CHAPTER 847*
LIENS

      *Cited. 240 C. 35. "Licenses" cited. Id.

      "Once the statutory right to a mechanic's lien has been waived, there is no provision under the statute for the revival of that right upon the breach of a contract." 6 CA 180.

      Sec. 49-33 et seq. Connecticut mechanic's lien law cited. 42 CS 460.


Table of Contents

Sec. 49-32. Liens in favor of the United States.
Sec. 49-32a. Federal liens.
Sec. 49-33. Mechanic's lien. Precedence. Rights of subcontractors.
Sec. 49-34. Certificate of lien to be recorded and notice given to owner.
Sec. 49-35. Notice of intent. Liens of subcontractors and materialmen.
Sec. 49-35a. Application for reduction or discharge. Forms. Hearing. Entry fee.
Sec. 49-35b. Burden of proof at hearing. Authority of court.
Sec. 49-35c. Appeal.
Sec. 49-35d. Validation of lien recorded prior to April 22, 1975.
Sec. 49-36. Liens limited; apportionment; payments to original contractor.
Sec. 49-37. Dissolution of mechanic's lien by substitution of bond. Joinder of actions on claim and bond.
Sec. 49-37a. Lien validated when bond substituted prior to April 22, 1975.
Sec. 49-38. Lien on railroad for services or materials in construction.
Sec. 49-39. Time limitation of mechanic's lien. Action to foreclose privileged.
Sec. 49-40. Record of discharge of mechanic's and judgment liens.
Sec. 49-40a. Mechanic's liens expired by limitation of time.
Sec. 49-40b.
Sec. 49-41. Public buildings and public works. Bonds for protection of employees and materialmen. Performance bonds. Limits on use of owner-controlled insurance programs. Certain surety contract provisions.
Sec. 49-41a. Enforcement of payment by general contractor to subcontractor and by subcontractor to its subcontractors.
Sec. 49-41b. Release of payments on construction projects.
Sec. 49-41c. State contractor to make payment to subcontractor within thirty days.
Sec. 49-42. Enforcement of right to payment on bond. Suit on bond, procedure and judgment.
Sec. 49-43. Certified copies of bonds and contracts for public works.
Secs. 49-44 to 49-46. Recording of judgment lien; when it holds from attachment. Lien only on land liable to execution at date of judgment. Owner of judgment may file lien; foreclosure, limitation of time, notice of lis pendens.
Sec. 49-46a.
Sec. 49-47.
Sec. 49-47a. Form of mechanic's lien foreclosure certificates.
Sec. 49-48.
Sec. 49-49. When insolvency proceedings set aside lien.
Sec. 49-50.
Sec. 49-51. Discharge of invalid lien.
Sec. 49-52. Pendency of action to foreclose lien on personalty not to be notice.
Sec. 49-53. Duty of officer serving process in such action. Record by town clerk.
Sec. 49-54.
Sec. 49-55. Vessel lien in connection with building, repairing, mooring, dockage or storage.
Sec. 49-55a. Notice of vessel lien. Substitution of bond. Sale of vessel and satisfaction of lien.
Sec. 49-55b. Form of notice of vessel lien.
Sec. 49-55c. Dissolution of lien. Action by person claiming lien.
Sec. 49-55d. Obtaining of lien without possession of vessel. Writ of attachment. Judicial sale.
Sec. 49-56. Notice of vessel lien to be filed with Secretary of the State. Duration of lien. Discharge.
Sec. 49-56a. Termination or removal of notice of lien.
Sec. 49-57. Form of certificate of lien on vessel.
Sec. 49-58. Lien not to exceed contract price.
Sec. 49-59. Discharge of liens. Penalty for failure to discharge.
Sec. 49-60. Jewelers' liens. Television and radio service dealers' liens.
Sec. 49-61. Release of artificer's lien on substitution of bond. Lien on motor vehicle; notice to commissioner. Sale.
Sec. 49-62. Form of application.
Sec. 49-63. Notice of application. Hearing.
Sec. 49-64. Form of bond.
Sec. 49-65. Dissolution of lien to be recorded.
Sec. 49-66. Pleadings may be amended.
Sec. 49-67. Limitation of action on bond.
Sec. 49-68. Liens of boardinghouse keepers.
Sec. 49-69. Liens of hotel keepers.
Sec. 49-70. Lien on animals for their keep. Transfer of abandoned animals.
Sec. 49-71. Lien of manufacturers on materials.
Sec. 49-72. Liens for rates or charges owed to private water company.
Sec. 49-73. Liens on accident and liability policies in favor of hospitals and ambulance services. Service of process on insurer and defendant.
Sec. 49-73a. Liens on proceeds of fire insurance for outstanding municipal taxes.
Sec. 49-73b. Municipalities authorized to recover expenses. Liens on real estate and fire insurance proceeds.
Sec. 49-73c. Certificate of lien to constitute constructive notice.
Sec. 49-73d. Insurance company to notify town clerk of demand in writing of a statement of liens.
Sec. 49-73e. Precedence and priority of liens.
Sec. 49-73f. Municipal ordinance providing for release or return of insurance proceeds.
Sec. 49-73g. Insurance company not to be held liable for payments to municipality.
Sec. 49-73h. Applicability of lien provisions.
Sec. 49-73i. Provisions re liens on insurance proceeds not to be deemed to affect other liens on real estate.
Sec. 49-74. Liens for cleaning, storage and other charges.
Sec. 49-75. Sale of property subject to lien for other than storage charges.
Sec. 49-76. Sale of property subject to lien for storage charges.
Secs. 49-77 to 49-85. Liens of factors on merchandise, generally.
Sec. 49-86. Bond in lieu of attachment. Notice of lien.
Sec. 49-87. Certificate of dissolution of bond, filing.
Sec. 49-88. Duration of lien on real estate. Discharge upon expiration.
Sec. 49-89. When judgment lien to date back to notice.
Sec. 49-90. Certificate of court clerk upon happening of certain events or lien becoming ineffective.
Sec. 49-91. Certificate of plaintiff removing lien upon happening of certain events or lien becoming ineffective.
Sec. 49-92. Other lien rights not affected. Compliance with other statutes.
Sec. 49-92a. Purchaser's lien. Precedence. Foreclosure. Recording of notice.
Sec. 49-92b. Dissolution on substitution of bond. Joinder of actions on claim and bond.
Sec. 49-92c. Limitation of lien.
Sec. 49-92d. Record of discharge.
Sec. 49-92e. Action to claim discharge.
Sec. 49-92f. Certificate of removal of lien.
Sec. 49-92g. Aircraft liens.
Sec. 49-92h. Notice of aircraft lien. Substitution of bond. Sale of aircraft and satisfaction of lien.
Sec. 49-92i. Form of notice of aircraft lien.
Sec. 49-92j. Dissolution of aircraft lien. Action by person claiming lien.
Sec. 49-92k. Discharge of aircraft lien. Penalty for failure to discharge.
Secs. 49-92l to 49-92n.
Sec. 49-92o. Assignment of liens by regional sewer authorities for unpaid sewer assessments or connection or use charges.
Sec. 49-92p. Assignment of liens by regional water authorities for unpaid water assessments or connection and use charges.

      Sec. 49-32. Liens in favor of the United States. Section 49-32 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7213; 1959, P.A. 574, S. 4; 1963, P.A. 528, S. 5; 1967, P.A. 456, S. 7.)

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      Sec. 49-32a. Federal liens. (a)(1) Notices of liens upon real property for taxes payable to the United States and notices of liens upon real property for costs and damages payable to the United States, and certificates and notices affecting such liens shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the town in which the real property subject to a federal tax lien or other federal lien is situated. (2) Notices of liens upon personal property, whether tangible or intangible, for taxes payable to the United States and for costs and damages payable to the United States and certificates and notices affecting such liens shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the State in accordance with subsection (a) of section 42a-9-516.

      (b) Certification by the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States or said secretary's delegate of notices of liens, certificates or other notices affecting tax liens or other federal liens entitles them to be filed and no other attestation, certification or acknowledgment is necessary.

      (c) (1) If a notice of federal tax lien or other federal lien, a refiling of a notice of tax lien or other federal lien or a notice of revocation of any certificate described in subdivision (2) of this subsection is presented to the filing officer and (A) the filing officer is the Secretary of the State, said secretary shall cause the notice to be marked, held and indexed in accordance with the provisions of section 42a-9-519 as if the notice were a financing statement within the meaning of that section; or (B) the filing officer is a town clerk, such town clerk shall endorse thereon such town clerk's identification and the date and time of receipt and forthwith record it in accordance with section 42a-9-519. (2) If a certificate of release, nonattachment, discharge or subordination of any tax lien or other federal lien is presented to the Secretary of the State for filing, said secretary shall (A) cause a certificate of release or nonattachment to be marked, held and indexed as if the certificate were a termination statement within the meaning of the Uniform Commercial Code, and (B) cause a certificate of discharge or subordination to be held, marked and indexed as if the certificate were a release of collateral within the meaning of the Uniform Commercial Code. (3) If a refiled notice of federal tax lien or other federal lien referred to in subdivision (1) of this subsection or any of the certificates or notices referred to in subsection (b) of this section is presented for filing with any other filing officer specified in subsection (a) of this section, such filing officer shall record it in accordance with section 42a-9-519 if the original was recorded or, if the original was filed, permanently attach the refiled notice or the certificate to the original notice of lien and enter the refiled notice or the certificate with the date of filing in any alphabetical federal tax lien index or other federal lien index on the line where the original notice of lien is entered. (4) Upon request of any person, the filing officer shall issue a certificate showing whether there is on file, on the date and hour stated therein, any notice of federal tax lien or other federal lien or certificate or notice affecting the lien, filed on or after July 1, 1967, naming a particular person, and if a notice or certificate is on file, giving the date and hour of filing of each notice or certificate. The fee for such a certificate and for a copy of any notice of federal tax lien or other federal lien or notice or certificate affecting a federal tax lien or other federal lien shall be computed in accordance with section 42a-9-525.

      (d) Except as provided by subsection (a) of section 42a-9-525, the fee for filing and indexing each notice of lien or certificate or notice affecting the tax lien or other federal lien is: (1) For a tax lien or other federal lien on real estate, as provided in section 7-34a; (2) for a tax lien on tangible and intangible personal property, three dollars; (3) for all other notices, including a certificate of release, discharge, subordination or nonattachment, one dollar.

      (1967, P.A. 456, S. 1-6; P.A. 87-589, S. 59, 87; P.A. 88-159, S. 1, 11; P.A. 90-117, S. 3; P.A. 01-132, S. 173; P.A. 05-288, S. 169.)

      History: P.A. 87-589 made provisions applicable to all federal liens and deleted Subsecs. (e) and (f) concerning references to uniform law; P.A. 88-159 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to Sec. 42a-9-403(1) and amended Subsec. (d) by adding reference to Sec. 42a-9-403(5); P.A. 90-117 amended Subsec. (c)(2) to delete provision prohibiting secretary of the state from removing from the files the notice of lien to which a certificate of release or nonattachment relates; P.A. 01-132 amended Subsec. (a) to replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-403(1) with Sec. 42a-9-516(a), amended Subsec. (c) to replace references to Sec. 42a-9-403(4), Sec. 42a-9-409 and Sec. 42a-9-409(2) with Sec. 42a-9-519 and replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-407(2) with Sec. 42a-9-525, amended Subsec. (d) to replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-403(5) with Sec. 42a-9-525(a) and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality in Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (c)(1) and (3), effective July 13, 2005.

      Former section cited. 23 CS 380.

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      Sec. 49-33. Mechanic's lien. Precedence. Rights of subcontractors. (a) If any person has a claim for more than ten dollars for materials furnished or services rendered in the construction, raising, removal or repairs of any building or any of its appurtenances or in the improvement of any lot or in the site development or subdivision of any plot of land, and the claim is by virtue of an agreement with or by consent of the owner of the land upon which the building is being erected or has been erected or has been moved, or by consent of the owner of the lot being improved or by consent of the owner of the plot of land being improved or subdivided, or of some person having authority from or rightfully acting for the owner in procuring the labor or materials, the building, with the land on which it stands or the lot or in the event that the materials were furnished or services were rendered in the site development or subdivision of any plot of land, then the plot of land, is subject to the payment of the claim.

      (b) The claim is a lien on the land, building and appurtenances or lot or in the event that the materials were furnished or services were rendered in the site development or subdivision of any plot of land, then on the plot of land and the claim takes precedence over any other encumbrance originating after the commencement of the services, or the furnishing of any such materials, subject to apportionment as provided in section 49-36.

      (c) If any such liens exist in favor of two or more persons for materials furnished or services rendered in connection with the same construction, raising, removal or repairs of any building or any of its appurtenances, or in the improvement of any lot, or in the site development or subdivision of any plot of land, no one of those persons shall have any priority over another except as hereinafter provided.

      (d) If any instrument constituting a valid encumbrance upon such land other than a mechanic's lien is filed for record while the building is being constructed, raised, removed or repaired, or the lot is being improved, or the plot of land is being improved or subdivided, all such mechanic's liens originating prior to the filing of that instrument for record take precedence over that encumbrance and no such mechanic's lien shall have priority over any other such mechanic's lien. That encumbrance and all such mechanic's liens shall take precedence over any mechanic's lien which originates for materials furnished or services rendered after the filing of that instrument for record, but no one of the mechanic's liens originating after the filing of that instrument for record has precedence over another. If any lienor waives or releases his lien or claim of precedence to any such encumbrance, that lien shall be classed with and have no priority over liens originating subsequent to that encumbrance.

      (e) A mechanic's lien shall not attach to any such building or its appurtenances or to the land on which the same stands or to any lot or to any plot of land, in favor of any subcontractor to a greater extent in the whole than the amount which the owner has agreed to pay to any person through whom the subcontractor claims subject to the provisions of section 49-36.

      (f) Any such subcontractor shall be subrogated to the rights of the person through whom the subcontractor claims, except that the subcontractor shall have a mechanic's lien or right to claim a mechanic's lien in the event of any default by that person subject to the provisions of sections 49-34, 49-35 and 49-36, provided the total of such lien or liens shall not attach to any building or its appurtenances, or to the land on which the same stands or to any lot or to any plot of land, to a greater amount in the whole than the amount by which the contract price between the owner and the person through whom the subcontractor claims exceeds the reasonable cost, either estimated or actual, as the case may be, of satisfactory completion of the contract plus any damages resulting from such default for which that person might be held liable to the owner and all bona fide payments, as defined in section 49-36, made by the owner before receiving notice of such lien or liens.

      (g) In the case of the removal of any building, no such mechanic's lien shall take precedence over any encumbrance upon the land to which such building has been removed which accrued before the building was removed upon the land.

      (h) If any person has a claim for more than ten dollars for materials furnished or services rendered in the construction, raising, removal or repairs of any real property, and the claim is by virtue of an agreement with or by consent of the lessee of such real property or of some person having authority from or rightfully acting for such lessee in procuring the materials or labor, then the leasehold interest in such real property is subject to the payment of the claim. This subsection shall not be construed to limit any of the rights or remedies available to such person under subsection (a) of this section.

      (i) Any mechanic's lien may be foreclosed in the same manner as a mortgage.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7217; 1949, 1953, S. 2973d; P.A. 74-310, S. 1; P.A. 79-602, S. 86; P.A. 99-153, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 74-310 applied provisions with respect to improvement of lots, site improvements and subdivisions of land; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and restated provisions but made no substantive changes; P.A. 99-153 added new Subsec. (h) to allow mechanic's liens to attach to leasehold interests without limiting existing lien rights or remedies and relettered the remaining Subsec. accordingly.

      See Sec. 49-9 re form of release of mechanic's liens.

      Attaching creditors take subject to the lien for work done and to be done under a contract. 18 C. 347. A lien covers all the land required for the convenient use of the building. Id. The rules of equity concerning mortgages apply to mechanics' liens. 23 C. 355; 26 C. 319; 29 C. 265. The statute in force in 1852 did not extend to a subcontractor, who performed services or furnished materials on the credit of the original contractor, without the owner's assent. 23 C. 545; Id., 635. A lien may be enforced against the husband's interest in his wife's land, for work ordered by him without her assent. Id., 569. No lien for work or materials furnished without the authority or assent of the owner. 27 C. 577. There can be no lien for fitting up an existing mill with machinery. 29 C. 267. Whether notes received in payment of the claim will discharge the lien. quaere. Id.; 30 C. 475. As this statute prefers certain creditors over the rest, it should be somewhat strictly construed. Id., 474. Materialmen are entitled to this lien, although furnishing no labor. Id., 471. Unless the materials are both furnished and used for a particular building materialmen are not entitled to lien if they furnish no labor. Id.; 91 C. 717. Taking the owner's note on time for the amount due does not discharge the lien. 39 C. 354. Putting furnaces into a house may give a lien. Id., 363. Where work is done upon a block of houses upon a single lot under one entire contract, the builder's lien extends to the whole block. 41 C. 361. This statute applies to buildings of a railroad company. Id., 454. A lien does not necessarily pass by endorsement of a note given for the claim secured by the lien. Id., 522; 80 C. 400. Lien may be filed and foreclosed by an agent, as such, without disclosing principal. Id., 95. Question of priority between mechanic's lien and mortgage. Id., 36; 58 C. 511; 115 C. 703; 116 C. 273; 130 C. 367. Where one erects a building on land of another, with the latter's consent, a lien for work and materials attaches to the building and the rights of its owner in the soil, but does not affect the rights of the landowner. 42 C. 95. Where materials were furnished, under separate contracts for two houses being built by the same builder upon adjoining lots and no separate account of materials for each house was kept, a single lien on both houses for the whole debt was invalid. Id., 292; 76 C. 382; 78 C. 475; 89 C. 527; Id., 554; 91 C. 169; Id., 717. Lien for materials and work under single contract may cover two adjoining lots used together. 44 C. 349. Lien for amount largely in excess of debt, so made by mistake, good for amount actually due. Id.; 51 C. 177, 440; 91 C. 285; 100 C. 344. Where husband directs work to be done on wife's land, with her knowledge, but without her request, lien holds only husband's interest. 45 C. 563; 46 C. 558; 58 C. 445; 62 C. 75. Immaterial whether materialman files certificate of lien before giving notice of intent, provided both are done within statutory limits. 46 C. 386. Correction of date of certificate allowed on foreclosure hearing. 47 C. 83. Wife's lease for 999 years is not liable to a lien for buildings erected on the land under contract with husband. 49 C. 27. Lien securing outlawed claim cannot be enforced. 50 C. 270; 119 C. 359. Lien need not state full amount of labor and materials furnished, but only balance due; various points about liens. 51 C. 177. Whether under stated facts agent had authority to act for owner. 52 C. 532; 96 C. 229. Lien for erection of farm buildings held to cover whole farm. 59 C. 296; 98 C. 747. It is essential to the validity of a single lien upon separate buildings that they shall be erected for some general and connected use. 61 C. 578. Nature of foreclosure and rights thereunder; 68 C. 413; where wife owns house but husband makes contracts. 70 C. 74; 71 C. 77. Lien may exist though contractor's right to payment is deferred by contract. 69 C. 228. Rights after partnership performing work is dissolved. 72 C. 378. Meaning of "appurtenances" artesian well; 73 C. 318; addition to building; 87 C. 316. Statutes to be favorably construed. 73 C. 320; but see 81 C. 632. Power of one who takes possession of land under agreement to build house to subject land to lien. 74 C. 113. Lien takes precedence over mortgage given after it attaches but before certificate is recorded; parties to foreclosure. Id., 113; 80 C. 392. Priorities as between vendor of property and lienor. 74 C. 114; 115 C. 362. Waiver of lien by agreement; 79 C. 247; 115 C. 363; taking mortgage; 76 C. 382; or note; 87 C. 316; 107 C. 425; or both; 110 C. 670. History of statutes. 76 C. 107. Assignment of lien carries debt with it. 80 C. 400. Lien does not extend to public buildings. 81 C. 632; 90 C. 13. Words "by virtue of an agreement" construed. 83 C. 91; 90 C. 651. Priorities where mortgage for future advances provides that any payments may be withheld in case of lien. 84 C. 326. One who buys land after lien attaches but before certificate is filed takes subject to it. 87 C. 316; 90 C. 651. Agreement of parties cannot give effect to invalid lien. 89 C. 526. Receiver may file. 90 C. 7. Court cannot adjudicate validity of a lien unless owner of property is a party. Id., 16. Surveyor employed before any right to property is acquired cannot have lien which will take precedence of purchase price mortgage. 91 C. 165. No right to lien in contractor who has assigned all interest in contract to another. 97 C. 723. Under former statute claims of original contractors were payable in order of commencement of services or furnishing of materials. 99 C. 349. Architect has right to lien when. 100 C. 342. No lien for electric light fixtures. 101 C. 3. Waiver of all liens "we now have or hereafter may have" construed. Id., 90. Contract to purchase land with a house to be erected by seller held to make seller "original contractor". 104 C. 657. Lien of subcontractor not impaired by secret agreement between owner and contractor as to book credits. 111 C. 132. Lease which included option to purchase a "valid encumbrance". 113 C. 328. Subcontractor's right of lien depends on existence of such right in original contractor. Id., 347. Separate certificates not required on same lienable unit of land and buildings. Id., 350. Cited. 115 C. 497. Foreclosure of lien. 120 C. 16. Taking possession not necessary to appropriation. Id. Where contractor without fault of owner abandons contract before its substantial completion, so that nothing is due him under contract, the subcontractors have no lien for labor or materials. 139 C. 642. No lien exists for repairs on installation not found to be a permanent fixture. 141 C. 188. Claim that materials need only be furnished and not used is untenable. 143 C. 146. Installation of fixtures gives rise to a mechanic's lien only if fixtures become part of realty. 144 C. 499. Cited. 161 C. 242. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 172 C. 1. Cited. 180 C. 501. Work done in road construction and site preparation held not lienable under statute prior to 1974 amendment. 180 C. 545. Second tier subcontractor can be subrogated to general contractor's claims against owner even where first tier contractor has been fully paid. 181 C. 592. Cited. 182 C. 568. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 193 C. 290. "Not intended to allow filing of mechanics liens by attorneys providing assistance in zoning and other matters related to real estate." 217 C. 361. Cited. 219 C. 810. Cited. 224 C. 563; Id., 580 cited as Sec. 44-33. 242 C. 211. Contracting property owner must hold title to or have equitable interest in the land at time work is commenced. 243 C. 601.

