CHAPTER 815p
UNIFORM CHILD CUSTODY
JURISDICTION AND ENFORCEMENT ACT

Table of Contents

Sec. 46b-115. Short title: Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
Sec. 46b-115a. Definitions.
Sec. 46b-115b. Proceedings governed by other law.
Sec. 46b-115c. Application to Indian tribes.
Sec. 46b-115d. International application of chapter.
Sec. 46b-115e. Effect of child custody determination.
Sec. 46b-115f. Priority.
Sec. 46b-115g. Notice to persons outside state; submission to jurisdiction.
Sec. 46b-115h. Communication between courts.
Sec. 46b-115i. Taking testimony in another state.
Sec. 46b-115j. Cooperation between courts; preservation of records.
Sec. 46b-115k. Initial child custody jurisdiction.
Sec. 46b-115l. Jurisdiction.
Sec. 46b-115m. Modification of custody determination of another state.
Sec. 46b-115n. Temporary emergency jurisdiction.
Sec. 46b-115o. Notice and opportunity to be heard; joinder.
Sec. 46b-115p. Simultaneous proceedings.
Sec. 46b-115q. Inconvenient forum.
Sec. 46b-115r. Jurisdiction declined by reason of conduct; assessment of fees and costs.
Sec. 46b-115s. Information required by the court.
Sec. 46b-115t. Appearance of parties and child.
Sec. 46b-115u. Definitions.
Sec. 46b-115v. Enforcement under Hague Convention.
Sec. 46b-115w. Registration of child custody determination.
Sec. 46b-115x. Enforcement of child custody determination.
Sec. 46b-115y. Temporary visitation order.
Sec. 46b-115z. Simultaneous proceedings.
Sec. 46b-115aa. Expedited enforcement of child custody determination.
Sec. 46b-115bb. Service of petition and order.
Sec. 46b-115cc. Hearing and order.
Sec. 46b-115dd. Order to take physical custody of child.
Sec. 46b-115ee. Costs, fees and expenses.
Sec. 46b-115ff. Recognition and enforcement of order issued by another state.
Sec. 46b-115gg. Appeals.
Sec. 46b-115hh. Definitions.
Sec. 46b-115ii. Foreign child custody determination.
Sec. 46b-115jj. Enforcement of foreign child custody order re return of child under Hague Convention.
Secs. 46b-116 to 46b-119.

PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      Sec. 46b-115. Short title: Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act. This chapter may be cited as the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 1, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115a. Definitions. As used in this chapter:

      (1) "Abandoned" means left without provision for reasonable and necessary care or supervision;

      (2) "Child" means an individual who has not attained eighteen years of age;

      (3) "Child custody determination" means a judgment, decree, or other order of a court providing for the legal custody, physical custody or visitation with respect to a child. The term includes a permanent, temporary, initial and modification order. The term does not include an order relating to child support or other monetary obligation of an individual;

      (4) "Child custody proceeding" means a proceeding in which legal custody, physical custody or visitation with respect to a child is an issue. The term includes a proceeding for dissolution of marriage, divorce, separation, neglect, abuse, dependency, guardianship, paternity, termination of parental rights and protection from domestic violence, in which the issue may appear. The term does not include a proceeding involving juvenile delinquency, contractual emancipation or enforcement under sections 46b-115u to 46b-115gg, inclusive;

      (5) "Commencement" means the filing of the first pleading in a proceeding;

      (6) "Court" means any entity, including the Superior Court or Probate Court in this state, if such entity has jurisdiction to establish, enforce or modify a child custody determination;

      (7) "Home state" means the state in which a child lived with a parent or person acting as a parent for at least six consecutive months immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding. In the case of a child less than six months old, the term means the state in which the child lived from birth with any such parent or person acting as a parent. A period of temporary absence of any such person is counted as part of the period;

      (8) "Initial determination" means the first child custody determination concerning a particular child;

      (9) "Issuing court" means the court that has made a child custody determination for which enforcement is sought under this chapter;

      (10) "Issuing state" means the state in which a child custody determination has been made;

      (11) "Modification" means a child custody determination that changes, replaces, supersedes or is otherwise made after a previous determination concerning the same child, whether or not it is made by the court that made the prior custody determination;

      (12) "Person" shall have the same meaning as contained in subsection (k) of section 1-1 and shall include a public agency;

