      (b) Unless waived by the accused person or extended by the court for good cause shown, such preliminary hearing shall be conducted within sixty days of the filing of the complaint or information in Superior Court. The court shall be confined to the rules of evidence, except that written reports of expert witnesses shall be admissible in evidence and matters involving chain of custody shall be exempt from such rules. No motion to suppress or for discovery shall be allowed in connection with such hearing. The accused person shall have the right to counsel and may attend and, either individually or by counsel, participate in such hearing, present argument to the court, cross-examine witnesses against him and obtain a transcript of the proceedings at his own expense. At the close of the prosecution's case, if the court finds that, based on the evidence presented by the prosecution, probable cause exists, the accused person may make a specific offer of proof, including the names of witnesses who would testify or produce the evidence offered. The court shall not allow the accused person to present such evidence unless the court determines that such evidence would be sufficient to rebut the finding of probable cause.

      (c) If, from the evidence presented pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, it appears to the court that there is probable cause to believe that the accused person has committed the offense charged, the court shall so find and approve the continuance of the accused person's prosecution for that offense. A determination by the court that there is not probable cause to require the accused person to be put to trial for the offense charged shall not operate to prevent a subsequent prosecution of such accused person for the same offense.

      (P.A. 83-210, S. 1, 5; P.A. 87-260, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 87-260 amended Subsec. (a) to change the applicability of the requirement of a preliminary hearing from a person charged by the state "on or after May 26, 1983" to a person charged by the state "who has not been indicted by a grand jury prior to May 26, 1983".

      Cited as P.A. 83-210, S. 1: Constitutional right to a probable cause hearing vested immediately for all defendants not yet indicted on May 26, 1983. Portion of statute conferring right to probable cause hearing only on those charged on and after May 26, 1983, is unconstitutional and therefore invalid. 192 C. 671. Cited. 200 C. 323. Cited. 201 C. 598. Validity is not subject to constitutional attack as a violation of separation of powers. 203 C. 641. Cited. 206 C. 323. Cited. 210 C. 631; Id., 652. Cited. 211 C. 289. Cited. 213 C. 161; Id., 708. Cited. 214 C. 132; Id., 454; Id., 476; Id., 616. Cited. 218 C. 151; Id., 714. Cited. 219 C. 721. Cited. 220 C. 270. Cited. 221 C. 109. Cited. 222 C. 506. Cited. 223 C. 127. Cited. 224 C. 29. Cited. 228 C. 62. Probable cause hearing required by section applies only to criminal prosecutions, not to an action for adjudication of delinquency. 229 C. 691. Cited. 233 C. 106. Cited. 234 C. 97. Cited. 237 C. 58. Cited. 240 C. 727; Id., 743. Cited. 242 C. 409. Deprivation of counsel at a probable cause hearing constitutes procedural error for which harmless error review is proper. 279 C. 493.

      Cited. 7 CA 457. Cited. 26 CA 165. Cited. 28 CA 34. Cited. 29 CA 499. Cited. 30 CA 381. Cited. 34 CA 58; judgment reversed, see 232 C. 537. Cited. 35 CA 762. Cited. 36 CA 250; Id., 364. Cited. 37 CA 404. Cited. 46 CA 545. Second probable cause hearing which was held after the sixty-day time limit was valid because the first hearing was held within the statutory time limit and the second hearing was scheduled based on defendant's request so that defendant could be represented by counsel. 75 CA 223.

      Cited as P.A. 83-210, S. 1. 40 CS 38. Cited. 42 CS 426. Cited. 43 CS 38; Id., 367.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 204 C. 120. Cited. 209 C. 133. Cited. 210 C. 652.

      Cited. 19 CA 571. Cited. 41 CA 809. Cited. 44 CA 790. By unconditionally accepting a plea deal and pleading guilty, petitioner waived any challenge to court's jurisdiction over his person. 105 CA 124. Statute on its face contains terms "any crime", "the offense" and "it" when mandating that defendant exposed to punishment of life imprisonment or death be given preliminary hearing in probable cause. There is nothing in the statute that refers to crimes, offenses or an aggregation of crimes or offenses, and petitioner has referred to no case law or other statute that has interpreted the statute to require probable cause hearing when the aggregate of the charges exposes a defendant to 60 years imprisonment, but the crimes, when considered individually, expose a defendant to less than 60 years on each charge. Id. When the state amends an information and defendant no longer faces possibility of a life sentence, it is not improper for trial court to proceed without affording defendant a hearing in probable cause. Id.

      Subsec. (b):

      Court concluded statute constitutional "... when read in conjunction with prosecution's ongoing constitutional duty to disclose exculpatory material to a criminal defendant independent of a defense motion or request". 200 C. 323. Cited. 201 C. 598. Cited. 216 C. 492. No constitutional duty requires a court to entertain motions to suppress at a probable cause hearing. 218 C. 151. Cited. 229 C. 716. Cited. 238 C. 588. Waiver of time period in which to hold hearing may be asserted by the attorney for the defendant and does not require defendant personally to appear and be canvassed. 245 C. 301.

      Legislature, in enacting subsection, required that probable cause hearing must be conducted within sixty days of filing of the complaint or information unless waived by defendant or extended by court for good cause shown. 79 CA 535.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47. Investigations into commission of crime. Section 54-47 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8777; 1953, S. 3324d; 1969, P.A. 631, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 860; P.A. 73-116, S. 2; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-183, S. 139, 291; 74-186, S. 2, 12; P.A. 76-436, S. 10a, 538, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 80-313, S. 5; P.A. 85-611, S. 9.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47a. Compelling testimony of witness. Immunity from prosecution. (a) Whenever in the judgment of the Chief State's Attorney, a state's attorney or the deputy chief state's attorney, the testimony of any witness or the production of books, papers or other evidence of any witness (1) in any criminal proceeding involving narcotics, arson, bribery, gambling, election law violations, felonious crimes of violence, any violation which is an offense under the provisions of title 22a, corruption in the executive, legislative or judicial branch of state government or in the government of any political subdivision of the state, fraud by a vendor of goods or services in the medical assistance program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act amendments of 1965, as amended, any violation of chapter 949c, or any other class A, B or C felony or unclassified felony punishable by a term of imprisonment in excess of five years for which the Chief State's Attorney or state's attorney demonstrates that he has no other means of obtaining sufficient information as to whether a crime has been committed or the identity of the person or persons who may have committed a crime, before a court or grand jury of this state or (2) in any investigation conducted by an investigatory grand jury as provided in sections 54-47b to 54-47g, inclusive, is necessary to the public interest, the Chief State's Attorney, the state's attorney, or the deputy chief state's attorney, may, with notice to the witness, after the witness has claimed his privilege against self-incrimination, make application to the court for an order directing the witness to testify or produce evidence subject to the provisions of this section.

      (b) Upon the issuance of the order such witness shall not be excused from testifying or from producing books, papers or other evidence in such case or proceeding on the ground that the testimony or evidence required of him may tend to incriminate him or subject him to a penalty or forfeiture. No such witness may be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter or thing concerning which he is compelled to testify or produce evidence, and no testimony or evidence so compelled, and no evidence discovered as a result of or otherwise derived from testimony or evidence so compelled, may be used as evidence against him in any proceeding, except that no witness shall be immune from prosecution for perjury or contempt committed while giving such testimony or producing such evidence. Whenever evidence is objected to as inadmissible because it was discovered as a result of or otherwise derived from compelled testimony or evidence, the burden shall be upon the person offering the challenged evidence to establish a source independent of the compelled testimony or evidence.

      (1969, P.A. 631, S. 1; P.A. 74-183, S. 140, 291; 74-227, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-436, S. 539, 681; P.A. 78-96, S. 3-5; P.A. 80-313, S. 6; P.A. 81-104; P.A. 85-611, S. 8; P.A. 87-350, S. 4, 6.)

      History: P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas in accordance with reorganization of the judicial system, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 74-227 deleted reference to prosecuting attorneys, added references to chief state's attorney, deputy chief state's attorneys, state referees, superior court judges and three-judge panels and extended applicability of provisions to cases involving violation of election laws; P.A. 76-436 deleted references to court of common pleas, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-96 applied provisions to violations which are offenses under Title 25 provisions; P.A. 80-313 divided section into Subsecs. and made minor wording changes in Subsec. (b); P.A. 81-104 provided that immunity from prosecution may be granted to any witness in a criminal proceeding involving arson or bribery; P.A. 85-611 amended Subsec. (a) to replace reference to repealed Sec. 54-47 with provision that testimony or evidence may be compelled "in any investigation conducted by an investigatory grand jury as provided in sections 54-47b to 54-47g, inclusive"; P.A. 87-350 added provisions re criminal proceeding involving violation of title 22a, corruption in executive, legislative or judicial branch of state government or in government of political subdivision of state, fraud by a vendor of goods or services in the medical assistance program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act amendments of 1965, any violation of chapter 949c or any other class A, B or C felony or unclassified felony punishable by a term of imprisonment in excess of five years for which chief state's attorney or state's attorney demonstrates that he has no other means of obtaining sufficient information as to whether crime has been committed or identity of person who may have committed a crime.

      Section to be used to secure testimony for prosecution; as there is no other statutory authority granting immunity, there is no basis for granting immunity to witness for the defense. 170 C. 206. Cited. 172 C. 542, 561. Assistant state's attorney has authority pursuant to this section in conjunction with Sec. 51-278, to make applications for immunity grants. 174 C. 16. One who has been granted immunity is not incompetent witness, although fact of immunity may bear upon weight given testimony of witness granted immunity. Id., 287. Cited. 191 C. 670. Cited. 201 C. 559. Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Defendant lacks standing to challenge procedure by which a witness has been immunized. 206 C. 203. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625. A grant of immunity pursuant to this section includes both use immunity and transactional immunity. 298 C. 404.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447. Cited. 33 CA 521.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47b. Investigatory grand jury. Definitions. For the purposes of sections 54-47a to 54-47h, inclusive:

      (1) "Applicant" means any judge of the Superior Court, Appellate Court or Supreme Court, the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney who makes an application to a panel of judges for an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes.

      (2) "Crime or crimes" means (A) any crime or crimes involving corruption in the executive, legislative or judicial branch of state government or in the government of any political subdivision of the state, (B) fraud by a vendor of goods or services in the medical assistance program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1965, as amended, (C) any violation of chapter 949c, (D) any violation of the election laws of the state, (E) any felony involving the unlawful use or threatened use of physical force or violence committed with the intent to intimidate or coerce the civilian population or a unit of government, and (F) any other class A, B or C felony or any unclassified felony punishable by a term of imprisonment in excess of five years for which the Chief State's Attorney or state's attorney demonstrates that he or she has no other means of obtaining sufficient information as to whether a crime has been committed or the identity of the person or persons who may have committed a crime.

      (3) "Investigatory grand jury" means a judge, constitutional state referee or any three judges of the Superior Court, other than a judge designated by the Chief Justice to serve on the panel, appointed by the Chief Court Administrator to conduct an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes.

      (4) "Panel of judges" or "panel" means a panel of three Superior Court judges designated by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from time to time to receive applications for investigations into the commission of crimes in accordance with the provisions of sections 54-47a to 54-47h, inclusive, one of whom may be the Chief Court Administrator.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 1; P.A. 87-350, S. 1, 6; P.A. 02-97, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 87-350 added any violation of the election laws of the state or any unclassified felony punishable by a term of imprisonment in excess of five years to definition of "crime or crimes", added "or state's attorney" after "chief states attorney" and added "or the identity of the person or persons who may have committed a crime"; P.A. 02-97 amended definition of "crime or crimes" in Subdiv. (2) by adding new Subpara. (E) re any felony involving the unlawful use or threatened use of physical force or violence committed with the intent to intimidate or coerce the civilian population or a unit of government, redesignating former Subpara. (E) as Subpara. (F) and making a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47c. Application for investigation into commission of crime. (a) Any judge of the Superior Court, Appellate Court or Supreme Court, the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney may make application to a panel of judges for an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes whenever such applicant has reasonable belief that the administration of justice requires an investigation to determine whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed.

      (b) Each application for an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a panel of judges. Each application shall include the following information: (1) The identity of the applicant and his authority to make such application; (2) a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant to justify his reasonable belief that the investigation will lead to a finding of probable cause that a crime or crimes have been committed; and (3) a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the applicant, made to any panel of judges, for investigation of any one or more of the same criminal offenses involving any of the same persons specified in the application, including the action taken by the panel on each such application. The panel of judges may require such additional testimony or documentary evidence in support of facts in the application as it deems necessary. Such additional testimony shall be transcribed.

      (c) If the application is made by the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney, it shall also include (1) a full and complete statement of the status of the investigation and of the evidence collected as of the date of such application, (2) if other normal investigative procedures have been tried with respect to the alleged crime, a full and complete statement specifying the other normal investigative procedures that have been tried and the reasons such procedures have failed or the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation that leads the applicant to reasonably conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised, (3) if other normal investigative procedures have not been tried, a full and complete statement of the reasons such procedures reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or be too dangerous to employ, and (4) a full and complete statement of the reasons for the applicant's belief that the appointment of an investigatory grand jury and the investigative procedures employed by such investigatory grand jury will lead to a finding of probable cause that a crime or crimes have been committed.

      (d) The panel may approve the application and order an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes if it finds that (1) the administration of justice requires an investigation to determine whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed, (2) if the application was made by the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney, other normal investigative procedures with respect to the alleged crime have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or be too dangerous to employ or, due to the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation, it is reasonable to conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised, and (3) the investigative procedures employed by an investigatory grand jury appear likely to succeed in determining whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 2; P.A. 87-350, S. 2, 6; P.A. 98-48, S. 2; P.A. 03-273, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 87-350 added provision re transcription of additional testimony; P.A. 98-48 designated provisions of Subsec. (b) re requirements of an application made by the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney as new Subsec. (c), amended said Subsec. (c) to designate provisions re the use of other normal investigative procedures as Subdivs. (2) and (3) and rephrase said provisions, add Subdiv. (1) requiring a statement of the status of the investigation and of the evidence collected as of the date of the application and add Subdiv. (4) requiring a statement of the reasons for the applicant's belief that the appointment of an investigatory grand jury and the investigative procedures employed by such grand jury will lead to a finding of probable cause that a crime or crimes have been committed, and added new Subsec. (d) authorizing the panel to approve the application and order an investigation if it makes certain findings and specifying said findings; P.A. 03-273 amended Subsec. (c)(2) to add provision re statement that specifies the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation that leads the applicant to reasonably conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised and amended Subsec. (d)(2) to add provision re finding that, due to the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation, it is reasonable to conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 206 C. 203. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625. Cited. 224 C. 29.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47d. Appointment of investigatory grand jury. Duration and scope of investigation. (a) If the panel approves the application and orders an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes, the Chief Court Administrator shall (1) appoint an investigatory grand jury to conduct the investigation, and (2) designate the court location in the judicial district where any motions to quash and any contempt proceedings shall be heard and any findings and records of the investigation shall be filed.

      (b) Each order authorizing the investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes by the panel shall specify: (1) The date of issuance of the order, (2) the period of time within which the investigation is to be conducted, provided in no event shall the investigation be longer than six months from the date the Chief Court Administrator appoints the investigatory grand jury to conduct the investigation, unless an application for an extension of time is filed and granted pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, (3) the scope of the investigation, and (4) the panel's reasons for finding that (A) the administration of justice requires an investigation to determine whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed, (B) if the application was made by the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney, other normal investigative procedures with respect to the alleged crime have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or be too dangerous to employ, or, due to the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation, it is reasonable to conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised, and (C) the investigative procedures employed by the investigatory grand jury appear likely to succeed in determining whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed. The panel shall retain a copy of the order and the original application and shall transmit to the investigatory grand jury, appointed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the original order and a copy of the application filed with the panel.

      (c) The investigatory grand jury may make an application to the panel of judges for an extension of time within which to conduct its investigation or for an amendment to the scope of its investigation. The application for extension or amendment shall set forth the reasons for the necessity of such extension or amendment. No more than two extensions or amendments of an order may be granted by the issuing panel. The period of any extension shall be no longer than the panel deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event shall any extension be for a period longer than six months.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 3; P.A. 87-350, S. 3, 6; P.A. 98-48, S. 3; P.A. 03-273, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 87-350 made technical changes in Subsec. (a) and deleted provision in Subsec. (c) requiring extension or amendment to contain the findings thus far made; P.A. 98-48 amended Subsec. (b)(4) to insert Subpara. indicators and add Subpara. (B) re the panel's reasons for finding that other normal investigative procedures have failed or are unlikely to succeed if tried or be too dangerous to employ and Subpara. (C) re the panel's reasons for finding that the investigative procedures employed by the investigatory grand jury appear likely to succeed in determining whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed; P.A. 03-273 made a technical change in Subsec. (a) and amended Subsec. (b)(4)(B) to add provision re finding that due to the specific nature of the alleged crime or the nature of the investigation, it is reasonable to conclude that the use of normal investigative procedures would not result in the obtaining of information that would advance the investigation or would fail to secure and preserve evidence or testimony that might otherwise be compromised.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 206 C. 203. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447. An application and order transmitted by an investigatory grand jury panel pursuant to Subsec. (b) of this section are part of the record of the investigatory grand jury. 104 CA 398; judgment reversed, see 293 C. 247.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47e. Sealing of order and application. Summary of scope of investigation. Disclosure. Any order authorizing the investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes and any application filed with the panel pursuant to section 54-47c or subsection (c) of section 54-47d shall be sealed. The panel shall submit to the Chief Court Administrator a summary of the scope of the investigation, any recommendation as to the court location at which any motions to quash and any contempt proceedings are to be heard and the finding and record of the investigation are to be filed. Such summary shall be public unless the panel determines, by majority vote, that such summary be sealed for purposes of (1) ensuring the public safety of any individual, (2) ensuring that the investigation would not be adversely affected or (3) complying with other provisions of the general statutes or rules of court which prohibit disclosure of such information. Any investigation by the investigatory grand jury shall be conducted in private, provided the panel, by a majority vote, may order the investigation or any portion thereof to be public when such disclosure or order is deemed by the panel to be in the public interest.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 4; P.A. 88-345, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 88-345 deleted former provisions re discretionary disclosure of fact that matter has been referred to the grand jury and added provisions re submission by panel of summary of scope of investigation, recommendation as to court location and disclosure of such summary, effective June 7, 1988, and applicable to findings filed on or after June 7, 1988.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Does not apply to disclosure of material accumulated by grand jury investigation convened under authority of repealed Sec. 54-47. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625. The legislature has vested the grand jury and the panel with discretion to disclose evidence gathered as a result of a grand jury investigation, however section is intended to remove such discretion with respect to the application for investigatory grand jury and the panel's order. 293 C. 247.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447. The application for investigatory grand jury and panel's order thereon must be sealed at onset of investigation and remain sealed unless, after investigation and filing of finding and record of investigatory grand jury, a majority of panel deems their disclosure to be in public interest. 104 CA 398; judgment reversed, see 293 C. 247.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47f. Conduct of investigation. Testimony of witnesses. (a) The investigatory grand jury, in conducting the investigation, may (1) seek the assistance of the Chief State's Attorney or state's attorney who filed the application, or his designee, (2) appoint an attorney to provide assistance if a judge of the Superior Court, Appellate Court or Supreme Court filed the application or (3) appoint any other attorney to provide assistance when necessary in the interest of justice.

      (b) The attendance of witnesses and the production of documents at such investigation may be compelled by subpoena, signed by any official authorized to issue such process.

      (c) If any witness properly summoned fails to appear or to produce any documents included in the subpoena, or if he fails to answer any proper question, the investigatory grand jury conducting the investigation may report the matter to the state's attorney for the judicial district which has been designated in subsection (a) of section 54-47d unless such state's attorney is the applicant or has been appointed to assist in such investigation, in which case the investigatory grand jury shall report the matter to the Chief State's Attorney, and such state's attorney or Chief State's Attorney, as the case may be, may file a complaint setting forth the facts at any criminal session of the superior court in such judicial district. The court shall thereupon issue a citation to the witness to appear before the court and show cause why he should not be punished as for a contempt, and if, after hearing, the court finds that he failed to appear without due cause or failed to produce any document properly to be presented to the investigatory grand jury or failed to answer any proper question in the course of the investigation, it may punish him as it might a witness failing to appear, to produce a document properly to be considered or to answer a proper question before the court.

      (d) Witnesses may be examined by the investigatory grand jury conducting the investigation or by any attorney or attorneys appointed by such investigatory grand jury for such purpose. At the hearing, the official conducting the investigation shall inform the witness that he has the right to have counsel present and to consult with such counsel.

      (e) The official conducting the investigation shall inform any witness who is a target of the investigation that he is a target and shall advise him that he has the right under the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of Connecticut not to be compelled to be a witness, or to give evidence, against himself.

      (f) Any attorney appointed to assist in conducting the investigation shall disclose to the investigatory grand jury any exculpatory information or material in his possession, custody or control concerning any person who is a target of the investigation.

      (g) An official stenographer of the Superior Court or his assistant shall record any testimony taken at the investigation.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 5; P.A. 01-84, S. 24, 26.)

      History: P.A. 01-84 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2001.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 221 C. 625.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47g. Finding and record of investigation. Disclosure. Hearing. Access to testimony. (a) Within sixty days of the conclusion of the investigation, the investigatory grand jury conducting such investigation shall file its finding with the court of the judicial district designated by the Chief Court Administrator pursuant to subsection (a) of section 54-47d, and shall file a copy of its finding with the panel and with the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney if such Chief State's Attorney or state's attorney made application for the investigation. The stenographer shall file any record of the investigation with the court of the judicial district designated by the Chief Court Administrator pursuant to subsection (a) of section 54-47d and the panel and the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney, if such Chief State's Attorney or state's attorney made application for the investigation, shall have access to such record upon request made to the clerk of the court without a hearing. Such finding shall state whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed. Except as otherwise provided in this section, any part of the record of the investigation not disclosed with the finding pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be sealed, provided any person may file an application with the panel for disclosure of any such part of the record. Upon receipt of such application, the panel shall, after notice, hold a hearing and the panel, by a majority vote, may disclose any such part of the record when such disclosure is deemed by the panel to be in the public interest, except that no part of the record shall be disclosed which contains allegations of the commission of a crime by an individual if the investigatory grand jury failed to find probable cause that such individual committed such crime unless such individual requests the release of such part of the record. Any person aggrieved by an order of the panel shall have the right to appeal such order by filing a petition for review with the Appellate Court within seventy-two hours from the issuance of such order.

      (b) The finding of the investigation shall be open to public inspection and copying at the court where it has been filed seven calendar days after it has been filed, unless within that period the Chief State's Attorney or a state's attorney with whom the finding was filed files a motion with the investigatory grand jury requesting that a part or all of such finding not be so disclosed. The finding may include all or such part of the record as the investigatory grand jury may determine, except that no part of the record shall be disclosed which contains allegations of the commission of a crime by an individual if the investigatory grand jury failed to find probable cause that such individual committed such crime unless such individual requests the release of such part of the record. In such event as much of the finding as has not been sought to be withheld from disclosure shall be disclosed promptly upon the expiration of said seven-calendar-day period.

      (c) Within fifteen calendar days of the filing of such motion, the investigatory grand jury shall conduct a hearing. The investigatory grand jury shall give written notice of such hearing to the person filing such motion and any other person the investigatory grand jury deems to be an interested party to the proceedings, which may include, but not be limited to, persons who testified or were the subject of testimony before the investigatory grand jury. Within five calendar days of the conclusion of the hearing, the investigatory grand jury shall render its decision, and shall send copies thereof to all those to whom it gave notice of the hearing. It shall deny any such motion unless it makes specific findings of fact on the record that there is a substantial probability that one of the following interests will be prejudiced by publicity that nondisclosure would prevent, and that reasonable alternatives to nondisclosure cannot adequately protect that interest: (1) The right of a person to a fair trial; (2) the prevention of potential defendants from fleeing; (3) the prevention of subornation of perjury or tampering with witnesses; or (4) the protection of the lives and reputations of innocent persons which would be significantly damaged by the release of uncorroborated information. Any order of nondisclosure shall be drawn to protect the interest so found.

      (d) Any person aggrieved by an order of the investigatory grand jury shall have the right to appeal such order by filing a petition for review with the Appellate Court within seventy-two hours from issuance of such order.

      (e) The Appellate Court shall provide an expedited hearing on such petition in accordance with such rules as the judges of the Appellate Court may adopt, consistent with the rights of the petitioner and the parties.

      (f) Notwithstanding the existence of an order of nondisclosure under this section, any witness may apply in writing to the presiding judge of the criminal session of the court of the judicial district wherein the record of the investigation has been filed, or his designee, for access to and a copy of the record of his own testimony. Any witness shall be allowed access, at all reasonable times, to the record of his own testimony and be allowed to obtain a copy of such record unless said judge or his designee finds after a hearing and for good cause shown that it is not in the best interest of justice to allow the witness to have access to and a copy of the record of his testimony.

      (g) Notwithstanding the existence of an order of nondisclosure under this section, the presiding judge of the criminal session of the court of the judicial district wherein the record of the investigation has been filed, or his designee, shall grant any written request of a person accused of a crime as a result of the investigation to have access, at all reasonable times, to the record of his own testimony and to obtain a copy of such record.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 6; P.A. 87-350, S. 5, 6; P.A. 88-148; 88-345, S. 1, 3; P.A. 05-288, S. 185.)

      History: P.A. 87-350 added provisions re duty of stenographer to file copies of finding and record of investigation, application of witness to presiding judge for access to record of investigation, right of witness to access at all reasonable times to access of record of own testimony and granting written request by person accused of crime as result of investigation to access of record of own testimony; P.A. 88-148 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize any witness to apply for and, unless the presiding judge or his designee disallows it, to obtain a copy of the record of his own testimony, and amended Subsec. (c) to require the presiding judge or his designee to grant the written request of a person accused of a crime as a result of the investigation to obtain a copy of the record of his own testimony; P.A. 88-345 amended Subsec. (a) to permit person to make application to panel for disclosure of record and panel to disclose any part of the record, except such part which contains allegations re individual if grand jury failed to find probable cause and re right of appeal within 72 hours of order, and added new provisions as Subsecs. (b) to (e), inclusive, re disclosure of finding, hearing on motion for nondisclosure, specific findings of fact necessary for granting such motion, right of appeal of order of grand jury and expedited hearing on petition by appellate court, relettering prior provisions accordingly, effective June 7, 1988, and applicable to findings filed on or after June 7, 1988; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective July 13, 2005.

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 207 C. 98. Secs. 54-47a-54-47h also cited. Id. Cited. 213 C. 66. Cited. 219 C. 905. Cited. 221 C. 625. State's right of access to testimony of grand jury witness includes right to use that testimony in its case-in-chief in subsequent criminal prosecution of that witness. To the extent that trial court's ruling is predicated on grand juror's order of secrecy, it lacks support in record because defendant never established that he relied to his detriment on grand juror's order of secrecy. 250 C. 188. The order and application are not part of the record of the grand jury investigation and must be sealed pursuant to Sec. 54-47e since the legislature did not vest the grand jury or panel with discretion to make public disclosure of the order and application. 293 C. 247.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 19 CA 230. Cited. 20 CA 447.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.