      Cited. 5 CA 106. Cited. 6 CA 180. Cited. 27 CA 199. Cited. 31 CA 485. Cited. 37 CA 547. Cited. 39 CA 544. Removal of underground storage tank and remediation of contaminated soil were services and materials within the construct of statute. 77 CA 474. Legislature intended to extend benefits under mechanic's lien statute to an architect who provides architectural services. Architectural services satisfied the physical enhancement test, thus evidencing direct association with the physical construction or improvement of defendant's real property. 103 CA 710.

      Cited. 4 CS 432. Cited. 10 CS 57. Owner's interest in real property not subject to mechanic's lien where owner merely consented that work be done and was not a party to the contract or a guarantor of it. 13 CS 196. But see 19 CS 55 where materialman's right to foreclose a mechanic's lien was upheld where owner had knowledge and consented to lessee's improvement of property. Cited. 15 CS 360. Nature of consent discussed. Cited. 20 CS 460. Reformation of a mechanic's lien is legally impossible unless there is mutual mistake or unilateral mistake coupled with fraud or inequitable conduct. 22 CS 230. One for whose benefit a mechanic's lien is waived may enforce the waiver. The binding effect of a waiver in a subcontract of the right to a mechanic's lien is not obviated by the contractor's breach of contract. Id., 293. Cited. 23 CS 380; 27 CS 203; 34 CS 638. Cited. 42 CS 460.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622.

      Subsec. (a):

      Owner's permission for lessee to perform leasehold improvements did not constitute the consent required by the statute. 193 C. 290, 291. Cited. Id., 580, 586. Cited. 235 C. 595. Surveying and engineering services are lienable. 243 C. 601. Where removal of contractor's equipment necessarily involves repair to building, such repair is a lienable service. 247 C. 234.

      Cited. 9 CA 682. Cited. 15 CA 633. Cited. 44 CA 240. Based on facts presented, plaintiff's services were not lienable under section. 51 CA 773. Benefit fund acting on behalf of those who performed services qualifies as "any person who has a claim" under Subsec. and thus has standing to sue; in a mechanic's lien foreclosure action, plaintiff must allege only that defendant consented to have work done, and plaintiff is not required to plead that defendant was aware of the terms of the agreement, or that defendant agreed to make payment for services or failed to make payments. 83 CA 352.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 230 C. 807.

      Subsec. (f):

      Cited. 23 CA 453. Cited. 27 CA 199.


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      Sec. 49-34. Certificate of lien to be recorded and notice given to owner. A mechanic's lien is not valid unless the person performing the services or furnishing the materials (1) within ninety days after he has ceased to do so, lodges with the town clerk of the town in which the building, lot or plot of land is situated a certificate in writing, which shall be recorded by the town clerk with deeds of land, (A) describing the premises, the amount claimed as a lien thereon, the name or names of the person against whom the lien is being filed and the date of the commencement of the performance of services or furnishing of materials, (B) stating that the amount claimed is justly due, as nearly as the same can be ascertained, and (C) subscribed and sworn to by the claimant, and (2) not later than thirty days after lodging the certificate, serves a true and attested copy of the certificate upon the owner of the building, lot or plot of land in the same manner as is provided for the service of the notice in section 49-35.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7218; P.A. 74-310, S. 2; P.A. 75-418, S. 1, 10; P.A. 76-290, S. 1, 6; P.A. 79-602, S. 87; P.A. 81-8, S. 8, 9; P.A. 85-501, S. 8; P.A. 03-224, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 74-310 added reference to lots or plots of land; P.A. 75-418 required that copy of certificate be filed upon owner of building or land; P.A. 76-290 required that certificates contain name or names of person against whom lien is being filed, specified that copy may be served on owner of building or land before certificate is lodged and deleted provision re filing of certificate by executor or administrator when party who might have filed it dies before doing so; P.A. 79-602 restated provisions but made no substantive changes; P.A. 81-8 increased the time limit on the service of a copy of the certificate from 7 to 30 days after lodging the certificate; P.A. 85-501 extended time for filing of certificate from 60 to 90 days; P.A. 03-224 deleted "within the same time, or prior to the lodging of the certificate but" in Subdiv. (2) and made technical changes, effective July 2, 2003.

      See Sec. 7-28 re indexing of mechanic's lien by town clerk.

      An innocent overstatement of the amount of the claim will not invalidate the certificate. 18 C. 349; 39 C. 354; 51 C. 440. One certificate may embrace two distinct jobs. 23 C. 567. The description of the premises must be substantially accurate. 29 C. 266; 30 C. 473. If, after the work is substantially done, there is an unreasonable delay in completing it, any work done after such delay will not be considered in computing the sixty days for recording the lien. 41 C. 510; Id., 617; 46 C. 296; 68 C. 35. Delay held not unreasonable. 99 C. 403. Lienor not held to date of completion stated in lien, but may prove completion at any time within sixty days before filing of certificate. 46 C. 296. The written assent of the owner to the subcontractor's contract need not be in any particular form. 71 C. 95. Overstatement of amount due. 80 C. 392. Purpose of statute; estoppel by recital as to date lien attaches. 71 C. 95. To be liberally construed; 78 C. 475; to effectuate its purpose. 89 C. 520; 99 C. 403. Policy requiring recording. 82 C. 306. Certificate where materials furnished for adjoining buildings. 42 C. 292; 44 C. 349; 76 C. 382; 78 C. 475; 89 C. 527; Id., 554; 91 C. 169; Id., 712. Precise statement as to amount of materials not necessary. 76 C. 382. Honest mistake as to quantity of land will not invalidate lien; 89 C. 524; or as to amount due. 91 C. 170. Time when subcontractor must file lien; effect of filing while services being rendered. 82 C. 298; Id., 304. When certificate filed, lien dates back to beginning of rendering services, as regards mortgage or sale of land. 80 C. 392; 87 C. 316. Time for recording certificate begins to run when work substantially completed. 90 C. 651. Cited. 113 C. 10; 116 C. 275. Error in describing subcontractor as contractor did not invalidate lien. 118 C. 615. Notice of intent to claim a lien may be served on owner after recording of certificate of lien under this section. 147 C. 351. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 172 C. 1. Certificate of lien must be served on all owners as of date of filing lien, not just on developer with whom work was contracted. 177 C. 295. Cited. 180 C. 501. Cited. 181 C. 592. Notice sent under this statute was sufficient to also satisfy requirements of Sec. 49-35(a). 185 C. 549. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. Id., 583. Cited. 210 C. 511. Cited. 219 C. 810. Cited. 224 C. 563. Cited. 230 C. 24. Statute substantially complied with and mechanic's lien held valid; judgment of appellate court in First Constitution Bank v. Harbor Village Ltd. Partnership, 31 CA 15, reversed. 230 C. 807. Work done at request of owner will extend time for filing certificate of lien past the date of substantial completion. 247 C. 234. "Subscribed and sworn to" requirement in Subdiv. (1)(C) requires that claimant executing mechanic's lien sign the lien at the end and take part in an oath ceremony in which claimant swears to the truth of facts set forth in the lien, and further, that there be evidence in the lien, such as a jurat, confirming administration of the oath by a notary public or commissioner of the Superior Court, and section does not require affidavit or similar writing, or written recital of claimant's oath. 280 C. 672.

      Cited. 1 CA 169. Cited. 5 CA 106. Cited. 8 CA 83. Cited. 27 CA 199. Cited. 31 CA 15; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 807; Id., 485. Cited. 37 CA 547. Cited. 44 CA 240. Trivial work after substantial completion will not extend time for filing lien. 47 CA 265. "Owner" as used in section means only the owner at time of service of certificate of lien because, at that time, it is only that owner who possesses adversely affected property rights, and, consequently, has right to a hearing designed to protect those rights. 99 CA 690.

      A defective mechanic's lien may be reformed to correct a mistaken date of completion if no one is injured. 7 CS 456. Cited. 13 CS 197. Cited. 15 CS 360. Cited. 20 CS 460. Reformation of a mechanic's lien is legally impossible unless there is mutual mistake or unilateral mistake coupled with fraud or inequitable conduct. 22 CS 230. "Sworn to" implies subscriber has declared on oath the truth of statement to which his name is subscribed. Certificate which merely recites claimant "acknowledges" execution of lien is insufficient. 23 CS 298. Cited. Id., 380. Cited. 27 CS 203. Cited. 33 CS 552. Cited. 42 CS 460.

      Trivial work after substantial completion will not extend time for filing. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 365. If, at time of abandonment of construction contract by contractor, no money is due contractor from owner, contractor is not entitled to mechanic's lien and subcontractor is likewise not entitled to a lien unless he can show both a timely filing of a certificate of lien by him and that there was an unlawful prepayment by owner to contractor. Id., 622. That lien was invalid is no defense to action by lienor against escrow agent for breach of his agreement to hold release of said lien in escrow until thousand dollars was delivered to lienor. Validity of lien is irrelevant since action is against escrow agent and not obligee. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 95. Cited. Id., 349.

      Subdiv. (1):

      Subpara. (C): Must include written oath. 210 C. 511. Subpara. (A) cited. 235 C. 595.


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      Sec. 49-35. Notice of intent. Liens of subcontractors and materialmen. (a) No person other than the original contractor for the construction, raising, removal or repairing of the building, or the development of any lot, or the site development or subdivision of any plot of land or a subcontractor whose contract with the original contractor is in writing and has been assented to in writing by the other party to the original contract, is entitled to claim any such mechanic's lien, unless, after commencing, and not later than ninety days after ceasing, to furnish materials or render services for such construction, raising, removal or repairing, such person gives written notice to the owner of the building, lot or plot of land and to the original contractor that he or she has furnished or commenced to furnish materials, or rendered or commenced to render services, and intends to claim a lien therefor on the building, lot or plot of land; provided an original contractor shall not be entitled to such notice, unless, not later than fifteen days after commencing the construction, raising, removal or repairing of the building, or the development of any lot, or the site development or subdivision of any plot of land, such original contractor lodges with the town clerk of the town in which the building, lot or plot of land is situated an affidavit in writing, which shall be recorded by the town clerk with deeds of land, (1) stating the name under which such original contractor conducts business, (2) stating the original contractor's business address, and (3) describing the building, lot or plot of land. The right of any person to claim a lien under this section shall not be affected by the failure of such affidavit to conform to the requirements of this section. The notice shall be served upon the owner or original contractor, if such owner or original contractor resides in the same town in which the building is being erected, raised, removed or repaired or the lot is being improved, or the plot of land is being improved or subdivided, by any indifferent person, state marshal or other proper officer, by leaving with such owner or original contractor or at such owner's or the original contractor's usual place of abode a true and attested copy thereof. If the owner or original contractor does not reside in such town, but has a known agent therein, the notice may be so served upon the agent, otherwise it may be served by any indifferent person, state marshal or other proper officer, by mailing a true and attested copy of the notice by registered or certified mail to the owner or original contractor at the place where such owner or the original contractor resides. If such copy is returned unclaimed, notice to such owner or original contractor shall be given by publication in accordance with the provisions of section 1-2. When there are two or more owners, or two or more original contractors, the notice shall be so served on each owner and on each original contractor. The notice, with the return of the person who served it endorsed thereon, shall be returned to the original maker of the notice not later than thirty days after the filing of the certificate pursuant to section 49-34.

      (b) No subcontractor, without a written contract complying with the provisions of this section, and no person who furnishes material or renders services by virtue of a contract with the original contractor or with any subcontractor, may be required to obtain an agreement with, or the consent of, the owner of the land, as provided in section 49-33, to enable him to claim a lien under this section.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7219; P.A. 74-310, S. 3; P.A. 75-418, S. 2, 10; P.A. 79-602, S. 88; P.A. 81-8, S. 7, 9; P.A. 85-501, S. 9; P.A. 86-12, S. 3; P.A. 91-350, S. 3; P.A. 00-99, S. 100, 154; P.A. 01-195, S. 46, 181; P.A. 03-224, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 74-310 applied provisions to development of lot, site development and subdivision of land; P.A. 75-418 required that notice be served on each owner where previously notice served to one owner was considered as notice to all; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and rephrased provisions; P.A. 81-8 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for service of process "by registered or certified mail" to nonresident owners and by publication if such copy is returned unclaimed; P.A. 85-501 inserted provisions concerning notice to the original contractor; P.A. 86-12 increased notice period from 60 to 90 days; P.A. 91-350 specified that notice may be served by a "sheriff or other proper officer"; P.A. 00-99 replaced references to sheriff with state marshal in Subsec. (a), effective December 1, 2000; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsec. (a) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 11, 2001; P.A. 03-224 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing "within said period of ninety days" with "not later than thirty days after the filing of the certificate pursuant to section 49-34", effective July 2, 2003.

      Certain facts held not to amount to written assent of owner. 24 C. 320. Contractor gets no lien on land whose title never vested in his employer through latter's failure to complete his purchase contract. 43 C. 143. Mistake in firm name of lienors in body of lien, the signature being correct, does not invalidate lien. 46 C. 386. Lien not invalidated by erroneously including too much land, a release of the excess of land, not sealed, witnessed or acknowledged, being recorded. Id. Action for damages maintainable by subcontractor against owner for preventing him by false representations from filing his lien within time limited. 53 C. 561. Certain circumstances constituting party a subcontractor. 55 C. 261. The statute providing that notice of intent must be given within sixty days from the commencement of furnishing makes the time begin with the beginning of a running account. 56 C. 323. Mere knowledge by landowner that materials are being furnished not enough; 66 C. 47; nor is oral or informal notice. 84 C. 487. Lienor is estopped by the date of taking effect, as given in his lien, from proving that it took effect earlier, so as to obtain preference over a mortgage recorded before the date in the lien. 71 C. 95. Assent to contract of subcontractor requires what. Id. Notice may be given before work completed; return need not be alleged in foreclosure. 73 C. 519. Right of one to whom subcontractor sublet part of work. 76 C. 107. "Original contractor"; 80 C. 392; receiver of contractor is; 90 C. 17; also one who sells land under contract including erection of house on it; 104 C. 657; one who takes possession of land under agreement to build house is not. 74 C. 113. Purpose and effect of statutes giving lien to subcontractor. 81 C. 506; 82 C. 248. Rights of subcontractors where receiver of original contractor continues contract. 90 C. 17. Pleadings and issues where subcontractor forecloses and owner sets up defect in performance. 95 C. 339. Subcontractor has no right of lien unless original contractor had. 96 C. 225. Rights of subcontractors considered in detail. 108 C. 234 ff. Cited. 109 C. 265. Purpose of notice by subcontractor to inform owner so that payment to contractor may be withheld. 116 C. 276. See note to Sec. 49-34 re 118 C. 615. Because copies not "attested", liens invalid. 115 C. 494. Omission of word "attested" in endorsement not fatal; nor was endorsement of "a true and attested original". 131 C. 646. Indifferent person is an impartial, unbiased one. An employee of subcontractor claiming a lien does not qualify. 141 C. 193. Notice of intent to claim a lien is concerned with the protection of the owner of the property who might not otherwise know what subcontractors the principal contractor had employed. 147 C. 351. Not necessary to file notice of intent to claim a lien prior to filing for record a certificate of lien under section 49-34. Id. Cited. 161 C. 242. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 172 C. 1. Cited. 177 C. 295. Cited. 180 C. 501. Cited. 181 C. 592. Cited. 185 C. 549. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. Id., 583.

      Cited. 27 CA 199. Cited. 37 CA 547. "Owner" as used in section means only the owner at time of service of certificate of lien because, at that time, it is only that owner who possesses adversely affected property rights, and, consequently, has right to a hearing designed to protect those rights. 99 CA 690.

      Nature of "consent" discussed. 13 CS 196. Cited. 23 CS 380. Cited. 33 CS 552.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622.

      Subsec. (a):

      Notice sent under Sec. 49-34 was sufficient to satisfy requirements of this statute. Both notice requirements may be satisfied by one document. 185 C. 549. Cited. 196 C. 233.


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      Sec. 49-35a. Application for reduction or discharge. Forms. Hearing. Entry fee. (a) Whenever one or more mechanics' liens are placed upon any real estate pursuant to sections 49-33, 49-34, 49-35 and 49-38, the owner of the real estate, if no action to foreclose the lien is then pending before any court, may make application, together with a proposed order and summons, to the superior court for the judicial district in which the lien may be foreclosed under the provisions of section 51-345, or to any judge thereof, that a hearing or hearings be held to determine whether the lien or liens should be discharged or reduced. The court or judge shall thereupon order reasonable notice of the application to be given to the lienor or lienors named therein and, if the application is not made by all owners of the real estate as may appear of record, shall order reasonable notice of the application to be given to all other such owners, and shall set a date or dates for the hearing or hearings to be held thereon. If the lienor or lienors or any owner entitled to notice is not a resident of this state, the notice shall be given by personal service, registered or certified mail, publication or such other method as the court or judge shall direct. At least four days' notice shall be given to the lienor, lienors or owners entitled to notice prior to the date of the hearing.

      (b) The application, order and summons shall be substantially in the following form:

APPLICATION FOR DISCHARGE OR
REDUCTION OF MECHANIC'S LIEN

To the .... Court of ....

      The undersigned represents:

      1. That .... is the owner of the real estate described in Schedule A attached hereto.

      2. That the names and addresses of all other owners of record of such real estate are as follows:

      3. That on or about ...., (date) ...., (name of lienor) of .... (address of lienor) placed a mechanic's lien on such real estate and gave notice thereof.

      4. That there is not probable cause to sustain the validity of such lien (or: That such lien is excessive).

      5. That the applicant seeks an order for discharge (or reduction) of such lien.

Name of Applicant
By ....
Applicant's Attorney

ORDER

      The above application having been presented to the court, it is hereby ordered, that a hearing be held thereon at .... a.m. and that the applicant give notice to the following persons: (Names and addresses of persons entitled to notice) of the pendency of said application and of the time when it will be heard by causing a true and attested copy of the application, and of this order to be served upon such persons by some proper officer or indifferent person on or before .... and that due return of such notice be made to this court.

      Dated at .... this .... day of .... 20...

SUMMONS

To a state marshal of the county of ...., or either constable of the town of ...., in said county,

Greeting:

      By authority of the state of Connecticut, you are hereby commanded to serve a true and attested copy of the above application and order upon ...., of .... by leaving the same in such person's hands or at such person's usual place of abode (or such other notice as ordered by the court) on or before ....