      (13) "Person acting as a parent" means a person, other than a parent, who: (A) Has physical custody of the child or has had physical custody for a period of six consecutive months, including any temporary absence, any part of which period occurred within one year immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding, and (B) has been awarded legal custody by a court or claims a right to legal custody under the laws of this state;

      (14) "Physical custody" means the physical care and supervision of a child;

      (15) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 2, 40; P.A. 00-49, S. 1, 7.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-49 amended definition of "person" in Subdiv. (12) to include a public agency, effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115b. Proceedings governed by other law. The chapter does not govern an adoption proceeding or a proceeding pertaining to the authorization of emergency medical care for a child.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 3, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115c. Application to Indian tribes. A child custody proceeding that pertains to an Indian child as defined in the Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC Section 1901 et seq., is not subject to this chapter to the extent that it is governed by the Indian Child Welfare Act.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 4, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115d. International application of chapter. For purposes of this chapter, any child custody order of a foreign country shall be treated in the manner provided in section 46b-115hh.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 5, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115e. Effect of child custody determination. A child custody determination made by a court of this state that had jurisdiction under this chapter binds all persons who have been served in accordance with the laws of this state or notified in accordance with section 46b-115g or who have submitted to the jurisdiction of the court, and who have been given an opportunity to be heard. As to those persons, the determination is conclusive as to all decided issues of law and fact except to the extent the determination is modified.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 6, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115f. Priority. If a question of the existence or exercise of jurisdiction under this chapter is raised in a child custody proceeding, the question, upon request of a party, must be given calendar priority and handled expeditiously.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 7, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115g. Notice to persons outside state; submission to jurisdiction. (a) Notice required for the exercise of jurisdiction over a person outside this state shall be given in a manner reasonably calculated to give actual notice, and may be: (1) By personal delivery outside this state in the manner prescribed for service of process within this state; (2) in the manner prescribed by the law of the place in which the service is made for service of process in that place in an action in any of its courts of general jurisdiction; (3) any form of mail addressed to the person to be served and requesting a receipt; or (4) as directed by the court including publication, if other means of notification are ineffective.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided by any provision of the general statutes, notice under this section shall be served, mailed or delivered or last published at least twelve days before any hearing in this state.

      (c) Proof of service outside this state may be made by affidavit of the individual who made the service, or in the manner prescribed by the law of this state, the order pursuant to which the service is made, or the law of the place in which the service is made. If service is made by mail, proof may be a receipt signed by the addressee or other evidence of delivery to the addressee.

      (d) Except as otherwise provided by any provision of the general statutes, notice is not required if a person submits to the jurisdiction of the court.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 8, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115h. Communication between courts. (a) A court of this state may communicate with a court in another state concerning a proceeding arising under this chapter.

      (b) The court may allow the parties to participate in the communication. If the parties are not able to participate in the communication, they must be given the opportunity to present facts and legal arguments before a decision on jurisdiction is made.

      (c) Communication between courts on schedules, calendars, court records and similar matters may occur without informing the parties. A record need not be made of the communication.

      (d) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c) of this section, a record must be made of a communication under this section. The parties must be informed promptly of the communication and granted access to the record.

      (e) For the purposes of this section, "record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 9, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115i. Taking testimony in another state. (a) In addition to other procedures available to a party, a party to a child custody proceeding, guardian ad litem or legal representative of the child may offer testimony of witnesses who are located in another state, including testimony of the parties and the child, by deposition or other means allowable in this state for testimony taken in another state. The court on its own motion may order that the testimony of a person be taken in another state and may prescribe the manner in which and the terms upon which the testimony is taken.

      (b) A court of this state may permit an individual residing in another state to be deposed or to testify by telephone, audiovisual means, or other electronic means before a designated court or at another location in that state. A court of this state shall cooperate with courts of other states in designating an appropriate location for the deposition or testimony.

      (c) Documentary evidence transmitted from another state to a court of this state by technological means that do not produce an original writing may not be excluded from evidence on an objection based on the means of transmission.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 10, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115j. Cooperation between courts; preservation of records. (a) A court of this state may request the appropriate court of another state to: (1) Hold an evidentiary hearing; (2) order a person to produce or give evidence pursuant to procedures of that state; (3) order that an evaluation be made with respect to the custody of a child involved in a pending proceeding; (4) forward to the court of this state a certified copy of the transcript of the record of the hearing, the evidence otherwise presented, and any evaluation prepared in compliance with the request; and (5) order a party to a child custody proceeding or any person having physical custody of the child to appear in the proceeding with or without the child.