      Subsec. (a):

      P.A. 88-345 Sec. 1(a) cited. 221 C. 625. Cited. 222 C. 331. Cited. 229 C. 178.

      Initial determination of "public interest" left to grand jury panel. 20 CA 447. Cited. 43 CA 851.

      Because prosecution has right of access under statute to record of testimony from investigatory grand jury proceedings, it could provide to defendants, without request for hearing, those categories of materials normally subject to disclosure in criminal cases, as such disclosure is very much part of prosecutorial function, although disclosure must be only for purpose of pending criminal case and any discovery ordered by trial court pursuant to defense request should be accompanied by protective order. 50 CS 23.

      Subsec. (c):

      The legislature intended for grand jury to have discretion as to whether to grant a motion to seal its report if there was a substantial probability that the information in the report would prejudice a person's right to a fair trial to a degree that is more than de minimis and that the prejudice could be prevented by nondisclosure. 293 C. 464. The "reasonable alternatives" portion requires grand jury to consider alternatives to nondisclosure when the alternatives would protect the enumerated interests in the first instance, but does not require grand jury to injure an enumerated interest through disclosure and then craft remedies to cure that injury. Id. The phrase "innocent persons" does not include persons who have been arrested as the result of grand jury's finding of probable cause. Id.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47h. Report. In January of each year, the panel of judges appointed pursuant to section 54-47b shall report to the Chief Court Administrator, who shall in turn report to the Chief Justice, Governor and General Assembly, the following information with respect to applications made during the preceding calendar year: (1) The number of applications for an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes filed with the panel; (2) the number of applications approved by the panel; and (3) the number of applications approved for extensions of time or amendments to the order.

      (P.A. 85-611, S. 7.)

      Cited. 202 C. 541. Cited. 204 C. 259. Cited. 207 C. 98. Cited. 213 C. 66. Appellate review under section must be forwarded on an action brought to the trial court. There was no basis for appeal from determinations of grand jury panel before effective date of P.A. 88-345, i.e. June 7, 1988. 221 C. 625.

      Cited. 16 CA 679. Cited. 17 CA 395. Cited. 20 CA 447.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47i. Authority of investigation ordered prior to October 1, 1985. (a) The authority of any judge, state referee or three judges of the Superior Court to conduct an inquiry to determine whether or not there is probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed, where such inquiry was ordered prior to October 1, 1985, in accordance with section 54-47 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 1985, shall continue until the conclusion of such inquiry and a final report has been filed with the court pursuant to said section, and any action taken or caused to be taken by such judge, state referee or three judges of the Superior Court pursuant to such inquiry, otherwise valid, shall be valid notwithstanding that such action was or is taken or caused to be taken on or after October 1, 1985, and any evidence obtained pursuant to such inquiry, otherwise admissible, shall be admissible in any criminal prosecution of a person accused as a result of such inquiry notwithstanding that such evidence was or is obtained on or after October 1, 1985.

      (b) The appointment of any judge or referee after October 1, 1985, to replace a judge or referee ordered to conduct an inquiry to determine whether or not probable cause to believe that a crime or crimes have been committed, where such inquiry was ordered prior to October 1, 1985, in accordance with section 54-47 of the general statutes, revised to January 1, 1985, shall not be deemed to create a new inquiry and the authority of such judge so appointed shall continue as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

      (P.A. 86-317, S. 1, 2.)

      P.A. 86-317 cited. 202 C. 189. P.A. 85-611 as clarified by P.A. 86-317 "did not revoke the authority of or alter the procedures governing investigatory grand juries that had been properly authorized before October 1, 1985." Id. Section validates any action taken or evidence obtained on or after October 1, 1985, pursuant to authority contained in former Sec. 54-47; considered to be clarifying. Id., 541. Cited (as P.A. 86-317, Sec. 1(a)). 207 C. 98. Cited. 213 C. 66.

      Cited. 45 CS 1.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 54-47j to 54-47z. Reserved for future use.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-47aa. Ex parte court order to compel disclosure of certain telephone and Internet records. (a) For the purposes of this section:

      (1) "Basic subscriber information" means: (A) Name, (B) address, (C) local and long distance telephone connection records or records of session times and durations, (D) length of service, including start date, and types of services utilized, (E) telephone or instrument number or other subscriber number or identity, including any assigned Internet protocol address, and (F) means and source of payment for such service, including any credit card or bank account number;

      (2) "Call-identifying information" means dialing or signaling information that identifies the origin, direction, destination or termination of each communication generated or received by a subscriber or customer by means of any equipment, facility or service of a telecommunications carrier;

      (3) "Electronic communication service" means "electronic communication service" as defined in 18 USC 2510, as amended from time to time;

      (4) "Law enforcement official" means the Chief State's Attorney, a state's attorney, an inspector with the Division of Criminal Justice, a sworn member of the Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety or a sworn member of an organized local police department;

      (5) "Remote computing service" means "remote computing service" as defined in section 18 USC 2711, as amended from time to time; and

      (6) "Telecommunications carrier" means "telecommunications carrier" as defined in 47 USC 1001, as amended from time to time.

      (b) A law enforcement official may request an ex parte order from a judge of the Superior Court to compel (1) a telecommunications carrier to disclose call-identifying information pertaining to a subscriber or customer, or (2) a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service to disclose basic subscriber information pertaining to a subscriber or customer. The judge shall grant such order if the law enforcement official states a reasonable and articulable suspicion that a crime has been or is being committed or that exigent circumstances exist and such call-identifying or basic subscriber information is relevant and material to an ongoing criminal investigation. The order shall state upon its face the case number assigned to such investigation, the date and time of issuance and the name of the judge authorizing the order. The law enforcement official shall have any ex parte order issued pursuant to this subsection signed by the authorizing judge within forty-eight hours or not later than the next business day, whichever is earlier.

      (c) A telecommunications carrier shall disclose call-identifying information and a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service shall disclose basic subscriber information to a law enforcement official when an order is issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) Not later than forty-eight hours after the issuance of an order pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the law enforcement official shall mail notice of the issuance of such order to the subscriber or customer whose call-identifying information or basic subscriber information is the subject of such order, except that such notification may be delayed for a period of up to ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of such official to the judge who authorized the order that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the order may result in (1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual, (2) flight from prosecution, (3) destruction of or tampering with evidence, (4) intimidation of potential witnesses, or (5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing the investigation. The law enforcement official shall maintain a true copy of such certification. During such ninety-day period, the law enforcement official may request the court to extend such period of delayed notification. Such period may be extended beyond ninety days only upon approval of the court.

      (e) A telecommunications carrier or provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service that provides information pursuant to an order issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be compensated for the reasonable expenses incurred in providing such information.

      (f) Any telecommunications carrier or provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service that provides information in good faith pursuant to an order issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be afforded the legal protections provided under 18 USC 3124, as amended from time to time, with regard to such actions.

      (g) Not later than January fifteenth of each year, each law enforcement official shall report to the Chief State's Attorney the information required by this subsection with respect to each order issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section in the preceding calendar year. The Chief State's Attorney shall, based upon the reports filed by each law enforcement official and not later than January thirty-first of each year, submit a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to criminal law and procedure concerning orders issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section in the preceding calendar year. The report shall include the following information: (1) The number of orders issued, (2) whether the order was directed to a telecommunications carrier, provider of electronic communication service or provider of remote computing service, (3) whether the information sought was call-identifying information or basic subscriber information, (4) the statutory offense or offenses that were the subject of the investigation, (5) the number of notifications that were delayed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, and the reason for such delayed notification, (6) the number of motions to vacate an order that were filed, and the number of motions granted or denied, (7) the number of investigations concluded and the final result of such investigations, and (8) the status of any criminal prosecution resulting from the investigation.

      (P.A. 05-182, S. 1, 2.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-48. Reward for arrest of capital offender or felon. When any crime punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year has been committed, the Governor, upon application of the state's attorney for the judicial district in which it has been committed, may offer, publicly, a reward not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, to the person who gives information leading to the arrest and conviction of the guilty person, or, if such guilty person has fled after conviction of a felony in a court of this state, to the person who gives information leading to the arrest and detention of the convicted felon, whether found within the state or elsewhere, which reward shall be paid to the informer by the state, by order of the court before which such conviction is had.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8269; P.A. 73-116, S. 3; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-604, S. 55, 84; P.A. 78-276; 78-280, S. 2, 127; P.A. 97-52.)

      History: P.A. 73-116 substituted "Connecticut Correctional Institution, Somers" for "State Prison" and added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 77-604 deleted specific reference to imprisonment at Somers referring instead to imprisonment "for more than one year"; P.A. 78-276 deleted reference to counties (as did P.A. 78-280) and increased maximum amount of reward from $3,000 to $20,000; P.A. 97-52 increased the maximum amount of the reward to $50,000.

      Does not recompense one who had wholly performed before the offer was made. 143 C. 462.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-49. Reward for information as to high crime or crime resulting in death of police officer or firefighter. (a) When any high crime has been committed in any municipality, the chief executive officer of such municipality, as described in section 7-193, may offer, publicly, a reward not exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars, to the person who gives information leading to the arrest and conviction of the guilty person; which reward shall be paid to the informer by the municipality, by order of the court before which such conviction is had.

      (b) When any crime has been committed in any municipality which results in the death of any police officer or firefighter, the chief executive officer of such municipality, upon the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the legislative body of such municipality, or when the legislative body is the town meeting, at least two-thirds of those present and voting, may offer publicly, a reward not exceeding twenty thousand dollars, to the person who gives information leading to the arrest and conviction of the guilty person, which reward shall be paid to the informer by the municipality, by order of the court before which such conviction is had.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8270; P.A. 84-540, S. 5, 7; P.A. 93-425, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 84-540 added Subsec. (b) authorizing the chief executive officer of a municipality in which a crime has been committed which results in the death of a police officer or firefighter, to offer a reward for information leading to arrest and conviction of guilty person; P.A. 93-425 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "town, its selectmen" and adding "municipality, the chief executive officer of such municipality, as described in section 7-193", increasing reward from amount not exceeding $200 to $2,500, and deleting "town" and substituting "municipality".

      A high crime is an immoral and unlawful act, nearly allied and equal in guilt to a felony, but not coming strictly within that denomination. 6 C. 417. Construction of section should be equitable. 39 C. 159. Offer of reward not barred until statute of limitations has run against the crime. Id. City has no power to offer reward, when. 65 C. 300. Cited. 84 C. 374. Cited. 86 C. 437.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-50. Reward for information as to unlawful disinterment of corpse. For any violation of the provisions of section 53-334, the Governor, upon application of the selectmen of the town where the offense has been committed, shall, publicly, offer a reward, not exceeding two hundred dollars, for the apprehension of the guilty person; and, if the offender is convicted, such reward shall be paid to the informer by the state, upon order of the court before which the conviction is had.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8271.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-51. Reward for information as to theft of motor vehicle, livestock or poultry. Section 54-51 is repealed, effective October 1, 2003.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8272; P.A. 74-338, S. 55, 94; P.A. 03-9, S. 1.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-52. Determination of claims to reward. When any reward is offered for the recovery of stolen property, or for information which may lead to the conviction of any criminal, or for both, the court before which conviction is had or the superior court for the judicial district where the offense was committed, at a criminal term, may decide upon the claims of the parties interested in such reward. If there is more than one claimant for the reward, the court in which the conviction was secured or the court for the judicial district wherein the offense was committed, or the presiding judge of such court, shall determine who are justly entitled to the reward, and may apportion it equitably among them.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8268, 8273; P.A. 73-116, S. 24; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-436, S. 540, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127.)

      History: P.A. 73-116 added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 76-436 deleted provision whereby presiding judge of court to which accused was bound over determines amount of reward when accused forfeits his recognizance and authorized court for county or judicial district where offense was committed to determine reward, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted references to counties.

      Averments in application. 39 C. 161. Party furnishing merely corroborative evidence, if necessary to conviction, may be entitled to reward. Id., 162. The offer, unless otherwise limited, holds good until a prosecution would be barred by statute of limitations. Id., 163. Policeman detecting burglar cannot demand reward. 51 C. 577. Statutes as to rewards give rise to contractual rights. 78 C. 428. Cited. 143 C. 462.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-53. Release by correctional officials. Each person detained in a community correctional center pursuant to the issuance of a bench warrant of arrest or for arraignment, sentencing or trial for an offense not punishable by death shall be entitled to bail and shall be released from such institution upon entering into a recognizance, with sufficient surety, or upon posting cash bail as provided in section 54-66, for the detained person's appearance before the court having cognizance of the offense, to be taken by any person designated by the Commissioner of Correction at the institution where the person is detained. The person so designated shall deliver the recognizance or cash bail to the clerk of the appropriate court before the opening of the court on the first court day thereafter. When cash bail in excess of ten thousand dollars is received for a detained person accused of a felony, where the underlying facts and circumstances of the felony involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, the person so designated shall prepare a report that contains (1) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the detained person, (2) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each person offering the cash bail, other than a person licensed as a professional bondsman under chapter 533 or a surety bail bond agent under chapter 700f, (3) the amount of cash received, and (4) the date the cash was received. Not later than fifteen days after receipt of such cash bail, the person so designated shall file the report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of the report to the state's attorney for the judicial district in which the alleged offense was committed and to each person offering the cash bail.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8778; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 50; February, 1965, P.A. 606; 1969, P.A. 803, S. 2; P.A. 80-313, S. 17; P.A. 99-240, S. 15.)

      History: 1961 act deleted obsolete reference to county commissioners; 1965 act made section applicable to person awaiting arraignment or sentencing as well as trial, offered the alternative of posting cash bail and substituted present provisions for taking bail for prior provision of taking by the court, a judge or clerk; 1969 act replaced jail administrator with commissioner of correction, substituted references to community correctional centers for references to jails and specified applicability to persons detained "pursuant to the issuance of a bench warrant"; P.A. 80-313 made minor changes in wording; P.A. 99-240 added provisions requiring the person designated by the commissioner to prepare a report when cash bail in excess of $10,000 is received for a detained person accused of a felony involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, specifying the contents of such report and requiring such designated person not later than 15 days after receipt of such cash bail to file such report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of such report to the appropriate state's attorney and each person offering the cash bail.

      Not permitted to one under sentence for prior offense. K. 260. Sheriff may take bail and release prisoner. 2 D. 11. Not the practice to issue a special order to clerk for commitment of prisoner to jail; there is a continuing order to that effect. 36 C. 251. Bail where state appeals; 65 C. 282; where accused appeals to supreme court and sentence is stayed. 71 C. 457. Liabilities on bail bond. 83 C. 688. Nature of act of taking bail; law authorizing clerk to take bail will not permit him to fix amount. 89 C. 301. Application to supreme court to admit accused to bail denied; procedure there must be to have finding of facts made by referee unless they are admitted by state's attorney. 109 C. 738. Cited. 140 C. 326. In capital cases refusal of bail must be restricted to cases where proof is evident or presumption great in accord with section 8 of Article I of state's constitution. Burden of proof that proof is evident or presumption great in capital offenses as grounds for refusing bail is on state and not met by fact of grand jury indictment. 159 C. 264.

      Only an act of God or an act of law or an act of the obligee excuses a surety whose principal does not appear before court. Sleepiness constitutes no reason for relaxation of the law. 23 CS 321.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-53a. Detention of persons who have not made bail. (a) No person who has not made bail may be detained in a community correctional center pursuant to the issuance of a bench warrant of arrest or for arraignment, sentencing or trial for an offense not punishable by death, for longer than forty-five days, unless at the expiration of the forty-five days he is presented to the court having cognizance of the offense. On each such presentment, the court may reduce, modify or discharge the bail, or may for cause shown remand the person to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction. On the expiration of each successive forty-five-day period, the person may again by motion be presented to the court for such purpose.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any person who has not made bail and is detained in a community correctional center pursuant to the issuance of a bench warrant of arrest or for arraignment, sentencing or trial for an offense classified as a class D felony or as a misdemeanor, except a person charged with a crime in another state and detained pursuant to chapter 964 or a person detained for violation of his parole pending a parole revocation hearing, shall be presented to the court having cognizance of the offense within thirty days of the date of his detention. On such presentment, the court may reduce, modify or discharge the bail or may for cause shown remand the person to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction. On the expiration of each successive thirty-day period, the person shall again be presented to the court for such purpose.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, any person who has not made bail may be heard by the court upon a motion for modification of the bail at any time.

      (1971, P.A. 513; P.A. 74-186, S. 1, 12; P.A. 80-313, S. 25; P.A. 82-244; P.A. 89-166.)

      History: P.A. 74-186 made minor changes in wording and specified that presentment is to occur at the expiration of each successive 45-day period; P.A. 80-313 made minor changes in wording, substituting "the" for "such" etc; P.A. 82-244 added Subsec. (b) requiring a bail review hearing every 30 days for persons charged with a class D felony or a misdemeanor; P.A. 89-166 added Subsec. (c) providing that any person who has not made bail may be heard by the court upon a motion for modification of the bail at any time.

      See Sec. 51-180 re criminal terms and sessions of court.

      See Sec. 51-180a re special session held when accused is confined for want of bail.


      Cited. 169 C. 438. Section which requires review of bail every forty-five days for persons held in custody while mandating procedure for implementing right to be released on bail, provides no sanction for a violation of that procedure. Denial of any right created by this section is not a violation of fundamental constitutional right. 171 C. 395.

      Cited. 29 CS 434. Provides no sanction in event of a violation; defendant not entitled to dismissal of information without showing of prejudice. 43 CS 211.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 54-54 and 54-55. Original information in Court of Common Pleas. Information in cases appealed to Court of Common Pleas. Sections 54-54 and 54-55 are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8767, 8768; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 71.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56. Dismissal of information by court. All courts having jurisdiction of criminal cases shall at all times have jurisdiction and control over informations and criminal cases pending therein and may, at any time, upon motion by the defendant, dismiss any information and order such defendant discharged if, in the opinion of the court, there is not sufficient evidence or cause to justify the bringing or continuing of such information or the placing of the person accused therein on trial.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8769.)

      Cited. 170 C. 337. In absence of statutory authority, court may not of its own motion dismiss a criminal prosecution unless there is fundamental legal defect in information or indictment or constitutional defect such as denial of speedy trial or illegality of arrest. 172 C. 608. Cited. 189 C. 42. Cited. 193 C. 602. Cited. 198 C. 435. Trial court did not abuse its discretion having properly found "cause" to dismiss with prejudice. 200 C. 453. Cited. 204 C. 187. Cited. 207 C. 374. Cited. 209 C. 225. Cited. 213 C. 708. Cited. 214 C. 657. Cited. 229 C. 716. Cited. 242 C. 409. Absent compliance with section, trial court did not have authority to dismiss pending misdemeanor charge because, in trial court's view, case was not sufficiently important to warrant time and expense of jury trial. 243 C. 690.

      Cited. 4 CA 520. Cited. 5 CA 347. Cited. 7 CA 46. Cited. 11 CA 224. Insufficient cause "prong" of statute is inappropriate basis for dismissal of information preceded by arrest warrant where no trial has yet been held. 19 CA 495. Cited. 20 CA 321. Cited. 21 CA 210. Cited. 24 CA 195. Cited. 29 CA 689. Cited. 40 CA 789. Cited. 45 CA 722.

      Purpose and history of law. 13 CS 112. Cited. 21 CS 246. Resort to this section is not proper method to raise issue of jurisdiction of court over person of defendant. 28 CS 512. Purpose of motion to dismiss is to prevent unchecked powers by prosecuting attorney. 29 CS 118. Insufficient evidence and insufficient cause grounds of section may not be raised through pretrial dismissal motion in case where defendant was arrested on warrant signed by a judge. 49 CS 248.

      Motion to dismiss count having been previously granted, motion for directed verdict on that count was properly denied. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 78.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 193 C. 474.

      Subsec. (e):

      Cited. 200 C. 440.

      Subsec. (j):

      Cited. 8 CA 607.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56a. (Formerly Sec. 54-2b). Pleading by mail in certain motor vehicle cases. In any criminal action arising out of an alleged violation of the law relating to motor vehicles, except a violation of section 14-219 specified in subsection (e) of said section 14-219, appearances, pleas of not guilty and requests for trial by jury or court may be made by or on behalf of the defendant by mailing such pleas and requests by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to the clerk of the court in which such case is to be tried, which pleas and requests shall be received by said clerk not later than the court day next preceding the court day on which the defendant is to appear. Said pleas and claims shall be filed on forms approved by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator.

      (1963, P.A. 475; P.A. 74-183, S. 127, 291; P.A. 76-381, S. 3; 76-436, S. 519, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 34, 72; P.A. 79-196; P.A. 85-446, S. 4, 6; P.A. 90-213, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, reflecting reorganization of judicial system, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-381 amended section to specify applicability re actions arising out of alleged commission of an infraction; P.A. 76-436 and P.A. 77-452 replaced court of common pleas with superior court, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-196 required that forms for filing pleas and claims be approved by chief court administrator's office rather than by superior court judges; Sec. 54-2b transferred to Sec. 54-56a in 1981; P.A. 85-446 deleted references to procedures for an alleged commission of an infraction, effective October 1, 1986; P.A. 90-213 added exception for a violation of Sec. 14-219 specified in Subsec. (e) of said Sec. 14-219.

      Annotation to former section 54-2b:

      Cited. 29 CS 155.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56b. Right to dismissal or trial on nolle. A nolle prosequi may not be entered as to any count in a complaint or information if the accused objects to the nolle prosequi and demands either a trial or dismissal, except with respect to prosecutions in which a nolle prosequi is entered upon a representation to the court by the prosecuting official that a material witness has died, disappeared or become disabled or that material evidence has disappeared or has been destroyed and that a further investigation is therefore necessary.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 30.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly part of Sec. 54-46. See Sec. 54-46 History re P.A. 80-313).

      Cited as Sec. 54-46. 180 C. 153. The court must accept the entry of the nolle prosequi for the record unless it is persuaded that prosecutor's exercise of discretion is clearly contrary to manifest public interest. 185 C. 199. Cited. 191 C. 27. Cited. 198 C. 435. Entry of nolles over defendant's objection fits within exception to rule of finality allowing appeal of interlocutory trial court rulings that, if erroneous, cannot later be remedied. 209 C. 52. Gives a defendant right to have criminal charge disposed of with finality by dismissal with prejudice. Id., 133. Cited. 214 C. 616. Cited. 233 C. 44. Cited. 240 C. 590. Trial court properly allowed the entry of nolle prosequi based on the state's representations that a key witness against defendant was unavailable due to the witness' intent to assert his fifth amendment privilege against self-incrimination, and the court was not required to conduct an evidentiary hearing re the state's representations. 289 C. 598. The nolle prosequi functionally converted into a dismissal without prejudice pursuant to Sec. 54-142a(c) after thirteen months had elapsed, therefore the state was not barred from bringing charges against defendant four years later and defendant's right to a speedy trial was not violated. Id.

      Cited. 5 CA 347. Cited. 10 CA 217. Cited. 11 CA 224. Cited. 40 CA 705; judgment reversed, see 240 C. 590. Cited. 44 CA 162. Defendant's objection to entry of nolle made seven weeks after it had been entered was not timely and fell outside limited jurisdiction retained by the court following entry of a nolle. 111 CA 397.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56c. Request for privileged trial status. If the accused enters a plea of not guilty, the state's attorney, assistant state's attorney or deputy assistant state's attorney may, in accordance with rules adopted by the judges of the Superior Court, request that the case be privileged with respect to assignment for trial.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 31.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly part of Sec. 54-46. See Sec. 54-46 History re P.A. 80-313).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56d. (Formerly Sec. 54-40). Competency to stand trial. (a) Competency requirement. Definition. A defendant shall not be tried, convicted or sentenced while the defendant is not competent. For the purposes of this section, a defendant is not competent if the defendant is unable to understand the proceedings against him or her or to assist in his or her own defense.

      (b) Presumption of competency. A defendant is presumed to be competent. The burden of proving that the defendant is not competent by a preponderance of the evidence and the burden of going forward with the evidence are on the party raising the issue. The burden of going forward with the evidence shall be on the state if the court raises the issue. The court may call its own witnesses and conduct its own inquiry.

      (c) Request for examination. If, at any time during a criminal proceeding, it appears that the defendant is not competent, counsel for the defendant or for the state, or the court, on its own motion, may request an examination to determine the defendant's competency.

      (d) Examination of defendant. Report. If the court finds that the request for an examination is justified and that, in accordance with procedures established by the judges of the Superior Court, there is probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed the crime for which the defendant is charged, the court shall order an examination of the defendant as to his or her competency. The court may (1) appoint one or more physicians specializing in psychiatry to examine the defendant, or (2) order the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services to conduct the examination either (A) by a clinical team consisting of a physician specializing in psychiatry, a clinical psychologist and one of the following: A clinical social worker licensed pursuant to chapter 383b or a psychiatric nurse clinical specialist holding a master's degree in nursing, or (B) by one or more physicians specializing in psychiatry, except that no employee of the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services who has served as a member of a clinical team in the course of such employment for at least five years prior to October 1, 1995, shall be precluded from being appointed as a member of a clinical team. If the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services is ordered to conduct the examination, the commissioner shall select the members of the clinical team or the physician or physicians. When performing an examination under this section, the examiners shall have access to information on treatment dates and locations in the defendant's treatment history contained in the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services' database of treatment episodes for the purpose of requesting a release of treatment information from the defendant. If the examiners determine that the defendant is not competent, the examiners shall then determine whether there is a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the maximum period of any placement order under this section. If the examiners determine that there is a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the maximum period of any placement order under this section, the examiners shall then determine whether the defendant appears to be eligible for civil commitment, with monitoring by the Court Support Services Division, pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section. If the examiners determine that there is not a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the maximum period of any placement order under this section, the examiners shall then determine whether the defendant appears to be eligible for civil commitment to a hospital for psychiatric disabilities pursuant to subsection (m) of this section and make a recommendation to the court regarding the appropriateness of such civil commitment. The court may authorize a physician specializing in psychiatry, a clinical psychologist, a clinical social worker licensed pursuant to chapter 383b or a psychiatric nurse clinical specialist holding a master's degree in nursing selected by the defendant to observe the examination. Counsel for the defendant may observe the examination. The examination shall be completed within fifteen business days from the date it was ordered and the examiners shall prepare and sign, without notarization, a written report and file such report with the court within twenty-one business days of the date of the order. On receipt of the written report, the clerk of the court shall cause copies to be delivered immediately to the state's attorney and to counsel for the defendant.

      (e) Hearing. Evidence. The court shall hold a hearing as to the competency of the defendant not later than ten days after the court receives the written report. Any evidence regarding the defendant's competency, including the written report, may be introduced at the hearing by either the defendant or the state, except that no treatment information contained in the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services' database of treatment episodes may be included in the written report or introduced at the hearing unless the defendant released the treatment information pursuant to subsection (d) of this section. If the written report is introduced, at least one of the examiners shall be present to testify as to the determinations in the report, unless the examiner's presence is waived by the defendant and the state. Any member of the clinical team shall be considered competent to testify as to the team's determinations. A defendant and the defendant's counsel may waive the court hearing only if the examiners, in the written report, determine without qualification that the defendant is competent. Nothing in this subsection shall limit any other release or use of information from said database permitted by law.