      Hereof fail not but due service and return make.

      Dated at .... this .... day of .... 20...

....
Commissioner of the Superior Court

      (1) If the clerk, upon receipt of all the documents in duplicate, finds them to be in proper form, the clerk shall fix a date for a hearing on the application and sign the order of hearing and notice. An entry fee of twenty dollars shall then be collected and a copy of the original document shall be placed in the court file.

      (2) The clerk shall deliver to the applicant's attorney the original of the documents for service. Service having been made, the original documents shall be returned to the court with the endorsement by the officer of such officer's actions.

      (c) If an action for foreclosure of the lien is pending before any court, any party to that action may at any time prior to trial, unless an application under subsection (a) of this section has previously been ruled upon, move that the lien be discharged or reduced.

      (d) No more than one application under subsection (a) hereof or motion under subsection (c) hereof shall be ruled upon with respect to any single mechanic's lien, except that the foregoing shall not preclude an application or motion by a person not given notice of the prior application or not a party to the action at the time the prior motion was ruled upon.

      (P.A. 75-418, S. 4, 10; P.A. 76-290, S. 3, 6; 76-436, S. 658, 681; P.A. 79-602, S. 89; P.A. 82-472, S. 132, 183; P.A. 00-99, S. 101, 154; P.A. 01-195, S. 47, 181; P.A. 03-19, S. 113.)

      History: P.A. 76-290 made minor change in wording of Subsec. (b)(1); P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to applications to court of common pleas in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-602 substituted "the" or "that" for "such" where appearing; P.A. 82-472 deleted obsolete reference in Subsec. (a) to court for the "county"; P.A. 00-99 replaced reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff with state marshal in Subsec. (b), effective December 1, 2000 (Revisor's note: The references in Subsec. (b) of this section to the date "19.." were changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium); P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsec. (b) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 11, 2001; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(1), effective May 12, 2003.

      Cited. 177 C. 295. Cited. 180 C. 501. Cited. 181 C. 592. Cited. 183 C. 108. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 209 C. 185. Cited. 210 C. 511. Cited. 217 C. 361. Cited. 235 C. 595.

      Cited. 27 CA 199.

      Cited. 33 CS 552.

      Subsec. (a):

      Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 188 C. 253.

      Cited. 6 CA 180. Cited. 10 CA 45. Trial court did not improperly discharge a lien under section without first holding a required hearing because, despite defendant's earlier filing for a continuance, defendant failed to appear at the hearing and forfeited his rights against the plaintiff. 54 CA 355.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 42 CS 460.


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      Sec. 49-35b. Burden of proof at hearing. Authority of court. (a) Upon the hearing held on the application or motion set forth in section 49-35a, the lienor shall first be required to establish that there is probable cause to sustain the validity of his lien. Any person entitled to notice under section 49-35a may appear, be heard and prove by clear and convincing evidence that the validity of the lien should not be sustained or the amount of the lien claimed is excessive and should be reduced.

      (b) Upon consideration of the facts before it, the court or judge may: (1) Deny the application or motion if probable cause to sustain the validity of the lien is established; or (2) order the lien discharged if (A) probable cause to sustain its validity is not established, or (B) by clear and convincing evidence its invalidity is established; or (3) reduce the amount of the lien if the amount is found to be excessive by clear and convincing evidence; or (4) order the lien discharged or reduce the amount of the lien conditioned upon the posting of a bond, with surety, in a sum deemed sufficient by the judge to indemnify the lienor for any damage which may occur by the discharge or the reduction of amount.

      (P.A. 75-418, S. 5, 10; P.A. 76-290, S. 4, 6; P.A. 79-602, S. 90.)

      History: P.A. 76-290 added Subsec. (b)(4) authorizing court to discharge or reduce lien upon posting of bond with surety sufficient to indemnify lien or for damage which may occur; P.A. 79-602 rephrased provisions to replace "such" where appearing.

      Cited. 180 C. 501. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 209 C. 185. Cited. 224 C. 29. Cited. 235 C. 595.

      Cited. 9 CA 682. Cited. 27 CA 199. Cited. 41 CA 737.

      Cited. 33 CS 552.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 188 C. 253.

      Cited. 5 CA 106. Cited. 6 CA 180. Cited. 15 CA 633. Trial court did not improperly discharge a lien under section without first holding required hearing because, despite defendant's earlier filing for a continuance, defendant failed to appear at the hearing and forfeited his rights against the plaintiff. 54 CA 355.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 188 C. 253.

      Cited. 6 CA 443. Trial court properly discharged lien, even though it did not specifically state the standard of proof it applied, since trial court's actions and duties are presumed to have been performed in conformity with the law unless it appears to the contrary. 61 CA 156. Nothing prevents a discharge order from being superseded by another discharge order made during a subsequent proceeding in the same case. 86 CA 692.


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      Sec. 49-35c. Appeal. (a) Any order entered as provided in subsection (b) of section 49-35b shall be deemed a final judgment for the purpose of appeal.

      (b) No appeal may be taken from the order except within seven days thereof. The effect of the order shall be automatically stayed for the seven-day period. If an appeal is taken within the seven-day period, the party taking the appeal may, within that period, file an application with the clerk of the court in which the order was issued, requesting a stay of the effect of the order pending the appeal, which application shall set forth the reasons for the request. A copy of the application shall be sent to each other party by the applicant. Upon the filing of the application, the effect of the order shall be further stayed until a decision is rendered thereon. A hearing on the application shall be held promptly. The order shall be stayed if the party taking the appeal posts a bond, as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

      (c) Upon the hearing on the application, the court shall: (1) Upon motion of the party taking the appeal, set a bond with surety for the stay of the order as provided in subsection (b) of this section, in an amount which the court deems sufficient to indemnify the adverse party for any damages which may result from the stay. If the party taking the appeal gives that bond the order shall be stayed; or (2) grant the stay; or (3) deny the stay; or (4) condition the granting of the stay upon the giving of such a bond.

      (d) Any order of discharge or reduction or any order of any such stay shall take effect upon recording of a certified copy thereof in the office of the town clerk in which such lien was originally recorded. The clerk of the court in which any such order is issued shall not deliver any certified copies thereof until the time for taking an appeal has elapsed or, if an appeal is taken and an application for a stay of the order is filed, until such time as a decision granting or denying the stay has been rendered.

      (P.A. 75-418, S. 6, 10; P.A. 76-290, S. 5, 6; P.A. 79-602, S. 91.)

      History: P.A. 76-290 specified in Subsec. (b) that order is stayed when party taking appeal posts bond and rephrased Subsec. (c); P.A. 79-602 rephrased provisions but made no substantive changes.

      Cited. 180 C. 501. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 235 C. 595.

      Cited. 6 CA 443. Cited. 22 CA 73. Cited. 27 CA 199. Cited. 41 CA 737.

      Cited. 33 CS 552.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 6 CA 180. Cited. 10 CA 45.

      Subsec. (b):

      Does not affect the continuing jurisdiction conferred on superior court by Sec. 52-212. 188 C. 253. Seven-day time limit in this section is inapplicable under present circumstances; judgment of appellate court reversed and case remanded to appellate court for further proceedings. 235 C. 595. Where defendant failed to request stay of judgment pending appeal of discharge of lien, court refused to reinstate the lien after plaintiff's recording of order of discharge on town land records under Subsec. (d), rendering defendant's appeal moot. 280 C. 25.

      Cited. 54 CA 355.


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      Sec. 49-35d. Validation of lien recorded prior to April 22, 1975. (a) Any person who prior to April 22, 1975, placed a mechanic's lien upon any real estate pursuant to sections 49-33, 49-34, 49-35 and 49-38, which was not released or discharged on such date, may validate such lien by filing a new certificate of mechanic's lien and serving a true and attested copy thereof pursuant to the provisions of section 49-34, and, if applicable, by serving the notice required by section 49-35, within ninety days from June 25, 1975, and such mechanic's lien shall be deemed to have originated as of the effective date of the original mechanic's lien so validated, provided, such validation shall not affect the interest of any person acquiring an interest in such real estate as an owner or mortgagee from April 22, 1975, through June 25, 1975, inclusive. Such validation shall not affect the interest of any person to whom such validation would be in violation of the Constitution of the United States or the Constitution of the state of Connecticut, but in such event such lien shall have no less validity than if the lienor had commenced the rendering of services or the furnishing of materials on June 25, 1975. Any such lien not validated pursuant to this section shall be invalid and discharged as a matter of law.

      (b) Any person who would have been entitled under the terms of sections 49-33, 49-34, 49-35 and 49-38, to claim a mechanic's lien between April 22, 1975, and June 25, 1975, inclusive, but had not done so, may file a certificate of such lien and serve a true and attested copy thereof as required by section 49-34 and, if applicable, serve the notice required by section 49-35, within the time provided by section 49-34, or within ninety days of June 25, 1975, whichever period is longer. For purposes of determining when such person's mechanic's lien took effect, such person shall be deemed to have commenced the rendering of services or the furnishing of materials as of June 25, 1975, but for purposes of determining the amount of such lien such person shall be deemed to have commenced the rendering of services or the furnishing of materials as of the actual date of such commencement.

      (c) Any person who between April 22, 1975 and June 25, 1975, inclusive, placed a mechanic's lien upon any real estate pursuant to sections 49-33, 49-34 and 49-38, which was not released or discharged on June 25, 1975, may file a new certificate of such lien and serve a true and attested copy thereof pursuant to the provisions of section 49-34, and, if applicable, may serve the notice required by section 49-35, within ninety days of June 25, 1975. For purposes of determining when such person's mechanic's lien took effect, such person shall be deemed to have commenced the rendering of services or the furnishing of materials as of June 25, 1975, but for purposes of determining the amount of such lien such person shall be deemed to have commenced the rendering of services or the furnishing of materials as of the actual date of such commencement.

      (P.A. 75-418, S. 7, 10.)

      Cited. 180 C. 501; Id., 545. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

      Cited. 27 CA 199.

      Cited. 33 CS 552.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 176 C. 409.


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      Sec. 49-36. Liens limited; apportionment; payments to original contractor. (a) No mechanic's lien may attach to any building or its appurtenances, or to the land on which the same stands, or any lot, or any plot of land, in favor of any person, to a greater amount in the whole than the price which the owner agreed to pay for the building and its appurtenances or the development of any such lot, or the development of any such plot of land.

      (b) When there are several claimants and the amount of their united claims exceeds that price, the claimants, other than the original contractor, shall be first paid in full, if the amount of that price is sufficient for that purpose; but, if not, it shall be apportioned among the claimants having the liens, other than the original contractor, in proportion to the amount of the debts due them respectively; and the court having jurisdiction thereof, on application of any person interested, may direct the manner in which the claims shall be paid.

      (c) In determining the amount to which any lien or liens may attach upon any land or building, or lot or plot of land, the owner of the land or building or lot or plot of land shall be allowed whatever payments he has made, in good faith, to the original contractor or contractors, before receiving notice of the lien or liens. No payments made in advance of the time stipulated in the original contract may be considered as made in good faith, unless notice of intention to make the payment has been given in writing to each person known to have furnished materials or rendered services at least five days before the payment is made.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7220; P.A. 74-310, S. 4; P.A. 79-602, S. 92.)

      History: P.A. 74-310 applied provisions with respect to lots, plots of land and development of such land; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs., substituted "may" for "shall" and "the", etc. for "such" and made other slight changes in wording.

      The owner is to be allowed for bona fide payments to original contractor before notice, though made in advance. 27 C. 578. Owner cannot waive defect in notice of intent so as to make lien valid as against others claiming liens. 42 C. 541. Owner not allowed for payments made after notice to him by subcontractor, although he had, before such notice, verbally guaranteed contractor's debts, in performance of which guaranty he made such payments. 43 C. 14. Limitation of amount of liens generally. 73 C. 519. Effect of abandonment of work by contractor. Id., 452; 82 C. 244; 87 C. 686; 89 C. 254. Effect of alteration in original contract; of payment made before notice of lien; of payment made in advance of time agreed on. 74 C. 493; 81 C. 502; 89 C. 254; 131 C. 643. Payment of subcontractor by contractor will not defeat lien of one to whom former has sublet part of work. 76 C. 107. Subcontractor has no greater rights than his principal. 81 C. 632; 82 C. 244; 96 C. 225. Effect of direct payments by mortgagee holding advance payment mortgage to contractor, at request of mortgagor. 82 C. 244. Effect of contract providing for payments as work progresses under which weekly payments are made and contract price is fully paid. 84 C. 487; what constitutes "notice" of subcontractor's lien. Id.; 91 C. 712. What constitutes knowledge in provision for advance payments. 89 C. 262. Right of subcontractors where one gives notice, owner thereafter makes payments on contract, and then others give notice. 92 C. 482. Duty of owner as to withholding payments after receiving notice. Id., 485. No priority between subcontractors under same original contractor. 99 C. 343; 108 C. 243. Cited. 109 C. 364; Id., 554; 113 C. 10; 115 C. 199. Finding of fraud between owner and principal contractor. 111 C. 132. Priority of materialmen over contractor not removed by assumption by owner to pay them. 116 C. 277. In action to foreclose lien of subcontractor, original contractor a necessary party. 118 C. 614. Payments made in advance of the time when they are due under the contract and without notice to the lienor are ineffective as to him in reducing the amount due on the contract. 143 C. 146. Cited. 147 C. 351. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 180 C. 501. Cited. 181 C. 592. Cited. 182 C. 568. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

      Cited. 27 CA 199.

      Cited. 15 CS 360. Cited. 23 CS 380.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 620. Only payments made to original contractor in good faith before notice of subcontractor's lien are allowed owner. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 512.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 39 CA 122.


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      Sec. 49-37. Dissolution of mechanic's lien by substitution of bond. Joinder of actions on claim and bond. (a) Whenever any mechanic's lien has been placed upon any real estate pursuant to sections 49-33, 49-34 and 49-35, the owner of that real estate, or any person interested in it, may make an application to any judge of the Superior Court that the lien be dissolved upon the substitution of a bond with surety, and the judge shall order reasonable notice to be given to the lienor of the application. If the lienor is not a resident of the state, the judge may order notice to be given by publication, registered or certified letter or personal service. If the judge is satisfied that the applicant in good faith intends to contest the lien, he shall, if the applicant offers a bond, with sufficient surety, conditioned to pay to the lienor or his assigns such amount as a court of competent jurisdiction may adjudge to have been secured by the lien, with interest and costs, order the lien to be dissolved and such bond substituted for the lien and shall return the application, notice, order and bond to the clerk of the superior court for the judicial district wherein the lien is recorded; and, if the applicant, within ten days from such return, causes a copy of the order, certified by the clerk, to be recorded in the town clerk's office where the lien is recorded, the lien shall be dissolved. Whenever a bond is substituted for any lien after an action for the foreclosure of a lien has been commenced, the plaintiff in the foreclosure may amend his complaint, without costs, so as to make the action one upon the bond with which the plaintiff may join an action to recover upon his claim. Whenever a bond is substituted for any lien before an action for the foreclosure of the lien has been commenced, the plaintiff may join the action upon the bond with an action to recover upon his claim. Whenever a bond has been substituted for any lien, pursuant to this section, unless an action is brought to recover upon the bond within one year from the date of recording the certificate of lien, the bond shall be void.

      (b) Whenever a bond has been substituted for any lien pursuant to this section:

      (1) The principal or surety on the bond, if no action to recover on the bond is then pending before any court, may make application, together with a proposed order and summons, to the superior court for the judicial district in which the action may be brought, or to any judge of the court, that a hearing be held to determine whether the lien for which the bond was substituted should be declared invalid or reduced in amount. The court or judge shall thereupon order reasonable notice of the application to be given to the obligee on the bond and, if the application is not made by all principals or sureties on the bond, shall order reasonable notice of the application to be given to all other such principals and sureties, and shall set a date for the hearing to be held thereon. If the obligee or any principal or surety entitled to notice is not a resident of this state, the notice shall be given by personal service, registered or certified mail, publication or such other method as the court or judge shall direct. At least four days notice shall be given to the obligee, principal and surety entitled to notice prior to the date of the hearing.

      (2) The application, order and summons shall be substantially in the form established by subsection (b) of section 49-35a, adapted accordingly. The provisions of subdivisions (1) and (2) of subsection (b) of section 49-35a, shall apply.

      (3) If an action on the bond is pending before any court, any party to that action may at any time prior to trial, unless an application under subdivision (1) of this subsection has previously been ruled upon, move that the lien for which the bond was substituted be declared invalid or reduced in amount.

      (4) No more than one application or motion under subdivision (1) or (3) of this subsection may be ruled upon with respect to any single mechanic's lien, except that the foregoing does not preclude an application or motion by a person not given notice of the prior application or not a party to the action at the time the prior motion was ruled upon. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as permitting a surety on a bond to bring an application for discharge or reduction, if the validity of the lien has previously been ruled upon pursuant to section 49-35a.

      (5) Upon the hearing held on the application or motion set forth in this subsection, the obligee on the bond shall first be required to establish that there is probable cause to sustain the validity of the lien. Any person entitled to notice under subdivision (1) of this section may appear, be heard and prove by clear and convincing evidence that the validity of the lien should not be sustained or that the amount of the lien claimed is excessive and should be reduced. Upon consideration of the facts before it, the court or judge may: (A) Deny the application or motion if probable cause to sustain the validity of the lien is established; or (B) order that the bond is void if (i) probable cause to sustain the validity of the lien is not established, or (ii) by clear and convincing evidence, the invalidity of the lien is established; or (C) order the amount of the bond reduced if the amount of the lien is found to be excessive by clear and convincing evidence.

      (6) Any order entered upon an application set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection shall be deemed a final judgment for the purpose of appeal.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7221; 1955, S. 2975d; P.A. 75-418, S. 8, 10; P.A. 76-436, S. 649, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 79-602, S. 93; 79-631, S. 36, 111.)

      History: P.A. 75-418 required that action be brought to recover upon bond within one year from date of recording certificate of lien, rather than within two years, and added Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 added reference to judicial districts in Subsec. (a) and deleted reference to applications made to court of common pleas in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-602 made minor changes in wording but made no substantive changes; P.A. 79-631 made technical correction in Subsec. (b)(5).

      See Sec. 52-192 re precedence in order of trial of cases where bond is substituted for mechanic's lien.

      In action on bond, no recovery can be had for loss due to being prevented from completing contract. 89 C. 107. Amending complaint to show substitution of bond for lien. 96 C. 401. Cited. 144 C. 499. In an action to recover upon a bond, defense that lien was invalid as a blanket lien must be specially pleaded. 147 C. 351. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 169 C. 76. Principal or surety on bond which has been substituted for mechanic's lien by private agreement of parties may apply for discharge or reduction of bond. 172 C. 1. Cited. 180 C. 501. Plaintiff's rights on the bond can rise no higher than those acquired under the underlying mechanic's lien. Id., 545. Cited. 183 C. 85; Id., 108. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

      Cited. 33 CA 563.

      Cited. 15 CS 361. Cited. 23 CS 380. Cited. 31 CS 209. Cited. 33 CS 552. Cited. 42 CS 460.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 456.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 176 C. 409. Meaning of "person interested" discussed. 183 C. 108. Cited. 224 C. 563.

      Cited. 6 CA 443. Bond voluntarily furnished by defendant must be treated same as if bond had been furnished pursuant to court order in accordance with subsection. 57 CA 227.

      Subsec. (b):

      Plaintiff waived requirement for defendant to show probable cause pursuant to Subdiv. (5) when plaintiff said it wasn't necessary to go through that formality. 269 C. 599.

      Subdiv. (1) cited. 6 CA 443. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id. Subdiv. (6) cited. Id.


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      Sec. 49-37a. Lien validated when bond substituted prior to April 22, 1975. Whenever prior to April 22, 1975, a bond has been substituted for any lien pursuant to section 49-37, which bond was in effect on said date, the obligee on such bond may validate the lien for which the bond was substituted by serving, by registered or certified mail, upon the principal and surety on such bond a copy of the certificate of mechanic's lien which was originally filed, within ninety days of June 25, 1975. Any such lien not validated pursuant to this section shall be deemed to have been invalid and discharged as a matter of law.

      (P.A. 75-418, S. 9, 10.)

      Cited. 176 C. 409. Cited. 180 C. 501. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

      Cited. 33 CS 552.