      (b) Upon request of a court of another state, a court of this state may hold a hearing or enter an order described in subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) Travel and other necessary and reasonable expenses incurred under subsections (a) and (b) of this section may be assessed against the parties.

      (d) A court of this state shall preserve the pleadings, orders, decrees, records of hearings, evaluations and other pertinent records with respect to a child custody proceeding until the child attains eighteen years of age. Upon appropriate request by a court or law enforcement official of another state, the court shall forward a certified copy of those records.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 11, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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PART II
JURISDICTION

      Sec. 46b-115k. Initial child custody jurisdiction. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial child custody determination if:

      (1) This state is the home state of the child on the date of the commencement of the child custody proceeding;

      (2) This state was the home state of the child within six months of the commencement of the child custody proceeding, the child is absent from the state, and a parent or a person acting as a parent continues to reside in this state;

      (3) A court of another state does not have jurisdiction under subdivisions (1) or (2) of this subsection, the child and at least one parent or person acting as a parent have a significant connection with this state other than mere physical presence, and there is substantial evidence available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training and personal relationships;

      (4) A court of another state which is the home state of the child has declined to exercise jurisdiction on the ground that this state is the more appropriate forum under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115q or section 46b-115r, the child and at least one parent or person acting as a parent have a significant connection with this state other than mere physical presence, and there is substantial evidence available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training and personal relationships;

      (5) All courts having jurisdiction under subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection have declined jurisdiction on the ground that a court of this state is the more appropriate forum to determine custody under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115q or section 46b-115r; or

      (6) No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under subdivisions (1) to (5), inclusive, of this subsection.

      (b) Subsection (a) of this section is the exclusive jurisdictional basis for making a child custody determination by a court of this state.

      (c) Physical presence of, or personal jurisdiction over, a party or a child is not necessary or sufficient to make a child custody determination.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 12, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115l. Jurisdiction. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, a court of this state which has made a child custody determination pursuant to sections 46b-115k to 46b-115m, inclusive, has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction over the determination until: (1) A court of this state or a court of another state determines that the child, the child's parents and any person acting as a parent do not presently reside in this state; or (2) a court of this state determines that (A) this state is not the home state of the child, (B) a parent or a person acting as a parent continues to reside in this state but the child no longer has a significant relationship with such parent or person, and (C) substantial evidence is no longer available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training and personal relationships.

      (b) A court of this state which has made a child custody determination but does not have exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under this section may modify that determination only if it has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under section 46b-115k.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 13, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115m. Modification of custody determination of another state. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, a court of this state may not modify a child custody determination made by a court of another state unless a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of subsection (a) of section 46b-115k and one of the following occurs: (1) The court of the other state determines that it no longer has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115l; (2) a court of another state determines that a court of this state would be a more convenient forum under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115q; or (3) a court of this state or another state determines that the child, the child's parents and any person acting as a parent do not presently reside in the other state.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this chapter, a court of this state may modify a child custody determination made by a court of another state if: (1) The child resides in this state with a parent; (2) the child has been, or is under a threat of being, abused or mistreated by a person who resides in the state which would have jurisdiction under the provisions of this chapter; and (3) the court of this state determines that it is in the child's best interest to modify the child custody determination.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 14, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

      Subsec. (b):

      Federal Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act preserves to the state that initially enters a child custody determination that is valid under its own law and is consistent with the PKPA the sole prerogative to modify that determination, as long as any modification would also be valid under its own law and either the child or a contestant continues to live in the state. 97 CA 46.


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      Sec. 46b-115n. Temporary emergency jurisdiction. (a) A court of this state has temporary emergency jurisdiction if the child is present in this state and (1) the child has been abandoned, or (2) it is necessary in an emergency to protect the child because the child, a sibling or a parent has been, or is under a threat of being, abused or mistreated. As used in this subsection with respect to a child, "abused" shall have the same meaning as in section 46b-120.