      (f) Court finding of competency or incompetency. If the court, after the hearing, finds that the defendant is competent, the court shall continue with the criminal proceedings. If the court finds that the defendant is not competent, the court shall also find whether there is a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the maximum period of any placement order permitted under this section.

      (g) Court procedure if finding that defendant will not regain competency. If, at the hearing, the court finds that there is not a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the period of any placement order under this section, the court shall follow the procedure set forth in subsection (m) of this section.

      (h) Court procedure if finding that defendant will regain competency. Placement of defendant for treatment or pending civil commitment proceedings. Progress report. (1) If, at the hearing, the court finds that there is a substantial probability that the defendant, if provided with a course of treatment, will regain competency within the period of any placement order under this section, the court shall either (A) order placement of the defendant for treatment for the purpose of rendering the defendant competent, or (B) order placement of the defendant at a treatment facility pending civil commitment proceedings pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (2) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, if the court makes a finding pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection and does not order placement pursuant to subparagraph (A) of said subdivision, the court shall, on its own motion or on motion of the state or the defendant, order placement of the defendant in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services at a treatment facility pending civil commitment proceedings. The treatment facility shall be determined by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services. Such order shall: (i) Include an authorization for the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services to apply for civil commitment of such defendant pursuant to sections 17a-495 to 17a-528, inclusive; (ii) permit the defendant to agree to request voluntarily to be admitted under section 17a-506 and participate voluntarily in a treatment plan prepared by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, and require that the defendant comply with such treatment plan; and (iii) provide that if the application for civil commitment is denied or not pursued by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, or if the defendant is unwilling or unable to comply with a treatment plan despite reasonable efforts of the treatment facility to encourage the defendant's compliance, the person in charge of the treatment facility, or such person's designee, shall submit a written progress report to the court and the defendant shall be returned to the court for a hearing pursuant to subsection (k) of this section. Such written progress report shall include the status of any civil commitment proceedings concerning the defendant, the defendant's compliance with the treatment plan, an opinion regarding the defendant's current competency to stand trial, the clinical findings of the person submitting the report and the facts upon which the findings are based, and any other information concerning the defendant requested by the court, including, but not limited to, the method of treatment or the type, dosage and effect of any medication the defendant is receiving. The Court Support Services Division shall monitor the defendant's compliance with any applicable provisions of such order. The period of placement and monitoring under such order shall not exceed the period of the maximum sentence which the defendant could receive on conviction of the charges against such defendant, or eighteen months, whichever is less. If the defendant has complied with such treatment plan and any applicable provisions of such order, at the end of the period of placement and monitoring, the court shall approve the entry of a nolle prosequi to the charges against the defendant or shall dismiss such charges.

      (B) This subdivision shall not apply: (i) To any person charged with a class A felony, a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-122 that does not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or a violation of section 14-227a, subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21 or section 53a-56b, 53a-60d, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b; (ii) to any person charged with a crime or motor vehicle violation who, as a result of the commission of such crime or motor vehicle violation, causes the death of another person; or (iii) unless good cause is shown, to any person charged with a class C felony.

      (i) Placement for treatment. Conditions. The placement of the defendant for treatment for the purpose of rendering the defendant competent shall comply with the following conditions: (1) The period of placement under the order or combination of orders shall not exceed the period of the maximum sentence which the defendant could receive on conviction of the charges against the defendant or eighteen months, whichever is less; (2) the placement shall be either in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services or, if the defendant or the appropriate commissioner agrees to provide payment, in the custody of any appropriate mental health facility or treatment program which agrees to provide treatment to the defendant and to adhere to the requirements of this section; and (3) the court shall order the placement, on either an inpatient or an outpatient basis, which the court finds is the least restrictive placement appropriate and available to restore competency. If outpatient treatment is the least restrictive placement for a defendant who has not yet been released from a correctional facility, the court shall consider whether the availability of such treatment is a sufficient basis on which to release the defendant on a promise to appear, conditions of release, cash bail or bond. If the court determines that the defendant may not be so released, the court shall order treatment of the defendant on an inpatient basis at a mental health facility or mental retardation facility. Not later than twenty-four hours after the court orders placement of the defendant for treatment for the purpose of rendering the defendant competent, the examiners shall transmit information obtained about the defendant during the course of an examination pursuant to subsection (d) of this section to the health care provider named in the court's order.

      (j) Progress reports re treatment. The person in charge of the treatment facility, or such person's designee, shall submit a written progress report to the court (1) at least seven days prior to the date of any hearing on the issue of the defendant's competency; (2) whenever he or she believes that the defendant has attained competency; (3) whenever he or she believes that there is not a substantial probability that the defendant will attain competency within the period covered by the placement order; or (4) whenever, within the first one hundred twenty days of the period covered by the placement order, he or she believes that the defendant would be eligible for civil commitment pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section. The progress report shall contain: (A) The clinical findings of the person submitting the report and the facts on which the findings are based; (B) the opinion of the person submitting the report as to whether the defendant has attained competency or as to whether the defendant is making progress, under treatment, toward attaining competency within the period covered by the placement order; (C) the opinion of the person submitting the report as to whether the defendant appears to be eligible for civil commitment to a hospital for psychiatric disabilities pursuant to subsection (m) of this section and the appropriateness of such civil commitment, if there is not a substantial probability that the defendant will attain competency within the period covered by the placement order; and (D) any other information concerning the defendant requested by the court, including, but not limited to, the method of treatment or the type, dosage and effect of any medication the defendant is receiving. Not later than five business days after the court finds either that the defendant will not attain competency within the period of any placement order under this section or that the defendant has regained competency, the person in charge of the treatment facility, or such person's designee, shall provide a copy of the written progress report to the examiners who examined the defendant pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

      (k) Reconsideration of competency. Hearing. Involuntary medication. Appointment and duties of health care guardian. (1) When any placement order for treatment is rendered or continued, the court shall set a date for a hearing, to be held within ninety days, for reconsideration of the issue of the defendant's competency. Whenever the court (A) receives a report pursuant to subsection (j) of this section which indicates that (i) the defendant has attained competency, (ii) the defendant will not attain competency within the remainder of the period covered by the placement order, (iii) the defendant will not attain competency within the remainder of the period covered by the placement order absent administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent, or (iv) the defendant would be eligible for civil commitment pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section, or (B) receives a report pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iii) of subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section which indicates that (i) the application for civil commitment of the defendant has been denied or has not been pursued by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, or (ii) the defendant is unwilling or unable to comply with a treatment plan despite reasonable efforts of the treatment facility to encourage the defendant's compliance, the court shall set the matter for a hearing not later than ten days after the report is received. The hearing may be waived by the defendant only if the report indicates that the defendant is competent. The court shall determine whether the defendant is competent or is making progress toward attainment of competency within the period covered by the placement order. If the court finds that the defendant is competent, the defendant shall be returned to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction or released, if the defendant has met the conditions for release, and the court shall continue with the criminal proceedings. If the court finds that the defendant is still not competent but that the defendant is making progress toward attaining competency, the court may continue or modify the placement order. If the court finds that the defendant is still not competent and will not attain competency within the remainder of the period covered by the placement order absent administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent, the court shall proceed as provided in subdivisions (2), (3) and (4) of this subsection. If the court finds that the defendant is eligible for civil commitment, the court may order placement of the defendant at a treatment facility pending civil commitment proceedings pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section.

      (2) If the court finds that the defendant will not attain competency within the remainder of the period covered by the placement order absent administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent, and after any hearing held pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection, the court may order the involuntary medication of the defendant if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that: (A) To a reasonable degree of medical certainty, involuntary medication of the defendant will render the defendant competent to stand trial, (B) an adjudication of guilt or innocence cannot be had using less intrusive means, (C) the proposed treatment plan is narrowly tailored to minimize intrusion on the defendant's liberty and privacy interests, (D) the proposed drug regimen will not cause an unnecessary risk to the defendant's health, and (E) the seriousness of the alleged crime is such that the criminal law enforcement interest of the state in fairly and accurately determining the defendant's guilt or innocence overrides the defendant's interest in self-determination.

      (3) (A) If the court finds that the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent for the administration of psychiatric medication, and prior to deciding whether to order the involuntary medication of the defendant under subdivision (2) of this subsection, the court shall appoint a health care guardian who shall be a licensed health care provider with specialized training in the treatment of persons with psychiatric disabilities to represent the health care interests of the defendant before the court. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 52-146e, such health care guardian shall have access to the psychiatric records of the defendant. Such health care guardian shall file a report with the court not later than thirty days after his or her appointment. The report shall set forth such health care guardian's findings and recommendations concerning the administration of psychiatric medication to the defendant, including the risks and benefits of such medication, the likelihood and seriousness of any adverse side effects and the prognosis with and without such medication. The court shall hold a hearing on the matter not later than ten days after receipt of such health care guardian's report and shall, in deciding whether to order the involuntary medication of the defendant, take into account such health care guardian's opinion concerning the health care interests of the defendant.

      (B) The court, in anticipation of considering continued involuntary medication of the defendant under subdivision (4) of this subsection, shall order the health care guardian to file a supplemental report updating the findings and recommendations contained in the health care guardian's report filed under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision.

      (4) If, after the defendant has been found to have attained competency by means of involuntary medication ordered under subdivision (2) of this subsection, the court determines by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant will not remain competent absent the continued administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unable to provide consent, and after any hearing held pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection and consideration of the supplemental report of the health care guardian, the court may order continued involuntary medication of the defendant if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that: (A) To a reasonable degree of medical certainty, continued involuntary medication of the defendant will maintain the defendant's competency to stand trial, (B) an adjudication of guilt or innocence cannot be had using less intrusive means, (C) the proposed treatment plan is narrowly tailored to minimize intrusion on the defendant's liberty and privacy interests, (D) the proposed drug regimen will not cause an unnecessary risk to the defendant's health, and (E) the seriousness of the alleged crime is such that the criminal law enforcement interest of the state in fairly and accurately determining the defendant's guilt or innocence overrides the defendant's interest in self-determination. Continued involuntary medication ordered under this subdivision may be administered to the defendant while the criminal charges against the defendant are pending and the defendant is in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction or the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services. An order for continued involuntary medication of the defendant under this subdivision shall be reviewed by the court every one hundred eighty days while such order remains in effect. The court shall order the health care guardian to file a supplemental report for each such review. After any hearing held pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection and consideration of the supplemental report of the health care guardian, the court may continue such order if the court finds, by clear and convincing evidence, that the criteria enumerated in subparagraphs (A) to (E), inclusive, of this subdivision are met.

      (5) The state shall hold harmless and indemnify any health care guardian appointed by the court pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection from financial loss and expense arising out of any claim, demand, suit or judgment by reason of such health care guardian's alleged negligence or alleged deprivation of any person's civil rights or other act or omission resulting in damage or injury, provided the health care guardian is found to have been acting in the discharge of his or her duties pursuant to said subdivision and such act or omission is found not to have been wanton, reckless or malicious. The provisions of subsections (b), (c) and (d) of section 5-141d shall apply to such health care guardian. The provisions of chapter 53 shall not apply to a claim against such health care guardian.

      (l) Failure of defendant to return to treatment facility in accordance with terms and conditions of release. If a defendant who has been ordered placed for treatment on an inpatient basis at a mental health facility or mental retardation facility is released from such facility on a furlough or for work, therapy or any other reason and fails to return to the facility in accordance with the terms and conditions of the defendant's release, the person in charge of the facility, or such person's designee, shall, within twenty-four hours of the defendant's failure to return, report such failure to the prosecuting authority for the court location which ordered the placement of the defendant. Upon receipt of such a report, the prosecuting authority shall, within available resources, make reasonable efforts to notify any victim or victims of the crime for which the defendant is charged of such defendant's failure to return to the facility. No civil liability shall be incurred by the state or the prosecuting authority for failure to notify any victim or victims in accordance with this subsection. The failure of a defendant to return to the facility in which the defendant has been placed may constitute sufficient cause for the defendant's rearrest upon order by the court.

      (m) Release or placement of defendant who will not attain competency. Report to court prior to release from placement. (1) If at any time the court determines that there is not a substantial probability that the defendant will attain competency within the period of treatment allowed by this section, or if at the end of such period the court finds that the defendant is still not competent, the court shall consider any recommendation made by the examiners pursuant to subsection (d) of this section and any opinion submitted by the treatment facility pursuant to subparagraph (C) of subsection (j) of this section regarding eligibility for, and the appropriateness of, civil commitment to a hospital for psychiatric disabilities and shall either release the defendant from custody or order the defendant placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services. If the court orders the defendant placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services, the commissioner given custody, or the commissioner's designee, shall then apply for civil commitment in accordance with sections 17a-75 to 17a-83, inclusive, or 17a-270 to 17a-282, inclusive. If the court orders the defendant placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the court may order the commissioner, or the commissioner's designee, to apply for civil commitment in accordance with sections 17a-495 to 17a-528, inclusive, or order the commissioner, or the commissioner's designee, to provide services to the defendant in a less restrictive setting, provided the examiners have determined in the written report filed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section or have testified pursuant to subsection (e) of this section that such services are available and appropriate. If the court orders the defendant placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services and orders the commissioner to apply for civil commitment pursuant to this subsection, the court may order the commissioner to give the court notice when the defendant is released from the commissioner's custody if such release is prior to the expiration of the time within which the defendant may be prosecuted for the crime with which the defendant is charged, provided such order indicates when such time expires.

      (2) The court shall hear arguments as to whether the defendant should be released or should be placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services.

      (3) If the court orders the release of a defendant charged with the commission of a crime that resulted in the death or serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person, or with a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53a-60 or section 53a-60a, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b, or orders the placement of such defendant in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the court may, on its own motion or on motion of the prosecuting authority, order, as a condition of such release or placement, periodic examinations of the defendant as to the defendant's competency at intervals of not less than six months. Such an examination shall be conducted in accordance with subsection (d) of this section. Periodic examinations ordered by the court under this subsection shall continue until the court finds that the defendant has attained competency or until the time within which the defendant may be prosecuted for the crime with which the defendant is charged, as provided in section 54-193 or 54-193a, has expired, whichever occurs first.

      (4) Upon receipt of the written report as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the court shall, upon the request of either party filed not later than thirty days after the court receives such report, conduct a hearing as provided in subsection (e) of this section. Such hearing shall be held not later than ninety days after the court receives such report. If the court finds that the defendant has attained competency, the defendant shall be returned to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction or released, if the defendant has met the conditions for release, and the court shall continue with the criminal proceedings.

      (5) The court shall dismiss, with or without prejudice, any charges for which a nolle prosequi is not entered when the time within which the defendant may be prosecuted for the crime with which the defendant is charged, as provided in section 54-193 or 54-193a, has expired. Notwithstanding the record erasure provisions of section 54-142a, police and court records and records of any state's attorney pertaining to a charge which is nolled or dismissed without prejudice while the defendant is not competent shall not be erased until the time for the prosecution of the defendant expires under section 54-193 or 54-193a. A defendant who is not civilly committed as a result of an application made by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services pursuant to this section shall be released. A defendant who is civilly committed pursuant to such an application shall be treated in the same manner as any other civilly committed person.

      (n) Payment of costs. The cost of the examination effected by the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services and of testimony of persons conducting the examination effected by the commissioner shall be paid by the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. The cost of the examination and testimony by physicians appointed by the court shall be paid by the Judicial Department. If the defendant is indigent, the fee of the person selected by the defendant to observe the examination and to testify on the defendant's behalf shall be paid by the Public Defender Services Commission. The expense of treating a defendant placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or the Commissioner of Developmental Services pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of this section or subsection (i) of this section shall be computed and paid for in the same manner as is provided for persons committed by a probate court under the provisions of sections 17b-122, 17b-124 to 17b-132, inclusive, 17b-136 to 17b-138, inclusive, 17b-194 to 17b-197, inclusive, 17b-222 to 17b-250, inclusive, 17b-256, 17b-263, 17b-340 to 17b-350, inclusive, 17b-689b and 17b-743 to 17b-747, inclusive.

      (o) Custody of defendant prior to hearing. Until the hearing is held, the defendant, if not released on a promise to appear, conditions of release, cash bail or bond, shall remain in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction unless hospitalized as provided in sections 17a-512 to 17a-517, inclusive.

      (p) Placement of violent defendant. This section shall not be construed to require the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services to place any violent defendant in a mental institution which does not have the trained staff, facilities and security to accommodate such a person.

      (q) Defense of defendant prior to trial. This section shall not prevent counsel for the defendant from raising, prior to trial and while the defendant is not competent, any issue susceptible of fair determination.

      (r) Credit for time in confinement on inpatient basis. Actual time spent in confinement on an inpatient basis pursuant to this section shall be credited against any sentence imposed on the defendant in the pending criminal case or in any other case arising out of the same conduct in the same manner as time is credited for time spent in a correctional facility awaiting trial.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8748; 1959, P.A. 523, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 670; 1969, P.A. 828, S. 213; P.A. 74-306, S. 1-4; P.A. 75-476, S. 1-3, 6; P.A. 76-353; 76-436, S. 532, 681; P.A. 77-415, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-280, S. 117, 127; P.A. 80-313, S. 32; P.A. 81-365; P.A. 83-183, S. 1-5; P.A. 84-506; P.A. 85-288; 85-613, S. 79, 154; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-27, S. 16, 17; P.A. 95-146; 95-257, S. 11, 58; P.A. 96-90; 96-180, S. 128, 166; 96-215, S. 3, 4; P.A. 98-88, S. 1, 2; P.A. 01-41; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-3, S. 13-17, 97; P.A. 04-28, S. 1; 04-76, S. 57; P.A. 05-19, S. 2, 3; P.A. 06-36, S. 1; P.A. 07-71, S. 1; 07-73, S. 2(b); 07-153, S. 1; P.A. 09-79, S. 1; P.A. 10-28, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act added provision re computation and payment of hospital expense during confinement; 1967 act divided section into Subsecs., added qualification of inability to assist in his own defense to Subsecs. (a) and (c) and authority of judge to act on his own motion in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (b) to make mandatory the appointment of at least two psychiatrists rather than discretionary appointment of two or three physicians to examine accused and added provisions re commitment to state hospital for mental illness for examination, re physician's witnessing of examination and re filing of examination report; 1969 act added Subsec. (d) re maximum periods of commitment; P.A. 74-306 amended Subsec. (b) to make judge's appointment of examiners optional rather than mandatory, to change number appointed from "at least two" to "one or more", to replace provision re commitment to state hospital with provisions re commitment to commissioner of mental health and examination by clinical team, to impose 15-day deadline for filing written report, to require hearing and to specify when hearing may be waived, amended Subsecs. (c) and (d) to reflect changes in Subsec. (b), imposing 15-day deadline for hearing in Subsec. (c) and provision re application of Sec. 17-197 in Subsec. (d), and added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re commitment of violent person and re cost of examinations; P.A. 75-476 restated and clarified Subsec. (b) adding procedural details and limiting examinations to a determination of accused's ability to understand proceeding and assist in his own defense where previously determination was of accused's "mental condition", made similar changes in Subsec. (c), eliminating references to insanity and mental defectiveness and deleting provision stating that expenses are to be paid in same manner as expenses in superior court criminal prosecutions, and amended Subsec. (d) to replace previous provisions re maximum commitment for period equaling maximum sentence for the particular crime or for 25 years if case involves class A felony with maximum commitment period of 18 months, to make changes conforming provisions to changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c) and to add provisions re hearing procedure and options to proceed with trial, reconfine accused, etc.; P.A. 76-353 amended Subsec. (b) to set 10-day deadline for hearing where previously "prompt" hearing was required, amended Subsec. (c) to add references to commissioner of mental retardation, to require hearing within ten rather than 15 days and to add reference to possibility that accused will not be able to understand proceeding and assist in his own defense within remainder of commitment period, amended Subsec. (d) to conform with changes in Subsec. (c) and to restore optional maximum commitment for maximum period of sentence which may be imposed for the crime he is accused of and repealed Subsecs. (e) and (f) by omission; P.A. 76-436 amended section to reflect substitution of assistant state's attorneys for prosecuting attorneys, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-415 restated provisions, reorganized Subsecs. and added Subsecs. (f) and (g) restoring provisions omitted by P.A. 76-353; P.A. 78-280 made technical grammatical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 80-313 restated and reordered provisions, and revised subsection divisions but made no substantive changes; Sec. 54-40 transferred to Sec. 54-56d in 1981; P.A. 81-365 replaced previous section which was declared unconstitutional; P.A. 83-183 authorized placement of defendant in custody of children and youth services commissioner in Subsecs. (g), (i), (l) and (m) and specified that court may order treatment at mental retardation facilities in Subsec. (i); P.A. 84-506 amended Subsec. (d) to require the examiner to "prepare and sign, without notarization" a written report and file it with the court within 10 days of the examination, amended Subsec. (g) to replace provision requiring court to either release the defendant or place him in the custody of the commissioner of mental health, children and youth services or mental retardation with provision that the court shall "follow the procedure set forth in Subsec. (m)", added a new Subsec. (l) re the responsibilities of the person in charge of a treatment facility and the prosecuting authority when a defendant fails to return to such facility, and relettered remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 85-288 amended Subsec. (m) to provide that the court shall dismiss, with or without prejudice, any charges for which a nolle prosequi is not entered when the time within which the defendant may be prosecuted for the crime with which he is charged has expired; P.A. 85-613 made technical change in Subsec. (m), substituting reference to chapter 368t for reference to chapter 365a; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-27 amended Subsec. (m) to delete reference to Secs. 17a-580 to 17a-603, inclusive, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-146 amended Subsec. (d) to revise the composition of the clinical team by replacing "a psychiatric social worker" with "one of the following: A clinical independent social worker certified pursuant to chapter 383b or a psychiatric nurse clinical specialist holding a master's degree in nursing", to add exception re appointment of an employee of the Department of Mental Health as a member of a clinical team, to revise the list of professionals authorized to observe the examination by deleting "a psychiatric social worker" and adding "a clinical independent social worker certified pursuant to chapter 383b or a psychiatric nurse clinical specialist holding a master's degree in nursing" and to require the report to be filed within 21 business days of the "date of the order" rather than within 10 days of the "completion of the examination"; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Mental Health with Commissioner and Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-90 amended Subsec. (m) to delete references to Secs. 17a-450 to 17a-484, inclusive, 17a-540 to 17a-550, inclusive, 17a-560 to 17a-576, inclusive, 17a-615 to 17a-618, inclusive, and 46a-11a to 46a-11g, inclusive; P.A. 96-180 made technical changes in Subsec. (d) by replacing references to "clinical independent social worker certified pursuant to chapter 383b" with "clinical social worker licensed pursuant to chapter 383b", effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 96-215 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting "clear and convincing" evidence and inserting "preponderance of the" evidence in lieu thereof, effective June 4, 1996; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the references to "17b-115 to 17b-138" and "17b-689 to 17b-693, inclusive," in Subsec. (n) were changed editorially by the Revisors to "17b-116 to 17b-138" and "17b-689, 17b-689b", respectively, to reflect the repeal of certain sections by Sec. 164 of June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2); P.A. 98-88 amended Subsec. (k) to designate existing provisions as Subdiv. (1), redesignating former Subdivs. (1) and (2) as Subparas. (A) and (B), respectively, adding Subpara. (C) re a report that the defendant will not attain competency absent administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent and adding provision requiring the court to proceed as provided in Subdivs. (2) and (3) if it finds that the defendant will not attain competency absent administration of psychiatric medication for which the defendant is unwilling or unable to provide consent, to add new Subdiv. (2) authorizing the court to order the involuntary medication of the defendant if it makes certain findings by clear and convincing evidence, and to add new Subdiv. (3) requiring the appointment of a licensed health care provider to represent the health care interests of the defendant if the defendant is unable to provide consent for the administration of psychiatric medication, requiring such person to file a report with the court setting forth his findings and recommendations re the administration of psychiatric medication to the defendant and requiring the court to hold a hearing on the matter and consider such person's opinion in deciding whether to order the involuntary medication of the defendant, and amended Subsec. (m) to authorize a court when it releases a defendant charged with a crime that resulted in the death or serious physical injury of another person to order periodic examinations of the defendant, set forth the procedure for conducting such an examination and a subsequent hearing by the court, require the continuation of criminal proceedings if the defendant is found to have attained competency, specify the duration of such periodic examinations and add references to Sec. 54-193a; P.A. 01-41 amended Subsec. (k) to designate as "a health care guardian" the person appointed in Subdiv. (3) to represent the health care interests of the defendant, add Subdiv. (4) re indemnification of health care guardians and make technical changes in Subdivs. (1) and (2); June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-3 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re whether defendant appears eligible for civil commitment with monitoring by Court Support Services Division pursuant to Subsec. (h)(2), adding Subdiv. and Subpara. designators and making technical changes, amended Subsec. (h) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and amending said Subdiv. by designating provisions re ordering placement for treatment as Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (B) re ordering placement at treatment facility pending civil commitment proceedings, and by adding Subdiv. (2) re placement of defendant in custody of Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services at treatment facility pending civil commitment proceedings, amended Subsec. (j) by adding Subdiv. (4) re report whenever defendant has been placed for treatment pending civil commitment proceedings and application for civil commitment is denied or not pursued and by making technical changes, amended Subsec. (m) by adding provision re if court orders placement of defendant in custody of Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services and by making technical changes, and amended Subsec. (n) by adding reference to Subsec. (h)(2), effective August 20, 2003, and, in repealing Secs. 17b-19, 17b-62 to 17b-65, inclusive, 17b-116, 17b-116a, 17b-116b, 17b-117, 17b-120, 17b-121, 17b-123, 17b-134, 17b-135, 17b-220, 17b-259 and 17b-287, also authorized deletion of internal references to said sections in this section, effective March 1, 2004; P.A. 04-28 amended Subsec. (d) by changing "or" to "and" re determinations of probability that defendant will regain competency and whether defendant appears eligible for civil commitment, effective April 28, 2004; P.A. 04-76 amended Subsec. (n) by deleting references to Secs. 17b-118b and 17b-221 that were repealed by the same act; (Revisor's note: In 2005, a reference in Subsec. (m) to Sec. 17a-283 was changed editorially by the Revisors to Sec. 17a-282 to reflect the repeal of Sec. 17a-283 by P.A. 04-54); P.A. 05-19 amended Subsec. (k)(1) by adding Subpara. (D) re denial of application for civil commitment of defendant and amended Subsec. (p) by deleting provision re state policeman to guard violent defendant after necessary placement in facility; P.A. 06-36 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re action of examiners upon determination of substantial probability that defendant will regain competency within maximum period of placement order, amended Subsec. (h)(2) by adding provision re request for voluntary admission under Sec. 17a-506, replacing provision re defendant ceasing voluntary participation in treatment plan with provision re defendant unwilling or unable to comply with treatment plan despite reasonable efforts of treatment facility to encourage compliance, deleting reference to Subsec. (j) and adding provision re contents of written progress report, amended Subsec. (j)(4) by adding provision re first 120 days of period covered by placement order, replacing "has been placed for treatment pending civil commitment proceedings" with "would be eligible for civil commitment" and deleting provision re application for civil commitment is denied or not pursued, amended Subsec. (k)(1) by replacing "has been placed for treatment pending civil commitment proceedings" with "would be eligible for civil commitment", deleting provision re application for civil commitment is denied or not pursued, adding provision re receipt of report pursuant to Subsec. (h)(2)(A)(iii) and adding provision re placement order upon finding that defendant is eligible for civil commitment, amended Subsec. (k)(3) by inserting "unwilling or" and made technical changes throughout section; P.A. 07-71 amended Subsec. (k) by making a conforming change in Subdiv. (1), making a technical change in Subdiv. (2), designating existing provisions of Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (3)(A) and making a technical change therein, adding Subdiv. (3)(B) re supplemental report of health care guardian, adding new Subdiv. (4) re continued involuntary medication of defendant and redesignating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (5); pursuant to P.A. 07-73 "Commissioner of Mental Retardation" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Developmental Services", effective October 1, 2007; P.A. 07-153 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re examiners' determination and recommendation re civil commitment of incompetent defendant to hospital for psychiatric disabilities, amended Subsec. (j) by adding new Subpara. (C) requiring progress report to contain opinion re eligibility for and appropriateness of such commitment and redesignating existing Subpara. (C) as Subpara. (D), made technical changes in Subsec. (k) and amended Subsec. (m) by adding provision re consideration of examiners' recommendation and treatment facility opinion re such commitment, distinguishing between commitment procedures applicable to placement of defendant in custody of Commissioner of Children and Families or Commissioner of Developmental Services and commitment procedures applicable to placement of defendant in custody of Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services and authorizing the court to order the latter commissioner to provide services in a less restrictive setting; P.A. 09-79 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re examiners' access to information on treatment dates and locations in department's database of treatment episodes for purpose of obtaining release of information from defendant and to provide that examination be completed within 15 business days, rather than 15 days, amended Subsec. (e) to add provision re exclusion of treatment information in database of treatment episodes unless defendant released the information and to provide that nothing in subsection shall limit other release or use of information from said database permitted by law, amended Subsec. (i) to require evaluators to transmit information obtained about defendant not later than 24 hours after court orders placement, amended Subsec. (j) to require person in charge of treatment facility or designee to provide written progress report to examiners not later than 5 business days after court finds defendant will not attain competency within period of placement order or defendant has regained competency, and made technical changes, effective June 2, 2009; P.A. 10-28 amended Subsec. (i) to substitute "examiners" for "evaluators" and "examination" for "evaluation", and amended Subsec. (m) to divide existing provisions into Subdivs. (1) to (5), to add provision allowing court to order commissioner to give court notice prior to committed defendant's release if release is prior to expiration of time within which defendant may be prosecuted in Subdiv. (1), to add provision re violation of Sec. 53-21(a)(2), 53a-60(a)(2), 53a-60a, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b, provide that periodic examinations occur at intervals of not less than 6 months and reposition provision re continuation of periodic examinations in Subdiv. (3), and to add "record" re erasure in Subdiv. (5).