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      Sec. 49-38. Lien on railroad for services or materials in construction. If any person has a claim for materials furnished or services rendered for the construction of any railroad, or any of its appurtenances, under any contract with or approved by the corporation owning or managing it, the railroad shall, with its real estate, right-of-way, material, equipment, rolling stock and franchises, be subject to the payment of that claim; and that claim shall be a lien on the railroad, railroad property and franchises, and the lien shall be asserted, perfected and foreclosed in all respects in accordance with the provisions of sections 49-34 to 49-37, inclusive, except that the certificates of the lien and of its discharge shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the State, who shall record them in a book kept for that purpose.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7222; P.A. 79-602, S. 94.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 substituted "the" or "that" for "such" where appearing.

      Statute includes street railways. 78 C. 292. General discussion. 83 C. 82. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 180 C. 501. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

      Cited. 23 CS 380.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622.


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      Sec. 49-39. Time limitation of mechanic's lien. Action to foreclose privileged. A mechanic's lien shall not continue in force for a longer period than one year after the lien has been perfected, unless the party claiming the lien commences an action to foreclose it, by complaint, cross-complaint or counterclaim, and records a notice of lis pendens in evidence thereof on the land records of the town in which the lien is recorded within one year from the date the lien was recorded or within sixty days of any final disposition of an appeal taken in accordance with section 49-35c, whichever is later. Each such lien, after the expiration of the one-year period or sixty-day period, as the case may be, without action commenced and notice thereof filed as aforesaid, shall be invalid and discharged as a matter of law. An action to foreclose a mechanic's lien shall be privileged in respect to assignment for trial. With respect to any such lien which was validated in accordance with the provisions of section 49-37a, the one-year period or sixty-day period, as the case may be, shall toll from the date of the validation.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7223; February, 1965, P.A. 193; 1969, P.A. 732; P.A. 73-506; P.A. 74-128; P.A. 75-418, S. 3, 10; P.A. 76-290, S. 2, 6; P.A. 78-112; P.A. 79-602, S. 95.)

      History: 1965 act limited mechanic's lien to four rather than two years, allowing two years for commencement of action and two years for final judgment where previously single two-year period encompassed both and added provision granting actions to foreclose mechanic's lien privileged status in assignment for trial; 1969 act required filing of lis pendens in evidence of commencement of action and allowed discharge of lien on request of property owner's attorney; P.A. 73-506 deleted provisions re two-year period for obtaining final judgment; P.A. 74-128 specified that lien is invalid and discharged as matter of law if two years elapses without commencement of action where previously lien was discharged by claimant upon request of property owner or his attorney; P.A. 75-418 reduced limit on lien from four years to one year, similarly requiring commencement of action within one year rather than two, and specified commencement of action by complaint, cross-complaint or counterclaim; P.A. 76-290 added provision re sixty-day period for commencement of action after disposition of appeals and specified that one-year or 60-day period tolls from date lien was validated; P.A. 78-112 required that notice of lis pendens be recorded on land records of town where lien recorded rather than filed with town clerk; P.A. 79-602 made minor changes in wording but made no substantive changes.

      See Sec. 52-192 re precedence in order of trial.

      Necessity of serving cross complaint on all parties. 101 C. 664. Action must be commenced within two year limit; reaching this point by demurrer. Id., 665. Does not apply retroactively as amended 1965. 161 C. 191. Cited. 164 C. 546. The time provisions of this section are limitations on the right to enforce a lien and are not a statute of limitations which must be pleaded by the defendant. 166 C. 255. Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 176 C. 409. Cited. 180 C. 501. Cited. 181 C. 592. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583. Cited. 210 C. 175. Cited. 224 C. 563.

      Cited. 10 CA 45. Cited. 26 CA 426. Cited. 31 CA 15; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 807.

      Under statute prior to 1965 amendment: Mechanic's lienor made a party defendant in action to foreclose a mortgage on liened property within two years of perfecting lien, held lienor need not institute his own action to foreclose but his claim was transferred to proceeds of first judicial sale. 20 CS 460. History discussed. Action on lien must be commenced within two years, but reduction to final judgment is not limited to that period. 23 CS 329. Cited. Id., 380. Cited. 33 CS 552. Filing of lis pendens notice within one year is not condition precedent to right of foreclosure and does not go to jurisdiction of court; actual notice to defendant satisfies requirement; purpose is to avoid harshness of common law rule that every man deemed attentive to pending litigation. 34 CS 84. Cited. 42 CS 460.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622.


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      Sec. 49-40. Record of discharge of mechanic's and judgment liens. Section 49-40 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7224; 1949, 1953, S. 2976d; 1969, P.A. 653; 1971, P.A. 181, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 49-40a. Mechanic's liens expired by limitation of time. Any mechanic's lien which has expired because of failure to comply with the time limitations of section 49-39 is automatically extinguished and the continued existence of the lien unreleased of record in no way affects the record owner's title nor the marketability of the same.

      (1971, P.A. 181, S. 1; P.A. 79-602, S. 97.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 removed provision re automatic extinguishment of judgment lien which expires for failure to comply with time limits in Sec. 49-46 and made minor changes in wording in remaining provision.

      Cited. 169 C. 76. Cited. 180 C. 501. Challenge by general contractor to constitutionality of mechanic's lien statutes discussed. 185 C. 583.

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      Sec. 49-40b. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380c.

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      Sec. 49-41. Public buildings and public works. Bonds for protection of employees and materialmen. Performance bonds. Limits on use of owner-controlled insurance programs. Certain surety contract provisions. (a) Each contract exceeding one hundred thousand dollars in amount for the construction, alteration or repair of any public building or public work of the state or a municipality shall include a provision that the person to perform the contract shall furnish to the state or municipality on or before the award date, a bond in the amount of the contract which shall be binding upon the award of the contract to that person, with a surety or sureties satisfactory to the officer awarding the contract, for the protection of persons supplying labor or materials in the prosecution of the work provided for in the contract for the use of each such person, provided no such bond shall be required to be furnished (1) in relation to any general bid in which the total estimated cost of labor and materials under the contract with respect to which such general bid is submitted is less than one hundred thousand dollars, (2) in relation to any sub-bid in which the total estimated cost of labor and materials under the contract with respect to which such sub-bid is submitted is less than one hundred thousand dollars, or (3) in relation to any general bid or sub-bid submitted by a consultant, as defined in section 4b-55. Any such bond furnished shall have as principal the name of the person awarded the contract.

      (b) Nothing in this section or sections 49-41a to 49-43, inclusive, shall be construed to limit the authority of any contracting officer to require a performance bond or other security in addition to the bond referred to in subsection (a) of this section, except that no such officer shall require a performance bond in relation to any general bid in which the total estimated cost of labor and materials under the contract with respect to which such general bid is submitted is less than twenty-five thousand dollars or in relation to any sub-bid in which the total estimated cost of labor and materials under the contract with respect to which such sub-bid is submitted is less than fifty thousand dollars.

      (c) No contract for the construction, alteration or repair of any public building or public work of the state or a municipality that requires a person to supply the state or municipality with a bond may include a provision that requires the person to obtain the bond from a specific surety, agent, broker or producer. No contracting officer may require that a bond be obtained from a specific surety, agent, broker or producer.

      (d) In the event that any political subdivision of the state enters into a contract described in subsection (a) of this section and fails to obtain delivery from the contractor of the bond required by this section, any person who has not been paid by the contractor for labor or materials supplied in the performance of work under the contract shall have the same legal right of action against such political subdivision of the state as such person would have had against a surety under the provisions of section 49-42. Nothing in this section shall be construed to extend liability to the state for any person's right to payment or constitute a waiver of the state's sovereign immunity.

      (e) (1) As used in this subsection, "owner-controlled insurance program" means an insurance procurement program under which a principal provides and consolidates insurance coverage for one or more contractors on one or more construction projects.

      (2) No contract for the construction, alteration or repair of any public building or public work of the state or a municipality may include a provision that allows or requires the state or municipality to maintain an owner-controlled insurance program, except for (A) a project approved pursuant to section 10a-109e, or (B) one or more municipal projects totaling one hundred million dollars or more (i) under the supervision of one construction manager, or (ii) located within the boundaries of a municipality if under the supervision of more than one construction manager.

      (3) Each contract or policy of insurance issued under an owner-controlled insurance program pursuant to this subsection shall provide that:

      (A) Coverage for work performed and materials furnished shall continue from the completion of the work until the date all causes of action are barred under any applicable statute of limitations.

      (B) Any notice of a change in coverage under the contract or policy or of a cancellation or refusal to renew the coverage under the contract or policy shall be provided to the principal and all contractors covered under the program.

      (C) The effective date of a (i) change in coverage under the contract or policy shall be at least thirty days after the date the principal and contractors receive the notice of change in coverage as required under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, and (ii) cancellation or refusal to renew shall be at least sixty days after the principal and contractors receive the notice of change in coverage as required under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision.

      (4) Each principal or contractor shall disclose in the project plans or specifications at the time the principal or contractor is soliciting bids for the construction project that the project will be covered by an owner-controlled insurance program.

      (f) Whenever a surety bond is required in connection with a contract for the construction, reconstruction, alteration, remodeling, repair or demolition of any public building for work by the state or a municipality, that is estimated to cost more than five hundred thousand dollars and is paid for, in whole or in part, with state funds, the surety contract between the contractor named as principal in the bond and the surety that issues such bond shall contain the following provision: "In the event that the surety assumes the contract or obtains a bid or bids for completion of the contract, the surety shall ensure that the contractor chosen to complete the contract is prequalified pursuant to section 4a-100 of the Connecticut general statutes in the requisite classification and has the aggregate work capacity rating and single project limit necessary to complete the contract".

      (1949 Rev., S. 7214; P.A. 79-602, S. 98; P.A. 82-358, S. 9, 10; P.A. 87-345, S. 1; P.A. 89-27, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-23; P.A. 93-104; P.A. 96-235, S. 13, 19; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11, S. 33, 65; P.A. 01-21; P.A. 05-38, S. 1; 05-193, S. 1; 05-229, S. 1; P.A. 07-202, S. 10; 07-213, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 substituted "that" or "the" for "such" where appearing; P.A. 82-358 specified when bonds shall not be required in Subsecs. (a) and (b); P.A. 87-345 amended Subsec. (a) to make contracts in excess of $25,000, instead of $1,000, subject to bond requirement, to exempt general bids in which the cost is less than $25,000, instead of $10,000, and to exempt sub-bids in which the cost is less than $50,000, instead of $20,000, and amended Subsec. (b) to provide that performance bonds shall not be required in relation to general bids in which cost is less than $25,000, instead of $10,000, and in relation to sub-bids in which cost is less than $50,000, instead of $20,000; P.A. 89-27 exempted design professionals from Subsec. (a); P.A. 91-23 amended Subsec. (a) to require that any bond furnished shall have as principal the name of the person awarded the contract; P.A. 93-104 amended Subsec. (a) to rephrase provision requiring person performing the contract to provide the state with a surety bond before the award date; P.A. 96-235 amended Subsec. (a) by substituting "consultant" for "design professional", effective June 6, 1996; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing contract threshold for including bond provision, from $25,000 to $50,000, and making corresponding change in Subdiv. (1), effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 01-21 made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and added new Subsec. (c) prohibiting contract provisions that require the use of a specific surety, agent, broker or producer; P.A. 05-38 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the value of a contract that requires the furnishing of a bond from $50,000 to $100,000; P.A. 05-193 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to substitute "municipality" for "subdivision" and added Subsec. (e) re owner-controlled insurance programs, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 05-229 added Subsec. (d) re the failure of a political subdivision to obtain required bond, effective July 8, 2005; P.A. 07-202 added Subsec. (f) re surety contract provision, effective July 10, 2007; P.A. 07-213 amended Subsec. (a)(1) and (2) to change references re estimated costs from $50,000 to $100,000.

      See chapter 60, part II (Sec. 4b-91 et seq.) re public building contracts.

      Primary purpose of former statute to protect those who furnish labor and materials. 109 C. 556. Rights of persons furnishing labor and materials under former statute. Id., 547. Also, former statute did not give materialman greater right against surety than against municipality. 113 C. 2. Filing claim within sixty days condition precedent. Id. Cited. 118 C. 326. Acceptance of highway by state not a bar to recovery by its insurer against contractor's surety. 126 C. 349. Subdivision of state includes city, borough or town. Furnishing of bond is a condition precedent to execution of contract. 143 C. 85. History; purpose of statute. 151 C. 332. Cited. 159 C. 564. Cited. 163 C. 331. Cited. 174 C. 219. Cited. 207 C. 468. Cited. 225 C. 367; Id., 905. Cited. 229 C. 303. Cited. 236 C. 750. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708. Cited. 240 C. 10.

      Cited. 25 CA 751. Cited. 28 CA 622. Cited. 29 CA 783. Cited. 32 CA 718. Cited. 40 CA 777. Cited. 49 CA 522.

      Cited. 3 CS 15. Cited. 5 CS 114. History reviewed. Dam and appurtenant structures are not public building. 10 CS 38. Cited. 18 CS 43. Suppliers of materials, labor and equipment to subcontractor who failed to give notice to contractor may not recover under contractor's bond. Id., 305. Cited. 21 CS 16. When a surety makes a payment under the bond to a supplier of labor or material, the surety becomes subrogated to the rights and preferences of such supplier as to sums due or to become due under the contract, and such subrogation relates back to the date of the bond. 22 CS 404. Cited. 23 CS 380. Contractual provision not incorporating statutory intent void. 29 CS 457. Cited. 32 CS 64. This section precludes a cause of action based on quantum meruit by subcontractors and materialmen against the governmental body awarding the contract. Id., 168.

      Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 622. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 206, 207.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 40 CA 89.


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      Sec. 49-41a. Enforcement of payment by general contractor to subcontractor and by subcontractor to its subcontractors. (a) When any public work is awarded by a contract for which a payment bond is required by section 49-41, the contract for the public work shall contain the following provisions: (1) A requirement that the general contractor, within thirty days after payment to the contractor by the state or a municipality, pay any amounts due any subcontractor, whether for labor performed or materials furnished, when the labor or materials have been included in a requisition submitted by the contractor and paid by the state or a municipality; (2) a requirement that the general contractor shall include in each of its subcontracts a provision requiring each subcontractor to pay any amounts due any of its subcontractors, whether for labor performed or materials furnished, within thirty days after such subcontractor receives a payment from the general contractor which encompasses labor or materials furnished by such subcontractor.

      (b) Each payment requisition submitted in accordance with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, except for any such payment requisition submitted pursuant to a contract administered by or in conjunction with the Department of Transportation, shall include a statement showing the status of all pending construction change orders, other pending change directives and approved changes to the original contract or subcontract. Such statement shall identify the pending construction change orders and other pending change directives, and shall include the date such change orders and directives were initiated, the costs associated with their performance and a description of any work completed. As used in this section, "pending construction change order" or "other pending change directive" means an authorized directive for extra work that has been issued to a contractor or a subcontractor.

      (c) If payment is not made by the general contractor or any of its subcontractors in accordance with such requirements, the subcontractor shall set forth his claim against the general contractor and the subcontractor of a subcontractor shall set forth its claim against the subcontractor through notice by registered or certified mail. Ten days after the receipt of that notice, the general contractor shall be liable to its subcontractor, and the subcontractor shall be liable to its subcontractor, for interest on the amount due and owing at the rate of one per cent per month. In addition, the general contractor, upon written demand of its subcontractor, or the subcontractor, upon written demand of its subcontractor, shall be required to place funds in the amount of the claim, plus interest of one per cent, in an interest-bearing escrow account in a bank in this state, provided the general contractor or subcontractor may refuse to place the funds in escrow on the grounds that the subcontractor has not substantially performed the work according to the terms of his or its employment. In the event that such general contractor or subcontractor refuses to place such funds in escrow, and the party making a claim against it under this section is found to have substantially performed its work in accordance with the terms of its employment in any arbitration or litigation to determine the validity of such claim, then such general contractor or subcontractor shall pay the attorney's fees of such party.

      (d) No payment may be withheld from a subcontractor for work performed because of a dispute between the general contractor and another contractor or subcontractor.

      (e) This section shall not be construed to prohibit progress payments prior to final payment of the contract and is applicable to all subcontractors for material or labor whether they have contracted directly with the general contractor or with some other subcontractor on the work.

      (1969, P.A. 427, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-626; P.A. 76-164; P.A. 79-602, S. 99; P.A. 80-115; P.A. 86-12, S. 1; P.A. 05-229, S. 5; P.A. 06-59, S. 1; P.A. 09-146, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-626 added provisions re deposit of claim amount in escrow account and prohibiting withholding of payment from subcontractor for work performed because of dispute between general or prime contractor and another contractor or subcontractor; P.A. 76-164 substituted reference to requirements included in contract for reference to requirements issued by public works commissioner and added references to payments by municipalities; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and made minor changes in wording, substituting "the" or "that" for "such", etc.; P.A. 80-115 restated provisions, eliminating references to "prime" contractors and added Subsec. (a)(2) re requirements of subcontracts; P.A. 86-12 changed time limits for payment by general contractor to subcontractor and subcontractor to subcontractor from 45 and 20 days respectively, to 30 days in each case; P.A. 05-229 amended Subsec. (b) to require the general contractor to place funds claimed in an escrow account if a surety bond is not in place; P.A. 06-59 amended Subsec. (b) to delete "if a surety bond is not in place," re placing funds in escrow; P.A. 09-146 added new Subsec. (b) re payment requisition statement requirements and redesignated existing Subsecs. (b) to (d) as Subsecs. (c) to (e), effective July 1, 2009.

      See chapter 60, part II (Sec. 4b-91 et seq.) re public building contracts.

      Cited. 238 C. 293. Sec. 49-41a et seq. "prompt payment act" cited. Id. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708.

      Cited. 13 CA 253. Cited. 15 CA 504. Cited. 32 CA 118. Cited. 40 CA 89.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 207 C. 468.

      Subsec. (b):

      Remedies afforded by this section and Sec. 49-42 are independent of each other. 207 C. 468.

      Cited. 5 CA 61.


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      Sec. 49-41b. Release of payments on construction projects. When any public work is awarded by a contract for which a payment bond is required by section 49-41 and such contract contains a provision requiring the general or prime contractor under such contract to furnish a performance bond in the full amount of the contract price, the following shall apply:

      (1) In the case of a contract advertised by the state Department of Public Works or any other state agency, except as specified in subdivision (2) of this section, (A) the awarding authority shall not withhold more than ten per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise properly due to the general or prime contractor under the terms of such contract and (B) any such general or prime contractor shall not withhold from any subcontractor more than (i) ten per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise due to the subcontractor or (ii) the amount withheld by the awarding authority from such general or prime contractor under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision, whichever is less. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision (1), the awarding authority shall establish an early release program with respect to periodic payments by general or prime contractors to subcontractors.

      (2) In the case of a contract advertised by the state Department of Transportation, (A) the department shall not withhold more than two and one-half per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise properly due to the general or prime contractor under the terms of such contract, and (B) any such general or prime contractor shall not withhold more than two and one-half per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise due to any subcontractor.

      (3) If the awarding authority is a municipality, (A) it shall not withhold more than five per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise properly due to the general or prime contractor under the terms of such contract, and (B) any such general or prime contractor shall not withhold more than five per cent from any periodic or final payment which is otherwise due to any subcontractor.

      (P.A. 77-306; P.A. 87-575, S. 2; P.A. 96-235, S. 4, 19; P.A. 98-222, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 87-575 reduced, from 5% to 2.5%, the maximum amount of any payment which the state may withhold under this section; P.A. 96-235 renumbered and relettered provisions of section, added new Subdiv. (1) re withholding of payments under contracts advertised by state Department of Public Works between July 1, 1996, and June 30, 1999, and applied provisions of Subdiv. (2) to contracts advertised by said department on or after July 1, 1999, or any case in which awarding authority is any other state agency, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 98-222 amended Subdiv. (1) by deleting time period, adding provisions re "other state agency" and replacing "department" and "Commissioner of Public Works" with "awarding authority", and amended Subdiv. (2) by replacing "Department of Public Works" with "Department of Transportation".

      See chapter 60, part II (Sec. 4b-91 et seq.) re public building contracts.

      Sec. 49-41a et seq., "prompt payment act" cited. 238 C. 293. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708.