      (b) If there is no previous child custody determination that is enforceable under this chapter and a child custody proceeding has not been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, a child custody determination made under this section remains in effect until an order is obtained from a court of a state having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m. A child custody determination made under this section shall be a final determination if: (1) A child custody proceeding has not been or is not commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m; (2) this state has become the home state of the child; and (3) the child custody determination provides that it is a final determination.

      (c) If there is a previous child custody determination that is enforceable under this chapter or if a child custody proceeding has been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, the court of this state which issues an order pursuant to this section shall specify that such order is effective for a period of time which the court deems adequate to allow the person seeking an order to obtain such order from the other state which has jurisdiction. Such order shall be effective for that period of time specified in the order or until an order is obtained from the other state whichever occurs first.

      (d) If the court, in any proceeding commenced pursuant to this section, is informed that a child custody proceeding has been commenced, or that a child custody determination has been made, by a court of another state having jurisdiction pursuant to a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, such court shall immediately communicate with the court of the other state and take appropriate action, including the making of temporary orders for a specified period of time, to resolve the emergency and to protect the safety of the child and the parties.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 15, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115o. Notice and opportunity to be heard; joinder. (a) Before a child custody determination is made under this chapter, notice and an opportunity to be heard in accordance with the standard established in section 46b-115g shall be given to the parties, any parent whose parental rights have not been previously terminated and any person who has physical custody of the child.

      (b) This chapter does not govern the enforceability of a child custody determination made without notice or an opportunity to be heard.

      (c) The obligation to join a party and the right to intervene as a party in a child custody proceeding under this chapter are governed by section 46b-57.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 16, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115p. Simultaneous proceedings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, if at the time of the commencement of the proceeding in this state a proceeding concerning the custody of the child has been commenced in a court of another state having jurisdiction pursuant to a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, a court of this state shall not exercise jurisdiction. A court of this state may exercise jurisdiction if the proceeding in the other state has been terminated or is stayed by the court of the other state because such court has determined pursuant to a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115q, that a court in this state is a more convenient forum.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, the court shall, after review of relevant information provided to it, determine whether a child custody proceeding has been commenced in another state. If such proceeding has been commenced, the court in this state shall take appropriate action to communicate with the other court and to resolve which court shall have jurisdiction. If the court of this state determines that the court of the other state has jurisdiction pursuant to a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, the court of this state shall stay its proceeding while the court of the other state determines whether the court of this state is the more appropriate forum. If the court of the other state determines that the court of this state is not a more appropriate forum, the court of this state shall dismiss the proceeding.

      (c) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, the court, in a proceeding to modify a child custody determination, shall after review of relevant information provided to it, determine whether a proceeding to enforce the determination has been commenced in another state. If the court determines that such enforcement proceeding has commenced, the court may (1) stay the proceeding for modification pending the entry of an order of the court of the other state enforcing, staying, denying or dismissing the proceeding for enforcement; (2) enjoin the parties from continuing with the proceeding for enforcement; or (3) proceed with the modification under conditions it considers appropriate.

      (d) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, the court, in a proceeding to enforce a child custody determination, shall proceed, with regard to simultaneous proceedings, in accordance with the provisions of section 46b-115z.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 17, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115q. Inconvenient forum. (a) A court of this state which has jurisdiction under this chapter to make a child custody determination may decline to exercise its jurisdiction at any time if it determines that it is an inconvenient forum under the circumstances and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum. The issue of inconvenient forum may be raised upon a motion of a party, the guardian ad litem for the child or the attorney for the child, the court's own motion or a request of another court.

      (b) In determining whether a court of this state is an inconvenient forum and that it is more appropriate for a court of another state to exercise jurisdiction, the court shall allow the parties to submit information and shall consider all relevant factors including: (1) Whether family violence has occurred and is likely to continue in the future and which state could best protect the parties and the child; (2) the length of time the child has resided outside this state; (3) the distance between the court in this state and the court in the state that would assume jurisdiction; (4) the relative financial circumstances of the parties; (5) any agreement of the parties as to which state should assume jurisdiction; (6) the nature and location of the evidence required to resolve the pending litigation, including testimony of the child; (7) the ability of the court of each state to decide the issue expeditiously and the procedures necessary to present the evidence; and (8) the familiarity of the court of each state with the facts and issues in the pending litigation.