      See Sec. 17a-543a re appointment of special limited conservator for and administration of medication to defendant placed in custody of Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services.

      See Sec. 17a-566 re required examination of persons convicted of certain crimes for signs of mental illness.


      Annotations to former section 54-40:

      Cited. 134 C. 45. Cited. 161 C. 20. A person who is "insane" within the meaning of the rule exempting mentally disabled persons from execution is not necessarily "insane" within the meaning of the rules precluding incompetent persons from trial, conviction and sentencing. 169 C. 13. Cited. 171 C. 454. Cited. 193 C. 526.

      Cited. 6 CA 476.

      Cited. 14 CS 33.

      Commitment hereunder operates in all particulars as civil commitment by probate court and committed person's assets must be used for his support. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 542. This section applies to those already committed at time of enactment and is not ex post facto as it is not a criminal statute. Id.

      Subsec. (e):

      Cited. 198 C. 273.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 186 C. 476. Cited. 189 C. 61. Cited. 192 C. 520. Cited. 198 C. 598. Cited. 199 C. 359. Cited. 200 C. 224. Cited. 205 C. 673. Cited. 210 C. 304. Cited. 222 C. 312. Cited. 224 C. 29; Id., 907. Cited. 225 C. 524. Cited. 227 C. 930. Cited. 229 C. 228. Cited. 230 C. 572. Cited. 233 C. 44; Id., 813. Cited. 235 C. 671.

      Cited. 5 CA 79. Cited. 6 CA 476. Cited. 8 CA 491. Cited. 9 CA 587. Cited. 14 CA 140; Id., 586. Cited. 17 CA 602. Cited. 22 CA 199; Id., 477. Cited. 25 CA 741. Cited. 28 CA 360; judgment reversed, see 229 C. 529; Id., 548. Cited. 30 CA 428. Cited. 32 CA 553. Cited. 36 CA 641. Cited. 54 CA 361. Defendant is presumed competent and burden to show otherwise is on party alleging incompetence. 62 CA 367. Trial court did not improperly fail to order competency hearing in light of court's observations of defendant at trial and various evaluation reports from mental health facility in which he had been treated, all of which concluded that he was competent to stand trial and that he was engaging in a deliberate pattern of behavior to delay his trial. Trial court did not abuse its discretion in determining defendant was malingering in order to delay trial and that competency hearing under section was not required. 81 CA 294. Although defense counsel expressed concerns about defendant's competency, court had opportunity to observe defendant on numerous occasions and did not abuse its discretion by denying defendant's motion for a competency evaluation. 113 CA 651.

      Cited. 44 CS 101.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 192 C. 383. Cited. 223 C. 557. Cited. 230 C. 109. Cited. 237 C. 633.

      Cited. 34 CA 236. Cited. 36 CA 135. No abuse of discretion in finding defendant competent to stand trial. 68 CA 470.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 237 C. 633.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 192 C. 383. Cited. 237 C. 633.

      Cited. 20 CA 212. Cited. 36 CA 135.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 192 C. 383. Cited. 237 C. 633.

      Subsec. (e):

      Cited. 214 C. 476.

      Subsec. (i):

      Placements for treatment must be treated cumulatively for purposes of applying the 18-month time limitation. 288 C. 610.

      Subsec. (k):

      Discussion of whether trial court correctly used standards set forth in statute in determining whether to order forced medication of defendant to render him competent to stand trial. Confirmation that statute makes it mandatory to appoint a licensed health care provider to represent health care interests of defendant if court finds that defendant is unable to provide consent for involuntary medication. 70 CA 488.

      Subsec. (m):

      The term "defendant" includes a respondent in a juvenile matter. 291 C. 556.

      Unconditional release under statute is a reasonable legislative determination. 22 CA 199.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56e. (Formerly Sec. 54-76p). Accelerated pretrial rehabilitation. (a) There shall be a pretrial program for accelerated rehabilitation of persons accused of a crime or crimes or a motor vehicle violation or violations for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment may be imposed, which crimes or violations are not of a serious nature.

      (b) The court may, in its discretion, invoke such program on motion of the defendant or on motion of a state's attorney or prosecuting attorney with respect to a defendant (1) who, the court believes, will probably not offend in the future, (2) who has no previous record of conviction of a crime or of a violation of section 14-196, subsection (c) of section 14-215, section 14-222a, subsection (a) of section 14-224 or section 14-227a, (3) who has not been adjudged a youthful offender within the preceding five years under the provisions of sections 54-76b to 54-76n, inclusive, and (4) who states under oath, in open court or before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths, under the penalties of perjury that the defendant has never had such program invoked in the defendant's behalf, provided the defendant shall agree thereto and provided notice has been given by the defendant, on a form approved by rule of court, to the victim or victims of such crime or motor vehicle violation, if any, by registered or certified mail and such victim or victims have an opportunity to be heard thereon. In determining whether to grant an application under this section with respect to a person who has been adjudged a youthful offender under the provisions of sections 54-76b to 54-76n, inclusive, more than five years prior to the date of such application, and notwithstanding the provisions of section 54-76l, the court shall have access to the youthful offender records of such person and may consider the nature and circumstances of the crime with which such person was charged as a youth. Any defendant who makes application for participation in such program shall pay to the court an application fee of thirty-five dollars.

      (c) This section shall not be applicable: (1) To any person charged with a class A felony, a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-122 that does not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or a violation of section 14-227a, subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, section 53a-56b, 53a-60d, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-90a, 53a-196e or 53a-196f, (2) to any person charged with a crime or motor vehicle violation who, as a result of the commission of such crime or motor vehicle violation, causes the death of another person, (3) to any person accused of a family violence crime as defined in section 46b-38a who (A) is eligible for the pretrial family violence education program established under section 46b-38c, or (B) has previously had the pretrial family violence education program invoked in such person's behalf, (4) to any person charged with a violation of section 21a-267 or 21a-279 who (A) is eligible for the pretrial drug education program established under section 54-56i, or (B) has previously had the pretrial drug education program invoked in such person's behalf, (5) unless good cause is shown, to any person charged with a class C felony, or (6) to any person charged with a violation of section 9-359 or 9-359a.

      (d) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, any defendant who enters such program shall pay to the court a participation fee of one hundred dollars. Any defendant who enters such program shall agree to the tolling of any statute of limitations with respect to such crime and to a waiver of the right to a speedy trial. Any such defendant shall appear in court and shall, under such conditions as the court shall order, be released to the custody of the Court Support Services Division, except that, if a criminal docket for drug-dependent persons has been established pursuant to section 51-181b in the judicial district, such defendant may be transferred, under such conditions as the court shall order, to the court handling such docket for supervision by such court. If the defendant refuses to accept, or, having accepted, violates such conditions, the defendant's case shall be brought to trial. The period of such probation or supervision, or both, shall not exceed two years. If the defendant has reached the age of sixteen years but has not reached the age of eighteen years, the court may order that as a condition of such probation the defendant be referred for services to a youth service bureau established pursuant to section 10-19m, provided the court finds, through an assessment by a youth service bureau or its designee, that the defendant is in need of and likely to benefit from such services. When determining any conditions of probation to order for a person entering such program who was charged with a misdemeanor that did not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person or a motor vehicle violation, the court shall consider ordering the person to perform community service in the community in which the offense or violation occurred. If the court determines that community service is appropriate, such community service may be implemented by a community court established in accordance with section 51-181c if the offense or violation occurred within the jurisdiction of a community court established by said section. If the defendant is charged with a violation of section 46a-58, 53-37a, 53a-181j, 53a-181k or 53a-181l, the court may order that as a condition of such probation the defendant participate in a hate crimes diversion program as provided in subsection (e) of this section. If a defendant is charged with a violation of section 53-247, the court may order that as a condition of such probation the defendant undergo psychiatric or psychological counseling or participate in an animal cruelty prevention and education program provided such a program exists and is available to the defendant.

      (e) If the court orders the defendant to participate in a hate crimes diversion program as a condition of probation, the defendant shall pay to the court a participation fee of four hundred twenty-five dollars. No person may be excluded from such program for inability to pay such fee, provided (1) such person files with the court an affidavit of indigency or inability to pay, (2) such indigency or inability to pay is confirmed by the Court Support Services Division, and (3) the court enters a finding thereof. The Judicial Department shall contract with service providers, develop standards and oversee appropriate hate crimes diversion programs to meet the requirements of this section. Any defendant whose employment or residence makes it unreasonable to attend a hate crimes diversion program in this state may attend a program in another state which has standards substantially similar to, or higher than, those of this state, subject to the approval of the court and payment of the application and program fees as provided in this section. The hate crimes diversion program shall consist of an educational program and supervised community service.

      (f) If a defendant released to the custody of the Court Support Services Division satisfactorily completes such defendant's period of probation, such defendant may apply for dismissal of the charges against such defendant and the court, on finding such satisfactory completion, shall dismiss such charges. If the defendant does not apply for dismissal of the charges against such defendant after satisfactorily completing such defendant's period of probation, the court, upon receipt of a report submitted by the Court Support Services Division that the defendant satisfactorily completed such defendant's period of probation, may on its own motion make a finding of such satisfactory completion and dismiss such charges. If a defendant transferred to the court handling the criminal docket for drug-dependent persons satisfactorily completes such defendant's period of supervision, the court shall release the defendant to the custody of the Court Support Services Division under such conditions as the court shall order or shall dismiss such charges. Upon dismissal, all records of such charges shall be erased pursuant to section 54-142a. An order of the court denying a motion to dismiss the charges against a defendant who has completed such defendant's period of probation or supervision or terminating the participation of a defendant in such program shall be a final judgment for purposes of appeal.

      (P.A. 73-641, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-38; P.A. 76-53; 76-179; P.A. 79-581, S. 11; 79-585, S. 10, 15; P.A. 81-446, S. 4; P.A. 82-9; P.A. 83-534, S. 7; P.A. 85-350, S. 2; 85-374; P.A. 87-343, S. 3, 4; P.A. 87-567, S. 5, 7; P.A. 88-145; P.A. 89-219, S. 7, 10; P.A. 91-24, S. 6; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 116, 117; P.A. 93-138; P.A. 95-142, S. 4; 95-154; 95-225, S. 31; P.A. 97-248, S. 10, 12; P.A. 98-81, S. 16, 20; 98-208, S. 1, 2; P.A. 99-148, S. 3, 4; 99-187, S. 5; P.A. 00-72, S. 4, 12; 00-196, S. 39; 00-209, S. 5; P.A. 01-16; 01-84, S. 19, 26; P.A. 02-132, S. 34; P.A. 03-208, S. 2; P.A. 04-139, S. 9; P.A. 05-235, S. 5; P.A. 07-217, S. 192; P.A. 10-43, S. 22.)

      History: P.A. 74-38 transferred power to invoke accelerated rehabilitation program from state's attorney or prosecuting attorney to the court and replaced provision which made section inapplicable to persons accused of class A, B or C felony with provision specifying that section is inapplicable in such cases "unless good cause is shown"; P.A. 76-53 clarified provision requiring that crime victims be given opportunity to express their views by specifying notice procedure; P.A. 76-179 required that candidate for rehabilitation state under oath that he has not previously had the program invoked on his behalf; P.A. 79-581 rendered provisions inapplicable to youths previously adjudged youthful offenders; P.A. 79-585 substituted office of adult probation for commission on adult probation; Sec. 54-76p transferred to Sec. 54-56e in 1981; P.A. 81-446 excluded persons charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227a from the provisions of this section; P.A. 82-9 substituted "in the future" for "again" and added provision re erasure of records pursuant to Sec. 54-142a upon dismissal; P.A. 83-534 excluded persons charged with a violation of Sec. 53a-56b or 53a-60d from the provisions of this section; P.A. 85-350 added provision that if the defendant does not apply for dismissal of the charges against him after satisfactory completion of the program the court may on its own motion make a finding of satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges; P.A. 85-374 added provision that certain court orders are final judgments for purposes of appeal; P.A. 87-343 made persons accused of a motor vehicle violation for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment may be imposed eligible for the program; P.A. 87-567 specified that section will not apply to persons accused of a family violence crime who are eligible for pretrial family education program established under Sec. 46b-38c or who have previously had pretrial family violence education program invoked in their behalf; P.A. 88-145 precluded from the program an accused who has a previous record of conviction of "a violation of section 14-196, subsection (c) of section 14-215, section 14-222a, subsection (a) of section 14-224 or section 14-227a", and made a technical change to conform with the changes made by P.A. 87-343 by requiring the accused to give notice to the victim or victims of such crime "or motor vehicle violation"; P.A. 89-219 established an application fee of $25 and a participation fee of $100; P.A. 91-24 added provision permitting the defendant to make a sworn statement "before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths"; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 increased application fee from $25 to $35; P.A. 93-138 made persons accused of more than one crime or motor vehicle violation eligible for the program; P.A. 95-142 made ineligible for the program any person charged with a violation of Sec. 53-21(2), 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b; P.A. 95-154 made ineligible for the program any person charged with a class A or B felony and any person who has previously been adjudged a youthful offender for the commission of a class B felony, however provision re youthful offenders failed to take effect because of irreconcilable conflict with P.A. 95-225, the provisions of that act having taken precedence; P.A. 95-225 made ineligible for the program any person who has previously been adjudged a youthful offender where formerly a "youth" who has previously been adjudged a youthful offender was ineligible unless good cause was shown, and added provision authorizing the court to order certain defendants be referred for services to a youth service bureau as a condition of probation if the court finds that they are in need of and likely to benefit from such services; P.A. 97-248 authorized the transfer of a defendant to the court handling the criminal docket for drug-dependent persons if such a docket has been established in the judicial district, specified that the period of probation or supervision or both not exceed two years and provided that if a defendant transferred to the court handling the criminal docket for drug-dependent persons satisfactorily completes his period of supervision the court shall release the defendant to the Office of Adult Probation or dismiss the charges, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-81 after "who has not been adjudged a youthful offender" added "on or after October 1, 1995", effective May 22, 1998; P.A. 98-208 inserted Subsec., Subdiv. and Subpara. indicators and added Subsec. (c)(2) making provisions inapplicable to any person charged with a crime or motor vehicle violation who, as a result of the commission of such crime or motor vehicle violation, causes the death of another person, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-148 added Subsec. (c)(4) making provisions inapplicable to any person charged with a violation of Sec. 21a-267 or 21a-279 who is eligible for the pretrial drug education program under Sec. 54-56i or has previously had such program invoked in such person's behalf and made provisions of section gender neutral, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-187 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision authorizing the court to order as a condition of probation that the defendant participate in the zero-tolerance drug supervision program established pursuant to Sec. 53a-39d and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 00-72 amended Subsec. (d) to add exception re amount of the participation fee and add provision authorizing the court to order participation in a hate crimes diversion program as a condition of probation for defendants charged with a violation of Sec. 46a-58, 53-37a, 53a-181j, 53a-181k or 53a-181l, added new Subsec. (e) re hate crimes diversion program and redesignated former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 00-196 amended Subsec. (d) to add provisions requiring the court to consider ordering a person charged with a misdemeanor that did not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person or a motor vehicle violation to perform community service as a condition of probation and authorizing such community service to be implemented by a community court if the offense or violation occurred within the jurisdiction of a community court, which provisions were formerly incorporated in Sec. 53a-28(e) and were deleted therefrom by same public act; P.A. 00-209 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to replace condition that defendant "has not previously been adjudged a youthful offender on or after October 1, 1995," with condition that defendant "has not been adjudged a youthful offender within the preceding five years", and to add provision that in determining whether to grant an application for a person who has been adjudged a youthful offender more than five years prior to the date of the application, the court shall have access to the youthful offender records of such person and may consider the crime such person was charged with as a youth; P.A. 01-16 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to add exception re eligibility of any person charged with a violation of Sec. 53a-122 that does not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person and to make a technical change; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to replace reference to "subdivision (2) of section 53-21" with "subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21", effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 replaced "Office of Adult Probation" with "Court Support Services Division" in Subsecs. (d), (e) and (f) and replaced "Office of Adult Probation" with "Judicial Department" re authority for contracting with service providers in Subsec. (e); P.A. 03-208 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision authorizing the court to order counseling or participation in an animal cruelty prevention and education program for a defendant charged with a violation of Sec. 53-247; P.A. 04-139 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to make section inapplicable to a person charged with a violation of Sec. 53a-90a, 53a-196e or 53a-196f; P.A. 05-235 added Subsec. (c)(6) making section inapplicable to any person charged with a violation of Sec. 9-359 or 9-359a, effective July 1, 2005, and applicable to elections, primaries and referenda held on or after September 1, 2005; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (d), effective July 12, 2007; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (d) to delete provision authorizing court to order as condition of probation that defendant participate in zero-tolerance drug supervision program.

      Annotation to former section 54-76p:

      Cited. 36 CS 527. Found error in denial of application for accelerated rehabilitation; detailed discussion in dissent. 37 CS 767.

      Annotations to present section:

      Denial of application for accelerated rehabilitation not a final judgment from which right of appeal lies. 189 C. 92, 95 (Diss. Op.). Claim to a dismissal of charges based on successful completion of conditions imposed under statute is interlocutory and review of claim not deemed proper as an exception to the ground rule requiring final judgment; exceptions discussed. 194 C. 650. Cited. 206 C. 512. Cited. 219 C. 752. Cited. 222 C. 331.

      Denial of application for accelerated rehabilitation is not appealable following plea of nolo contendere. 2 CA 219. "Crime" means a single criminal act or transaction out of which one or more criminal charges might arise; determinative criterion governing statute is whether changes arise out of same act or transaction. 6 CA 505. Cited. 8 CA 273. Cited. 9 CA 631; judgment reversed, see 205 C. 352; Id., 686. Cited. 23 CA 559. Defendant charged with more than one single criminal act or transaction is ineligible for accelerated rehabilitation. 25 CA 235. Cited. 27 CA 635. Section is mandatory in nature; failure to complete satisfactorily the period of pretrial probation requires that case be returned to docket for trial. 45 CA 722. Court's appraisal of sufficiency of required apology to victim upheld, where defendant initiated other litigation that may have been impacted by wording of apology. 108 CA 605. Mere arrest of defendant, without more, was not sufficient ground to terminate defendant's accelerated rehabilitation. 110 CA 814.

      Mere arrest of defendant, without more, is an insufficient ground for revoking his eligibility for dismissal of charges pursuant to accelerated rehabilitation program. 37 CS 853. Cited. Id., 864. Denial of application for accelerated rehabilitation not a final judgment from which right of appeal lies. 38 CS 552. Cited. Id., 689. Cited. 41 CS 454.

      Subsec. (a):

      After defendant's completion of program, court must act affirmatively by making a finding of satisfactory completion in order to dismiss charges against defendant and state's failure to terminate his status in the program during period of probation does not require court to dismiss the underlying charge. 98 CA 111. The legislature's use of both the singular "crime" and the plural "crimes" reflects the legislature's intent that the statute may be invoked with respect to a defendant accused of either one crime or multiple crimes, regardless of whether those crimes are temporally or otherwise related. 110 CA 442.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56f. (Formerly Sec. 54-5). Requirements of sureties of the peace. Any judge of the Superior Court may, from his personal knowledge or upon complaint of another, require sureties of the peace and good behavior from any person who threatens to beat or kill another or resists or abuses any officer in the execution of his office or contends with angry words or, by any unlawful act, terrifies or disturbs any person. When any person complains on oath to a judge of the Superior Court that he has just cause to fear that another will imprison, beat or kill the complainant, or procure others to do so, and that he is under fear of bodily harm, such judge may, if he believes such person has just cause for such fear, require sureties of the peace and good behavior from the person so complained of. Upon refusal of the person so required to find sureties of the peace in any of such cases, such judge may commit him to a community correctional center to remain until he is discharged by due course of law or until the next term of the superior court having criminal jurisdiction in such judicial district, which may make further order relating to the subject matter of any such offense; but, in all cases in which any person so complains on oath, such judge shall require of him a sufficient bond to prosecute his complaint to effect; and, if the person complained of is discharged by such judge for want of probable cause, the complainant shall pay all the expenses of such prosecution and such judge shall tax the same against the complainant and issue execution against him therefor, and the same when collected shall be paid into the hands of such judge, to be by him paid to those to whom the same may be due.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8729; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 205; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 59; 1967, P.A. 656, S. 59; P.A. 73-116, S. 15; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-183, S. 129, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 520, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127.)

      History: 1959 act substituted circuit court judge for trial justice and deleted provision for person who abuses justice of the peace; 1963 act deleted specification commitment be to jail "in county"; 1967 act changed court "session" to court "term"; P.A. 73-116 replaced "jail" with "community correctional center" and added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, reflecting reorganization of judicial system, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 replaced court of common pleas with superior court, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; Sec. 54-5 transferred to Sec. 54-56f in 1981.

      Annotations to former section 54-5:

      Bond void in part is void in toto. 7 C. 239. Justice authorized to take recognizance for good behavior and also to appear before higher court. 15 C. 149. Accused may be brought before and tried by another justice than the one issuing warrant. 59 C. 386. Cited. 60 C. 431.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56g. Pretrial alcohol education program. (a) There shall be a pretrial alcohol education program for persons charged with a violation of section 14-227a, 14-227g, 15-132a, 15-133, 15-140l or 15-140n. Upon application by any such person for participation in such program and payment to the court of an application fee of one hundred dollars and a nonrefundable evaluation fee of one hundred dollars, the court shall, but only as to the public, order the court file sealed, provided such person states under oath, in open court or before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths, under penalties of perjury that: (1) If such person is charged with a violation of section 14-227a, such person has not had such program invoked in such person's behalf within the preceding ten years for a violation of section 14-227a, (2) if such person is charged with a violation of section 14-227g, such person has never had such program invoked in such person's behalf for a violation of section 14-227a or 14-227g, (3) such person has not been convicted of a violation of section 53a-56b or 53a-60d, a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a before or after October 1, 1981, or a violation of subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227a on or after October 1, 1985, and (4) such person has not been convicted in any other state at any time of an offense the essential elements of which are substantially the same as section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227a. Unless good cause is shown, a person shall be ineligible for participation in such pretrial alcohol education program if such person's alleged violation of section 14-227a or 14-227g caused the serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, of another person. The application fee imposed by this subsection shall be credited to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund established by section 54-215. The evaluation fee imposed by this subsection shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k.

      (b) The court, after consideration of the recommendation of the state's attorney, assistant state's attorney or deputy assistant state's attorney in charge of the case, may, in its discretion, grant such application. If the court grants such application, the court shall refer such person to the Court Support Services Division for assessment and confirmation of the eligibility of the applicant and to the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services for evaluation. The Court Support Services Division, in making its assessment and confirmation, may rely on the representations made by the applicant under oath in open court with respect to convictions in other states of offenses specified in subsection (a) of this section. Upon confirmation of eligibility and receipt of the evaluation report, the defendant shall be referred to the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services by the Court Support Services Division for placement in an appropriate alcohol intervention program for one year, or be placed in a state-licensed substance abuse treatment program. The alcohol intervention program shall include a ten-session intervention program and a fifteen-session intervention program. Any person who enters the pretrial alcohol education program shall agree: (1) To the tolling of the statute of limitations with respect to such crime, (2) to a waiver of such person's right to a speedy trial, (3) to complete ten or fifteen counseling sessions in an alcohol intervention program or successfully complete a substance abuse treatment program of not less than twelve sessions pursuant to this section dependent upon the evaluation report and the court order, (4) to commence participation in an alcohol intervention program or substance abuse treatment program not later than ninety days after the date of entry of the court order unless granted a delayed entry into a program by the court, (5) upon completion of participation in the alcohol intervention program, to accept placement in a substance abuse treatment program upon the recommendation of a provider under contract with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services pursuant to subsection (f) of this section or placement in a state-licensed substance abuse treatment program which meets standards established by the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, if the Court Support Services Division deems it appropriate, and (6) if ordered by the court, to participate in at least one victim impact panel. The suspension of the motor vehicle operator's license of any such person pursuant to section 14-227b shall be effective during the period such person is participating in the pretrial alcohol education program, provided such person shall have the option of not commencing the participation in such program until the period of such suspension is completed. If the Court Support Services Division informs the court that the defendant is ineligible for such program and the court makes a determination of ineligibility or if the program provider certifies to the court that the defendant did not successfully complete the assigned program or is no longer amenable to treatment and such person does not request, or the court denies, program reinstatement under subsection (e) of this section, the court shall order the court file to be unsealed, enter a plea of not guilty for such defendant and immediately place the case on the trial list. If such defendant satisfactorily completes the assigned program, such defendant may apply for dismissal of the charges against such defendant and the court, on reviewing the record of the defendant's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division and on finding such satisfactory completion, shall dismiss the charges. If the defendant does not apply for dismissal of the charges against such defendant after satisfactorily completing the assigned program the court, upon receipt of the record of the defendant's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division, may on its own motion make a finding of such satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges. Upon motion of the defendant and a showing of good cause, the court may extend the one-year placement period for a reasonable period for the defendant to complete the assigned program. A record of participation in such program shall be retained by the Court Support Services Division for a period of ten years from the date the court grants the application for participation in such program. The Court Support Services Division shall transmit to the Department of Motor Vehicles a record of participation in such program for each person who satisfactorily completes such program. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall maintain for a period of ten years the record of a person's participation in such program as part of such person's driving record. The Court Support Services Division shall transmit to the Department of Environmental Protection the record of participation of any person who satisfactorily completes such program who has been charged with a violation of the provisions of section 15-132a, 15-133, 15-140l or 15-140n. The Department of Environmental Protection shall maintain for a period of ten years the record of a person's participation in such program as a part of such person's boater certification record.