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      Sec. 49-41c. State contractor to make payment to subcontractor within thirty days. Any person contracting with the state shall make payment to any subcontractor employed by such contractor within thirty days of payment by the state to the contractor for any work performed or, in the case of any contract entered into on or after October 1, 1986, for materials furnished by such subcontractor, provided such contractor may withhold such payment if such contractor has a bona fide reason for such withholding and if such contractor notifies the affected subcontractor, in writing, of his reasons for withholding such payment and provides the state board, commission, department, office, institution, council or other agency through which such contractor had made the contract, with a copy of the notice, within such thirty-day period.

      (P.A. 83-552, S. 1; P.A. 86-12, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 86-12 made section applicable to payment for materials as well as labor.

      See chapter 60, part II (Sec. 4b-91 et seq.) re public building contracts.

      Sec. 49-41a et seq., "prompt payment act" cited. 238 C. 293. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708.

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      Sec. 49-42. Enforcement of right to payment on bond. Suit on bond, procedure and judgment. (a) Any person who performed work or supplied materials for which a requisition was submitted to, or for which an estimate was prepared by, the awarding authority and who does not receive full payment for such work or materials within sixty days of the applicable payment date provided for in subsection (a) of section 49-41a, or any person who supplied materials or performed subcontracting work not included on a requisition or estimate who has not received full payment for such materials or work within sixty days after the date such materials were supplied or such work was performed, may enforce such person's right to payment under the bond by serving a notice of claim on the surety that issued the bond and a copy of such notice to the contractor named as principal in the bond not later than one hundred eighty days after the last date any such materials were supplied or any such work was performed by the claimant. For the payment of retainage, as defined in section 42-158i, such notice shall be served not later than one hundred eighty days after the applicable payment date provided for in subsection (a) of section 49-41a. The notice of claim shall state with substantial accuracy the amount claimed and the name of the party for whom the work was performed or to whom the materials were supplied, and shall provide a detailed description of the bonded project for which the work or materials were provided. If the content of a notice prepared in accordance with subsection (c) of section 49-41a complies with the requirements of this section, a copy of such notice, served not later than one hundred eighty days after the date provided for in this section upon the surety that issued the bond and upon the contractor named as principal in the bond, shall satisfy the notice requirements of this section. Not later than ninety days after service of the notice of claim, the surety shall make payment under the bond and satisfy the claim, or any portion of the claim which is not subject to a good faith dispute, and shall serve a notice on the claimant denying liability for any unpaid portion of the claim. The notices required under this section shall be served by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid in envelopes addressed to any office at which the surety, principal or claimant conducts business, or in any manner in which civil process may be served. If the surety denies liability on the claim, or any portion thereof, the claimant may bring action upon the payment bond in the Superior Court for such sums and prosecute the action to final execution and judgment. An action to recover on a payment bond under this section shall be privileged with respect to assignment for trial. The court shall not consolidate for trial any action brought under this section with any other action brought on the same bond unless the court finds that a substantial portion of the evidence to be adduced, other than the fact that the claims sought to be consolidated arise under the same general contract, is common to such actions and that consolidation will not result in excessive delays to any claimant whose action was instituted at a time significantly prior to the motion to consolidate. In any such proceeding, the court judgment shall award the prevailing party the costs for bringing such proceeding and allow interest at the rate of interest specified in the labor or materials contract under which the claim arises or, if no such interest rate is specified, at the rate of interest as provided in section 37-3a upon the amount recovered, computed from the date of service of the notice of claim, provided, for any portion of the claim which the court finds was due and payable after the date of service of the notice of claim, such interest shall be computed from the date such portion became due and payable. The court judgment may award reasonable attorneys fees to either party if upon reviewing the entire record, it appears that either the original claim, the surety's denial of liability, or the defense interposed to the claim is without substantial basis in fact or law. Any person having direct contractual relationship with a subcontractor but no contractual relationship express or implied with the contractor furnishing the payment bond shall have a right of action upon the payment bond upon giving written notice of claim as provided in this section.

      (b) Every suit instituted under this section shall be brought in the name of the person suing, in the superior court for the judicial district where the contract was to be performed, irrespective of the amount in controversy in the suit, but no such suit may be commenced after the expiration of one year after the last date that materials were supplied or any work was performed by the claimant, except that any such suit solely seeking payment for retainage, as defined in section 42-158i, shall be commenced not later than one year after the date payment of such retainage was due, pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of section 49-41a.

      (c) The word "material" as used in sections 49-33 to 49-43, inclusive, shall include construction equipment and machinery that is rented or leased for use (1) in the prosecution of work provided for in the contract within the meaning of sections 49-33 to 49-43, inclusive, or (2) in the construction, raising or removal of any building or improvement of any lot or in the site development or subdivision of any plot of land within the meaning of sections 49-33 to 49-39, inclusive.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7215; 1961, P.A. 228; 1969, P.A. 192, S. 1; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127; P.A. 79-602, S. 100; P.A. 87-345, S. 2; P.A. 94-188, S. 16; P.A. 00-36; P.A. 01-195, S. 48, 181; P.A. 06-78, S. 1; P.A. 09-146, S. 3.)

      History: 1961 act required that payment be made within 90 days rather than 60 days in Subsec. (a); 1969 act required that suit commence within one year after date on which last of the labor was performed or material was supplied rather than within one year "after the date of final settlement of such contract" in Subsec. (b); P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county" in Subsec. (b); P.A. 79-602 made minor changes in wording but made no substantive changes; P.A. 87-345 substantially amended procedure set forth in Subsec. (a) for enforcement of right to payment under bond; P.A. 94-188 amended procedure set forth in Subsec. (a) for enforcement of right to payment under bond and amended Subsec. (b) by adding language concerning the applicable payment date provided for in Sec. 49-41a and the time within which to commence suit for materials or work not included on a requisition or estimate; P.A. 00-36 redefined "material" in Subsec. (c) to include construction equipment that is rented or leased for use in prosecution of work or in construction, raising, removal of any building or improvement of lot or in site development or subdivision and to apply term to Secs. 49-33 to 49-43, inclusive; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (c), effective July 11, 2001; P.A. 06-78 added provision in Subsec. (a) re notice for payment of retainage, added provisions in Subsec. (b) re commencement of suit within one year of last date materials were supplied or work was performed by claimant and requiring suit seeking payment solely for retainage to be commenced within one year after retainage payment was due, pursuant to Sec. 49-41a(a) and made conforming and technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b), effective May 30, 2006; P.A. 09-146 replaced reference to Sec. 49-41a(b) with reference to Sec. 49-41a(c) in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2009.

      Cited. 143 C. 85. History discussed. 151 C. 332. Material actually forming part of work provided for in public works contract, as well as labor performed at the site, is clearly within contemplated coverage of payment bond required for protection of persons who have furnished "labor or material in the prosecution of the work". Id., 334. Test as to whether labor and materials used in making repairs which are major items are covered by payment bond is whether item was necessitated by rigors of job rather than prior condition of equipment and whether supplier and purchasing contractor reasonably expected that item would be substantially consumed on the job. Id., 335, 336. Having found that no administrative determination by public works commissioner of final settlement date had been made under section 49-43, court was justified in concluding that no final settlement within meaning of this section could be said to have preceded actual payment and exchange of releases, and that subject action commenced within three months of that date had been timely brought. 159 C. 563. Cited. 174 C. 219. Remedies afforded by this section and Sec. 49-41a(b) are independent and notice requirements of later are not prerequisite to suit initiated under this section. 207 C. 468. Cited. 225 C. 367. Cited. 229 C. 303. Cited. 238 C. 293. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708. Cited. 240 C. 10. Under 1995 revision, action on bond executed by surety pursuant to Sec. 49-41 is governed by this section, and plaintiff cannot bring a common-law action on the bond. 293 C. 569.

      Cited. 25 CA 751. Cited. 29 CA 783. Cited. 32 CA 118; Id., 133. Claims under this section are not preempted by ERISA. 40 CA 777.

      Cited. 17 CS 297. Fact that written notice was given to the contractor in an action on bond must be recited in the complaint or a copy annexed thereto. Failure to comply with this rule left the complaint deficient. 18 CS 43. Until the subcontractor exercises his right of action granted by this section, there is no debt due from the contractor to the subcontractor which can be garnished. 21 CS 16. Cited. 32 CS 168.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 204, 205.

      Subsec. (a):

      Decision permits subcontractor to sue on surety bond despite failure to comply precisely with notice requirements of section. 225 C. 367. "Payment bond claim act" cited. 238 C. 293.

      Because section requires only "substantial accuracy" re complaint, plaintiff was not obligated to prove that company X was now known as company Y. 49 CA 522. Trial court erred in refusing to admit evidence of notice of claim on the surety. Id.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 204, 206, 207.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 236 C. 750.

      1969 amendment is not applicable to contract made prior to its passage as it would materially affect contract. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 205, 206, 208, 209.


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      Sec. 49-43. Certified copies of bonds and contracts for public works. Each agency of the state or of any subdivision thereof, in charge of the construction, alteration or repair of any public building or public work of the state or of any subdivision thereof, shall furnish, to any person making application therefor who submits an affidavit that he has supplied labor or materials for the work and payment therefor has not been made or that he is being sued on the bond, a copy of the bond and the contract for which it was given, certified by the administrative head of the agency, which copy shall be prima facie evidence of the contents, execution and delivery of the original. Applicants shall pay for those certified copies such fees as are provided in section 1-212.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7216; 1959, P.A. 57; 1969, P.A. 192, S. 2; P.A. 79-602, S. 101.)

      History: 1959 act transferred duties formerly held by attorney general under provisions of section to agencies of state or its subdivisions and their administrative heads and required payment of fees as provided in Sec. 1-15 where previously fees were fixed by attorney general; 1969 act deleted provision specifying that certified statements of date when final settlement made is "conclusive as to such date" and subsequent reference to fee charged for such certified statements; P.A. 79-602 substituted "the" or "those" for "such" where appearing.

      Duties of attorney general are purely ministerial in character. 143 C. 85. Purpose of statute discussed. 159 C. 563. Sec. 49-41 et seq. cited. 239 C. 708.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 204, 206, 207.


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      Secs. 49-44 to 49-46. Recording of judgment lien; when it holds from attachment. Lien only on land liable to execution at date of judgment. Owner of judgment may file lien; foreclosure, limitation of time, notice of lis pendens. Sections 49-44 to 49-46, inclusive, are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7225-7227; P.A. 78-120; 78-280, S. 2, 127; P.A. 79-602, S. 102, 103; P.A. 83-581, S. 39, 40; P.A. 84-546, S. 127, 173.)

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      Sec. 49-46a. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380d.

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      Sec. 49-47. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380h.

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      Sec. 49-47a. Form of mechanic's lien foreclosure certificates. Certificates of foreclosure of mechanic's liens shall be, as far as possible, of the same form as is prescribed for certificates of foreclosure of mortgages.

      (P.A. 79-602, S. 96.)

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      Sec. 49-48. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380i.

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      Sec. 49-49. When insolvency proceedings set aside lien. Section 49-49 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7230; P.A. 83-581, S. 39, 40; P.A. 84-546, S. 127, 173.)

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      Sec. 49-50. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380f.

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      Sec. 49-51. Discharge of invalid lien. (a) Any person having an interest in any real or personal property described in any certificate of lien, which lien is invalid but not discharged of record, may give written notice to the lienor sent to him at his last-known address by registered mail or by certified mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested, to discharge the lien. Upon receipt of such notice, the lienor shall discharge the lien by sending a release sufficient under section 52-380d, by first class mail, postage prepaid, to the person requesting the discharge. If the lien is not discharged within thirty days of the notice, that person may apply to the Superior Court for such a discharge, and the court may adjudge the validity or invalidity of the lien and may award the plaintiff damages for the failure of the defendant to make discharge upon request. If the court is of the opinion that such certificate of lien was filed without just cause, it may allow, in its discretion, damages to any person aggrieved by such failure to discharge, at the rate of one hundred dollars for each week after the expiration of such thirty days, but not exceeding in the whole the sum of five thousand dollars or an amount equal to the loss sustained by such aggrieved person as a result of such failure to discharge the lien, which loss shall include, but not be limited to, a reasonable attorney's fee, whichever is greater.

      (b) When a lien on real property is adjudged invalid or is otherwise discharged by the court, a certified copy of the judgment of invalidity or discharge recorded on the land records of the town where the certificate of lien was filed fully discharges the lien. If such a discharged or invalid lien is a lien filed on personal property pursuant to section 52-355a, a release of lien in the form prescribed by subsection (c) of section 52-380d, certified to by a clerk of the Superior Court, with reference to and the date of the court order of discharge or invalidity, fully discharges the lien on filing with the Secretary of the State.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7232; P.A. 79-602, S. 113; P.A. 82-270; P.A. 83-581, S. 18, 40.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 rephrased provisions but made no substantive changes; P.A. 82-270 specified the manner in which a lienor is to be given notice to discharge a lien, and authorized a court to award damages, and specified the amount of such damages, if a certificate of lien was filed without just cause; P.A. 83-581 made section applicable to liens on "personal property", required the lienor upon receipt of the notice to discharge the lien by sending a release by first class mail, inserted Subsec. indicators and rephrased Subsec. (a) and provided that a copy of the discharge of a lien on real property recorded on the land records fully discharges the lien and, that if a discharged or invalid lien is a lien on personal property, a release of the lien in the form prescribed by Sec. 52-380d(c) certified by a court clerk and filed with the secretary of the state fully discharges the lien.

      Action to declare highway assessment invalid. 133 C. 1. Cited. 168 C. 371. Cited. 192 C. 10. Cited. 225 C. 102. Cited. 228 C. 574.

      Cited. 14 CA 157. Cited. 36 CA 206. Cited. 37 CA 764. Cited. 46 CA 63. Judgment lien discharged as invalid because marital dissolution judgment regarding child's educational expenses did not order payment of a sum certain and cannot be characterized as a money judgment. 99 CA 347.

      Cited. 15 CS 358. The binding effect of a waiver in a subcontract of the right to a mechanic's lien is not obviated by the contractor's breach of contract. This section does not provide an adequate remedy to these plaintiffs and their petition in equity for a summary discharge of the liens should be granted. 22 CS 293. Cited. 31 CS 209. Cited. 42 CS 460.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 456.

      Subsec. (a):

      Commissioner of Public Works has interest sufficient to contest tax lien on property which is subject to long-term financing agreement entered into by commissioner, since Sec. 4b-46 exempts from taxation property that is the subject of such agreements. 53 CA 438.


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      Sec. 49-52. Pendency of action to foreclose lien on personalty not to be notice. The pendency of an action for the foreclosure of any lien, other than a chattel mortgage, upon any personal estate is not notice of that action to any person who acquires an interest in that estate during the pendency of the action, unless the officer serving the process and complaint in the action leaves a true and attested copy of the process and complaint at the office of the town clerk of the town in which the lien is recorded at least twelve days before the return day of the process. A judgment or decree of foreclosure obtained in that action, upon any process and complaint of which a copy is not so left at the town clerk's office, does not affect the rights of any person acquiring an interest in the estate during the pendency of the action.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8059; 1955, S. 3200d; P.A. 79-602, S. 114.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 restated provisions but made no substantive changes.

      See title 42a, article 9 re secured transactions, sales of accounts, contract rights and chattel paper under Uniform Commercial Code.

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      Sec. 49-53. Duty of officer serving process in such action. Record by town clerk. (a) The officer serving the process and complaint in an action for the foreclosure of any lien, other than a chattel mortgage, upon any personal estate shall leave a true and attested copy of the process and complaint at the town clerk's office at least twelve days before the return day of the process, for which he shall be allowed the same fees as for other copies, and the fees shall be taxed with the other fees in the cause.

      (b) The town clerk at whose office any such copy is left shall keep the same on file for the inspection of all persons having any interest in the estate therein described. The town clerk shall endorse on all such copies the date of their reception, and shall plainly number them as they are received, consecutively. He shall also keep a book in which he shall index the copies, referring to their numbers, under the plaintiff's name as grantee and the defendant's name as grantor.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8060; P.A. 79-602, S. 115.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and restated provisions, specifying applicability to actions "for the foreclosure of any lien, other than a chattel mortgage, upon any personal estate".

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      Sec. 49-54. Transferred to Chapter 906, Sec. 52-380b.

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      Sec. 49-55. Vessel lien in connection with building, repairing, mooring, dockage or storage. Each vessel, not documented according to the maritime or admiralty laws of the United States, shall be subject to a lien in the amount of a claim of not less than fifty dollars by any person, hereinafter called the lienor, for work done, including the equipping of such vessel with safety devices, materials furnished or expenses incurred in connection with the building, repairing, mooring, dockage or storage of such vessel. This lien shall be subordinate to security interests previously filed in the office of the Secretary of the State. The lienor may retain possession of the vessel until the charges for such work, materials or expenses have been paid or the lien has been dissolved.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7234; 1969, P.A. 818, S. 1; P.A. 77-34; P.A. 87-505, S. 7.)

      History: 1969 act replaced previous provisions which specified that all vessels in construction or repair of which a person claims more than $20 for materials or services rendered are subject to lien for the claim amount, that lien takes precedence over other subsequent encumbrances except lien for mariners' wages and that lien may be foreclosed "like a mortgage of personal property" with new provisions applicable solely to vessels "not documented according to the maritime or admiralty laws of the United States"; P.A. 77-34 authorized liens for "mooring, dockage or storage" of vessels; P.A. 87-505 added provision re safety devices and authorized retention of the vessel until charges have been paid or the lien dissolved.

      There is no maritime lien in favor of a shipbuilder, nor for materials or supplies furnished to a vessel in her home port, but a state can give a lien in such cases. 7 Wall. 645. The United States courts have power to allow such a lien to be enforced by admiralty process in rem; 4 Wheat. 438; 1 Black. 529; but the United States supreme court in 1858 refused to exercise this power for the future, and repealed their former rule authorizing such libels; but now see 167 U.S. 606.

      Cited. 21 CA 808.


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      Sec. 49-55a. Notice of vessel lien. Substitution of bond. Sale of vessel and satisfaction of lien. (a) Upon the possession of the vessel by a lienor, he shall cause a notice of a vessel lien, in duplicate, to be filed on a form provided by the Secretary of the State with the office of the secretary on which he shall also indicate the date and place of the sale of the vessel, which date of sale shall be at least sixty days next succeeding the filing of the notice. The lienor shall, within seven days of the filing, send by certified mail a copy of such notice to the person indicated as the owner of the vessel, and to anyone who has filed with the Secretary of the State claiming a legal or equitable interest in the vessel. The fees for such notice and procedure shall be set by the Secretary of the State.

      (b) The owner of the vessel, or anyone having a legal or equitable interest therein, may apply to any judge of the Superior Court, within whose jurisdiction the vessel is held or where the lienor resides, to dissolve the lien upon the substitution of a bond with sufficient surety.

      (c) If no application that the lien be dissolved upon substitution of a sufficient bond, as provided herein, is made within sixty days next succeeding the filing of the notice with the Secretary of the State, then the lienor may sell the vessel at public auction at his place of business or wherever he may designate, provided, at least seven days prior to the sale, he shall publish three times in a newspaper having general circulation in the municipality where the vessel is located a notice containing substantially the same information as filed in the notice of a vessel lien, as provided by section 49-55b, and shall notify, in writing, any holders of any prior or subsequent security interests, who have filed notice of the interest with the Secretary of the State. The proceeds of the sale, after satisfaction of any prior security interests filed with the Secretary of the State, and satisfaction of the vessel lien and satisfaction of any subsequent security interests filed with the Secretary of the State, shall be paid to the owner of record. If the amount due the owner is not claimed within one year from the date of the sale, it shall escheat to the state.

      (1969, P.A. 818, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 160; P.A. 74-183, S. 272, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 235, 681; P.A. 79-602, S. 116; P.A. 04-240, S. 23; 04-257, S. 77.)

      History: 1971 act required that lienor notify vessel's owner within seven days rather than within 72 hours after filing notice of lien; P.A. 74-183 deleted provision re applications to dissolve lien made to circuit court judges where amount claimed is $7,500 or less, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference allowing applications to court of common pleas for dissolving lien, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and substituted "the" for "such" where appearing; P.A. 04-240 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing provision re filing of notice in quadruplicate with provision re filing of notice in duplicate and making technical changes; P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 14, 2004.