      (c) If a court of this state determines that it is an inconvenient forum and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum, it shall stay the proceedings upon condition that a child custody proceeding be promptly commenced in another designated state and may impose any other condition the court considers just and proper.

      (d) A court of this state may decline to exercise its jurisdiction under this chapter if a child custody determination is incidental to an action for dissolution of marriage, divorce or another proceeding while still retaining jurisdiction over the dissolution of marriage, divorce or other proceeding.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 18, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115r. Jurisdiction declined by reason of conduct; assessment of fees and costs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115n, if a court of this state has jurisdiction under this chapter because a person seeking to invoke its jurisdiction has engaged in unjustifiable conduct, the court shall decline to exercise its jurisdiction unless:

      (1) The parents and all persons acting as parents have acquiesced in the exercise of jurisdiction;

      (2) A court of the state otherwise having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m determines that this state is a more appropriate forum under a statute similar to section 46b-115q; or

      (3) No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under the criteria specified in sections 46b-115k to 46b-115m, inclusive.

      (b) If a court of this state declines to exercise its jurisdiction pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, it may fashion an appropriate remedy to ensure the safety of the child and prevent a repetition of the unjustifiable conduct, including staying the proceeding until a child custody proceeding is commenced in a court having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m.

      (c) If a court dismisses a petition or stays a proceeding because it declines to exercise its jurisdiction pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, it shall assess against the party seeking to invoke its jurisdiction reasonable expenses including costs, communication expenses, attorneys' fees, investigative fees, expenses for witnesses, travel expenses and child care during the course of the proceedings, unless the party from whom fees are sought establishes that the assessment would be clearly inappropriate. The court may not assess fees, costs or expenses against the state unless authorized by law.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 19, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115s. Information required by the court. (a) In a child custody proceeding, each party, in its first pleading or in an attached affidavit, shall give information, if reasonably ascertainable and not confidential under state law, under oath as to the child's present address or location, the places where the child has lived during the past five years, and the names and present addresses of the persons with whom the child has lived during the past five years. The pleading or affidavit must state whether the party:

      (1) Has participated, as a party or witness or in any other capacity, in any other proceeding concerning the custody of or visitation with the child and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the date of the child custody determination;

      (2) Knows of any civil or criminal proceeding that could affect the current proceeding, including proceedings for enforcement and proceedings relating to family violence, protective orders, termination of parental rights and adoptions, and if so, identify the court, the case number and the nature of the proceeding; and

      (3) Knows the names and addresses of any person not a party to the proceeding who has physical custody of the child or claims rights of legal custody or physical custody of, or visitation with, the child and if so, the names and addresses of those persons.

      (b) If the information required by subsection (a) of this section is not provided, the court upon motion of a party or on its own motion may stay the proceeding until such information is provided.

      (c) If the party provides any of the information required in subdivisions (1) to (3) of subsection (a) of this section, such party shall also provide any additional information under oath as required by the court. The court may examine the parties under oath as to details of the information provided and other matters pertinent to the court's jurisdiction and the disposition of the case.

      (d) Each party has a continuing duty to inform the court of any proceeding in this state or another state that could affect the current proceeding.

      (e) If a party under oath alleges in an affidavit or a pleading or on a form prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator that the health, safety or liberty of a party or child would be jeopardized by disclosure of location information, the information must be sealed and shall not be disclosed to the other party or the public unless the court, after a hearing, determines that it is in the interest of justice that such disclosure be made. The party making such allegation shall (1) provide obvious notice to the clerk of the court that such allegation is being made; (2) not file location information that poses the risk unless ordered by the court; (3) identify, in writing, documents previously filed with the court that contain location information that poses the risk; and (4) if, at the time the allegation is made, the party is not represented by counsel in the proceeding, provide the clerk of the court with a mailing address that may be disclosed to the public. Except as otherwise provided by rule of court, as used in this subsection, "obvious notice" means notice as provided on a form prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator or a notice to the clerk of the court which is set forth in the bottom margin of the first page of such filed document.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 20, 40; P.A. 00-49, S. 2, 7; 00-191, S. 13, 16; P.A. 01-186, S. 16; P.A. 03-19, S. 107.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-49 amended Subsec. (e) by deleting "in an affidavit or pleading" and inserting "on a form prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator", changed "identifying" to "location" and deleted phrase "must be sealed and may" and inserted "shall", effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-191 amended Subsec. (e) to restore provisions permitting allegations to be in an affidavit or a pleading, as alternatives to on a form and requiring information to be sealed, which had been deleted by P.A. 00-49, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-186 amended Subsec. (e) by making technical changes, adding requirements applicable to party making allegation and defining obvious notice; P.A. 03-19 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective May 12, 2003.