      (c) At the time the court grants the application for participation in the pretrial alcohol education program, such person shall also pay to the court a nonrefundable program fee of three hundred fifty dollars if such person is ordered to participate in the ten-session intervention program and a nonrefundable program fee of five hundred dollars if such person is ordered to participate in the fifteen-session intervention program. If the court grants the application for participation in the pretrial alcohol education program and such person is ordered to participate in a substance abuse treatment program, such person shall be responsible for the costs associated with participation in such program. No person may be excluded from either program for inability to pay such fee or cost, provided (1) such person files with the court an affidavit of indigency or inability to pay, (2) such indigency or inability to pay is confirmed by the Court Support Services Division, and (3) the court enters a finding thereof. If the court finds that a person is indigent or unable to pay for a treatment program, the costs of such program shall be paid from the pretrial account established under section 54-56k. If the court finds that a person is indigent or unable to pay for an intervention program, the court may waive all or any portion of the fee for such intervention program. If the court denies the application, such person shall not be required to pay the program fee. If the court grants the application and such person is later determined to be ineligible for participation in such pretrial alcohol education program or fails to complete the assigned program, the program fee shall not be refunded. All program fees shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k.

      (d) If a person returns to court with certification from a program provider that such person did not successfully complete the assigned program or is no longer amenable to treatment, the provider, to the extent practicable, shall include a recommendation to the court as to whether a ten-session intervention program, a fifteen-session intervention program or placement in a state-licensed substance abuse treatment program would best serve such person's needs. The provider shall also indicate whether the current program referral was an initial referral or a reinstatement to the program.

      (e) When a person subsequently requests reinstatement into an alcohol intervention program or a substance abuse treatment program and the Court Support Services Division verifies that such person is eligible for reinstatement into such program and thereafter the court favorably acts on such request, such person shall pay a nonrefundable program fee of one hundred seventy-five dollars if ordered to complete a ten-session intervention program or two hundred fifty dollars if ordered to complete a fifteen-session intervention program, as the case may be. Unless good cause is shown, such fees shall not be waived. If the court grants a person's request to be reinstated into a treatment program, such person shall be responsible for the costs, if any, associated with being reinstated into the treatment program. All program fees collected in connection with a reinstatement to an intervention program shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k. No person shall be permitted more than two program reinstatements pursuant to this subsection.

      (f) The Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services shall contract with service providers, develop standards and oversee appropriate alcohol programs to meet the requirements of this section. Said department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish standards for such alcohol programs. Any person ordered to participate in a treatment program shall do so at a state-licensed treatment program which meets the standards established by said department. Any defendant whose employment or residence makes it unreasonable to attend an alcohol intervention program or a substance abuse treatment program in this state may attend a program in another state which has standards substantially similar to, or higher than, those of this state, subject to the approval of the court and payment of the application, evaluation and program fees and treatment costs, as appropriate, as provided in this section.

      (g) The court may, as a condition of granting such application, require that such person participate in a victim impact panel program approved by the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Department. Such victim impact panel program shall provide a nonconfrontational forum for the victims of alcohol-related or drug-related offenses and offenders to share experiences on the impact of alcohol-related or drug-related incidents in their lives. Such victim impact panel program shall be conducted by a nonprofit organization that advocates on behalf of victims of accidents caused by persons who operated a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both. Such organization may assess a participation fee of not more than seventy-five dollars on any person required by the court to participate in such program, provided such organization shall offer a hardship waiver when it has determined that the imposition of a fee would pose an economic hardship for such person.

      (h) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable in the case of any person charged with a violation of section 14-227a while operating a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1.

      (P.A. 81-446, S. 1; P.A. 82-408, S. 1; 82-472, S. 166, 183; P.A. 83-508, S. 1, 5; 83-571, S. 1; P.A. 85-350, S. 3; 85-417; 85-529, S. 1, 4; 85-596, S. 3; P.A. 86-403, S. 91, 132; P.A. 89-110, S. 1-3; 89-219, S. 8, 10; 89-314, S. 4, 5; P.A. 91-24, S. 7; 91-243; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 81, 117; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-135, S. 8; P.A. 95-257, S. 5, 58; P.A. 96-180, S. 129, 166; P.A. 97-309, S. 14, 23; 97-322, S. 7, 9; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8, S. 32, 88; P.A. 98-81, S. 11; P.A. 99-255, S. 3; P.A. 01-201, S. 2, 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8, S. 9, 13; P.A. 02-132, S. 35; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 117; P.A. 03-244, S. 11, 13; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 177; P.A. 04-217, S. 19; 04-250, S. 2; P.A. 06-130, S. 21; P.A. 07-167, S. 42; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 20; P.A. 09-140, S. 14; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 54; P.A. 10-18, S. 24; 10-30, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 82-408 added "before or after October 1, 1982" after "14-227a" in Subsec. (a), in Subsec. (b) changed "grants" to "may, in its discretion, grant" and eliminated provision that license suspension shall be ineffective during period of participation in program and reversed upon satisfactory completion of program, in Subsec. (d) changed "office of adult probation" to "Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission" and "Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission" to "service providers" and in Subsec. (e) after "fund" added "from which all moneys except administrative costs, shall be transferred to the Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission"; P.A. 82-472 changed date applicable to violations of Sec. 14-227a from October 1, 1982, to October 1, 1981; P.A. 83-508 repealed provision establishing alcohol education and treatment revolving fund from which moneys shall be transferred to Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission for education and treatment programs and provided that $200 fee shall be credited to the general fund instead of being deposited in revolving fund and that any balance in the revolving fund on July 1, 1983, shall be transferred to the general fund; P.A. 83-571 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that a person who enters the system agrees to accept more intensive treatment or other forms of education or treatment or to participate in additional meetings or counseling sessions if the office of adult probation deems it appropriate, to provide that the case of a defendant "no longer amenable to treatment under such program" shall be placed on the trial list, and to replace the provision that a defendant's "case shall be brought to trial" with provision that the court shall "enter a plea of not guilty for such defendant and immediately place the case on the trial list", to require the office of adult probation to transmit to the department of motor vehicles a record of participation for each person who satisfactorily completes such program and to require the department of motor vehicles to maintain for 7 years a record of a person's participation in the program, and amended Subsec. (c) to increase the fee for participation from $200 to $250; P.A. 85-350 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that unless good cause is shown a person is ineligible for the program if his violation caused the serious physical injury of another person, and amended Subsec. (b) to provide that if the defendant does not apply for dismissal of the charges against him after satisfactory completion of the program the court may on its own motion make a finding of satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges; P.A. 85-417 replaced references to office of adult probation with references to bail commission; P.A. 85-529 amended Subsec. (a) to establish an application fee of $15 and provide that said fee be credited to the criminal injuries compensation fund; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (a) to exclude persons convicted of a violation of "subsection (a)" of section 14-227a before or after October 1, 1981, or "a violation of subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227a on or after October 1, 1985"; P.A. 86-403 made technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 89-110 amended Subsec. (a) to exclude persons convicted of a violation of Sec. 53a-56b or 53a-60d or convicted in any other state at any time of an offense the essential elements of which are substantially the same as Sec. 53a-56b, 53a-60d or 14-227a(a)(1) or (2), amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the bail commission to rely on the representations made by the applicant re convictions in other states, and amended Subsec. (d) to authorize a defendant to attend an alcohol education and treatment program in another state under certain conditions; P.A. 89-219 amended Subsec. (a) to raise the application fee from $15 to $50; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (b) to add proviso that a person whose license has been suspended pursuant to Sec. 14-227b shall have the option of not commencing participation in the program until the period of such suspension is completed; P.A. 91-24 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision permitting the person to make a sworn statement "before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths"; P.A. 91-243 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical language changes to clarify the role of the Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission in the pretrial alcohol education system and repealed obsolete Subsec. (e) re transfer of moneys in alcohol education and treatment fund to general fund; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (c) to raise fee from $250 to $350; P.A. 93-381 replaced Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission and executive director with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, respectively, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-135 amended Subsec. (b) to provide referral to bail commissioner for assessment and confirmation of eligibility for program, and amended Subsec. (c) to require payment of nonrefundable program fee at time court grants application and to specify that payment of such fee is not required if court denies application, but that fee is not refundable if ineligibility is determined at a later time or applicant does not complete the program; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-180 made technical change in Subsec. (d), substituting "department" for "commission", effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 97-309 and June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8 both changed eight meetings or counseling sessions to ten counseling sessions in Subsec. (b) and in Subsec. (c) increased the program fee from $350 to $425, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-322 revised effective date of P.A. 97-309 but without affecting this section; P.A. 98-81 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by changing "information or complaint" to "court file"; P.A. 99-255 amended Subsec. (b) to require a person who enters the system to agree to participate in at least fifteen counseling sessions if such person was charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227a(a)(2) and had a blood alcohol ratio of 0.16% or more of alcohol, by weight, amended Subsec. (c) to establish a program fee of $600 if the person was charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227a(a)(2) and had a blood alcohol ratio of 0.16% or more of alcohol, by weight, and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (b) a reference to "sixteen-hundredths of one per cent of more of alcohol" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol" for consistency with language in Subsec. (c)); P.A. 01-201 added Subsec. (b)(5) requiring a person who enters the system to agree to participate in at least one victim impact panel if ordered by the court and added Subsec. (e) to authorize the court to require participation in a victim impact panel program as a condition of granting the application, specify the nature of the program and the organization that will conduct the program and authorize the organization to assess a participation fee; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8 amended Subsec. (c) by changing "General Fund" to "pretrial account", effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 replaced "Bail Commission" with "Court Support Services Division" in Subsecs. (b) and (c); May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsec. (a) to require a pretrial alcohol education system for persons charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227g and a nonrefundable evaluation fee of $100, to require the court to order the court file sealed provided there is a statement under oath that, if such person is charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227a, such person has not had such system invoked in his or her behalf within the preceding 10 years for a violation of said section, and, if such person is charged with a violation of Sec. 14-227g, such person has never had such system invoked in his or her behalf for a violation of Sec. 14-227a or 14-227g, and to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to require the court to refer applicants to the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services for evaluation, to require any person who enters the system to agree to complete ten or fifteen counseling sessions in an alcohol intervention program dependent upon the evaluation report and the court order and to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (c) to require payment to the court of a nonrefundable program fee of $325 if such person is ordered to participate in the ten-session program and a nonrefundable program fee of $500 if such person is ordered to participate in the fifteen-session program and to make technical changes, and amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re payment of the evaluation fee, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-244 amended Subsec. (a) to include reference to Secs. 15-133, 15-140l and 15-140n and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for transmittal of the record of participation to the Department of Environmental Protection for persons who violated Sec. 15-133, 15-140l or 15-140n; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a) to restore existing statutory language inadvertently omitted in the drafting of public act 03-244; P.A. 04-217 added Subsec. (f) providing section not applicable where person charged with violation of Sec. 14-227a while operating commercial motor vehicle, effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 04-250 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the placement of the defendant in a state-licensed substance abuse treatment program, add as an alternative in Subdiv. (3) successful completion of a substance abuse treatment program of not less than twelve sessions, add in Subdiv. (4) that the person agrees to accept placement in a treatment program "upon completion of participation in the alcohol intervention program" and replace in Subdiv. (4) "placement in a treatment program which has standards substantially similar to, or higher than, a program of a provider under contract with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services" with "placement in a state-licensed treatment program which meets standards established by" said department, amended Subsec. (c) to replace "application for participation in the pretrial alcohol education system" with "application for participation in the alcohol intervention program", add provision that if the court grants participation in a treatment program the person is responsible for the costs associated with participation in such program, add provision that if the court finds a person is indigent or unable to pay for a treatment program the costs of such program shall be paid from the pretrial account established under Sec. 54-56k and make technical changes and amended Subsec. (d) to require any person ordered to participate in a treatment program to do so at a state-licensed treatment program which meets the standards established by said department and replace "an alcohol program" with "an alcohol intervention program or a treatment program"; P.A. 06-130 amended Subsec. (f) by making section inapplicable to holders of commercial driver's licenses, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 07-167 amended Subsec. (f) by deleting provision re holder of a commercial driver's license, effective July 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (e) to increase fee from $25 to $75 and to permit a waiver where fee would pose economic hardship; P.A. 09-140 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by adding references to Sec. 15-132a and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing pretrial alcohol education system with pretrial alcohol education program, increasing application fee from $50 to $100 and specifying that evaluation fee shall be credited to pretrial account established under Sec. 54-56k, amended Subsec. (b) by providing that alcohol intervention program shall include 10-session and 15-session intervention programs, adding new Subdiv. (4) re commencing participation in program not later than 90 days after date of entry of court order, redesignating existing Subdivs. (4) and (5) as Subdivs. (5) and (6), adding provision re entry of not guilty plea for any person who does not pursue or who is denied program reinstatement by the court under Subsec. (e), extending from 7 to 10 years the record retention requirements re program participation for Departments of Motor Vehicles and Environmental Protection and making a technical change, amended Subsec. (c) by increasing alcohol intervention program fee from $325 to $350 and deleting "such evaluation and" re fees credited to pretrial account, added new Subsec. (d) re recommendations from program providers re persons who do not successfully complete assigned program, added new Subsec. (e) re reinstatement into intervention or treatment program and redesignated existing Subsecs. (d) to (f) as Subsecs. (f) to (h), effective January 1, 2010; P.A. 10-18 amended Subsecs. (a) to (c) by replacing references to "system" with references to "program"; P.A. 10-30 made technical changes and substituted references to "program" for references to "system", amended Subsec. (b) to substitute "ten years from the date the court grants the application for participation in such program" for "seven years from the date of application", amended Subsec. (c) to allow waiver of fees if court finds person indigent or unable to pay for intervention program, and amended Subsec. (f) to reference treatment costs, effective July 1, 2010.

      Trial court might reasonably have determined that defendant lost her eligibility to continue in the system of alcohol education when, shortly after she had been admitted, she again operated her vehicle while intoxicated. 200 C. 102. Pretrial alcohol education program cited. Id., 615.

      Cited. 39 CA 11. Cited. 45 CA 722. Program is a pretrial diversionary program designed to avoid trial and therefore court did not abuse its discretion in denying application for participation in program after jury selection had commenced. 86 CA 751.

      Cited as P.A. 81-446, S. 1. 37 CS 767. Cited. 38 CS 675; Id., 689.

      Subsec. (f):

      Defendant was ineligible for pretrial alcohol education program because she was the holder of a commercial driver's license at the time she was charged with violating Sec. 14-227a concerning operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs. 110 CA 836.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56h. Consideration of defendant's contribution to Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund or of community service work hours. Payment of monetary contribution to fund. (a) The court may, in the disposition of any criminal or motor vehicle case, including a dismissal or the imposition of a sentence, consider the fact that the defendant has made a monetary contribution to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund established under section 54-215 or a contribution of community service work hours to a private nonprofit charity or other nonprofit organization.

      (b) In entering a nolle prosequi, the state's attorney, assistant state's attorney or deputy assistant state's attorney in charge of the case may consider the fact that the defendant has made a monetary contribution to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund or a contribution of community service work hours to a private nonprofit charity or other nonprofit organization.

      (c) A monetary contribution made by a defendant to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund as provided in this section may be paid to either the clerk of the court or the Office of Victim Services.

      (P.A. 91-85; P.A. 97-257, S. 7, 13; P.A. 06-152, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 97-257 added references to contributions to "Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund established under section 54-215", effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 06-152 made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and added Subsec. (c) re payment of monetary contribution to Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund, effective July 1, 2006.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56i. Pretrial drug education program. (a) There is established a pretrial drug education program for persons charged with a violation of section 21a-267 or 21a-279. The drug education program shall include a ten-session drug intervention program, a fifteen-session drug intervention program and a substance abuse treatment program.

      (b) Upon application by any such person for participation in such program and payment to the court of an application fee of one hundred dollars and a nonrefundable evaluation fee of one hundred dollars, the court shall, but only as to the public, order the court file sealed provided such person states under oath, in open court or before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths, under penalties of perjury, that such person has never had such program invoked in such person's behalf. A person shall be ineligible for participation in such pretrial drug education program if such person has previously participated in the eight-session, ten-session or fifteen-session drug education program, or substance abuse treatment program established under this section or the pretrial community service labor program established under section 53a-39c. The evaluation and application fee imposed by this subsection shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k.

      (c) The court, after consideration of the recommendation of the state's attorney, assistant state's attorney or deputy assistant state's attorney in charge of the case, may, in its discretion, grant such application. If the court grants such application, the court shall refer such person to the Court Support Services Division for confirmation of the eligibility of the applicant and to the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services for evaluation.

      (d) Upon confirmation of eligibility and receipt of the evaluation required pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, such person shall be referred to the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services by the Court Support Services Division for placement in the drug education program. Participants in the drug education program shall receive appropriate drug intervention services or substance abuse treatment program services, as recommended by the evaluation conducted pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and ordered by the court. Placement in the drug education program pursuant to this section shall not exceed one year. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment program services in accordance with the provisions of this section shall only receive such services at state licensed substance abuse treatment program facilities that are in compliance with all state standards governing the operation of such facilities. Any person who enters the program shall agree: (1) To the tolling of the statute of limitations with respect to such crime; (2) to a waiver of such person's right to a speedy trial; (3) to complete participation in the ten-session drug intervention program, fifteen-session drug intervention program or substance abuse treatment program, as recommended by the evaluation conducted pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, and ordered by the court; (4) to commence participation in the drug education program not later than ninety days after the date of entry of the court order unless granted a delayed entry into the program by the court; and (5) upon completion of participation in the pretrial drug education program, to accept placement in a treatment program upon the recommendation of a provider under contract with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services or placement in a treatment program that has standards substantially similar to, or higher than, a program of a provider under contract with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services if the Court Support Services Division deems it appropriate. The Court Support Services Division shall require as a condition of participation in the drug education program that any person participating in the ten-session drug intervention program or the substance abuse treatment program also participate in the community service labor program, established pursuant to section 53a-39c, for not less than five days; and that any person participating in the fifteen-session drug intervention program also participate in said community service labor program, for not less than ten days.

      (e) If the Court Support Services Division informs the court that such person is ineligible for the program and the court makes a determination of ineligibility or if the program provider certifies to the court that such person did not successfully complete the assigned program and such person did not request, or the court denied, reinstatement in the program under subsection (i) of this section, the court shall order the court file to be unsealed, enter a plea of not guilty for such person and immediately place the case on the trial list.

      (f) If such person satisfactorily completes the assigned program, such person may apply for dismissal of the charges against such person and the court, on reviewing the record of such person's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division and on finding such satisfactory completion, shall dismiss the charges. If such person does not apply for dismissal of the charges against such person after satisfactorily completing the assigned program, the court, upon receipt of the record of such person's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division, may on its own motion make a finding of such satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges. Upon motion of such person and a showing of good cause, the court may extend the placement period for a reasonable period for such person to complete the assigned program. A record of participation in such program shall be retained by the Court Support Services Division for a period of ten years from the date the court grants the application for participation in the program.

      (g) At the time the court grants the application for participation in the pretrial drug education program, such person shall pay to the court a nonrefundable program fee of three hundred fifty dollars if such person is ordered to participate in the ten-session drug intervention program or five hundred dollars if such person is ordered to participate in the fifteen-session drug intervention program. If the court orders participation in a substance abuse treatment program, such person shall be responsible for the costs associated with such program. No person may be excluded from any such program for inability to pay such fee or cost, provided (1) such person files with the court an affidavit of indigency or inability to pay, (2) such indigency or inability to pay is confirmed by the Court Support Services Division, and (3) the court enters a finding thereof. The court may waive all or any portion of such fee depending on such person's ability to pay. If the court finds that a person is indigent or unable to pay for a treatment program, the costs of such program shall be paid from the pretrial account established under section 54-56k. If the court denies the application, such person shall not be required to pay the program fee. If the court grants the application, and such person is later determined to be ineligible for participation in such pretrial drug education program or fails to complete the assigned program, the program fee shall not be refunded. All program fees shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k.

      (h) If a person returns to court with certification from a program provider that such person did not successfully complete the assigned program or is no longer amenable to treatment, the provider, to the extent practicable, shall include a recommendation to the court as to whether a ten-session drug intervention program, a fifteen-session drug intervention program or placement in a substance abuse treatment program would best serve such person's needs. The provider shall also indicate whether the current program referral was an initial referral or a reinstatement to the program.

      (i) When a person subsequently requests reinstatement into a drug intervention program or a substance abuse treatment program and the Court Support Services Division verifies that such person is eligible for reinstatement into such program and thereafter the court favorably acts on such request, such person shall pay a nonrefundable program fee of one hundred seventy-five dollars if ordered to complete a ten-session drug intervention program or two hundred fifty dollars if ordered to complete a fifteen-session drug intervention program, as the case may be. Unless good cause is shown, such fees shall not be waived. If the court grants a person's request to be reinstated into a substance abuse treatment program, such person shall be responsible for the costs, if any, associated with being reinstated into the treatment program. All program fees collected in connection with a reinstatement to a drug intervention program shall be credited to the pretrial account established under section 54-56k. No person shall be permitted more than two program reinstatements pursuant to this subsection.

      (j) The Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services shall develop standards and oversee appropriate drug education programs to meet the requirements of this section and may contract with service providers to provide such programs. The department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish standards for such drug education programs.

      (k) Any person whose employment or residence or schooling makes it unreasonable to attend a drug intervention program or substance abuse treatment program in this state may attend a program in another state that has standards similar to, or higher than, those of this state, subject to the approval of the court and payment of the program fee or costs as provided in this section.

      (P.A. 97-248, S. 7, 12; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8, S. 76, 88; P.A. 99-148, S. 1, 4; 99-215, S. 21, 29; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8, S. 10, 13; P.A. 02-132, S. 36; P.A. 07-148, S. 17; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 55; P.A. 10-18, S. 25, 26; 10-30, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 97-248 effective July 1, 1997; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8 amended Subsec. (a) to change the deadline for establishing the program from October 1, 1997 to January 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 99-148 amended Subsec. (a) to make program available to any person charged with a violation of Sec. 21a-279 rather than a violation of only "subsection (c)" of said section, added Subsec. (d)(4) requiring the person to accept placement in a treatment program, amended Subsec. (g) to reduce the program fee from $600 to $350, added new Subsec. (i) to authorize a person to attend a drug program in another state under certain circumstances, and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-215 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting "such information or complaint to be filed as a sealed information or complaint" and substituting "the court file sealed" and amended Subsec. (e) by deleting "information or complaint" and substituting "court file", effective June 29, 1999; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8 amended Subsec. (g) by changing "General Fund" to "pretrial account", effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 replaced "Bail Commission" with "Court Support Services Division" in Subsecs. (c) to (g) and made technical changes in Subsec. (h); P.A. 07-148 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting reference to pilot research drug education program under Sec. 17a-715; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (a) by specifying that drug education program includes a 10-session and 15-session drug intervention program and a drug treatment program and removing provision re date for establishment of program, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re $100 application and evaluation fees, specifying that previous participation in 8, 10 or 15-session drug program or substance abuse treatment under section are grounds for ineligibility in pretrial drug education program and specifying that evaluation and application fees shall be credited to pretrial account, amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re referral to Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services for evaluation, amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re receipt of appropriate services at state licensed facilities for duration not to exceed 1 year, deleting former Subdiv. (3), adding new Subdivs. (3) and (4) re participants agreeing to complete participation in program as recommended by evaluation and to commence participation in program not later than 90 days after date of entry of court order, redesignating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (5) and adding therein "upon completion of participation in the pretrial drug education program", and revising provision re participation in community service labor program, amended Subsec. (e) by adding "and such person did not pursue or the court denied reinstatement in the program under subsection (i) of this section", amended Subsec. (f) by extending record retention requirements at Court Support Services Division from 7 to 10 years, amended Subsec. (g) to specify $350 fee for 10-session drug intervention program, $500 fee for 15-session drug intervention program, that when court orders participation in a drug treatment program, participant shall be responsible for costs associated with such program and that all program fees shall not be refunded and shall be credited to pretrial account, added new Subsec. (h) re recommendations from program providers when participants do not complete assigned program, added new Subsec. (i) re reinstatement into drug intervention program or substance abuse treatment program, redesignated existing Subsecs. (h) and (i) as Subsecs. (j) and (k) and amended the latter to change "drug program" to "drug intervention program" and add "or substance abuse treatment program", effective January 1, 2010; P.A. 10-18 made technical changes in Subsecs. (d) and (g); P.A. 10-30 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (d) to substitute "Court Support Services Division" for "department", amended Subsec. (f) to substitute "date the court grants the application for participation in the program" for "date of application", amended Subsec. (g) to provide that costs of program be paid from pretrial account if court finds that person is indigent or unable to pay for treatment program, and amended Subsecs. (g) and (k) to reference costs, effective July 1, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56j. Pretrial school violence prevention program. (a) There shall be a school violence prevention program for students of a public or private secondary school charged with an offense involving the use or threatened use of physical violence in or on the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school or at a school-sponsored activity as defined in subsection (h) of section 10-233a. Upon application by any such person for participation in such program, the court shall, but only as to the public, order the court file sealed, provided such person states under oath, in open court or before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths, under penalties of perjury that such person has never had such system invoked in such person's behalf and that such person has not been convicted of an offense involving the threatened use of physical violence in or on the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school or at a school-sponsored activity as defined in subsection (h) of section 10-233a, and that such person has not been convicted in any other state at any time of an offense the essential elements of which are substantially the same as such an offense.