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      Sec. 49-55b. Form of notice of vessel lien. A notice of vessel lien shall contain the following information: (1) The registration number; (2) the name of the vessel; (3) the name of the manufacturer; (4) the type of propulsion; (5) the length of the vessel; (6) a general description of the vessel; (7) the name and last-known mailing address of the owner; (8) the name and address of the lienor; (9) the amount of the lien; (10) the basis of the claim with dates; and (11) the place where the vessel is being held. This notice shall be in the following form:

NOTICE OF VESSEL LIEN

      To all persons whom it may concern, a lien is claimed by me on the below-described vessel:

      Name of claimant .... amount of claim ....
      Address of claimant ....
      Name of vessel .... registration number ....
      Type of propulsion .... length ....
      Basis of claim with dates ....
      Description of vessel ....
      Location of vessel ....
      Name of owner and address ....
      Date of intended sale and place (if applicable) ....
      Dated at .... this .... day of .... A.D. 20...

(The claimant) ....

      (1969, P.A. 818, S. 3.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In 2001 the reference in this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-55c. Dissolution of lien. Action by person claiming lien. (a) The application to dissolve a vessel lien may be in the following form:

To ...., a judge of the Superior Court for the judicial district of ....

      The undersigned, .... of the town (or city) of .... in the county of .... and judicial district of ...., is the owner (or has the following legal or equitable interest: ....) of the following vessel, .... (description of vessel).

      Such vessel is now held by .... of the town (or city) of ...., in the county of .... under a claim of lien for .... and that he is desirous that such lien be dissolved upon the substitution of a bond, with sufficient surety, according to the statute.

      Dated at .... this .... day of ...., 20...

(The claimant) ....

      (b) If the lien is dissolved, the person who claimed the lien shall bring a complaint in the court with jurisdiction setting forth the amount and basis of the claim. The person who caused the lien to be dissolved shall have thirty days after the writ is returnable to the court where the action is brought to file an affidavit with such court controverting the material allegations contained in the complaint and affidavit that he has a valid defense. The issues so raised shall be tried as all other issues in such court. If the person who has caused the lien to be dissolved does not file such affidavit, the bond shall be forfeited to the lienor.

      (1969, P.A. 818, S. 4, 5; P.A. 73-616, S. 37; P.A. 74-183, S. 273, 291; 74-338, S. 15, 94; P.A. 76-436, S. 236, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 64, 127.)

      History: P.A. 73-616 made technical correction in Subsec. (b), substituting "writ" for "date"; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas and "circuit" with "county", effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 74-338 substituted "lien" for "bond" for conformity with other references in Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to judges of common pleas court in application form, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county" or added reference to judicial districts in conjunction with reference to counties as necessary; (Revisor's note: In 2001 the reference in Subsec. (a) of this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-55d. Obtaining of lien without possession of vessel. Writ of attachment. Judicial sale. (a) If the lienor does not have possession of the vessel, the lienor may bring a complaint, setting forth the reasons for the lien and demanding the sale of the vessel, returnable in the superior court, within whose jurisdiction the vessel is located or where the services for which the lien is claimed were performed. The lienor may cause to be issued a writ of attachment against the vessel directed to a state marshal or other proper officer who shall take possession of the vessel and continue in possession of the same where located, or elsewhere as deemed expedient by the officer.

      (b) A copy of the complaint shall be personally served by a state marshal or other proper officer upon the owner of the vessel or left at the owner's usual place of abode if the owner is a resident of this state. If the owner is not a resident of this state, then a copy of the complaint shall be served upon such person as may be in charge of the vessel and the state marshal shall send a notice of the complaint and the attachment of the vessel to the owner by certified mail at such owner's last-known residence.

      (c) The owner or the owner's representative shall have thirty days next succeeding the date the complaint is returnable to the proper court to file an affidavit with the court controverting any material allegations contained in the complaint and an affidavit that the owner has a valid defense. The issues so raised shall be tried as all other issues in the court. If the owner or the owner's legal representative does not file the necessary affidavits, the lienor may make a motion for judgment and order of sale which shall be heard on short calendar by the court having jurisdiction, which motion the court shall have the power to grant and the court shall order the sale of the vessel by the state marshal or other proper officer at public auction, subject to all prior encumbrances on file with the Secretary of the State, provided, at least seven days prior to the sale, a notice of the time, place and purpose of the sale shall be published in a newspaper having general circulation where the vessel was located at the time of the attachment, and notice of same shall be sent by certified mail to the owner of the vessel at such owner's last-known place of residence and to all other holders of valid security interests on file with the office of the Secretary of the State. The proceeds of the sale, after payment of all expenses connected with the sale and payment of any balance due on any valid security interest perfected before the vessel lien was filed, and satisfaction of the vessel lien and satisfaction of any valid security interest subsequent to the vessel lien presented for payment, shall be paid to the owner. If the amount due the owner is not claimed within one year from the date of such sale, it shall escheat to the state.

      (1969, P.A. 818, S. 6; P.A. 74-183, S. 274, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 237, 681; P.A. 79-602, S. 117; P.A. 00-99, S. 102, 154; P.A. 01-195, S. 49, 181; P.A. 03-19, S. 114.)

      History: P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas as court for return of complaint and deleted provision which had based court jurisdiction on amount of claim, i.e. superior court was court for return of complaint only where lien claimed exceeded $7,500, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and substituted "the" for "such"; P.A. 00-99 replaced references to sheriff with state marshal, effective December 1, 2000; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes throughout, effective July 11, 2001; P.A. 03-19 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective May 12, 2003.

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      Sec. 49-56. Notice of vessel lien to be filed with Secretary of the State. Duration of lien. Discharge. (a) A vessel lien is not valid, unless the lienor has, within sixty days after he has ceased to furnish the goods or services described in section 49-55, filed a notice of a vessel lien with the Secretary of the State.

      (b) A vessel lien shall not continue in force for a longer period than four years after the lien has been perfected, unless the party claiming the lien commences an action to foreclose it within two years from the date the lien was filed with the Secretary of the State and then proceeds therewith to and obtains final judgment within the two years next succeeding the date the action was commenced. Each such lien, after the expiration of each such two-year period without action, commenced or obtaining final judgment, respectively, shall be discharged of record by the person claiming the same, upon the request of the owner of the vessel on which the lien has been claimed. An action to foreclose a vessel lien shall be privileged in respect to assignment for trial.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7235; 1969, P.A. 818, S. 7; 1972, P.A. 294, S. 35; P.A. 79-602, S. 118.)

      History: 1969 act substituted "vessel lien" for "claim" and replaced former provisions re ten-day limit on lien unless certificate of lien is lodged with town clerk and re contents of certificate with new provisions; 1972 act substituted "vessel lien" for "mechanics' lien" in provision re privileged assignment for trial; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and rephrased provisions.

      Cited. 217 C. 807.

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      Sec. 49-56a. Termination or removal of notice of lien. Each person who has lodged for record a notice of a vessel lien on any personal property after receiving satisfaction of his claim or after the rendition of a final judgment against him showing that nothing is due thereon, shall, within ten days after being requested in writing to do so by any person interested in having the lien removed, sign and lodge, in the office of the Secretary of the State, a certificate that such lien is removed, which, when recorded, shall discharge such lien. Fees for this and the procedure and forms to be used for the same shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the State. If he fails to comply with such request, he shall pay to the party aggrieved such sum, not exceeding half the amount claimed by his lien, as the court having cognizance of the action brought therefor may determine.

      (1971, P.A. 201.)

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      Sec. 49-57. Form of certificate of lien on vessel. Section 49-57 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7236; 1969, P.A. 818, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 49-58. Lien not to exceed contract price. A vessel or its appurtenances shall not be subject to vessel liens for a greater amount in the whole than the price agreed to be paid for the vessel or its repairs.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7237; 1969, P.A. 818, S. 8; P.A. 79-602, S. 119.)

      History: 1969 act deleted provisions re apportionment of amount of agreed price among several claimants whose claims exceed that amount, i.e. claimants other than original contractor paid in full if possible or in part by apportionment; P.A. 79-602 restated section but made no substantive changes.

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      Sec. 49-59. Discharge of liens. Penalty for failure to discharge. Each person who has lodged for record a certificate claiming a lien on any property, under the provisions of this chapter, shall, after receiving satisfaction of his claim or after the rendition of a final judgment against him showing that nothing is due thereon, within ten days after being requested in writing to do so by any person interested in having the lien removed, sign and lodge, in the office in which his original certificate was filed for record, a certificate that such lien is removed, which, when recorded, shall discharge such lien. If he fails to comply with such request, he shall pay to the party aggrieved such sum, not exceeding half the amount claimed by his lien, as the court having cognizance of the action brought therefor may determine.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7238.)

      See Sec. 7-34a re town clerks' fees.

      See Sec. 49-9 re form of release of mechanic's liens.


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      Sec. 49-60. Jewelers' liens. Television and radio service dealers' liens. (a) Each jeweler, watchmaker, silversmith or television and radio service dealer who alters, repairs or does any work on any article of personal property at the request of the owner or legal possessor of the property has a lien upon and may retain the possession of the article until the charges for the alteration, repairing or work have been paid.

      (b) If the debt remains unpaid for more than six months, any such jeweler, watchmaker, silversmith or television and radio service dealer may sell the article at public or private sale, and the proceeds, after first paying the expense of such sale, shall be applied in payment of the debt, the balance, if any, to be paid, in trust for the debtor, within ten days to the State Treasurer. No such sale shall be held until after thirty days' notice to the owner or legal possessor has been given by registered or certified mail at his last-known address, stating the time and place of sale. If the owner's or possessor's address is unknown, or if such registered or certified mail notice is returned, further notice shall be given by advertising the time and place of the sale in a newspaper having a substantial circulation in the locality where the sale is to take place at least thirty days in advance of the sale. No such article the value of which is more than one hundred dollars, may be sold as hereinbefore provided, unless the charges against the same equal at least one-third the value of the article.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7239; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 106; P.A. 79-282; 79-602, S. 120; P.A. 83-220, S. 2; P.A. 85-154.)

      History: 1961 act required payment of proceeds remaining after payment of debt to state treasurer rather than to treasurer of county where sale held, county government having been abolished; P.A. 79-282 prohibited sale of articles valued at more than $100 rather than $25 unless charges equal one-third of their value; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and rephrased provisions, deleting requirement that notice of sale be posted on nearest public signpost; P.A. 83-220 granted a television and radio service dealer a lien on property he alters, repairs or works on and authorized such a dealer to sell such property under certain circumstances; P.A. 85-154 reduced the period of the lien in Subsec. (b) from 12 months to 6 months.

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      Sec. 49-61. Release of artificer's lien on substitution of bond. Lien on motor vehicle; notice to commissioner. Sale. (a) The owner of any personal property which is held by one who claims to be a bailee for hire of that personal property and to have a lien in consequence thereof, or anyone having a legal or equitable interest in that property, may apply in writing to any judge of the Superior Court, within whose jurisdiction that personal property is held or the lienor resides, to dissolve the lien upon the substitution of a bond with surety.

      (b) If the property is a motor vehicle and if no application that the lien be dissolved upon such substitution of a bond is made within thirty days of the date of the completion of the work upon the property by the bailor for hire, the bailee shall send a written notice to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, stating the engine number and chassis number thereof, the date the motor vehicle was left with such bailee, the date the work was completed, the amount for which a lien is claimed, the registration thereof if any number plates are on the motor vehicle and the name of the owner or person who authorized the work to be done, and shall enclose a fee of five dollars. Such notice shall be placed on file by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and be open to public inspection. If the motor vehicle is subject to a security interest, the commissioner, within ten days of receipt of such notice, shall send the bailee the name and address of any lienholder as recorded on the certificate of title. Within ten days of receipt of such information relative to any lienholder, the bailee shall mail written notice to each lienholder in a registered or certified letter, postage paid, stating that the motor vehicle is being held by such bailee and has a lien upon it for repair and storage charges. Any sale under the provisions of this section shall be void unless the notice required in this section has been given to said commissioner, if the property is a motor vehicle.

      (c) If no application for such dissolution of the lien has been made by the bailor for hire within three months from the date of completion of the work upon the property, or if the property has not been replevied, the bailee may sell the property at public auction for cash at his place of business and apply the proceeds of the sale, first toward the payment of the debt or obligation owing to him and second toward the payment of any balance due on any conditional bill of sale held on the property.

      (d) The sale shall be advertised, in a newspaper published or having a circulation in the town where the bailee's place of business is situated, three times, commencing at least ten days before the sale and, if the last usual place of abode of the bailor is known to or may reasonably be ascertained by the bailee, notice of the time and place of sale shall be given by mailing the notice to him in a registered or certified letter, postage prepaid, at least ten days before the time of the sale, and similar notice shall be given to any officer who has placed an attachment on the property and, if the property is a motor vehicle, any lienholder.

      (e) The proceeds of such sale, after the payment of the amount owing to the bailee and all expense connected with the sale and of any balance due on any conditional bill of sale, shall be paid to any officer who has placed an attachment on the property and be held by that officer in the same manner as though such moneys had been originally attached. If there has been no attachment, the balance shall be paid to the owner of the property or his legal representatives, if called for or claimed by him or them at any time within one year from the date of the sale, and, if the balance is not claimed or called for as aforesaid within said period, it shall escheat to the state.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7240; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 67; February, 1965, P.A. 331, S. 46; 502; P.A. 74-183, S. 275, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 238, 681; P.A. 79-602, S. 121; P.A. 83-220, S. 1; P.A. 03-38, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act raised amount of lien which determines court jurisdiction from $100 to $2,500, requiring that application to dissolve lien for that amount or less be made to circuit court judge rather than to justice of the peace for county where property is held or lienor resides and deleting provision allowing applications for more than that amount made to town, city or borough courts; 1965 acts raised amount which determines jurisdiction to $7,500 and deleted 40-day time limit for bailee's notice to motor vehicles commissioner; P.A. 74-183 deleted reference to applications made to circuit court judges and corresponding reference to amount which determines jurisdiction, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to applications made to court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and rephrased provisions; P.A. 83-220 amended Subsec. (b) to require the bailee to enclose a fee of $5 with his notice to the commissioner of motor vehicles and to require the commissioner to send the bailee the name and address of any lienholder, and amended Subsec. (d) to require the bailee to notify any lienholder prior to the sale of a motor vehicle; P.A. 03-38 amended Subsec. (b) to add provision re 10-day period for commissioner to notify bailee of prior security interest, to add requirement that bailee notify lienholder within 10 days that bailee is holding motor vehicle and has lien upon it, and to make technical changes, effective May 23, 2003.

      Cited. 6 CA 447.

      Cited. 36 CS 321.


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      Sec. 49-62. Form of application. The application described in section 49-61 may be in the following form:

To ...., a Judge of the Superior Court for the judicial district of ....:

      The application of C.D. of the Town (or City) of ...., in the County of ...., and judicial district of ...., shows that he is the owner (or sets forth other legal or equitable interest) of the following personal property, viz.:

      Such personal property is now held by A.B. of the Town (or City) of ...., in the County of ...., and judicial district of .... under a claim of lien for storage of such personal property, (or for care, cartage, freight, work and material, etc., as the case may be), and that he is desirous that such lien be dissolved upon the substitution of a bond, with surety, according to the statute.

      Dated at .... the .... day of ...., 20...

C.D. (or C.D. by X, his attorney)."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7241; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 197; P.A. 74-183, S. 276, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 239, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 65, 127; P.A. 79-602, S. 122; P.A. 80-483, S. 146, 186.)

      History: 1959 act revised form to replace justice of the peace with circuit court judge as addressee; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court judge with judge of common pleas court as addressee, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 replaced common pleas court judge with superior court judge as addressee, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 replaced "county" with "judicial district" or added references to judicial districts in conjunction with references to counties as the context requires; P.A. 79-602 added specific reference to Sec. 49-61; P.A. 80-483 made technical grammatical correction; (Revisor's note: In 2001 the reference in this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-63. Notice of application. Hearing. No such lien may be dissolved until reasonable notice of the application, in writing, signed by the applicant or his attorney, has been served upon the lienor or left at his usual place of abode or such other reasonable notice as the judge may order has been given. Any person interested may be heard in relation to the amount and sufficiency of the bond offered by the applicant. The bond shall be in amount not less than the amount claimed by the lienor, unless it appears to the authority to whom the application is made that the amount so claimed is excessive, in which event he may order the bond to be in such amount as he deems reasonable.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7242; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 107; P.A. 79-602, S. 123.)

      History: 1961 act deleted reference to notice ordered by justice of the peace; P.A. 79-602 made minor changes in wording but made no substantive changes.

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      Sec. 49-64. Form of bond. Such bond shall be taken to the lienor, and shall be substantially in the following form:

      "Know all men by these presents:

      That we, C. D. of ...., as principal, and .... of ...., as surety, are holden and firmly bound, jointly and severally, unto A. B. of ...., in the penal sum of .... dollars, to which payment well and truly to be made, we hereby bind ourselves, our heirs, executors and administrators, firmly by these presents.

      The Condition of this obligation is such that whereas certain personal property, viz.: ...., in which said C. D. has an interest as owner (or otherwise, as the case may be) is now held by said A. B. under claim of lien for storage (or otherwise, as the case may be) to the amount of .... dollars:

      Now, Therefore, if said C. D. shall pay or cause to be paid any judgment that may be rendered against him by any court of competent jurisdiction not exceeding the amount of .... dollars (the amount claimed under the lien), with interest and costs, or in default of such payment shall pay or cause to be paid to the officer having the execution issued on such judgment, on demand, the actual value at the date hereof of such personal property, not exempt from such lien, not exceeding said amount of .... dollars, then this bond shall be void, but otherwise in full force and effect.

      Dated at .... this .... day of ...., 20...

.... Seal.
.... Seal."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7243.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In 2001 the reference in this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-65. Dissolution of lien to be recorded. The authority dissolving the lien shall certify such dissolution upon the application, and forthwith return the application, notice, order and bond to the clerk of the superior court for the judicial district wherein such personal property is held under such lien, or wherein such lienor resides.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7244; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127.)

      History: P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county".

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      Sec. 49-66. Pleadings may be amended. In any case in which a bond is substituted for a lien after an action for the collection of the lienor's charges has been commenced, the plaintiff in such action may amend his pleadings, without costs, so as to make the action one upon such bond.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7245.)

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      Sec. 49-67. Limitation of action on bond. Any bond substituted for a lien under the provisions of sections 49-61 to 49-66, inclusive, shall be void unless an action is brought to recover thereon within one year from the date of such bond.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7246.)

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      Sec. 49-68. Liens of boardinghouse keepers. When a special agreement has been made between the keeper of any boarding or lodging house and any person boarding or lodging at such house, regarding the price of such board or lodging, all the baggage and effects kept by such person at such house shall be subject to a lien in favor of the keeper of such house for all such sums as are at any time due him from such person for board or lodging; and such boardinghouse or lodging house keeper may detain such baggage and effects until such debt is paid; and, if it is not paid within sixty days after it is due, he may sell such property, or such part thereof as is necessary, and apply the proceeds to the payment of such debt.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7247.)

      See Secs. 53a-118 to 53a-125, inclusive, re larceny offenses generally.

      This statute does not require special notice to debtor of time and place of sale of goods. 41 C. 184. Distinction between lodger and tenant. 86 C. 269; 116 C. 115.

      Cited. 38 CS 1.


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      Sec. 49-69. Liens of hotel keepers. Whenever the keeper of any hotel or inn receives into his hotel or inn any person as a boarder or lodger, he shall have a lien upon and right to detain the baggage and effects of such boarder or lodger; and such lien may be enforced in the manner hereinafter provided. At any time after thirty days after the person incurring any debt or obligation has left the hotel or inn wherein such debt or obligation was incurred, the debt or obligation being still due and unpaid, the proprietor of such hotel or inn may sell at public auction for cash at the office of such hotel or inn any baggage or property left at such hotel or inn and apply the avails of such sale toward the payment of such debt or obligation; provided such sale shall be advertised in a newspaper published or having a circulation in the town where such hotel or inn is situated three times, commencing at least five days before such sale; and, if the last usual place of abode of such debtor is known to or can reasonably be ascertained by such hotel keeper, notice of the time and place of sale shall be given him by mailing such notice to him in a registered or certified letter, postage paid, at such last usual place of abode at least five days before the time of sale. The proceeds of such sale, after deducting the amount due the proprietor of such hotel or inn and all expenses connected with such sale, shall be paid to the owner of the property or his legal representatives, if called for or claimed by him or them at any time within one year from the date of such sale, and, if such balance is not claimed or called for within said period, then it shall escheat to the state.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7248.)