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      Sec. 46b-115t. Appearance of parties and child. (a) In a child custody proceeding in this state, the court may order a party to the proceeding who is in this state to appear before the court in person with or without the child. The court may order any person who is in this state and who has physical custody or control of the child to appear in person with the child.

      (b) If the court orders the appearance of a party who is outside this state, the court may order that a notice is given in accordance with section 46b-115g and that such notice include a statement directing the party to appear in person with or without the child and informing the party that failure to appear may result in a decision adverse to such party.

      (c) The court may enter any orders necessary to ensure the safety of the child or of any person ordered to appear pursuant to this section.

      (d) The court may order a party to pay for reasonable and necessary travel and expenses of a party to the child custody proceeding or the child who is outside the state.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 21, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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PART III
ENFORCEMENT

      Sec. 46b-115u. Definitions. As used in sections 46b-115u to 46b-115gg, inclusive, "petitioner" means a person who seeks enforcement of a child custody determination, and "respondent" means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of a child custody determination.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 22, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115v. Enforcement under Hague Convention. A court of this state may enforce an order by a federal court or another state court for the return of a child made pursuant to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in accordance with section 46b-115jj.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 23, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115w. Registration of child custody determination. (a) A child custody determination issued by a court of another state may be registered in this state, with or without a simultaneous request for enforcement, by sending to the Superior Court in this state: (1) A letter or other document requesting registration; (2) two copies, including one certified copy, of the determination sought to be registered, and a statement under penalty of perjury that to the best of the knowledge and belief of the petitioner the order has not been modified; and (3) except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115s, the name and address of the petitioner and any parent or person acting as parent who has been awarded custody or visitation in the child custody determination sought to be registered.

      (b) On receipt of the documents required by subsection (a) of this section, the registering court shall cause the determination to be filed as a foreign judgment, together with one copy of any accompanying documents and information, regardless of their form.

      (c) Within five days after the registering court's receipt of the documents required by subsection (a) of this section, the petitioner shall notify the persons named pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section of the registration of the documents by certified mail, return receipt requested at their respective last-known addresses or by personal service, and provide them with an opportunity to contest the registration in accordance with this section. The notice required in this subsection shall state that: (1) A registered determination is enforceable as of the date of the registration in the same manner as a determination issued by a court of this state; (2) a hearing to contest the validity of the registered determination must be requested within twenty days after service of notice; and (3) failure to contest the registration will, upon proof of notice, result in confirmation of the child custody determination and preclude further contest of that determination with respect to any matter that could have been asserted.

      (d) A hearing to contest the validity of the registered determination shall be requested within twenty days after service of the notice. Such hearing shall be held within twenty days of the receipt of such request. At that hearing, the court shall confirm the registered order unless the respondent establishes that: (1) The issuing court did not have jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m; (2) the child custody determination sought to be registered has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so pursuant to a statute substantially similar to sections 46b-115k to 46b-115m, inclusive; or (3) the respondent was entitled to notice of the proceedings before the court that issued the order for which registration is sought, but such notice was not given in a manner reasonably calculated to give actual notice.

      (e) If a timely request for a hearing to contest the validity of the registration is not made, the registration is confirmed as a matter of law with respect to those who have received proper notice and all persons served must be notified of the confirmation by the petitioner.

      (f) Confirmation of a registered order, whether by operation of law or after notice and hearing, precludes further contest of the order with respect to any matter that could have been asserted at the time of registration.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 24, 40; P.A. 00-49, S. 3, 7; 00-191, S. 14, 16.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-49 amended Subsec. (d) by changing "The respondent must request a hearing" to "A hearing to contest the validity of the registered determination shall be requested", effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-191 amended Subsec. (d) by requiring hearing to be held within 20 days of receipt of request, effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115x. Enforcement of child custody determination. A court of this state shall recognize and enforce, but not modify except in accordance with section 46b-115m, a child custody determination of a court of another state if (1) the court of the other state exercised jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, the determination was made under factual circumstances meeting the jurisdictional standards of this chapter and the determination has not been modified in accordance with this chapter, or (2) the child custody determination was registered in this state pursuant to section 46b-115w. A child custody determination which satisfies the criteria in subdivision (1) or (2) of this section shall have the same effect and shall be enforced in the same manner as a child custody determination rendered by the Superior Court.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 25, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115y. Temporary visitation order. (a) A court of this state which does not have jurisdiction to modify a child custody determination may issue a temporary order enforcing (1) the visitation schedule made by the court of another state, or (2) the visitation provisions of a child custody determination of another state which does not provide for a specific visitation schedule.