      (b) The court, after consideration of the recommendation of the state's attorney, assistant state's attorney or deputy assistant state's attorney in charge of the case, may, in its discretion, grant such application. If the court grants such application, it shall refer such person to the Court Support Services Division for assessment and confirmation of the eligibility of the applicant. The Court Support Services Division, in making its assessment and confirmation, may rely on the representations made by the applicant under oath in open court with respect to convictions in other states of offenses specified in subsection (a) of this section. As a condition of eligibility for participation in such program, the student and the parents or guardian of such student shall certify under penalty of false statement that, to the best of such person's knowledge and belief, such person does not possess any firearms, dangerous weapons, controlled substances or other property or materials the possession of which is prohibited by law or in violation of the law. Upon confirmation of eligibility, the defendant shall be referred to the Court Support Services Division for evaluation and placement in an appropriate school violence prevention program for one year.

      (c) Any person who enters the program shall agree: (1) To the tolling of the statute of limitations with respect to such crime, (2) to a waiver of the right to a speedy trial, (3) to participate in a school violence prevention program offered by a provider under contract with the Court Support Services Division pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, and (4) to successfully complete the assigned program. If the Court Support Services Division informs the court that the defendant is ineligible for the program and the court makes a determination of ineligibility or if the program provider certifies to the court that the defendant did not successfully complete the assigned program, the court shall order the court file to be unsealed, enter a plea of not guilty for such defendant and immediately place the case on the trial list.

      (d) The Court Support Services Division shall monitor the defendant's participation in the assigned program and the defendant's compliance with the orders of the court including, but not limited to, maintaining contact with the student and officials of the student's school.

      (e) If such defendant satisfactorily completes the assigned program and one year has elapsed since the defendant was placed in the program, such defendant may apply for dismissal of the charges against such defendant and the court, on reviewing the record of such defendant's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division and on finding such satisfactory completion, shall dismiss the charges. If the defendant does not apply for dismissal of the charges against the defendant after satisfactorily completing the assigned program and one year has elapsed since the defendant was placed in the program, the court, upon receipt of the record of the defendant's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division, may on its own motion make a finding of such satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges.

      (f) The cost of participation in such program shall be paid by the parent or guardian of such student, except that no student shall be excluded from such program for inability to pay such cost provided (1) the parent or guardian of such student files with the court an affidavit of indigency or inability to pay, and (2) the court enters a finding thereof.

      (g) The Court Support Services Division shall contract with service providers, develop standards and oversee appropriate school violence prevention programs to meet the requirements of this section.

      (h) The school violence prevention program shall consist of at least eight group counseling sessions in anger management and nonviolent conflict resolution.

      (P.A. 99-259, S. 2, 3; P.A. 10-43, S. 23.)

      History: P.A. 99-259 effective January 1, 2000; P.A. 10-43 replaced "Bail Commission" and "Office of Alternative Sanctions" with "Court Support Services Division", effective May 18, 2010.

      See Sec. 46b-133e re suspension of delinquency proceedings for participation in school violence prevention program.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56k. Pretrial account. (a) There is established an account to be known as the pretrial account. The account shall contain any moneys required by law to be deposited in the account and shall be a separate, nonlapsing account of the General Fund. Investment earnings credited to the account shall become part of the assets of the account. Any balance remaining in said account at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in the account for the next fiscal year.

      (b) There shall be deposited in the pretrial account all evaluation fees collected pursuant to subsection (a) of section 54-56g and subsection (b) of section 54-56i and all program fees collected pursuant to subsections (c) and (e) of section 54-56g and subsections (g) and (i) of section 54-56i and funds appropriated in subsection (a) of section 47 of special act 01-1 of the June special session.

      (c) Amounts in the pretrial account shall be available to fund the cost of operating the pretrial alcohol and drug education programs established under sections 54-56g and 54-56i.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8, S. 8, 13; P.A. 10-30, S. 6.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-8 effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 10-30 amended Subsec. (b) to reference evaluation fees collected pursuant to Secs. 54-56g(a) and 54-56i(b) and program fees collected pursuant to Secs. 54-56g(e) and 54-56i(i), effective July 1, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56l. Pretrial supervised diversionary program for persons with psychiatric disabilities. (a) There shall be a supervised diversionary program for persons with psychiatric disabilities accused of a crime or crimes or a motor vehicle violation or violations for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment may be imposed, which crimes or violations are not of a serious nature. For the purposes of this section, "psychiatric disability" means a mental or emotional condition, other than solely substance abuse, that (1) has substantial adverse effects on the defendant's ability to function, and (2) requires care and treatment.

      (b) A person shall be ineligible for participation in such supervised diversionary program if such person (1) is ineligible to participate in the pretrial program for accelerated rehabilitation under subsection (c) of section 54-56e, or (2) has twice previously participated in such supervised diversionary program.

      (c) Upon application by any such person for participation in such program, the court shall, but only as to the public, order the court file sealed provided such person states under oath, in open court or before any person designated by the clerk and duly authorized to administer oaths, under penalties of perjury, that such person has not had such program invoked in such person's behalf more than once. Court personnel shall provide notice, on a form approved by rule of court, to any victim of such crime or motor vehicle violation, by registered or certified mail, that such person has applied for the program and that such victim has an opportunity to be heard by the court on the matter.

      (d) The court shall refer such person to the Court Support Services Division for confirmation of eligibility and assessment of the person's mental health condition. The prosecuting attorney shall provide the division with a copy of the police report in the case to assist the division in its assessment. The division shall determine if the person is amenable to treatment and if appropriate services and treatment are available. If the division determines that the person is amenable to treatment and that appropriate services and treatment are available, it shall develop a treatment plan tailored to the person and shall present it to the court.

      (e) Upon confirmation of eligibility and consideration of the treatment plan presented by the Court Support Services Division, the court may grant such application. If the court grants the application, such person shall be referred to the division. The division shall collaborate with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services to place such person in a program that provides appropriate community supervision, treatment and services. The person shall be subject to the supervision of a probation officer who has a reduced caseload and specialized training in working with persons with psychiatric disabilities.

      (f) The Court Support Services Division shall establish policy and procedures to require division employees to notify any victim of the person admitted to the program of any conditions ordered by the court that directly affect the victim and of such person's scheduled court appearances with respect to the case.

      (g) Any person who enters the program shall agree: (1) To the tolling of the statute of limitations with respect to such crime or violation; (2) to a waiver of such person's right to a speedy trial; and (3) to any conditions that may be established by the division concerning participation in the supervised diversionary program including conditions concerning participation in meetings or sessions of the program.

      (h) If the Court Support Services Division informs the court that such person is ineligible for the program and the court makes a determination of ineligibility or if the division certifies to the court that such person did not successfully complete the assigned program, the court shall order the court file to be unsealed, enter a plea of not guilty for such person and immediately place the case on the trial list.

      (i) If such person satisfactorily completes the assigned program, such person may apply for dismissal of the charges against such person and the court, on reviewing the record of such person's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division and on finding such satisfactory completion, shall dismiss the charges. If such person does not apply for dismissal of the charges against such person after satisfactorily completing the assigned program, the court, upon receipt of the record of such person's participation in such program submitted by the Court Support Services Division, may on its own motion make a finding of such satisfactory completion and dismiss the charges. Except as provided in subsection (j) of this section, upon dismissal, all records of such charges shall be erased pursuant to section 54-142a. An order of the court denying a motion to dismiss the charges against a person who has completed such person's period of probation or supervision or terminating the participation of a person in such program shall be a final judgment for purposes of appeal.

      (j) The Court Support Services Division shall develop and maintain a database of information concerning persons admitted to the supervised diversionary program that shall be available to the state police and organized local police departments for use by sworn police officers when responding to incidents involving such persons. Such information shall include the person's name, date of birth, Social Security number, the violation or violations with which the person was charged, the dates of program participation and whether a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was involved in the violation or violations for which the program was granted. The division shall enter such information in the database upon such person's entry into the program, update such information as necessary and retain such information for a period of five years after the date of such person's entry into the program.

      (k) The Court Support Services Division, in collaboration with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, shall develop standards and oversee appropriate treatment programs to meet the requirements of this section and may contract with service providers to provide such programs.

      (l) The Court Support Services Division shall retain the police report provided to it by the prosecuting attorney and the record of supervision including the dates of supervision and shall provide such information to the court, prosecuting attorney and defense counsel whenever a court is considering whether to grant an application by such person for participation in the supervised diversionary program for a second time.

      (Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 41.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-56m. Mediation programs. (a) There shall be established, in the geographical area of the Superior Court for the towns of Berlin, New Britain, Newington, Rocky Hill and Wethersfield, the geographical area of the Superior Court for the towns of Bethlehem, Middlebury, Naugatuck, Prospect, Southbury, Watertown, Wolcott, Woodbury and Waterbury, and such other geographical areas of the Superior Court as the Chief Court Administrator may designate, programs of mediation wherein the court may refer a criminal prosecution to mediation for resolution. For the purposes of this section, "mediation" means the process where two or more persons to a dispute agree to meet with an impartial third party to work toward a resolution of the dispute which is satisfactory to all parties in accordance with principles of mediation commonly used in labor management disputes.

      (b) If mediation is successful, the prosecuting authority, upon recommendation of the family relations counselor or mediation officer, shall enter a nolle prosequi and the prosecution shall be terminated and the defendant released from custody.

      (c) If mediation is unsuccessful or the defendant fails to comply with the terms of any mediation agreement, the family relations counselor or mediation officer shall notify the prosecuting authority and prosecution of the defendant may be initiated.

      (d) There shall be established, in the two geographical areas of the Superior Court enumerated in subsection (a) of this section and in such other geographical areas of the Superior Court as the Chief Court Administrator may designate, units to provide mediation services in cases referred by the court to mediation. In addition, mediation services in cases referred by the court to mediation may also be provided by private agencies under contract with the Judicial Department.

      (P.A. 82-383, S. 1; P.A. 85-344; P.A. 95-225, S. 48, 52; P.A. 02-132, S. 37.)

      History: P.A. 85-344 made mediation programs permanent rather than "pilot" programs and authorized instituting programs in geographical areas beyond those initially involved in pilot programs; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision authorizing mediation services to also be provided by private agencies under contract with the Judicial Department, effective June 28, 1995; P.A. 02-132 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), changed family relations officer to family relations counselor in Subsecs. (b) and (c) and deleted reference to the Family Division of the Superior Court, added provision re other geographical areas designated by the Chief Court Administrator and made technical changes in Subsec. (d).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-57. Joinder of offenses of the same character. Whenever two or more cases are pending at the same time against the same party in the same court for offenses of the same character, counts for such offenses may be joined in one information unless the court orders otherwise.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8770.)

      Court may compel state to elect between counts; 75 C. 201; 81 C. 1; or direct jury to find separately on each count. 34 C. 299. Effect of general verdict. 34 C. 299; 70 C. 73. Where same offense is charged in different counts. 74 C. 525. Where one count only is good. 66 C. 255. Right of accused to call for separate verdicts. 83 C. 298. Relation of counts to each other. 96 C. 427. One count charging two accused as principals may properly be joined with a second count charging one as principal and the other as accessory. 98 C. 460. Refusal to compel state to elect between counts held proper. Id., 461. Cited. 126 C. 84. Whether there shall be separate trials on different counts joined in indictment or information lies within trial court's discretion. 134 C. 109. Whenever two or more cases are pending at the same time against the same party in the same court for offenses of the same character, counts for such offenses may be joined in one information. 169 C. 566. Whether joinder of indictments and informations is controlled by statute or Sec. 829 of the 1978 Practice Book discussed. Since rule regulates court procedure and does not infringe on any substantive right, rule controlled and court did not abuse its discretion by ordering joinder of two informations not of the same character. 187 C. 292. Cited. 204 C. 714. Cited. 205 C. 61. Cited. 209 C. 458. Cited. 210 C. 78. Cited. 215 C. 538. Cited. 216 C. 647. Cited. 234 C. 324. Cited. 235 C. 748. Cited. 236 C. 112. Joinder of manslaughter count and risk of injury to minor count permissible when factors weighed. 243 C. 523. Defendant did not suffer substantial prejudice by consolidation of charges against him because the evidence in both cases would have been cross admissible at separate trials to show a common scheme or plan on the part of the defendant. 287 C. 608.

      Cited. 10 CA 503; Id., 624; Id., 709. Cited. 14 CA 526; Id., 710. Cited. 15 CA 161. Cited. 18 CA 406; Id., 482. Cited. 19 CA 48. Cited. 24 CA 502. Cited. 28 CA 645. Cited. 33 CA 133. 25 CA 181; Id., 503. Cited. 28 CA 645. Cited. 33 CA 133. Cited. 35 CA 781. Cited. 36 CA 805. Cited. 37 CA 437. Cited. 41 CA 584. Cited. 42 CA 382. Cited. 43 CA 527; Id., 680. Cited. 45 CA 207. Joinder permitted where defendant holding knife injured victim while attacking her because physical harm not brutal or shocking. 59 CA 529. Consolidation of three informations for trial ameliorated by court's explicit instruction to jury that offenses should be considered separately. Id. Trial court is authorized by statute and rule to order a joint trial of charges against the same defendant. 70 CA 462. Joinder was proper because evidence relating to each crime would have been admissible in each separate trial to prove a common plan or scheme. 87 CA 150. Defendant was not subject to substantial injustice or deprived of due process when trial court granted state's motion for joinder because the matters were not so complex as to confuse a jury. 112 CA 711.

      Where defendants were put to plea on a single information charging similar offenses concerning different complainants, court did not abuse its discretion in making such joinder. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 514. Cited. Id., 585.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-58. Description of money in complaint or information. When it is necessary to describe any bill issued by the United States or by any national banking association or to describe any United States coin issued as money, it shall be a sufficient description to set forth in the complaint or information that the same is lawful money of the United States, and the value thereof, which value need not be proved as alleged.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8771.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-59. Statement of ownership, partnership or joint tenancy in indictment, information or complaint. When in any indictment, information or complaint it is necessary to state the ownership of any property owned or possessed by more persons than one, it shall be sufficient to name one of them, and to state such property to belong to him and another or others, as the case may be; or, if it is necessary to mention for any purpose any partners, joint tenants, coparceners, tenants in common or trustees of joint stock companies, not incorporated by the laws of this state, it shall be sufficient to describe them in like manner.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8772.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-60. Allegations in criminal cases. Whenever any indictment, information or complaint is pending before any court, a conviction may be had for any offense sufficiently alleged therein or for an attempt to commit such offense, and the accused may be convicted or such court may accept a plea of guilty for any of such offenses.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8774.)

      Cited. 94 C. 706. State may designate an accused by an alias; motion to expunge "The Cowboy" as such an alias from indictment held properly denied. 98 C. 460. A plea of guilty to a specific criminal charge, which is relevant to the circumstances in a civil action, may be admissible as a verbal admission in such civil action. 147 C. 625. Cited. Id., 704.

      Section is constitutionally sufficient to put a criminal defendant on notice he can be convicted of attempt to commit crime charged as well as any included lesser offenses. 39 CA 267.

      Court will not allow party to enter a plea of guilty until satisfied that it is freely made and that the party making it understands its import and effect. If accused did not understand the charge against him, judgment should be opened and defendant allowed to withdraw plea of guilty. 23 CS 176.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-61. Complaints for offenses specified in special acts, ordinances and bylaws. In any complaint or other process for an offense against the provisions of a special act or of an ordinance or bylaw of any town, city or borough, it shall be sufficient to set forth the offense in the same manner as in the case of an offense against the provisions of a public act.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8786.)

      If an offense is created by statute, it is sufficient to set it forth in the words of the statute. 60 C. 106; 88 C. 715. See note to section 54-46.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-62. Allegation of previous conviction. When, in any criminal complaint or information, it is necessary to set out a previous conviction for a similar offense, such previous conviction shall be held to be sufficiently alleged by naming the date when, the town or city where, the crime for which and the court wherein such conviction was had.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8785.)

      Defects may be cured by verdict. 68 C. 512. Former convictions should be set up in information or complaint. Id.; 94 C. 703; 96 C. 172. Information should be in two parts, each signed by the prosecutor, and the offense charged set out in one part and the prior conviction in another; the plea of accused to entire information should be taken in absence of the jury, and the trial should proceed on the first part only of the information; if a verdict of guilty is rendered, the trial should then proceed on the second part of the information. Id., 171. Cited. 147 C. 296. To prove prior conviction it is necessary to show it by record of valid subsisting final judgment of rendering court. 151 C. 213.

      Cited. 45 CA 369.

      Cited. 24 CS 362.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63. Mode of informing against larceny by embezzlement. In any complaint or information for the crime of larceny by embezzlement, when it is unknown to the informing officer whether the total sum taken and appropriated was taken and appropriated at one or different times, it shall be sufficient to charge the total sum taken by the accused as having been taken at one and the same time.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8788; P.A. 80-313, S. 57.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 applied provisions to complaints or informations for crime of "larceny by" embezzlement, reflecting change in official term for the offense.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63a. Definitions. As used in sections 54-63a to 54-63g, inclusive, and section 54-64a, "arrested person" means a person taken into custody for violation of any law, ordinance, regulation or bylaw of the state or of any town, city, borough, district or municipal corporation or authority, and "Court Support Services Division" means the division of the Judicial Department established pursuant to section 51-1d.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 1; P.A. 02-132, S. 38.)

      History: P.A. 02-132 replaced definition of "Bail Commission" with definition of "Court Support Services Division" and made technical changes.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63b. Pretrial release of arrested persons. Duties of Court Support Services Division. Uniform weighted release criteria. (a) The duties of the Court Support Services Division shall include: (1) To promptly interview, prior to arraignment, any person referred by the police pursuant to section 54-63c or by a judge. Such interview shall include, but not be limited to, information concerning the accused person, his or her family, community ties, prior criminal record and physical and mental condition; (2) to seek independent verification of information obtained during the interview, if practicable; (3) to determine, as provided in section 54-63d, or to make recommendations on request of any judge, concerning the terms and conditions of the release of arrested persons from custody pending final disposition of their cases; (4) to prepare a written report on all persons interviewed and, upon request and pursuant to the procedures established under subsection (f) of section 54-63d, provide copies of the report to the court, defense counsel and state's attorney. Such report shall contain the information obtained during the interview and verification process, the person's prior criminal record, where possible, and the determination or recommendation of the commissioner pursuant to section 54-63d concerning the terms and conditions of the release of the persons so interviewed; (5) to give prior notice of each required court appearance to each person released following an interview by a bail commissioner; (6) to supervise pursuant to the direction of the court those persons released on nonfinancial conditions; (7) to inform the court and the state's attorney of any failure to comply with terms and conditions of release, including the arrest of persons released under its supervision; (8) to monitor, evaluate and provide information concerning terms and conditions of release and the release criteria established under subdivision (2) of subsection (c) of this section, to prepare periodic reports on its activities, and to provide such other information as is needed to assist in the improvement of the pretrial release process; (9) to perform such other functions as the Chief Court Administrator may, from time to time, assign.

      (b) The Court Support Services Division shall establish written uniform weighted release criteria based upon the premise that the least restrictive condition or conditions of release necessary to insure the appearance in court of the defendant is the pretrial release alternative of choice. Such criteria shall be based on, but not be limited to, the following considerations: (1) The nature and circumstances of the offense insofar as they are relevant to the risk of nonappearance; (2) the defendant's record of previous convictions; (3) the defendant's past record of appearance in court after being admitted to bail; (4) the defendant's family ties; (5) the defendant's employment record; (6) the defendant's financial resources, character and mental condition; and (7) the defendant's community ties.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 2; 1969, P.A. 826, S. 1; P.A. 74-183, S. 141, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 541, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 118, 127; P.A. 80-313, S. 58; P.A. 81-437, S. 3, 12; P.A. 99-186, S. 11; P.A. 02-132, S. 39.)

      History: 1969 act amended Subsec. (b) to authorize appointment of assistant chief bail commissioners and assistant bail commissioners and added provision empowering chief judge of circuit court to appoint additional bail commissioners; P.A. 74-183 revised provisions to reflect transfer of circuit court functions to court of common pleas, adding Subsec. (d) continuing bail commissioners for the balance of their terms, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 amended section to reflect transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, replacing references to former circuits with references to geographical areas, replacing chief judge of common pleas court with chief court administrator or his designee, etc., effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 added provision in Subsec. (b) authorizing judges to fill vacancies in bail commissioners' offices; P.A. 80-313 substituted reference to Sec. 54-63d for reference to Sec. 54-63c in Subsec. (a); P.A. 81-437 replaced previous provisions concerning the bail commission and chief bail commissioner, expanding duties and placing office of the bail commission within the judicial department; P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec. (a) to make a technical change in a statutory reference; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re Office of the Bail Commission within the Judicial Department, adding provision re duties of the Court Support Services Division and, in Subdiv. (5), replacing "the Bail Commission" with "a bail commissioner", deleted former Subsecs. (b), (c) and (d) re Chief Bail Commissioner, Assistant Chief Bail Commissioner and appointment of bail commissioners and other personnel and added new Subsec. (b) re uniform weighted release criteria.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63c. Release by law enforcement officer. (a) Except in cases of arrest pursuant to a bench warrant of arrest in which the court or a judge thereof has indicated that bail should be denied or ordered that the officer or indifferent person making such arrest shall, without undue delay, bring such person before the clerk or assistant clerk of the superior court for the geographical area under section 54-2a, when any person is arrested for a bailable offense, the chief of police, or the chief's authorized designee, of the police department having custody of the arrested person shall promptly advise such person of the person's rights under section 54-1b, and of the person's right to be interviewed concerning the terms and conditions of release. Unless the arrested person waives or refuses such interview, the police officer shall promptly interview the arrested person to obtain information relevant to the terms and conditions of the person's release from custody, and shall seek independent verification of such information where necessary. At the request of the arrested person, the person's counsel may be present during the interview. No statement made by the arrested person in response to any question during the interview related to the terms and conditions of release shall be admissible as evidence against the arrested person in any proceeding arising from the incident for which the conditions of release were set. After such a waiver, refusal or interview, the police officer shall promptly order release of the arrested person upon the execution of a written promise to appear or the posting of such bond as may be set by the police officer, except that no condition of release set by the court or a judge thereof may be modified by such officer and no person shall be released upon the execution of a written promise to appear or the posting of a bond without surety if the person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, and in the commission of such crime the person used or threatened the use of a firearm.

      (b) If the person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, and the police officer does not intend to impose nonfinancial conditions of release pursuant to this subsection, the police officer shall, pursuant to the procedure set forth in subsection (a) of this section, promptly order the release of such person upon the execution of a written promise to appear or the posting of such bond as may be set by the police officer. If such person is not so released, the police officer shall make reasonable efforts to immediately contact a bail commissioner to set the conditions of such person's release pursuant to section 54-63d. If, after making such reasonable efforts, the police officer is unable to contact a bail commissioner or contacts a bail commissioner but such bail commissioner is unavailable to promptly perform such bail commissioner's duties pursuant to section 54-63d, the police officer shall, pursuant to the procedure set forth in subsection (a) of this section, order the release of such person upon the execution of a written promise to appear or the posting of such bond as may be set by the police officer and may impose nonfinancial conditions of release which may require that the arrested person do one or more of the following: (1) Avoid all contact with the alleged victim of the crime, (2) comply with specified restrictions on the person's travel, association or place of abode that are directly related to the protection of the alleged victim of the crime, or (3) not use or possess a dangerous weapon, intoxicant or controlled substance. Any such nonfinancial conditions of release shall be indicated on a form prescribed by the Judicial Branch and sworn to by the police officer. Such form shall articulate (A) the efforts that were made to contact a bail commissioner, (B) the specific factual basis relied upon by the police officer to impose the nonfinancial conditions of release, and (C) if the arrested person was non-English-speaking, that the services of a translation service or interpreter were used. A copy of that portion of the form that indicates the nonfinancial conditions of release shall immediately be provided to the arrested person. A copy of the entire form shall be provided to counsel for the arrested person at arraignment. Any nonfinancial conditions of release imposed pursuant to this subsection shall remain in effect until the arrested person is presented before the Superior Court pursuant to subsection (a) of section 54-1g. On such date, the court shall conduct a hearing pursuant to section 46b-38c at which the defendant is entitled to be heard with respect to the issuance of a protective order.

      (c) When cash bail in excess of ten thousand dollars is received for a detained person accused of a felony, where the underlying facts and circumstances of the felony involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, the police officer shall prepare a report that contains (1) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the accused person, (2) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each person offering the cash bail, other than a person licensed as a professional bondsman under chapter 533 or a surety bail bond agent under chapter 700f, (3) the amount of cash received, and (4) the date the cash was received. Not later than fifteen days after receipt of such cash bail, the police officer shall file the report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of the report to the state's attorney for the judicial district in which the alleged offense was committed and to each person offering the cash bail.

      (d) No police officer shall set the terms and conditions of a person's release, set a bond for a person or release a person from custody under this section unless the police officer has first checked the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) computerized index of criminal justice information to determine if such person is listed in such index.

      (e) If the arrested person has not posted bail, the police officer shall immediately notify a bail commissioner.

      (f) The chief, acting chief, superintendent of police, the Commissioner of Public Safety, any captain or lieutenant of any local police department or the Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety or any person lawfully exercising the powers of any such officer may take a written promise to appear or a bond with or without surety from an arrested person as provided in subsection (a) of this section, or as fixed by the court or any judge thereof, may administer such oaths as are necessary in the taking of promises or bonds and shall file any report required under subsection (c) of this section.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 3; 1969, P.A. 826, S. 2; P.A. 74-183, S. 142, 291; P.A. 76-336, S. 3; 76-436, S. 542, 681; P.A. 79-216, S. 2; P.A. 80-313, S. 14; P.A. 99-186, S. 8; 99-240, S. 16; P.A. 00-196, S. 41; P.A. 03-173, S. 1; P.A. 07-123, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act transferred duty to notify arrested person of his rights, etc. from bail commissioner to chief of police or his designee and added provisions re bail commissioner's investigation and decision re release on bail in Subsec. (a); P.A. 74-183 amended section to reflect transfer of circuit court functions to court of common pleas, effective December 1, 1974; P.A. 76-336 deleted provisions which implied officer's or bail commissioner's right to deny release on bail if he "finds custody to be necessary to provide reasonable assurance of such person's appearance in court"; P.A. 76-436 reworded exception in Subsec. (a) to clearly distinguish between bench warrants and arrest warrants in which court or judge has set conditions of release, replaced references to prosecuting attorneys with references to various categories of state's attorneys and deleted references to court of common pleas, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-216 rephrased exception in Subsec. (a) to replace reference to condition of release with specific orders of judge or court re denial of bail, etc. and further amended subsection to specify that officer or bail commissioner may not modify condition of release set by court or judge; P.A. 80-313 deleted detailed provisions re bail procedure formerly comprising latter part of Subsec. (a) and Subsecs. (b) to (f), restated remaining provisions of Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) containing general statement of police officers' powers; P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec. (a) to prohibit the release of a person on the execution of a written promise to appear or the posting of a bond without surety if such person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime in which such person used or threatened the use of a firearm and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 99-240 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions requiring the police officer to prepare a report when cash bail in excess of $10,000 is received for a person accused of a felony involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, specifying the contents of such report and requiring such police officer not later than 15 days after receipt of such cash bail to file such report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of such report to the state's attorney and each person offering the cash bail and amended Subsec. (b) to require any of the specified officials authorized to take action under said Subsec. to file any report required under Subsec. (a); P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 03-173 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision prohibiting a police officer setting the terms and conditions of a person's release, setting a bond for a person or releasing a person from custody unless the officer first checks the National Crime Information Center computerized index of criminal justice information to determine if such person is listed in such index; P.A. 07-123 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that no statement made by arrested person in response to any question during the interview related to terms and conditions of release shall be admissible as evidence against arrested person in any proceeding arising from the incident for which conditions of release were set, added new Subsec. (b) specifying procedure for release of a person charged with a family violence crime, authorizing police officer to impose nonfinancial conditions of release for such person and specifying types of nonfinancial conditions that may be imposed, procedure for their imposition and their duration, designated existing provisions re procedure when cash bail in excess of $10,000 is received as Subsec. (c), designated existing provision requiring police officer to first check National Crime Information Center computerized index of criminal justice information as Subsec. (d) and amended same to make a technical change, designated existing provision requiring police officer to immediately notify a bail commissioner if arrested person has not posted bail as Subsec. (e), and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) re authority and duties of police personnel as Subsec. (f) and amended same to make a technical change.