      See Secs. 53a-118 to 53a-125, inclusive, re larceny offenses generally.

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      Sec. 49-70. Lien on animals for their keep. Transfer of abandoned animals. (a) When a special agreement has been made between the owner of any animals, including birds and fish, and any person who keeps and feeds such animals, regarding the price of such keeping, such animals shall be subject to a lien, for the price of such keeping, in favor of the person keeping the same; and such person so keeping such animals may detain the same until such debt is paid; and, if it is not paid within thirty days after it is due, he may sell such animals, or so many thereof as are necessary, at public auction, upon giving written notice to the owner of the time and place of such sale at least six days before such sale, and apply the proceeds to the payment of such debts, returning the surplus, if any, to such owner.

      (b) A commercial kennel, as defined in section 22-327, or a veterinary hospital which boards or grooms animals for nonmedical purposes, may transfer any abandoned animal in its custody to a nonprofit animal rescue or adoption organization which annually places ten or more animals in private homes as pets. An animal shall be considered abandoned if the owner or keeper of such animal fails to retrieve the animal within five days of the date on which such owner or keeper was scheduled to retrieve the animal. Prior to transferring such animal, such kennel or veterinary hospital shall give notice of its intention to do so to the owner or keeper at his last-known address by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, and shall allow a period of ten days to elapse after the receipt is returned before transferring such animal. Each such commercial kennel and veterinary hospital shall post in a visible location the procedures provided for in this subsection and shall give a written notice of such procedures to any person who boards an animal at such kennel or with such veterinary hospital. Any nonprofit organization which receives an animal in accordance with the provisions of this subsection shall not be liable in any civil action brought by the previous owner or keeper of such animal for any subsequent transfer or disposal of such animal by such organization.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7249; 1959, P.A. 248; P.A. 95-358, S. 3; P.A. 96-243, S. 6, 16.)

      History: 1959 act referred to "animals, including birds and fish" rather than to "cattle, horses, sheep or swine" and allowed sale of animals if debt not paid within 30 rather than 21 days after due; P.A. 95-358 added Subsec. (b) re transfer of abandoned dogs and cats to rescue or adoption organizations; P.A. 96-243 added provision in Subsec. (b) allowing veterinary hospitals to transfer abandoned animals under this section and changed references to "dogs and cats" to "animals" and shortened the timeframes for notice to owners or keepers and disposition of abandoned animals, effective June 6, 1996.

      Under this statute as at common law, possession is necessary to the preservation of the lien. 57 C. 547. Waiver of lien by claiming possession upon another basis. 74 C. 541.

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      Sec. 49-71. Lien of manufacturers on materials. Any person, firm or corporation engaged in the business of manufacturing, spinning, throwing, bleaching, mercerizing, printing or finishing yarn or other goods made of cotton, wool, silk, linen, rayon, nylon, synthetic fibers or artificial silk or goods of which cotton, wool, silk, linen, rayon, nylon, synthetic fibers or artificial silk form a component part shall be entitled to a lien, upon the goods and property of others which come into the possession of such person, firm or corporation for the purpose of being manufactured, spun or thrown into yarn or other goods or for the purpose of being bleached, mercerized, dyed or finished, for the amount of any debt due such person, firm or corporation or for the amount of any note or notes taken on account of such debt from any owner of such cotton, wool, silk, linen, rayon, nylon, synthetic fibers or artificial silk by reason of any work performed or materials furnished in or about the manufacturing, spinning, throwing, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing or finishing of such goods or property, or other goods of such owner or owners whereof the lienor's possession has terminated. Such lien shall not be waived or impaired by the taking of any note or notes or the recovery of any judgment for any amount due on account of such debt, but the amount of the claim secured thereby may be collected by levy and sale under execution upon judgment rendered in any action upon any such note, lien or claim. The amount of such claim may also be collected by a public sale of the goods or property upon which the lien securing the same rests, upon a notice of sale published at least once each week for two weeks preceding the date of such sale in some newspaper published in the county in which such goods or property is located, and by mailing, postage prepaid, a copy of such notice, at least five days before the date of such sale, to the owner or owners of such goods or property, addressed to such owner or owners' last-known residence or place of business. The proceeds of any such sale shall be applied to the payment of the amount of the claim secured by such lien and the expenses of such sale; and only such goods or property shall be sold as is necessary, as nearly as may be determined, to pay the amount of such claim and expenses, and the balance of the proceeds of any such sale, if any, shall be paid to such owner or owners. "Owner", as used in this section, shall include all persons, partnerships and corporations having title to the property herein described and shall also include a factor, consignee, agent, converter or other person entrusted with possession of the goods held under such lien or of a bill of lading consigning the same to him, with or without authority to sell the same, and delivered by such factor, consignee, agent, converter or other person to the lienor for the purposes aforesaid.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7250; 1951, S. 2977d.)

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      Sec. 49-72. Liens for rates or charges owed to private water company. Any private water company which is owed rates or charges for connection with or for the use of its water system and such rates or charges are not paid when due has a lien on the real estate served and a charge against the owners of such real estate from the date the rates or charges were due, provided the owner of such real estate when the lien is recorded is the party that owes such rates or charges. The lien and charge shall bear interest at the rate of eighteen per cent per annum so long as the rates or charges remain unpaid. The lien may be recorded and released in the manner provided for recording and releasing tax liens. The lien shall not continue for more than one year after the date the rates or charges were due, unless the secretary of the company, before the expiration of that year, has filed a certificate of continuation of the lien in the manner provided by law for the continuance of tax liens. When continued the lien shall be valid for fourteen years thereafter. The lien shall take precedence over all other subsequently recorded liens or encumbrances except taxes and liens for assessments filed by an association of a common interest community under section 47-258 and may be foreclosed against the lot or building served in the same manner as a lien for taxes.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7251; P.A. 79-602, S. 112; P.A. 83-563, S. 1; P.A. 93-349, S. 3; P.A. 95-353, S. 3; P.A. 98-29, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 made minor changes in wording but made no substantive changes; P.A. 83-563 provided for a rate of interest of 18% after October 1, 1983; P.A. 93-349 deleted references to municipal waterworks having and continuing a lien and to authority of waterworks superintendent to file certificate of continuation; P.A. 95-353 deleted previously existing provisions and inserted provisions giving a private water company a lien for any unpaid charges on a delinquent customer's property and gave precedence to such liens over all liens except tax liens and made technical changes; P.A. 98-29 allowed a lien only if the owner of the real estate when the lien is recorded is the party that owes such rates or charges, effective May 19, 1998.

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      Sec. 49-73. Liens on accident and liability policies in favor of hospitals and ambulance services. Service of process on insurer and defendant. (a) Any hospital which is exempt from taxation under the provisions of section 12-81, any ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation, or any hospital owned and operated by a municipality or the state, which furnished medical or other service or materials to any patient injured by reason of any accident not covered by the Workers' Compensation Act has a lien on the proceeds of any accident and liability insurance policy issued by any company authorized to do business in this state, which proceeds may be due such patient, either directly or indirectly, to the extent of the actual cost of such service and materials, provided such hospital or ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation, or, in the case of the state, the Department of Administrative Services, after the commencement of rendering of such service or providing of such materials and before payment by the insurance company, serves written notice upon the insurance company by registered or certified mail at its principal home office or any branch office, if the company issuing the policy is located within this state, and upon the Insurance Commissioner of this state by registered or certified mail, if the insurance company is located without the state. The notice shall be in duplicate and shall contain the name of the injured person, if known, the name of the company or companies issuing the policy and the amount expended and an estimate of the amount to be expended in the services rendered to or the materials provided for the patient.

      (b) Whenever the liability of the company or companies, either directly or indirectly, to the patient has been fixed, the insurance company shall pay directly to the hospital or ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation, or, in the case of the state, to the Department of Administrative Services, the amount due it, provided the amount shall be agreed upon by all of the parties interested. A receipt by the hospital or ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership, corporation or division is evidence of payment of such amount by such company or companies on account of their liability to the insured.

      (c) If the interested parties do not agree concerning the amount due the hospital or ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership, corporation or division, either party may bring an action of interpleader in the judicial district in which the hospital or ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation involved is located or, in the case of the state, in the judicial district of Hartford.

      (d) When an insurance company located outside the state is a defendant, service of process may be made on the Insurance Commissioner of this state, as set forth in section 38a-25. When any such defendant is a nonresident person who has been a patient in any hospital in this state or has used the services of such ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation, that person shall be conclusively presumed, by virtue of his admission as a patient in the hospital or use of the services of the ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation, to have appointed the Secretary of the State as his agent for service of process in any action of interpleader under the provisions of this section, arising out of his treatment as such patient or because of such service, and for no other purpose. Service shall be made by delivering to and leaving with the secretary or some person designated by him to receive the process in his office two copies thereof and by paying to him the sum of five dollars. The secretary shall forthwith send by registered or certified mail one of the copies of the process to the defendant at his last-known address and shall keep a record of all process so served on him.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7252; 1953, 1955, S. 2978d; 1959, P.A. 356, S. 1; 457; 1969, P.A. 49; 561, S. 11; P.A. 77-614, S. 71, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 6, 127; P.A. 79-376, S. 69; 79-602, S. 124; P.A. 85-35; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; 90-243, S. 175; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6.)

      History: 1959 acts increased fee paid to secretary of the state for service of process from $2 to $5 and applied provisions to "any ambulance owner, operator, association, partnership or corporation"; 1969 acts specified that division of central collections of finance and control department is agent for state and specified that actions involving the state are to be brought before court in Hartford county and substituted reference to Sec. 38-265 for reference to Sec. 38-23; P.A. 77-614 replaced central collections division of finance and control department with department of administrative services; P.A. 78-280 replaced general reference to counties with reference to judicial districts and specific reference to Hartford county with reference to judicial district of Hartford-New Britain; P.A. 79-376 substituted "workers' compensation" for "workmen's compensation"; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and rephrased provisions but made no substantive changes; P.A. 85-35 amended Subsec. (a) to require that written notice be served upon the insurance company by registered or certified mail, and to permit such notice to be sent to any branch office of the company; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 90-243 made technical changes for statutory consistency; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995.

      Cited. 37 CS 596.

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      Sec. 49-73a. Liens on proceeds of fire insurance for outstanding municipal taxes. The interest of each person in the proceeds of any policy issued by an insurance company providing fire insurance coverage for loss or damages caused by fire on an item of real estate, including any policy written pursuant to the provisions of section 38a-670, provided the amount of the proceeds for the loss payable under such policy is five thousand dollars or more, shall be subject to any tax lien on such item of real estate continued pursuant to the provisions of section 12-173. No such lien shall be valid unless the tax collector of the municipality wherein such item of real estate is situated makes and files in the office of the town clerk a certificate of lien, pursuant to the provisions of section 12-173, giving notice of his intention to claim against such proceeds. Such lien shall exist from the fifteenth day succeeding the date of entry of such certificate in the land records. Any such lien may be discharged in accordance with said section 12-173.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 1.)

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 11 CA 308.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73b. Municipalities authorized to recover expenses. Liens on real estate and fire insurance proceeds. (a) Any municipality that has incurred expenses for the inspection, repair, demolition, maintenance, removal or other disposition of any real estate in order to secure such real estate, to remedy a blighted condition on such real estate or to make it safe and sanitary under any provision of the general statutes or any municipal building, health, housing or safety codes or regulations shall have the right to recover such expenses from the owner of the real estate for which such expenses were incurred.

      (b) The interest of each person in such real estate shall be subject to a lien for the payment of such expenses, which lien shall take precedence over any other encumbrance except municipal tax assessments on such real estate. No such lien shall be valid, unless the municipality, not later than the date thirty days after the date on which such work has ceased, files a certificate of such lien and gives notice to the owner of the real estate in the same manner as provided in section 49-34. Simultaneous with the filing, the municipality shall make reasonable efforts to mail a copy of the certificate by first class mail to the lienholder's current or last-known address.

      (c) The interest of each person in the proceeds of any policy providing insurance coverage issued by an insurance company for a loss to a covered residential or commercial structure, including any policy written pursuant to the provisions of section 38a-670, shall be subject to a lien on such proceeds for the expenses incurred by a municipality pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, provided such municipality, within thirty days after such work has ceased, files a certificate of such lien and gives notice to such interested person in the same manner as provided in section 49-34.

      (d) Any municipal lien filed pursuant to the provisions of this section may be foreclosed in the same manner as a mortgage.

      (e) Any certificate of lien filed pursuant to this section shall exist from the fifteenth day succeeding the date of entry of such certificate in the land records.

      (f) Any municipal lien filed pursuant to this section may be discharged or dissolved in the manner provided in sections 49-35a to 49-37, inclusive.

      (g) Nothing in this section shall prevent an insured owner, mortgagee, assignee or other interested party from negotiating a dissolution of any such lien on the insurance proceeds, enabling the insurance company to disburse said proceeds.

      (h) The provisions of this section shall not apply to policies on single-family or two-family dwellings, unless such dwellings are vacant residential properties owned by a registrant subject to section 7-148ii.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 2; P.A. 80-207, S. 1, 7; P.A. 97-320, S. 6, 11; P.A. 98-188, S. 4, 5; P.A. 06-185, S. 5; P.A. 09-144, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 80-207 deleted reference to demolition expenses in Subsec. (a), referring instead to expenses incurred "in order to secure such real estate or to make it safe", changed time limit for filing certificate of lien from 60 to 30 days in Subsecs. (b) and (c) and added Subsec. (h) excluding policies on single-family or two-family homes from provisions; P.A. 97-320 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re damage by fire, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-188 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "fire" and adding "for a loss to a covered residential or commercial structure", and amended Subsec. (g) by deleting "fire", effective June 4, 1998, and applicable to liens filed on and after July 1, 1997; P.A. 06-185 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re expenses to make real estate sanitary and amended Subsec. (b) to require mailing of a copy of certificate to the lienholder; P.A. 09-144 amended Subsec. (a) by making a technical change, adding "maintenance" and adding "to remedy a blighted condition on such real estate", amended Subsec. (b) by making technical changes and amended Subsec. (h) by adding exception for dwellings that are vacant residential properties owned by a registrant subject to Sec. 7-148ii.

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 5 CA 316.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73c. Certificate of lien to constitute constructive notice. Each certificate of lien filed pursuant to the provisions of sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, shall constitute constructive notice of the existence of the lien and the claim of the municipality against any such interest in such item of real estate or in such proceeds to the insurance company and to any person having an insurable interest in the real estate or an interest in the proceeds.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 3.)

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 11 CA 308.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73d. Insurance company to notify town clerk of demand in writing of a statement of liens. (a) Prior to the payment of any insurance proceeds for loss or damage to real estate caused by fire, provided the amount of the proceeds for the loss payable under the policy is five thousand dollars or more, the insurance company required to pay such proceeds shall notify the town clerk of the town in which such loss or damage has been sustained and demand in writing, by registered or certified mail, that a statement indicating the amount of all liens filed pursuant to sections 49-73a and 49-73b be delivered to such insurance company at a specified address, in person or by registered or certified mail, within twenty days from the date of receipt by the town clerk of such demand. Upon the failure of the town clerk to notify the insurance company of the existence of any such liens in said manner, the right of the municipality to claim against any such proceeds shall terminate and the lien thereon shall be dissolved. The insurance company may rely conclusively upon the amount of the taxes or expenses due as set forth in such notice of lien in making any payments of proceeds to any person.

      (b) Within thirty days of receipt of a notice of lien received from the town clerk pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and a final determination of the insurance company's obligation to pay fire insurance proceeds, the insurance company shall pay all or a portion of the proceeds otherwise payable to the insured directly to the municipality in satisfaction of the total amount of delinquent real estate taxes or incurred expenses as set forth on the certificate of lien and shall deduct the amount thereof from the proceeds otherwise payable to the insured. A receipt by the town clerk of the municipality shall be evidence of payment of such amount by the insurance company on account of its liability under its policy to the insured.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 4; P.A. 80-207, S. 2, 7.)

      History: P.A. 80-207 substituted "expenses" for "demolition costs" where appearing.

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 11 CA 308.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73e. Precedence and priority of liens. The liens filed pursuant to sections 49-73a and 49-73b shall take precedence over any claim of right of an insured owner, mortgagee, assignee or other interested party except as otherwise provided by section 49-73b. The lien filed pursuant to section 49-73a shall take precedence over the lien filed pursuant to section 49-73b.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 5; P.A. 80-207, S. 3, 7.)

      History; P.A. 80-207 removed reference to provisions of United States law in exception.

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73f. Municipal ordinance providing for release or return of insurance proceeds. Any municipality may adopt an ordinance providing for the release or return to the insured of any proceeds subject to a lien, to which it would otherwise be entitled, provided the insured agrees with the municipality to restore the affected premises to at least the same condition that it was in prior to the time that such lien of the municipality arose, subject to such conditions as such ordinance shall provide in order to guarantee performance of such obligation.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 6.)

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73g. Insurance company not to be held liable for payments to municipality. An insurance company shall not be liable to any insured owner, mortgagee, assignee or other interested party for any amounts paid by it to a municipality pursuant to the provisions of sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, and in reliance upon information contained in any statement provided by a municipality pursuant to section 49-73d. When acting in accordance with the provisions of sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, an insurance company shall not be held liable in any manner and shall not be deemed in violation of section 38a-816 relating to unfair claims practices for any action taken by it, including withholding payment of any insurance proceeds otherwise payable or for the release or disclosure of any information by it under sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 7.)

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73h. Applicability of lien provisions. Sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, shall apply to all policies of fire insurance delivered, issued for delivery or renewed after October 1, 1979. Each insurer licensed to do business in this state shall notify its insureds of the provisions of said sections upon issuance or renewal of policies of fire insurance covering real estate located in this state.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 8; P.A. 80-207, S. 4, 7; P.A. 81-472, S. 98, 159.)

      History: P.A. 80-207 removed clause which had excluded policies on single-family or two-family dwellings, but see Sec. 49-73b; P.A. 81-472 changed the applicability date from May 15, 1980, to October 1, 1979.

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-73i. Provisions re liens on insurance proceeds not to be deemed to affect other liens on real estate. The provisions of sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, shall not be deemed or construed to alter or impair the right of a municipality to acquire or enforce any lien against real property but shall be in addition to any other right provided by law to acquire or enforce such right.

      (P.A. 79-342, S. 9.)

      Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 49-74. Liens for cleaning, storage and other charges. Each person, firm, association and corporation engaged in the business of cleaning, laundering, repairing, dyeing, pressing or storing clothing, household goods, wearing apparel or other fabrics shall have a lien upon such clothing, household goods, wearing apparel or other fabrics for the amount due for such service until such amount is paid.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7253.)

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      Sec. 49-75. Sale of property subject to lien for other than storage charges. If the amount due for such cleaning, laundering, repairing, dyeing or pressing is not paid within six months after it is due, the property subject to such lien, or so much thereof as is necessary to satisfy such lien, may be sold by the person, firm, association or corporation holding such lien at public or private sale for cash, and the proceeds of such sale, after payment of the expenses thereof, shall be applied upon the indebtedness, and any remainder shall be paid to the owner of such property. Before making such sale the person, firm or corporation holding such lien shall give thirty days' written notice thereof by registered or certified mail sent to the last-known post-office address of such owner, and, in addition thereto, shall advertise the time and place thereof three times in a newspaper having a circulation in the community.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7254.)

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      Sec. 49-76. Sale of property subject to lien for storage charges. If the debit arising from storing clothing, household goods, wearing apparel or other fabrics for which a lien is given under section 49-74 is not paid within twelve months from the beginning of the storage period, the property subject to such lien, or so much thereof as is necessary to satisfy such lien, may be sold by the person, firm, association or corporation holding such lien at public or private sale for cash, and the proceeds of such sale applied to the expenses thereof, and to pay such debt, and the surplus, if any, shall be paid to the owner of such property. Before making such sale the person, firm or corporation holding such lien shall give thirty days' written notice thereof by registered or certified mail sent to the last-known post-office address of such owner and, in addition thereto, shall advertise the time and place thereof three times in a newspaper having a circulation in the community, provided persons, firms, partnerships or corporations operating as warehouses or warehousemen shall not be affected by this section.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7255.)