      (b) If a court of this state makes an order pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, it shall specify in the order a period that it considers adequate to allow the petitioner to obtain an order from a court having jurisdiction under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m. The order remains in effect until an order is obtained from the other court or the period expires, whichever comes first.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 26, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115z. Simultaneous proceedings. If a proceeding for enforcement under this chapter is commenced in a court of this state and the court determines that a proceeding to modify the determination is pending in a court of another state having jurisdiction to modify the determination under a provision substantially similar to section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m, the enforcing court shall immediately communicate with the modifying court. The court of this state shall proceed with the action for enforcement of the child custody determination unless the court, after consultation with the modifying court, stays or dismisses the proceeding.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 27, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115aa. Expedited enforcement of child custody determination. (a) A petitioner seeking to enforce a child custody determination must verify the petition and attach copies of certified copies of all orders or notice sought to be enforced and of any order confirming registration if such child custody determination has been registered.

      (b) A petition for enforcement of a child custody determination shall state: (1) Whether the court that issued the determination identified the jurisdictional basis it relied upon in exercising jurisdiction and, if so, what the basis was; (2) whether the determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court whose decision must be enforced under this chapter and, if so, identify the court, the case number and the nature of the proceeding; (3) whether any proceeding has been commenced that could affect the current proceeding, including proceedings relating to family violence, protective orders, termination of parental rights and adoptions and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the nature of the proceeding; (4) the present physical address of the child and the respondent, if known; (5) whether relief in addition to the immediate physical custody of the child and attorneys' fees are sought, including a request for assistance from law enforcement officials, and, if so, the relief sought; and (6) if the child custody determination has been registered and confirmed under section 46b-115w, the date and place of registration.

      (c) Upon the filing of a petition, the court shall issue an order directing the respondent to appear in person with or without the child at a hearing, the time and place of which shall be specified, and may enter any order necessary to ensure the safety of the parties and the child. The order shall advise the respondent that at the hearing, the court will order that the petitioner take immediate physical custody of the child and the payment of fees, costs and expenses under section 46b-115ee, and any other relief that the court may deem appropriate, unless the respondent appears and establishes that: (1) The child custody determination has not been registered and confirmed pursuant to section 46b-115w and (A) the court issuing the order for which enforcement is sought did not have jurisdiction under section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m or a provision substantially similar to said sections; (B) the child custody determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under sections 46b-115k to 46b-115t, inclusive; or (C) the respondent was entitled to notice, but notice of the proceedings before the court that issued the order for which enforcement is sought was not given in accordance with section 46b-115g or in a manner reasonably calculated to provide actual notice; or (2) the child custody determination for which enforcement is sought was registered and confirmed pursuant to section 46b-115w, but has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court of a state having jurisdiction to do so under section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m or a provision substantially similar to said sections. The hearing must be held on the next business day after service of the order unless otherwise ordered for good cause shown. The court may extend the date of the hearing at the request of the petitioner.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 28, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115bb. Service of petition and order. Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-115dd, the petition and order shall be served upon the respondent and any person who has physical custody of the child by personal service.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 29, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115cc. Hearing and order. (a) Unless the court issues a temporary emergency order pursuant to section 46b-115n, the court shall enforce the child custody determination and if appropriate, order the petitioner to take immediate physical custody of the child unless the respondent establishes that: (1) The child custody determination has not been registered and confirmed pursuant to section 46b-115w and (A) the court issuing the order for which enforcement is sought did not have jurisdiction under section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m or a provision substantially similar to said sections; (B) the child custody determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m or a provision substantially similar to said sections; or (C) the respondent was entitled to notice, but notice of the proceedings before the court that issued the order for which enforcement is sought was not given in accordance with section 46b-115g or in a manner reasonably calculated to give actual notice; or (2) the child custody determination for which enforcement is sought was registered and confirmed pursuant to section 46b-115w, but has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court of a state having jurisdiction to do so under section 46b-115k, 46b-115l or 46b-115m.