      See Sec. 54-1g re time for arraignment.

      See Sec. 54-64c re notice of required appearance after release on bond or promise to appear.

      See Sec. 54-69b re court's authority to modify conditions of release.

      See Sec. 54-71a re lack of liability of bail commissioners, police department employees and others in action for damages on account of a person's release.


      Exclusionary effects of Sec. 54-1c do not apply to violations of this statute. 195 C. 505. Trial court may issue a criminal protective order at defendant's arraignment after consideration of oral argument and family violence intervention unit's report; trial court is required to hold, at defendant's request at arraignment, a subsequent hearing within a reasonable period of time at which the state will be required to prove the continued necessity of the order by a fair preponderance of the evidence, which may include reliable hearsay testimony, and defendant will have an opportunity to proffer relevant evidence; legislature did not intend for Subsec. (b) and Sec. 46b-38c to entitle defendant to an evidentiary hearing beyond consideration of parties' arguments and unit's report prior to the initial issuance of a criminal protective order at arraignment, which may occur within hours of the alleged incident of family violence. 294 C. 1.

      Cited. 28 CS 313.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63d. Release by bail commissioner. Information, files and reports held by Court Support Services Division. (a) Upon notification by a police officer pursuant to section 54-63c that an arrested person has not posted bail, a bail commissioner shall promptly conduct an interview and investigation as specified in subdivisions (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of section 54-63b and, based upon the criteria established pursuant to subsection (b) of section 54-63b and except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the bail commissioner shall promptly order release of such person on the first of the following conditions of release found sufficient to provide reasonable assurance of the person's appearance in court: (1) Upon the execution of a written promise to appear without special conditions; (2) upon the execution of a written promise to appear with any of the nonfinancial conditions as specified in subsection (c) of this section; (3) upon the execution of a bond without surety in no greater amount than necessary; or (4) upon the execution of a bond with surety in no greater amount than necessary. If the person is unable to meet the conditions of release ordered by the bail commissioner, the bail commissioner shall so inform the court in a report prepared pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection (a) of section 54-63b.

      (b) No person shall be released upon the execution of a written promise to appear or the execution of a bond without surety if the person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, and in the commission of such crime the person used or threatened the use of a firearm.

      (c) In addition to or in conjunction with any of the conditions enumerated in subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of subsection (a) of this section, the bail commissioner may impose nonfinancial conditions of release, which may require that the arrested person do any of the following: (1) Remain under the supervision of a designated person or organization; (2) comply with specified restrictions on the person's travel, association or place of abode; (3) not engage in specified activities, including the use or possession of a dangerous weapon, an intoxicant or controlled substance; (4) avoid all contact with an alleged victim of the crime and with a potential witness who may testify concerning the offense; or (5) satisfy any other condition that is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person in court. Any of the conditions imposed under subsection (a) of this section and this subsection by the bail commissioner shall be effective until the appearance of such person in court.

      (d) The police department shall promptly comply with the order of release of the bail commissioner, except that if the department objects to the order or any of its conditions, the department shall promptly so advise a state's attorney or assistant state's attorney, the bail commissioner and the arrested person. The state's attorney or assistant state's attorney may authorize the police department to delay release, until a hearing can be had before the court then sitting for the geographical area which includes the municipality in which the arrested person is being detained or, if the court is not then sitting, until the next sitting of said court. When cash bail in excess of ten thousand dollars is received for a detained person accused of a felony, where the underlying facts and circumstances of the felony involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, the police department shall prepare a report that contains (1) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the accused person, (2) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each person offering the cash bail, other than a person licensed as a professional bondsman under chapter 533 or a surety bail bond agent under chapter 700f, (3) the amount of cash received, and (4) the date the cash was received. Not later than fifteen days after receipt of such cash bail, the police department shall file the report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of the report to the state's attorney for the judicial district in which the alleged offense was committed and to each person offering the cash bail.

      (e) Except as provided in subsections (f) and (g) of this section, all information provided to the Court Support Services Division shall be for the sole purpose of determining and recommending the conditions of release, and shall otherwise be confidential and retained in the files of the Court Support Services Division, and not be subject to subpoena or other court process for use in any other proceeding or for any other purpose.

      (f) The Court Support Services Division shall establish written procedures for the release of information contained in reports and files of the Court Support Services Division, such procedures to be approved by the executive committee of the judges of the Superior Court. Such procedures shall allow access to (1) nonidentifying information by qualified persons for purposes of research related to the administration of criminal justice; (2) all information provided to the Court Support Services Division by probation officers for the purposes of compiling presentence reports; and (3) all information provided to the Court Support Services Division concerning any person convicted of a crime and held in custody by the Department of Correction.

      (g) Any files and reports held by the Court Support Services Division may be accessed and disclosed by employees of the division in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Chief Court Administrator.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 4; P.A. 80-313, S. 15; P.A. 81-437, S. 4, 12; P.A. 82-383, S. 3; P.A. 95-225, S. 32; 95-261, S. 2; P.A. 97-53; P.A. 98-90, S. 3; P.A. 99-186, S. 9; 99-187, S. 1; 99-240, S. 17; P.A. 00-196, S. 42; P.A. 02-132, S. 40; P.A. 10-43, S. 24.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 designated previous provisions as Subsec. (c), inserting new Subsecs. (a) and (b) containing provisions formerly found in Subsecs. (a) and (b) of Sec. 54-63b; P.A. 81-437 amended provisions concerning investigation by bail commissioner and criteria for release and added provisions re financial conditions of release and added new Subsec. (d) re written procedures for release of information in reports and files of office of the bail commission; P.A. 82-383 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that a term or condition of release recommended by a bail commissioner may include a term of supervision; P.A. 95-225 and 95-261 both amended Subsec. (c) to add exception for Subsec. (e) and added nearly identical provisions as new Subsec. (e) authorizing the Office of the Bail Commission to disclose reports and files to the Office of Adult Probation for the purposes of conducting investigations and supervising persons placed on probation; P.A. 97-53 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding "without special conditions" after "appear", added Subsec. (a)(2) re nonfinancial conditions as specified in Subsec. (b), renumbering existing Subdivs. (2) and (3) as Subdivs. (3) and (4), changing "financial" conditions of release to "the" conditions of release, and deleting provisions re bail commissioner's recommendation to the court, added Subsec. (b) re nonfinancial conditions and redesignated existing Subsecs. (b) to (e), inclusive, as Subsecs. (c) to (f), inclusive; P.A. 98-90 added Subsec. (f)(2) and (3) authorizing the Office of the Bail Commission to disclose files and reports to the Family Division of the Superior Court for the purpose of preparing written or oral reports and to agencies and organizations under contract with the Office of Alternative Sanctions for the purpose of monitoring arrested persons, respectively; P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that the release of a person by the bail commissioner is subject to the exception in Subsec. (b), added new Subsec. (b) to prohibit the release of a person on the execution of a written promise to appear or the execution of a bond without surety if such person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime in which such person used or threatened the use of a firearm, relettering former Subdivs. (b) to (f) as Subdivs. (c) to (g), respectively, and made technical changes to revise statutory references and make provisions gender neutral; P.A. 99-187 amended former Subsec. (b) to add new Subdiv. (4) providing that the arrested person may be required as a condition of release to participate in the zero-tolerance drug supervision program established under Sec. 53a-39d, renumbering existing Subdivs. (4) and (5) as Subdivs. (5) and (6), respectively, and to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 99-240 amended former Subsec. (c) to add provisions requiring the police department to prepare a report when cash bail in excess of $10,000 is received for a detained person accused of a felony involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, specifying the contents of such report and requiring such police department not later than 15 days after receipt of such cash bail to file such report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of such report to the state's attorney and each person offering the cash bail; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (b); P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (a) by making technical and conforming changes, amended Subsecs. (e) and (f) by replacing "Office of the Bail Commission" and "Chief Bail Commissioner" with "Court Support Services Division" and deleted former Subsec. (g)(1), (2) and (3) re disclosure of files and reports held by Office of the Bail Commission, replacing "Office of the Bail Commission" with "Court Support Services Division" and adding provision re access and disclosure in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Chief Court Administrator; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (c) to delete former Subdiv. (4) re participation in zero-tolerance drug supervision program and redesignate existing Subdivs. (5) and (6) as Subdivs. (4) and (5).

      See Secs. 53a-222, 53a-222a re criminal penalties for violation of certain conditions of release.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63e. Bond or promise conditioned on appearance. Whenever any arrested person is released upon his written promise to appear or upon bond without or with surety, such promise or bond shall be conditioned that he shall appear before the Superior Court. Any promise or bond without or with surety, and any fee paid for a bond with surety, shall also cover any appearance of such person, unless modified, and if modified any such fee which has been paid shall be credited toward the fee of any increased or new bond with surety.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 5; P.A. 74-183, S. 143, 291; P.A. 76-106, S. 2; 76-436, S. 543, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 37, 72.)

      History: P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, reflecting reorganization of judicial system, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-106 added provisions re acceptance or modification of release conditions by superior court where accused previously entered into bond set by common pleas court in connection with same offense or offenses; P.A. 76-436 amended section to reflect transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, omitting provisions added by P.A. 76-106 rendered obsolete by the change, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 confirmed omission of P.A. 76-106 provisions.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63f. Release after conviction and pending sentence or appeal. A person who has been convicted of any offense, except a violation of section 53a-54a, 53a-54b, 53a-54c or 53a-54d or any offense involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, and is either awaiting sentence or has given oral or written notice of such person's intention to appeal or file a petition for certification or a writ of certiorari may be released pending final disposition of the case, unless the court finds custody to be necessary to provide reasonable assurance of such person's appearance in court, upon the first of the following conditions of release found sufficient by the court to provide such assurance: (1) Upon such person's execution of a written promise to appear, (2) upon such person's execution of a bond without surety in no greater amount than necessary, (3) upon such person's execution of a bond with surety in no greater amount than necessary, (4) upon such person's deposit, with the clerk of the court having jurisdiction of the offense with which such person stands convicted or any assistant clerk of such court who is bonded in the same manner as the clerk or any person or officer authorized to accept bail, a sum of money equal to the amount called for by the bond required by the court, or (5) upon such person's pledge of real property, the equity of which is equal to the amount called for by the bond required by the court, provided the person pledging such property is the owner of such property. When cash bail is offered, such bond shall be executed and the money shall be received in lieu of a surety or sureties upon such bond. Such cash bail shall be retained by the clerk of such court until a final order of the court disposing of the same is passed, provided, if such bond is forfeited, the clerk of such court shall pay the money to the payee named therein, according to the terms and conditions of the bond.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 14; P.A. 89-47; P.A. 98-51; P.A. 00-200, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 89-47 added Subdivs. (4) and (5) authorizing release upon the deposit of a sum of money or upon the pledge of real property, respectively, and added provisions re the execution of the bond when cash bail is offered and the retention and disposition of such cash bail; P.A. 98-51 prohibited the release of a person convicted of violating Sec. 53a-54a, 53a-54b, 53a-54c or 53a-54d; P.A. 00-200 prohibited the release of a person convicted of "any offense involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person" and made technical changes.

      Bail hereunder is entirely disconnected from preconviction bail and presumption of innocence and should be granted with great caution. 159 C. 264. Section violates separation of powers provision contained in article second of the Connecticut constitution, as amended by article eighteen of the amendments, insofar as it prohibits trial court from releasing on bail any person who has been convicted of an offense "involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person" because it presents significant interference with the orderly functioning of Superior Court's judicial role. 261 C. 492.

      Supreme Court's determination of unconstitutionality in 261 C. 492 should be applied retroactively, as it could have impact on a defendant's sentence. 89 CA 729.

      Cited. 29 CS 339.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-63g. Appeal from court order re release. Any accused person or the state, aggrieved by an order of the Superior Court concerning release, may petition the Appellate Court for review of such order. Any such petition shall have precedence over any other matter before said Appellate Court and any hearing shall be heard expeditiously with reasonable notice.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 17; 1972, P.A. 108, S. 13; P.A. 74-183, S. 144, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 544, 681; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 17, 82.)

      History: 1972 act replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective September 1, 1972, except that courts with cases pending retain jurisdiction; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, replaced appellate division of common pleas court with superior court and required hearing be "heard expeditiously with reasonable notice" rather than "held on one-day notice to the parties concerned", effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 replaced court of common pleas with superior court and deleted provisions re superior court's power to review common pleas court orders, leaving supreme court with sole power of review, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof.

      Appeal from refusal of bail in capital case allowed and new hearing ordered to determine whether case falls in constitutional exception to bail in capital case where proof is evident or presumption great. 159 C. 264. Cited. 222 C. 331. Cited. 230 C. 441. Cited. 233 C. 44. Cited. 237 C. 339. Cited. 240 C. 623.

      Cited. 9 CA 74. Cited. 34 CA 46. Cited. 43 CA 851. Existence of this statute, a legislatively created remedy, precludes the use of a writ of error to review an order concerning release. 110 CA 653.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 21, 167, 536, 549.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64. Police officials and clerks of court to take promise to appear or bond. Section 54-64 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8779; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 151; 1961, P.A. 203, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 549, S. 11; P.A. 74-183, S. 145, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 545, 681; P.A. 77-614, S. 486, 610; P.A. 79-216, S. 3; P.A. 80-313, S. 61.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64a. Release by judicial authority. (a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, when any arrested person is presented before the Superior Court, said court shall, in bailable offenses, promptly order the release of such person upon the first of the following conditions of release found sufficient to reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court: (A) Upon his execution of a written promise to appear without special conditions, (B) upon his execution of a written promise to appear with nonfinancial conditions, (C) upon his execution of a bond without surety in no greater amount than necessary, (D) upon his execution of a bond with surety in no greater amount than necessary. In addition to or in conjunction with any of the conditions enumerated in subparagraphs (A) to (D), inclusive, of this subdivision the court may, when it has reason to believe that the person is drug-dependent and where necessary, reasonable and appropriate, order the person to submit to a urinalysis drug test and to participate in a program of periodic drug testing and treatment. The results of any such drug test shall not be admissible in any criminal proceeding concerning such person.

      (2) The court may, in determining what conditions of release will reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court, consider the following factors: (A) The nature and circumstances of the offense, (B) such person's record of previous convictions, (C) such person's past record of appearance in court after being admitted to bail, (D) such person's family ties, (E) such person's employment record, (F) such person's financial resources, character and mental condition and (G) such person's community ties.

      (b) (1) When any arrested person charged with the commission of a class A felony, a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-86 or 53a-122, a class C felony, except a violation of section 53a-87, 53a-152 or 53a-153, or a class D felony under sections 53a-60 to 53a-60c, inclusive, section 53a-72a, 53a-95, 53a-103, 53a-103a, 53a-114, 53a-136 or 53a-216, or a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, is presented before the Superior Court, said court shall, in bailable offenses, promptly order the release of such person upon the first of the following conditions of release found sufficient to reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court and that the safety of any other person will not be endangered: (A) Upon such person's execution of a written promise to appear without special conditions, (B) upon such person's execution of a written promise to appear with nonfinancial conditions, (C) upon such person's execution of a bond without surety in no greater amount than necessary, (D) upon such person's execution of a bond with surety in no greater amount than necessary. In addition to or in conjunction with any of the conditions enumerated in subparagraphs (A) to (D), inclusive, of this subdivision, the court may, when it has reason to believe that the person is drug-dependent and where necessary, reasonable and appropriate, order the person to submit to a urinalysis drug test and to participate in a program of periodic drug testing and treatment. The results of any such drug test shall not be admissible in any criminal proceeding concerning such person.

      (2) The court may, in determining what conditions of release will reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court and that the safety of any other person will not be endangered, consider the following factors: (A) The nature and circumstances of the offense, (B) such person's record of previous convictions, (C) such person's past record of appearance in court after being admitted to bail, (D) such person's family ties, (E) such person's employment record, (F) such person's financial resources, character and mental condition, (G) such person's community ties, (H) the number and seriousness of charges pending against the arrested person, (I) the weight of the evidence against the arrested person, (J) the arrested person's history of violence, (K) whether the arrested person has previously been convicted of similar offenses while released on bond, and (L) the likelihood based upon the expressed intention of the arrested person that such person will commit another crime while released.

      (3) When imposing conditions of release under this subsection, the court shall state for the record any factors under subdivision (2) of this subsection that it considered and the findings that it made as to the danger, if any, that the arrested person might pose to the safety of any other person upon the arrested person's release that caused the court to impose the specific conditions of release that it imposed.

      (c) If the court determines that a nonfinancial condition of release should be imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the court shall order the pretrial release of the person subject to the least restrictive condition or combination of conditions that the court determines will reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court and, with respect to the release of the person pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, that the safety of any other person will not be endangered, which conditions may include an order that the arrested person do one or more of the following: (1) Remain under the supervision of a designated person or organization; (2) comply with specified restrictions on such person's travel, association or place of abode; (3) not engage in specified activities, including the use or possession of a dangerous weapon, an intoxicant or a controlled substance; (4) provide sureties of the peace pursuant to section 54-56f under supervision of a designated bail commissioner; (5) avoid all contact with an alleged victim of the crime and with a potential witness who may testify concerning the offense; (6) maintain employment or, if unemployed, actively seek employment; (7) maintain or commence an educational program; (8) be subject to electronic monitoring; or (9) satisfy any other condition that is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person in court and that the safety of any other person will not be endangered. The court shall state on the record its reasons for imposing any such nonfinancial condition.

      (d) If the arrested person is not released, the court shall order him committed to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction until he is released or discharged in due course of law.

      (e) The court may require that the person subject to electronic monitoring pursuant to subsection (c) of this section pay directly to the electronic monitoring service provider a fee for the cost of such electronic monitoring services. If the court finds that the person subject to electronic monitoring is indigent and unable to pay the costs of electronic monitoring services, the court shall waive such costs. Any contract entered into by the Judicial Branch and the electronic monitoring service provider shall include a provision stating that the total cost for electronic monitoring services shall not exceed five dollars per day. Such amount shall be indexed annually to reflect the rate of inflation.

      (1961, P.A. 38; 1963, P.A. 11; 1967, P.A. 549, S. 12; P.A. 74-183, S. 146, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 546, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 39, 72; P.A. 80-313, S. 16; P.A. 81-437, S. 9, 12; P.A. 89-390, S. 13, 37; P.A. 90-213, S. 51; 90-261, S. 9; P.A. 91-406, S. 13, 29; P.A. 99-186, S. 5; 99-187, S. 2; P.A. 00-141, S. 2, 3; P.A. 01-84, S. 25, 26; P.A. 03-278, S. 107; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 25; P.A. 10-43, S. 25.)

      History: 1963 act added authority for taking a bond when court was not in criminal session by any one authorized under Sec. 54-64; 1967 act, effective October 1, 1968, provided for alternatives to bond with surety and provided for making release arrangements when accused is presented before court, see Sec. 54-63c for procedure on arrest; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 replaced court of common pleas with superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 deleted wording which implies power to refuse accused bail if "custody is found to be necessary to provide reasonable assurance of his appearance", effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 80-313 restated existing provisions and required that arrested person who is not released be committed to custody of commissioner of correction until released or discharged in due course of law; P.A. 81-437 added provision distinguishing between two types of release upon execution of written promise to appear without special conditions and with nonfinancial conditions; P.A. 89-390 added provisions authorizing the court to order a drug-dependent person to submit to a urinalysis drug test and participate in a program of periodic drug testing and treatment and specifying that the results of any such drug test shall be inadmissible in a criminal proceeding concerning such person; P.A. 90-213 designated former provisions re conditions of release and drug testing as Subsec. (a) and amended said Subsec. to provide that the court find the condition of release sufficient to reasonably assure "that the safety of any other person will not be endangered", added Subsec. (b) authorizing the court to consider certain enumerated factors in determining the conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of the arrested person in court and that the safety of any other person will not be endangered, added Subsec. (c) specifying conditions the court is authorized to order the arrested person to satisfy when a nonfinancial condition of release is imposed, and designated former provisions re the commitment to the custody of the commissioner of correction of an arrested person who is not released as Subsec. (d); P.A. 90-261 designated former provisions of Subsec. (a) Subsec. (a)(1) and amended said Subdiv. to delete provision requiring court to find the condition of release sufficient to reasonably assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and to redesignate Subdivs. (1) to (4) as Subparas. (A) to (D), respectively, redesignated former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (a)(2) and amended said Subdiv. to redesignate Subdivs. (1) to (7) as Subparas. (A) to (G), respectively, and to delete former Subdiv. (8) re number and seriousness of pending charges, Subdiv. (9) re weight of the evidence, Subdiv. (10) re history of violence, Subdiv. (11) re previous convictions of similar offenses committed while released on bond and Subdiv. (12) re likelihood of commission of another crime while released, added new Subsec. (b) consisting of Subdivs. (1) and (2) being identical to former Subsecs. (a) and (b), respectively, as enacted by P.A. 90-213, but made provisions applicable to persons charged with certain serious specified felonies, and amended Subsec. (c) to revise internal references and provide that the requirement that the condition of release reasonably assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered is applicable "with respect to the release of the person pursuant to subsection (b) of this section"; P.A. 91-406 substituted "Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, when" for "when" at the beginning of Subsec. (a)(1); P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec. (b) to make provisions applicable to a person charged with the commission of a family violence crime as defined in Sec. 46b-38a; P.A. 99-187 added new Subsec. (c)(4) providing that the arrested person may be ordered as a condition of release to participate in the zero-tolerance drug supervision program established under Sec. 53a-39d, renumbering Subdivs. (4) to (8) as Subdivs. (5) to (9), respectively, and making technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 00-141 added new Subsec. (c)(9) re electronic monitoring, redesignating former Subdiv. (9) as Subdiv. (10), and added Subsec. (e) re electronic monitoring services; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to delete reference to Sec. 53a-72b as a class D felony since violation of said section was reclassified as a class C felony by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective July 9, 2003; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (b) to add Subdiv. (3) requiring court to state for the record any factors under Subdiv. (2) that it considered and the findings that it made re danger, if any, that arrested person might pose to safety of any other person upon release that caused the court to impose the specific conditions of release that it imposed, effective January 25, 2008; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (c) to delete former Subdiv. (4) re participation in zero-tolerance drug supervision program and redesignate existing Subdivs. (5) to (10) as Subdivs. (4) to (9).

      See Sec. 18-100f re release by Commissioner of Correction.

      See Secs. 53a-222, 53a-222a re criminal penalties for violation of certain conditions of release.


      Cited. 201 C. 115. Cited. 222 C. 331. Section affords Superior Court judge broad discretion in fixing nonfinancial conditions of defendant's release for purpose of ensuring, inter alia, the safety of others, including restrictions on entering a specific place of abode and on having contact with alleged victim of the crime with which defendant has been charged. 273 C. 418.

      Cited. 22 CA 199.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64b. Release following arrest on court warrant. (a) When any person is arrested on a bench warrant of arrest issued by order of the Superior Court or, when said court is not in session, by a judge thereof, in which the court or judge issuing the warrant indicated that bail should be denied or ordered that the person to be arrested should be brought before a clerk or assistant clerk of the Superior Court, the officer or indifferent person making the arrest shall without undue delay bring the arrested person before the clerk or assistant clerk of the superior court for the geographical area where the offense is alleged to have been committed during the office hours of the clerk and if the clerk's office is not open, the officer or indifferent person shall, without undue delay, bring the arrested person to a community correctional center within the geographical area where the offense is alleged to have been committed or, if there is no such correctional center within such geographical area, to the nearest community correctional center, or the Connecticut Correctional Institution, Niantic, as the case may be. The clerk or assistant clerk or a person designated by the Commissioner of Correction shall thereupon advise the arrested person of his rights under section 54-1b, and, when the court or judge has not indicated that bail should be denied, shall order the arrested person to enter into the condition of release pursuant to the condition fixed by the judge or court conditioned that the arrested person shall appear before the superior court having criminal jurisdiction in and for the geographical area to answer to the bench warrant of arrest and information filed in the case. Upon the failure of the arrested person to enter into the condition of release fixed by the court or judge or if the person has been arrested for an offense which is not bailable, the clerk or assistant clerk or the person designated by the Commissioner of Correction shall issue a mittimus committing the arrested person to a community correctional center, or the Connecticut Correctional Institution, Niantic, as the case may be, until he is discharged by due course of law.

      (b) When any person is arrested on a bench warrant of arrest issued by order of the Superior Court or by a judge thereof, in which the court or judge has not indicated that bail should be denied or has not ordered that the officer or indifferent person making such arrest shall without undue delay bring such person before the clerk or assistant clerk of the superior court for the geographical area, the officer or indifferent person making the arrest shall without undue delay, comply with the provisions of sections 54-63c and 54-63d in setting the conditions of release for the person or persons arrested under the warrant.

      (c) The clerk or assistant clerk and the person designated by the Commissioner of Correction may take a written promise to appear on a bond without or with surety from an arrested person in accordance with the conditions of release fixed by the court or judge and may administer such oaths as are necessary in the taking of promises or bonds.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 13; P.A. 85-309.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly part of Sec. 54-2a. See Sec. 54-2a History re P.A. 80-313); P.A. 85-309 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize commitment of person under arrest to Connecticut Correctional Institution, Niantic.

      Cited. 187 C. 6. Cited. 195 C. 505. Cited. 201 C. 115. Cited. 236 C. 388.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64c. Notice of appearance after release. The person taking any promise or bond shall give the person released a copy of the promise or bond, which shall notify the person of the time when and the place where he is next to appear and of the penalty for failure so to appear.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 18.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly Sec. 54-63c(c). See Sec. 54-63c History re P.A. 80-313).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64d. Release of person taken into custody on a capias. (a) When any person is taken into custody on a capias issued by order of the Superior Court, the proper officer or state police officer taking the person into custody shall, without undue delay, bring such person before the court that issued the capias.

      (b) If a courthouse lockup operated by the Judicial Branch is available at the court that issued the capias and is operational at the time the proper officer or state police officer brings the person taken into custody to the court, the proper officer or state police officer shall transfer the custody of such person to a judicial marshal at the court unless such person requires medical attention or there is insufficient space for such person at such lockup.

      (1) If the court is in session, the judicial marshal shall present such person before the court. If the court is not in session but the clerk's office is open, the judicial marshal shall present such person before the clerk or assistant clerk or a person designated by the Chief Court Administrator.