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      Secs. 49-77 to 49-85. Liens of factors on merchandise, generally. Sections 49-77 to 49-85, inclusive, are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2982d, 7256-7260, 7262, 7263; 1955, S. 2979d, 2984d-2986d; 1959, P.A. 133, S. 10-102; 615, S. 1, 2.)

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      Sec. 49-86. Bond in lieu of attachment. Notice of lien. Whenever a bond has been accepted in lieu of an attachment or in lieu of a previously accepted or ordered attachment bond, a notice of lien in favor of the attaching creditor and against the surety on the bond may be filed in the office of the town clerk of the town in which the real estate of the surety is situated, which notice of lien shall describe the land of the surety with reasonable certainty, and shall specify the date, amount and condition of the bond and the names of all parties, plaintiff and defendant, the court to which the action is returnable and the return day, in the action for which the bond is given. Such notice of lien, from the time of filing, shall constitute a lien upon the real estate described in such notice. Whenever a court or judge has power to order a bond in lieu of attachment, such court or judge may order a bond in lieu of a previously ordered or accepted attachment bond.

      (1955, S. 2987d.)

      See Sec. 52-304 re dissolution of attachment by substitution of bond or lien.

      Filing of notice of lien on property of the surety does not exempt creditor from making demand on surety within sixty days as required by section 52-328. 147 C. 189.

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      Sec. 49-87. Certificate of dissolution of bond, filing. Upon dissolution of the surety bond, the surety may file with the town clerk where the real estate is situated a certificate of such dissolution signed by the plaintiff of record or by his attorney of record or by the authority making the attachment for which the bond was substituted.

      (1955, S. 2988d.)

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      Sec. 49-88. Duration of lien on real estate. Discharge upon expiration. A lien on real estate arising under the provisions of section 49-86 shall not continue in force as a lien for a longer period than fifteen years after the date thereof unless within said period an action on the bond in connection with which the notice of lien was filed has been prosecuted to effect and a judgment lien against the surety filed according to law. All liens on real estate which have expired under the provisions of this section shall be deemed dissolved and the real estate shall be free from any lien or encumbrance by reason of the same and the town clerk of the town in which the real estate is situated shall, upon the request of any person interested, discharge such lien of record by recording a discharge of lien in the land records.

      (1955, S. 2989d; P.A. 79-602, S. 109; P.A. 09-213, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 rephrased provisions but made no substantive change; P.A. 09-213 replaced requirement that town clerk "endorse on the record of the notice of lien the words `discharged by operation of law'" with requirement that town clerk "discharge such lien of record by recording a discharge of lien in the land records".

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      Sec. 49-89. When judgment lien to date back to notice. If a judgment lien is placed upon real estate described in a notice of lien filed pursuant to the provisions of section 49-86 within four months after the judgment was rendered against the surety, it shall hold from the date of the notice of lien, provided the action on the bond was commenced within one year from the date of judgment in the action in connection with which the bond was substituted, and provided further the judgment lien contains a clause referring to and identifying the notice of lien.

      (1955, S. 2990d; P.A. 79-602, S. 110.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 restated provisions but made no substantive change.

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      Sec. 49-90. Certificate of court clerk upon happening of certain events or lien becoming ineffective. If any lien arising under the provisions of section 49-86 has been made and the plaintiff has withdrawn his suit or has been nonsuited or final judgment has been rendered against him, or if such suit has not been returned, or if for any reason such lien has become of no effect, the clerk of the court to which such suit has been made returnable shall, upon the request of any person interested, issue a certificate in accordance with the facts, which certificate may be filed in the office of the town clerk, and such town clerk shall record such certificate in the land records.

      (1955, S. 2991d; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 108; P.A. 09-213, S. 7.)

      History: 1961 act deleted reference to power of justice of the peace to issue certificate; P.A. 09-213 replaced requirement that, upon the filing of a certificate, town clerk "note on the margin of the record where such lien is recorded" with requirement that town clerk "record such certificate in the land records".

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      Sec. 49-91. Certificate of plaintiff removing lien upon happening of certain events or lien becoming ineffective. In any proceeding wherein a lien has been filed pursuant to the provisions of section 49-86, if the plaintiff therein has received satisfaction for his claim, or final judgment has been rendered against him thereon, or when for any reason the lien has become of no effect, the plaintiff or his attorney, at the request of any person interested in the estate liened or in having the lien removed, shall file a certificate with the town clerk that the lien is removed. Each such certificate shall be recorded by the town clerk in the land records of the town wherein the property affected by the release is located or wherein the notice of lien was filed.

      (1955, S. 2992d; P.A. 79-602, S. 111; P.A. 09-213, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 substituted "the" for "such" where appearing; P.A. 09-213 replaced requirement that certificate be recorded "at length in a book kept for that purpose by the clerk as a part of the land records" with requirement that certificate be recorded "by the town clerk in the land records" and replaced "lodge" with "file".

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      Sec. 49-92. Other lien rights not affected. Compliance with other statutes. Section 49-92 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7264; 1959, P.A. 133, S. 10-102; 615, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 49-92a. Purchaser's lien. Precedence. Foreclosure. Recording of notice. (a) A purchaser's lien is created for the amount of the deposit paid pursuant to and stated in a contract for the conveyance of land by the recording of such contract, or a notice thereof, in the records of the town in which the land is situated, provided the contract, or notice thereof, is executed by the owner and by the vendee of the land, witnessed and acknowledged in the same manner as required for a deed for the conveyance of land and describes the particular land to which it refers. Such purchaser's lien shall be prior to any other liens and encumbrances originating after the contract, or notice thereof, is recorded. A purchaser's lien may be foreclosed in the same manner as a mortgage. Transfer of title of the land to the vendee constitutes a release and discharge of the lien.

      (b) Any notice recorded pursuant to this section shall, in addition to the requirements set forth in subsection (a) of this section, include (1) the address of the owner and the vendee, (2) the date provided in the contract for the performance of such contract or, if such date is not provided in such contract, the date on which such contract was executed, and (3) the amount of the deposit paid pursuant to the contract. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect the validity of any purchaser's lien created before October 1, 2004.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 1; P.A. 79-602, S. 126; P.A. 04-132, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 restated provisions but made no substantive change; P.A. 04-132 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a), adding references to notice of contract and making technical changes therein, and added Subsec. (b) re requirements for notice recorded pursuant to section.

      Cited. 36 CA 206. Section "circumscribes the common law equitable lien by subjecting it to the time limitations of Sec. 49-92c". 40 CA 64. Language of statute clearly expresses a derogation of the common-law right to an equitable lien on property and thus mechanisms specified in the statute for creating a purchaser's lien on property replace procedures for creating an equitable lien on that property. 91 CA 442.

      Cited. 38 CS 8.


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      Sec. 49-92b. Dissolution on substitution of bond. Joinder of actions on claim and bond. (a) Whenever any purchaser's lien has been placed upon any real estate pursuant to section 49-92a, the owner of the real estate, or any person interested in the real estate, may make an application to any judge of the Superior Court that the lien be dissolved upon the substitution of a bond with surety, and the judge shall order reasonable notice to be given to the lienor of the application. If the lienor is not a resident of the state, the judge may order notice to be given by publication, registered or certified mail or personal service.

      (b) If the judge is satisfied that the applicant in good faith intends to contest the lien, he shall, if the applicant offers a bond, with sufficient surety, conditioned to pay to the lienor or his assigns such amount as the judge may adjudge to have been secured by the lien, with interest and costs, order the lien to be dissolved and the bond substituted therefor and shall return the application, notice, order and bond to the clerk of the superior court for the judicial district wherein the lien is recorded. If the applicant, within ten days from the return, causes a copy of the order, certified by the clerk, to be recorded in the town clerk's office where the lien is recorded, the lien shall be dissolved.

      (c) Whenever a bond is substituted for any lien after an action for the foreclosure of a lien has been commenced, the plaintiff in that foreclosure may amend his complaint, without costs, so as to make the action one upon the bond with which the plaintiff may join an action to recover upon his claim.

      (d) Whenever a bond is substituted for any lien before an action for the foreclosure of the lien has been commenced, the plaintiff may join the action upon the bond with an action to recover upon his claim.

      (e) Whenever a bond has been substituted for any lien, pursuant to this section, unless an action is brought to recover upon such bond within two years from the date of recording the certificate of lien, such bond shall be void.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 2; P.A. 76-436, S. 650, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 79-602, S. 127; 79-631, S. 40, 111.)

      History: P.A. 76-436 deleted references to powers of judges of court of common pleas under section and added reference to judicial districts, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; P.A. 79-602 divided section into Subsecs. and changed wording slightly but made no substantive changes; P.A. 79-631 made technical correction.

      Cited. 36 CA 206.

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      Sec. 49-92c. Limitation of lien. No purchaser's lien shall continue in force for a longer period than two years after such lien has been perfected, unless the party claiming such lien, within said period, commences an action to foreclose the same and proceeds therewith to final judgment. Each such lien, after the expiration of two years without action commenced, shall be discharged of record by the person claiming the same, upon the request of the owner of the property upon which the lien has been claimed.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 3.)

      Cited. 36 CA 206. Cited. 40 CA 64.

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      Sec. 49-92d. Record of discharge. The town clerk of the town in which the purchaser's lien is filed shall, upon request of any person having an interest in the real estate covered by that lien, discharge such lien and, if applicable, the lis pendens or notice of foreclosure, by recording in the land records a discharge of lien and, if applicable, a discharge of lis pendens or notice of foreclosure, provided the purchaser's lien has expired by a provision of the statute of limitations, and (1) no lis pendens or notice of foreclosure of the lien has been filed with that town clerk, or (2) if a lis pendens or notice of foreclosure has been so filed or recorded and a certificate, issued by the clerk of the court to which the notice referred after the return day of the foreclosure action, indicating that no such foreclosure action remains pending and that no judgment has been entered in the action in that court, has been filed for record with the town clerk.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 4; P.A. 79-602, S. 128; P.A. 09-213, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 restated existing provisions; P.A. 09-213 replaced requirement that town clerk "cause to be entered upon the land records a notation that the lien and, if applicable, the lis pendens or notice of foreclosure, is discharged by operation of law" with requirement that town clerk "discharge such lien and, if applicable, the lis pendens or notice of foreclosure, by recording in the land records a discharge of lien and, if applicable, a discharge of lis pendens or notice of foreclosure" and made a technical change.

      Cited. 36 CA 206.

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      Sec. 49-92e. Action to claim discharge. Any person having an interest in any real estate described in any recorded contract of sale, or notice thereof, creating a purchaser's lien which is invalid but not discharged of record may give written notice to the lienor to discharge the lien in the office where recorded. If the request is not complied with in ten days, such person may bring his complaint to the court which would have jurisdiction of the foreclosure of the lien, if valid, claiming such discharge of the lien, and the court may adjudge the validity or invalidity of the lien and may award the plaintiff damages for the failure of the defendant to make discharge upon request. A certified copy of the judgment of invalidity, recorded in the land records of the town where such certificate of lien was filed, fully discharges the lien.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 5; P.A. 79-602, S. 129; P.A. 04-132, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 79-602 restated existing provisions; P.A. 04-132 added reference to notice of contract and made technical changes.

      Cited. 36 CA 206.

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      Sec. 49-92f. Certificate of removal of lien. Each person who has lodged for record a contract of sale, or notice thereof, claiming a lien on any property under the provisions of sections 49-92a to 49-92f, inclusive, shall, after receiving satisfaction of his claim or after the rendition of a final judgment against him showing that nothing is due thereon, within ten days after being requested in writing to do so by any person interested in having the lien removed, sign and lodge, in the office in which his original contract of sale, or notice thereof, was filed for record, a certificate that such lien is removed, which, when recorded, shall discharge such lien. If he fails to comply with such request, he shall pay to the party aggrieved such sum, not exceeding half the amount claimed by his lien, as the court having cognizance of the action brought therefor may determine.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 272, S. 6; P.A. 04-132, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 04-132 added references to notice of contract.

      Cited. 36 CA 206.

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      Sec. 49-92g. Aircraft liens. Any person who stores, cares for, maintains, repairs, or furnishes any services, gasoline, accessories, materials or other supplies at the request of or with the consent of the owner, his agent or legal possessor of an aircraft, as defined in section 15-34, has a lien upon the aircraft until the sum due for any fees, expenses or charges for such storage, care, maintenance or repair or the furnishing of such services, gasoline, accessories, materials or other supplies has been paid. The lienor shall be entitled to retain possession of the aircraft until the amount of fees, expenses or charges for such storage, care, maintenance or repair or the furnishing of such services, gasoline, accessories, materials or other supplies has been paid or the lien has been dissolved. The lien shall be superior to all other liens, except liens for taxes. Any person entitled to a lien pursuant to this section shall, within ninety days after the date upon which work or services were performed or when such fees, expenses or charges were incurred, file a verified statement in the office of the Secretary of the State, pursuant to the provisions of sections 49-92h and 49-92i.

      (P.A. 93-433, S. 21, 26; P.A. 05-288, S. 170.)

      History: P.A. 93-433 effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes and added provisions re payment of fees, expenses or charges and dissolution of lien, effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 49-92h. Notice of aircraft lien. Substitution of bond. Sale of aircraft and satisfaction of lien. (a) Upon the possession of the aircraft by a lienor, he shall cause a notice of an aircraft lien, in duplicate, to be filed on a form provided by the Secretary of the State with the office of the secretary on which he shall also indicate the date and place of the sale of the aircraft, which date of sale shall be at least sixty days next succeeding the filing of the notice. The lienor shall, within seven days of the filing, send by certified mail a copy of such notice to the person indicated as the owner of the aircraft, and to anyone who has filed with the Secretary of the State claiming a legal or equitable interest in the aircraft. The fees for such notice and procedure shall be set by the Secretary of the State.

      (b) The owner of the aircraft, or anyone having a legal or equitable interest therein, may apply to any judge of the Superior Court, within whose jurisdiction the aircraft is held or where the lienor resides, to dissolve the lien upon the substitution of a bond with sufficient surety.

      (c) If no application that the lien be dissolved upon substitution of a sufficient bond, as provided herein, is made within sixty days next succeeding the filing of the notice with the Secretary of the State, then the lienor may sell the aircraft at public auction at his place of business or wherever he may designate, provided, at least seven days prior to the sale, he shall publish three times in a newspaper having general circulation in the municipality where the aircraft is located a notice containing substantially the same information as filed in the notice of an aircraft lien, as provided by section 49-92i, and shall notify, in writing, any holders of any prior or subsequent security interests who have filed notice of the interest with the Secretary of the State. The proceeds of the sale, after satisfaction of any prior security interests filed with the Secretary of the State, and satisfaction of the aircraft lien and satisfaction of any subsequent security interests filed with the Secretary of the State, shall be paid to the owner of record. If the amount due the owner is not claimed within one year from the date of the sale, it shall escheat to the state.

      (P.A. 93-433, S. 22, 26; P.A. 04-240, S. 24; 04-257, S. 78.)

      History: P.A. 93-433 effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 04-240 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing provision re filing of notice in quadruplicate with provision re filing of notice in duplicate and making technical changes; P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 14, 2004.

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      Sec. 49-92i. Form of notice of aircraft lien. A notice of the aircraft lien shall contain the following information: (1) The registration number; (2) the name and address of the owner; (3) a description of the aircraft; (4) the name and address of the lienor; (5) the amount of the lien; (6) the basis of the claim with dates; and (7) the place where the aircraft is being held. This notice shall be in the following form:

NOTICE OF AIRCRAFT LIEN

      To all persons whom it may concern, a lien is claimed by me on the below-described aircraft:

      Name of claimant .... amount of claim ....
      Address of claimant ....
      Name of aircraft .... registration number ....
      Basis of claim with dates ....
      Description of aircraft ....
      Location of aircraft ....
      Name of owner and address ....
      Date of intended sale and place (if applicable) ....
      Dated at .... this .... day of .... A.D. 20...

(The claimant) ....

      (P.A. 93-433, S. 23, 26.)

      History: P.A. 93-433 effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor's note: in 2001 the reference in this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-92j. Dissolution of aircraft lien. Action by person claiming lien. (a) The application to dissolve an aircraft lien may be in the following form:

To ...., a judge of the Superior Court for the judicial district of ....

      The undersigned, .... of the town (or city) of .... in the county of .... and judicial district of ...., is the owner (or has the following legal or equitable interest: ....) of the following aircraft, .... (description of aircraft).

      Such vessel is now held by .... of the town (or city) of ...., in the county of .... under a claim of lien for .... and that he is desirous that such lien be dissolved upon the substitution of a bond, with sufficient surety, according to the statute.

      Dated at .... this .... day of ...., 20...

(The claimant) ....

      (b) If the lien is dissolved, the person who claimed the lien shall bring a complaint in the court with jurisdiction setting forth the amount and basis of the claim. The person who caused the lien to be dissolved shall have thirty days after the writ is returnable to the court where the action is brought to file an affidavit with such court controverting the material allegations contained in the complaint and affidavit that he has a valid defense. The issues so raised shall be tried as all other issues in such court. If the person who has caused the lien to be dissolved does not file such affidavit, the bond shall be forfeited to the lienor.

      (P.A. 93-433, S. 24, 26.)

      History: P.A. 93-433 effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 2001 the reference in Subsec. (a) of this section to the date "19.." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 49-92k. Discharge of aircraft lien. Penalty for failure to discharge. Each person who has lodged for record a notice of an aircraft lien on any personal property after receiving satisfaction of his claim or after the rendition of a final judgment against him showing that nothing is due thereon, shall, within ten days after being requested in writing to do so by any person interested in having the lien removed, sign and lodge, in the office of the Secretary of the State, a certificate that such lien is removed, which, when recorded, shall discharge such lien. Fees for this and the procedure and forms to be used for the same shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the State. If he fails to comply with such request, he shall pay to the party aggrieved such sum, not exceeding half the amount claimed by his lien, as the court having cognizance of the action brought therefor may determine.

      (P.A. 93-433, S. 25, 26.)

      History: P.A. 93-433 effective July 1, 1993.

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      Secs. 49-92l to 49-92n. Reserved for future use.

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      Sec. 49-92o. Assignment of liens by regional sewer authorities for unpaid sewer assessments or connection or use charges. Any regional sewer authority established under an act of the General Assembly, may assign, for consideration, any and all liens filed by such regional sewer authority to secure unpaid sewer assessments or connection or use charges of the authority. The consideration received by the authority shall be negotiated between the authority and the assignee. The assignee or assignees of such liens shall have and possess the same powers and rights at law or in equity as such authority would have had if the lien had not been assigned with regard to the precedence and priority of such lien, the accrual of interest and the fees and expenses of collection. The assignee shall have the same rights to enforce such liens as any private party holding a lien on real property, including, but not limited to, foreclosure and a suit on the debt. Costs and reasonable attorneys' fees incurred by the assignee as a result of any foreclosure action or other legal proceeding brought pursuant to this section and directly related to the proceeding shall be taxed in any such proceeding against each person having title to any property subject to the proceedings. Such costs and fees may be collected by the assignee at any time after demand for payment has been made by the assignee.

      (P.A. 99-283, S. 8, 10.)

      History: P.A. 99-283 effective July 1, 1999.

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      Sec. 49-92p. Assignment of liens by regional water authorities for unpaid water assessments or connection and use charges. Any regional water authority established under an act of the General Assembly, may assign, for consideration, any and all liens filed by such regional water authority to secure unpaid water assessments or connection or use charges of the authority. The consideration received by the authority shall be negotiated between the authority and the assignee. The assignee or assignees of such liens shall have and possess the same powers and rights at law or in equity as such authority would have had if the lien had not been assigned with regard to the precedence and priority of such lien, the accrual of interest and the fees and expenses of collection. The assignee shall have the same rights to enforce such liens as any private party holding a lien on real property, including, but not limited to, foreclosure and a suit on the debt. Costs and reasonable attorneys' fees incurred by the assignee as a result of any foreclosure action or other legal proceeding brought pursuant to this section and directly related to the proceeding shall be taxed in any such proceeding against each person having title to any property subject to the proceedings. Such costs and fees may be collected by the assignee at any time after demand for payment has been made by the assignee.

      (P.A. 99-283, S. 9, 10.)

      History: P.A. 99-283 effective July 1, 1999.

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