      (b) The court shall award the fees, costs and expenses as provided in section 46b-115ee and may grant additional relief, including a request for the assistance of law enforcement officials.

      (c) If a party called to testify refuses to answer on the ground that the testimony may be self-incriminating, the court may draw an adverse inference from the refusal.

      (d) A privilege against disclosure of communications between spouses and a defense of immunity based on the relationship of husband and wife or parent and child may not be invoked in a proceeding under sections 46b-115u to 46b-115gg, inclusive.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 30, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115dd. Order to take physical custody of child. (a) Upon the filing of a petition seeking enforcement of a child custody determination, the petitioner may file a verified application for the issuance of an order to take physical custody of the child if the child will suffer imminent, serious physical harm or will be removed from the state. The application for the order shall include the statements required by subsection (b) of section 46b-115aa. If the court, after reviewing the petition, testimony of the petitioner or other witnesses and other facts before it, finds there is a substantial likelihood that the child will suffer imminent serious physical harm or be removed from this state, it may issue an order to an appropriate law enforcement official to take physical custody of the child and place the child in the care of an appropriate person pending a hearing pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. In making the decision on placement of the child, the court may impose conditions to ensure the appearance of the child and the person with whom the child is placed at the hearing. Such order shall include the court's findings and the facts upon which the court made its findings. The petition and the order shall be served upon the respondent at the time the child is taken into physical custody or immediately thereafter.

      (b) The court shall hold a hearing on the petition on the next business day after the order and the petition is served unless there are compelling circumstances.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 31, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115ee. Costs, fees and expenses. The court shall award the prevailing party necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by or on behalf of the party, including costs, communication expenses, attorneys' fees, investigative fees, expenses for witnesses, travel expenses, and child care during the course of the proceedings, unless the party from whom fees or expenses are sought establishes that the award would be clearly inappropriate.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 32, 40; P.A. 00-196, S. 46.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-196 made technical change.

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      Sec. 46b-115ff. Recognition and enforcement of order issued by another state. A court of this state shall accord full faith and credit to an enforcement order issued by another state in accordance with statutes substantially similar to this chapter which enforces a child custody determination by a court of another state unless the order has been vacated, stayed or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under sections 46b-115k to 46b-115t, inclusive.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 33, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115gg. Appeals. An order enforcing a child custody determination may not be stayed pending appeal unless the court enters a temporary emergency order under section 46b-115n.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 34, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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PART IV
FOREIGN CHILD CUSTODY

      Sec. 46b-115hh. Definitions. As used in sections 46b-115ii and 46b-115jj: "Foreign child custody determination" means any judgment, decree or other order of a court or tribunal of competent jurisdiction of a foreign state providing for legal custody, physical custody or visitation with respect to a child. The term includes a permanent, temporary, initial and modification order. The term does not include an order relating to child support or other monetary obligation of an individual.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 36, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115ii. Foreign child custody determination. A court of this state shall treat a foreign child custody determination made under factual circumstances in substantial conformity with the jurisdictional standards of this chapter, including reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard to all affected persons, as a child custody determination of another state under sections 46b-115 to 46b-115t, inclusive, unless such determination was rendered under child custody law which violates fundamental principles of human rights or unless such determination is repugnant to the public policy of this state.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 37, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 46b-115jj. Enforcement of foreign child custody order re return of child under Hague Convention. A court of this state shall enforce a foreign child custody determination or an order of a federal court or another state court for return of a child under The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction made under factual circumstances in substantial conformity with the jurisdictional standards of this chapter, including reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard to all affected persons, as a child custody determination of another state under sections 46b-115u to 46b-115gg, inclusive, unless such determination was rendered under child custody law which violates fundamental principles of human rights or unless such determination is repugnant to the public policy of this state.

      (P.A. 99-185, S. 38, 40.)

      History: P.A. 99-185 effective July 1, 2000.

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      Secs. 46b-116 to 46b-119. Reserved for future use.

      Note: Chapters 815q to 815s, inclusive, are also reserved for future use.

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