      (2) If the court is not in session and the clerk's office is closed, and such person indicates to the judicial marshal that he or she can meet the conditions of release fixed by the court, the judicial marshal shall, without undue delay, either (A) transport such person to a community correctional center within the judicial district or, if there is no community correctional center within the judicial district, to the nearest community correctional center, for the purpose of entering into the condition of release fixed by the court, or (B) if more expedient, hold the person in custody until the clerk's office is open or the next session of the court, for the purpose of entering into the condition of release fixed by the court. If such person does not indicate to the judicial marshal that he or she can meet the conditions of release fixed by the court, the judicial marshal shall hold the person in custody until the clerk's office is open or the next session of the court, for the purpose of entering into the condition of release fixed by the court.

      (c) If a courthouse lockup operated by the Judicial Branch is not available at the court that issued the capias, or is available but is not operational or has insufficient space, the proper officer or state police officer taking the person into custody shall, without undue delay, transport such person to a community correctional center within the judicial district or, if there is no community correctional center within the judicial district, to the nearest community correctional center for the purpose of entering into the condition of release fixed by the court.

      (d) The clerk or assistant clerk or a person designated by the Commissioner of Correction or by the Chief Court Administrator shall order the person taken into custody on the capias to enter into the condition of release fixed by the court on the condition that such person shall appear before the next session of the superior court that issued the capias. Upon the failure of such person to enter into the condition of release fixed by the court, the person shall be held in the correctional center pursuant to the capias until the next session of the court.

      (P.A. 87-102; P.A. 03-224, S. 15; P.A. 05-152, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 03-224 added provisions re transfer of custody to judicial marshal if courthouse lockup is available and operational and added provision re designation by Chief Court Administrator, effective July 2, 2003; P.A. 05-152 divided section into Subsecs. (a), (b) and (d), amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re person taken into custody by a state police officer and making a technical change, amended Subsec. (b) by adding provisions re transfer of custody by state police officer, making technical changes and replacing provisions re duties of proper officer with Subdivs. (1) and (2) re duties of judicial marshal, added Subsec. (c) re duties of proper officer or state police officer if courthouse lockup is not available, is not operational or has insufficient space, and made technical changes in Subsec. (d).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64e. Noncriminal behavior as condition of release. Notice of conditions of release and sanctions for violation. (a) When any person is released pursuant to the provisions of sections 54-63a to 54-63g, inclusive, or sections 54-64a to 54-64c, inclusive, it shall be a condition of such release that the person released not commit a federal, state or local crime during the period of release.

      (b) When any person is released pursuant to the provisions of sections 54-63a to 54-63g, inclusive, or sections 54-64a to 54-64c, inclusive, such person shall be notified in writing at the time of release: (1) Of the condition specified in subsection (a) of this section and any additional conditions of release; (2) that violation of any condition of release may result in the imposition of different or additional conditions of release; (3) that if he is released with respect to an offense for which a term of imprisonment of ten or more years may be imposed and the court finds that he has violated any condition of release and the safety of any other person is endangered while he is on release, his release may be revoked; and (4) that any crime committed while on release may subject him to enhanced penalties pursuant to section 53a-40b.

      (P.A. 90-213, S. 52, 56.)

      Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64f. Violation of conditions of release. Imposition of different or additional conditions. Revocation of release. (a) Upon application by the prosecuting authority alleging that a defendant has violated the conditions of the defendant's release, the court may, if probable cause is found, order that the defendant appear in court for an evidentiary hearing upon such allegations. An order to appear shall be served upon the defendant by any law enforcement officer delivering a copy to the defendant personally, or by leaving it at the defendant's usual place of abode with a person of suitable age and discretion then residing therein, or mailing it by registered or certified mail to the last-known address of the defendant.

      (b) If the court, after an evidentiary hearing at which hearsay or secondary evidence shall be admissible, finds by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant has violated reasonable conditions imposed on the defendant's release it may impose different or additional conditions upon the defendant's release. If the defendant is on release with respect to an offense for which a term of imprisonment of ten or more years may be imposed and the court, after an evidentiary hearing at which hearsay or secondary evidence shall be admissible, finds by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant has violated reasonable conditions of the defendant's release and that the safety of any other person is endangered while the defendant is on release, it may revoke such release.

      (c) If the defendant is on release with respect to an offense for which a term of imprisonment of ten or more years may be imposed and the court, after an evidentiary hearing at which hearsay or secondary evidence shall be admissible, finds by clear and convincing evidence that the safety of any other person is endangered while the defendant is on release and that there is probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed a federal, state or local crime while on release, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the defendant's release should be revoked.

      (d) The revocation of a defendant's release pursuant to this section shall cause any bond posted in the criminal proceeding to be automatically terminated and the surety to be released.

      (P.A. 90-213, S. 53; P.A. 99-240, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 99-240 made hearsay or secondary evidence admissible at an evidentiary hearing and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality.

      See Secs. 53a-222, 53a-222a re criminal penalties for violation of certain conditions of release.

      Cited. 220 C. 922. Cited. 222 C. 331. Cited. 224 C. 29.

      Subsec. (c):

      As applied to defendant statute did not violate right of bail provision of Conn. Const. Art I Sec. 8 as amended by Art. XVII. 222 C. 331.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-64g. Surveillance of serious felony offenders released on bond. Not later than January 1, 2000, the office of the Chief State's Attorney shall, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Safety and the Connecticut Police Chiefs Association, develop protocols for the surveillance by state police officers or municipal police officers, or both, of persons charged with the commission of a serious felony offense, as defined in section 54-82t, who are released on bond.

      (P.A. 99-240, S. 10.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-65. Procedure when principal intends to abscond. Any surety in a recognizance in criminal proceedings, who believes that his principal intends to abscond, shall apply to a judge of the Superior Court, produce his bail bond or evidence of his being a surety, and verify the reason of his application by oath or otherwise. Thereupon, the judge shall immediately grant a mittimus, directed to a proper officer or indifferent person, commanding him immediately to arrest the principal and commit him to a community correctional center. The Community Correctional Center Administrator shall receive the principal and retain him in a community correctional center until discharged by due order of law. The surrender of the principal shall be a full discharge of the surety upon his bond or recognizance.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8780; P.A. 81-410, S. 12; P.A. 90-288, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 81-410 replaced previous provision re rights of surety with the language of former Sec. 52-319; P.A. 90-288 made provision re application to a judge by a surety who believes his principal intends to abscond mandatory rather than discretionary.

      Right of person giving bail to retake prisoner; arrest of prisoner in another state no defense to action on hand. 16 Wall. 371; 160 U.S. 246. Cited. 140 C. 326. Dissent held statute was unconstitutional as violative of due process clauses of state and federal constitutions. 175 C. 147. Cited. Id., 149. Has no application to facts of case. 199 C. 537.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-65a. Forfeiture of bond for failure to appear. Issuance of rearrest warrant or capias. Termination or reinstatement of bond. Rebate to surety. (a) Whenever an arrested person is released upon the execution of a bond with surety in an amount of five hundred dollars or more and such bond is ordered forfeited because the principal failed to appear in court as conditioned in such bond, the court shall, at the time of ordering the bond forfeited: (1) Issue a rearrest warrant or a capias directing a proper officer to take the defendant into custody, (2) provide written notice to the surety on the bond that the principal has failed to appear in court as conditioned in such bond, except that if the surety on the bond is an insurer, as defined in section 38a-660, the court shall provide such notice to such insurer and not to the surety bail bond agent, as defined in section 38a-660, and (3) order a stay of execution upon the forfeiture for six months. When the principal whose bond has been forfeited is returned to custody pursuant to the rearrest warrant or a capias within six months of the date such bond was ordered forfeited, the bond shall be automatically terminated and the surety released and the court shall order new conditions of release for the defendant in accordance with section 54-64a. When the principal whose bond has been forfeited returns to court voluntarily within five business days of the date such bond was ordered forfeited, the court may, in its discretion, and after finding that the defendant's failure to appear was not wilful, vacate the forfeiture order and reinstate the bond. Such stay of execution shall not prevent the issuance of a rearrest warrant or a capias.

      (b) Whenever an arrested person, whose bond has been forfeited, is returned to the jurisdiction of the court within one year of the date such bond was ordered forfeited, the surety on such bond shall be entitled to a rebate of that portion of the forfeited amount as may be fixed by the court or as may be established by a schedule adopted by rule of the judges of the court.

      (P.A. 77-455; P.A. 79-461; P.A. 84-123, S. 3; P.A. 87-343, S. 1; P.A. 96-96; 96-164, S. 2; P.A. 99-62; P.A. 03-202, S. 21.)

      History: P.A. 79-461 amended Subsec. (a) to specify applicability where bond is $500 or more and to add provisions re stay of execution on forfeiture; P.A. 84-123 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize a court to issue a capias for a defendant who fails to appear in court and to delete reference to issuance of a mittimus; P.A. 87-343 amended Subsec. (a) to provide automatic reinstatement of the bond and release of the surety when the arrested person is returned to custody within six months of the bond forfeiture; P.A. 96-96 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that when the "principal", rather than the "arrested person", is returned to custody "pursuant to the rearrest warrant or a capias" within six months of the forfeiture the bond shall be automatically "terminated", rather than "reinstated", and "the court shall order new conditions of release for the defendant in accordance with section 54-64a" and to add provision that when the principal returns to court voluntarily within two business days of the forfeiture, the court may vacate the forfeiture order and reinstate the bond if it finds the failure to appear was not wilful; P.A. 96-164 amended Subsec. (a) to extend from two to five business days the period after the date of forfeiture within which if the principal returns to court voluntarily the court may vacate the forfeiture order and reinstate the bond; P.A. 99-62 added new Subsec. (a)(2) requiring the court to provide written notice to the surety on the bond that the principal has failed to appear in court as conditioned in such bond, renumbering former Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3); P.A. 03-202 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by adding provision re notice to insurer that is the surety on the bond, effective April 1, 2004.

      Statute can coexist with common law right of bail bondsman to apprehend and surrender his principal; nothing in wording of statute abrogates that right. 199 C. 537.

      This section and Sec. 54-66 do not expressly provide for, or preclude, the granting of rebate to a depositor of cash bail when defendant has been returned to the jurisdiction more than six months after the bond is called, but it is within the power of Connecticut courts to ensure defendant's appearance and thus trial court's award of such a rebate was proper. 68 CA 849.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-66. Acceptance and disposition of bail. Pledge of real property as lien. Forfeiture of bond for failure to appear. Issuance of rearrest warrant or capias. Termination or reinstatement of bond. (a) In any criminal case in which a bond is allowable or required and the amount thereof has been determined, the accused person, or any person in the accused person's behalf, (1) may deposit, with the clerk of the court having jurisdiction of the offense with which the accused stands charged or any assistant clerk of such court who is bonded in the same manner as the clerk or any person or officer authorized to accept bail, a sum of money equal to the amount called for by such bond, or (2) may pledge real property, the equity of which is equal to the amount called for by such bond, provided the person pledging such property is the owner of such property, and such accused person shall thereupon be admitted to bail. When cash bail is offered, such bond shall be executed and the money shall be received in lieu of a surety or sureties upon such bond. Such cash bail shall be retained by the clerk of such court until a final order of the court disposing of the same is passed; provided, if such bond is forfeited, the clerk of such court shall pay the money to the payee named therein, according to the terms and conditions of the bond. When cash bail in excess of ten thousand dollars is received for a person accused of a felony, where the underlying facts and circumstances of the felony involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, the clerk of such court shall prepare a report that contains (A) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the accused person, (B) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each person offering the cash bail, other than a person licensed as a professional bondsman under chapter 533 or a surety bail bond agent under chapter 700f, (C) the amount of cash received, and (D) the date the cash was received. Not later than fifteen days after receipt of such cash bail, the clerk of such court shall file the report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of the report to the state's attorney for the judicial district in which the court is located and to each person offering the cash bail.

      (b) When real property is pledged, the pledge shall constitute a lien on the real property upon the filing of a notice of lien in the office of the town clerk of the town in which the property is located. The lien shall be in an amount equal to the bond set by the court. The notice of lien shall be on a form prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator. Upon order of forfeiture of the underlying bond, the state's attorney for the judicial district in which the forfeiture is ordered shall refer the matter to the Attorney General and the Attorney General may, on behalf of the state, foreclose such lien in the same manner as a mortgage. The lien created by this subsection shall expire six years after the forfeiture is ordered unless the Attorney General commences an action to foreclose it within that period of time and records a notice of lis pendens in evidence thereof on the land records of the town in which the property is located. If the bond has not been ordered forfeited, the clerk of the court shall authorize the recording of a release of such lien upon final disposition of the criminal matter or upon order of the court. The release shall be on a form prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator.

      (c) Whenever an accused person is released upon the deposit by a person on behalf of the accused person of a sum of money equal to the amount called for by such bond or upon the pledge by a person on behalf of the accused person of real property, the equity of which is equal to the amount called for by such bond, and such bond is ordered forfeited because the accused person failed to appear in court as conditioned in such bond, the court shall, at the time of ordering the bond forfeited: (1) Issue a rearrest warrant or a capias directing a proper officer to take the accused person into custody, (2) provide written notice to the person who offered cash bail or pledged real property on behalf of the accused person that the accused person has failed to appear in court as conditioned in such bond, and (3) order a stay of execution upon the forfeiture for six months. When the accused person whose bond has been forfeited is returned to custody pursuant to the rearrest warrant or a capias within six months of the date such bond was ordered forfeited, the bond shall be automatically terminated and the person who offered cash bail or pledged real property on behalf of the accused person shall be released from such obligation and the court shall order new conditions of release for the accused person in accordance with section 54-64a. When the accused person whose bond has been forfeited returns to court voluntarily within five business days of the date such bond was ordered forfeited, the court may, in its discretion, and after finding that the accused person's failure to appear was not wilful, vacate the forfeiture order and reinstate the bond. Such stay of execution shall not prevent the issuance of a rearrest warrant or a capias.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8781; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 152; P.A. 81-246; P.A. 93-265, S. 1; P.A. 99-240, S. 14; P.A. 01-186, S. 18.)

      History: 1959 act deleted references to trial justices and included assistant court clerk; P.A. 81-246 permitted the accused person to pledge real property in order to be admitted to bail; P.A. 93-265 added Subsec. (b) to provide that the pledge of real property constitutes a lien on the property when a notice of lien is filed and to specify the procedure for the foreclosure or release of such lien; P.A. 99-240 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions requiring the clerk of the court to prepare a report when cash bail in excess of $10,000 is received for a person accused of a felony involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, specifying the contents of such report and requiring said clerk not later than 15 days after receipt of such cash bail to file such report with the Department of Revenue Services and mail a copy of such report to the state's attorney and each person offering the cash bail; P.A. 01-186 added Subsec. (c) re forfeiture of bond for failure to appear, issuance of rearrest warrant or capias, stay of execution upon forfeiture of bond for six months from date bond ordered forfeited, automatic termination of bond if accused is returned to custody as result of rearrest warrant or capias and reinstatement of bond if accused returns to court voluntarily within 5 business days of order of forfeiture.

      Cash bail remains in custody of court until order for return is made, even though accused has appeared and been discharged; garnishment of such a fund. 96 C. 358. Cited. 119 C. 25.

      Cited. 25 CA 643. This section and Sec. 54-65a do not expressly provide for, or preclude, granting of rebate to a depositor of cash bail when defendant has been returned to the jurisdiction more than six months after the bond is called, but it is within the power of Connecticut courts to ensure defendant's appearance and thus trial court's award of such a rebate was proper. 68 CA 849.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-66a. Automatic termination of bail bonds. Any bail bond posted in any criminal proceeding in this state shall be automatically terminated and released whenever the defendant: (1) Is granted accelerated rehabilitation pursuant to section 54-56e; (2) is granted admission to the pretrial alcohol education program pursuant to section 54-56g; (3) is granted admission to the pretrial family violence education program pursuant to section 46b-38c; (4) is granted admission to the community service labor program pursuant to section 53a-39c; (5) is granted admission to the pretrial drug education program pursuant to section 54-56i; (6) has the complaint or information filed against such defendant dismissed; (7) is acquitted; (8) is sentenced by the court; (9) is granted admission to the pretrial school violence prevention program pursuant to section 54-56j; or (10) is charged with a violation of section 29-33 and prosecution has been suspended pursuant to subsection (h) of section 29-33.

      (P.A. 79-469; P.A. 86-118; P.A. 90-288, S. 2; P.A. 91-218; P.A. 92-139; 92-256, S. 5; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 50, 70; P.A. 97-287, S. 14; P.A. 98-21, S. 1; 98-59, S. 2, 3; P.A. 01-186, S. 9; P.A. 10-18, S. 27; 10-30, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 86-118 added provision re the termination and release of a bail bond upon defendant's admission to the pretrial alcohol education system; P.A. 90-288 added provision re the termination and release of a bail bond upon defendant's admission to the pretrial family violence education program; P.A. 91-218 replaced provisions requiring the automatic termination and release of a bail bond whenever a defendant has a fine imposed by the court, whether or not a stay is had or the fine is vacated by the court, or is sentenced by the court but a stay of execution or other delay of imposition of sentence is granted with provisions requiring such automatic termination and release whenever a defendant has the complaint or information filed against him dismissed, is acquitted or is convicted; P.A. 92-139 amended Subdiv. (6) by deleting "is convicted" and inserting "is sentenced by the court"; P.A. 92-256 and May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 changed effective date of P.A. 92-139 from October 1, 1992, to May 27, 1992; P.A. 97-287 added new Subdiv. (4) re automatic termination and release of a bail bond when the defendant is granted admission to the community service labor program pursuant to Sec. 53a-39c, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 98-21 added new Subdiv. (5) re automatic termination and release of a bail bond when the defendant is granted admission to the pretrial drug education program pursuant to Sec. 54-56i, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 98-59 revised effective date of P.A. 98-21, but without affecting this section; P.A. 01-186 made a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality in Subsec. (6) and added Subdivs. (9) and (10) re automatic termination of bail bond when defendant is granted admission into pretrial school violence prevention program or is charged with violation of Sec. 29-33 and prosecution is suspended; P.A. 10-18 amended Subdiv. (2) by replacing "system" with "program"; P.A. 10-30 made identical change as P.A. 10-18, effective July 1, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-67. When attorneys not allowed to give bonds. No attorney-at-law may give any bond or recognizance in any criminal action or proceeding in which he is interested as attorney.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8782; P.A. 80-313, S. 19.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 substituted "may" for "shall".

      Bond for costs on an appeal, given by appellant's attorney, not within prohibition of this statute. 61 C. 500.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-68. Persons charged with gaming to give bonds. Section 54-68 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8789.; P.A. 76-336, S. 10.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-69. Motion of parties to modify conditions of release. (a) Whenever in any criminal prosecution the state's attorney for any judicial district or the assistant state's attorney is of the opinion that the bond without or with surety given by any accused person is excessive or insufficient in amount or security, or that the written promise of such person to appear is inadequate, or whenever any accused person alleges that the amount or security of the bond given by such accused person is excessive, such state's attorney or assistant state's attorney or the accused person may bring an application to the court in which the prosecution is pending or to any judge thereof, alleging such excess, insufficiency, or inadequacy, and, after notice as hereinafter provided and hearing, such judge shall in bailable offenses continue, modify or set conditions of release upon the first of the following conditions of release found sufficient to provide reasonable assurance of the appearance of the accused in court: (1) Upon such person's execution of a written promise to appear, (2) upon such person's execution of a bond without surety in no greater amount than necessary, (3) upon such person's execution of a bond with surety in no greater amount than necessary.

      (b) No hearing upon any such application shall be had until a copy of such application, together with a notice of the time and place of hearing thereon, has been served upon the surety or sureties upon such bond, if any, and upon the appropriate bail commissioner and, in the case of an application by an accused person, upon any such state's attorney, or, in the case of the application by any such state's attorney, upon the accused person.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, a hearing may be had on an application by any such state's attorney without a copy of such application and notice of the hearing being served upon the surety or sureties upon such bond, if any, the appropriate bail commissioner and the accused person if the accused person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, or a violation of section 53a-181c, 53a-181d, 53a-181e, 53a-223 or 53a-223b and is being presented at the next sitting of the Superior Court as required by section 54-1g.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8790; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 72; 1967, P.A. 549, S. 13; 656, S. 61; P.A. 74-183, S. 147, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 548, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 80-313, S. 23; P.A. 99-186, S. 6; P.A. 02-127, S. 5.)

      History: 1961 act substituted circuit court for court of common pleas; 1967 acts included bond without surety or written promise as alternative to bond with surety, effective October 1, 1968, and allowed presentation of application to judge at any time rather than only when court is not in session; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas and added reference to judicial districts, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 deleted specific mention of common pleas court and replaced references to prosecuting attorneys with references to state's attorneys and assistant state's attorneys, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; P.A. 80-313 restated provision to delete implication that judge has power to deny bail for bailable offenses if "he finds custody to be necessary to provide reasonable assurance of the appearance of the accused in court"; P.A. 99-186 inserted Subsec. indicators, added new Subsec. (c) to permit a hearing to be held on an application by a state's attorney without serving a copy of the application and notice of the hearing on the surety or sureties on the bond, the bail commissioner and the accused person, as required by Subsec. (b), if the accused person is charged with the commission of a family violence crime, as defined in Sec. 46b-38a, or a violation of Sec. 53a-110b, 53a-181c, 53a-181d or 53a-181e and is being presented at the next court date as required by Sec. 54-1g, and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 02-127 amended Subsec. (c) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-223b.

      Bond includes recognizance. 110 C. 173. Cited. 140 C. 326. Cited. 222 C. 331. Cited. 241 C. 413.

      Cited. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 116.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-69a. Motion of bail commissioner to modify conditions of release. A bail commissioner who has reason to believe that a person released under any of the provisions of sections 54-63a to 54-63g, inclusive, 54-64a, 54-64b and 54-69 intends not to appear in court as required by the conditions of release may apply to a judge of the court before which the person is required to appear, and verify by oath or otherwise the reason for his belief, and request that the person be brought before the court in order that the conditions of his release be reviewed. Upon finding reasonable grounds that the released person intends not to appear, the judge shall forthwith issue a capias directed to a proper officer or indifferent person, commanding him forthwith to arrest and bring the person to the court for a hearing to review the conditions of release. Such hearing shall be upon due notice as provided in section 54-69.

      (1967, P.A. 549, S. 16; P.A. 80-313, S. 24.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 updated list of applicable sections and made minor changes in wording.

      Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-69b. Authority of court to modify conditions of release. The provisions of any promise or bond taken under section 54-63c or section 54-63d may at any time be modified by the court or any judge thereof as provided in section 54-69.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 22.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly Sec. 54-63c(d). See Sec. 54-63c History re P.A. 80-313).

      Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-70. Compromise of forfeited bonds. Section 54-70 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8791; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 193; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 66; P.A. 73-116, S. 32; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-280, S. 4, 119, 127; P.A. 83-279, S. 3, 4.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-71. Mistake in form of recognizance. No recognizance given by the accused in a criminal prosecution for his appearance before any court may be discharged for any mistake in form, if its terms are in substantial compliance with the requirements of law.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8792; P.A. 80-313, S. 20.)

      History: P.A. 80-313 substituted "may" for "shall".

      Cited. 45 C. 352. Bond should receive liberal construction. 48 C. 59. Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-71a. No civil liability for release. No bail commissioner, no employee of any police department, no state's attorney or assistant state's attorney and no municipality may be held liable in a civil action for damages on account of the release of any person under any of the provisions of sections 54-63a to 54-63g, inclusive, 54-64a, 54-64b and 54-69.

      (P.A. 80-313, S. 21.)

      History: (Revisor's note: This section was formerly Sec. 54-63c(f). See Sec. 54-63c History re P.A. 80-313).

      Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-72. Fines and forfeitures; prosecutions; liability of corporation. All fines, forfeitures and penalties, unless otherwise expressly disposed of by law, if imposed on any person by the Superior Court, shall belong to the state. When a fine, penalty or forfeiture is imposed by any statute as a punishment for any offense, and any part thereof is given to the person aggrieved or to him who sues therefor and the other part to the state, all proper informing officers shall make presentment of such offense to the court having cognizance thereof; and the whole of such fine, penalty or forfeiture shall in such case belong to the state. Whenever any corporation has incurred a penalty or forfeiture or is liable to a fine, the state's attorney in the judicial district wherein such corporation is located or has its principal place of business in this state may bring a civil action under the provisions of this section, in the name of the state, to recover such penalty, forfeiture or fine. The court shall render judgment, under the limitations of law, for the recovery of such penalty, forfeiture or fine, and issue execution therefor.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8776; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 153; 152, S. 80; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 67; P.A. 73-116, S. 4; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-183, S. 148, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 549, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127.)

      History: 1959 acts deleted references to fines imposed by trial justices, included circuit court and deleted provision for fines belonging to county, county government having been abolished; 1963 act deleted obsolete provision for fines imposed by common pleas court; P.A. 73-116 added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to power of court of common pleas to impose fines, forfeitures and penalties and deleted provision whereby jurisdiction was to be determined according to maximum penalty, forfeiture or fine which may be imposed, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties.

      See Sec. 51-56a re accounting for receipts by court clerks or executors.

      Defendants in qui tam actions, if acquitted, entitled to costs. 2 R. 137. When may be brought in name of informer and town treasurer. 5 C. 291. Form of judgment in such case. Id. When state may prosecute for whole penalty. 7 C. 185. Court has no control over disposition of fines; statute controls. 18 C. 442. Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-73. Collection and disposition of forfeitures. The state's attorney in the judicial district in which any forfeiture to the state accrues shall collect and pay it to the State Treasurer; and, if in the opinion of the court the plaintiff is an improper person to collect it, a separate execution may be issued in favor of the state.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8773; 1959, P.A. 152, S. 81; P.A. 73-116, S. 5; 73-667, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127.)

      History: 1959 act deleted provision for forfeiture to county, county government having been abolished; P.A. 73-116 added reference to judicial districts; P.A. 73-667 changed effective date of P.A. 73-116 from October 1, 1973, to April 25, 1973; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties.

      Cited. 222 C. 331.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-74. Remission of fine. Any judge of the Superior Court may remit any fine, if in his judgment such course will tend to the reformation of offenders or the furtherance of the ends of justice.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8740; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 154; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 68; P.A. 74-183, S. 149, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 550, 681.)

      History: 1959 act substituted circuit court for trial justice or municipal court; 1963 act removed common pleas court from purview of section; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 removed court of common pleas from purview of section, reflecting transfer of all trial jurisdiction to superior court, effective July 1, 1978.

      Cited. 222 C. 331. Cited. 231 C. 514.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-75. Employment of detectives. Section 54-75 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8783; 1953, S. 3325d; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 73; 1967, P.A. 260; P.A. 73-122, S. 26, 27.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-76. Transferred to Chapter 886, Sec. 51-286c.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 54-76a. Procedure at hearing in probable cause. Section 54-76a is repealed.

      (1959, P.A. 548; February, 1965, P.A. 321; P.A. 76-336, S. 5; P.A. 78-280, S. 126, 127; 78-331, S. 54, 58.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)