CHAPTER 700*
PROPERTY AND CASUALTY INSURANCE

      *Cited. 222 C. 744.

Table of Contents

Sec. 38a-305. (Formerly Sec. 38-107). Additional powers of fire insurance companies.
Sec. 38a-306. (Formerly Sec. 38-97). Standard form of fire insurance policy; designation; penalty.
Sec. 38a-307. (Formerly Sec. 38-98). Standard form.
Sec. 38a-307a. Terrorism exclusion in condominium association master policy prohibited. Conditions re terrorism exclusion in other commercial risk insurance policy.
Sec. 38a-308. (Formerly Sec. 38-99). Provisions of policy or contract.
Sec. 38a-309. (Formerly Sec. 38-100). Binders for temporary insurance. Written binder as evidence of insurance on mortgaged property.
Sec. 38a-310. (Formerly Sec. 38-101). Combination standard form of fire insurance policy.
Sec. 38a-311. (Formerly Sec. 38-102). Forms of supplemental contracts or extended coverage endorsements.
Sec. 38a-312. (Formerly Sec. 38-103). Renewal certificates.
Sec. 38a-313. (Formerly Sec. 38-104). Replacement insurance.
Sec. 38a-313a. Notice to insured re repair or remediation work under a personal or commercial risk policy. Exceptions.
Sec. 38a-314. (Formerly Sec. 38-105). Conditions to be stated in body of policy.
Sec. 38a-315. (Formerly Sec. 38-106). Form of policies in other states.
Sec. 38a-316. (Formerly Sec. 38-114). Premium notes subject to set-off.
Sec. 38a-316a. Insurers prohibited from refusing to issue or renew homeowners insurance policies solely on basis that homeowner failed to install permanent storm shutters to mitigate loss from hurricanes and other severe storms.
Sec. 38a-316b. Premium discount on homeowners insurance policies for installation of permanent storm shutters or impact-resistant glass.
Sec. 38a-316c. Coastal market assistance program established to assist coastal area residents to obtain homeowners insurance. Regulations.
Sec. 38a-317. (Formerly Sec. 38-114g). Owner of mobile home eligible for homeowners policy.
Sec. 38a-318. (Formerly Sec. 38-114h). Information to be furnished relative to fire losses. Limitation on liability. Confidentiality of information. Testimony concerning information given authorized agencies.
Sec. 38a-318a. Information to be furnished to Commissioner of Administrative Services re filed liability insurance claims. Confidentiality of information. Costs and reimbursement. Immunity from liability.
Sec. 38a-319. (Formerly Sec. 38-31). Agreement of indemnification for injury from future accident to constitute contract.
Sec. 38a-320. (Formerly Sec. 38-31a). Home warranty contract or home warranty service agreement. Definition. Constitutes insurance contract.
Sec. 38a-321. (Formerly Sec. 38-175). Liability of insurer under liability policy.
Sec. 38a-322. (Formerly Sec. 38-185v). Binders for personal and commercial risk insurance.
Sec. 38a-323. (Formerly Sec. 38-185w). Notice of nonrenewal and premium billing for personal and commercial risk policies. Applicable to surplus lines insurers. Good faith effort as market conduct examination criterion.
Sec. 38a-323a. Designation of a third party to receive nonrenewal and cancellation notices on behalf of an individual aged fifty-five or older. Option available for automobile and homeowners policies.
Sec. 38a-323b. Written notice of personal risk claim denial. Notice to include Insurance Department contact information.
Sec. 38a-323c. Notice of late fee amount and applicability re personal risk insurance policies.
Sec. 38a-324. (Formerly Sec. 38-185x). Cancellation of commercial risk insurance policies. Notice requirements. Applicable to surplus lines insurers.
Sec. 38a-325. Notice of cancellation or discontinuation of professional liability insurance to covered employees.
Sec. 38a-326. (Formerly Sec. 38-185y). Insurance loss information provided upon cancellation or nonrenewal. Claim information provided upon request.
Sec. 38a-327. (Formerly Sec. 38-17a). Regulations on claims-made policies.
Sec. 38a-328. (Formerly Sec. 38-114f). Adoption of a fire, liability and allied lines underwriting facility.
Sec. 38a-329. (Formerly Sec. 38-185l). Residual market mechanism for property and casualty insurance.
Sec. 38a-330. Transfer of policy to affiliate due to merger or acquisition. Notice.
Secs. 38a-331 to 38a-333.
Sec. 38a-334. (Formerly Sec. 38-175a). Minimum provisions in automobile liability policies.
Sec. 38a-335. (Formerly Sec. 38-175b). Minimum coverages. Applicability. Statement of coverage for rented motor vehicle.
Sec. 38a-335a. Disclosure of automobile insurance policy limits.
Sec. 38a-336. (Formerly Sec. 38-175c). Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage.
Sec. 38a-336a. Underinsured motorist conversion coverage.
Sec. 38a-336b. Subrogation against owner or operator of underinsured motor vehicle prohibited.
Sec. 38a-336c. Claims for uninsured or underinsured motorist benefits.
Sec. 38a-337. (Formerly Sec. 14-130). Apportionment of risks.
Sec. 38a-338. (Formerly Sec. 38-175d). Policies deemed to provide coverage in accordance with regulations.
Sec. 38a-339. (Formerly Sec. 38-175t). Comprehensive automobile coverage to include optional coverage for repair or replacement of damaged safety glass without deductible or minimum amount.
Sec. 38a-340. (Formerly Sec. 38-175e). Binders, renewal endorsements and evidences of renewal.
Sec. 38a-341. (Formerly Sec. 38-175f). Cancellation of motor vehicle liability policy: Definitions.
Sec. 38a-342. (Formerly Sec. 38-175g). Bases for cancellation.
Sec. 38a-343. (Formerly Sec. 38-175h). Receipt of cancellation notice. Reason for cancellation. Notice of cancellation. Requirements. Cancellation fee limited.
Sec. 38a-343a. Notification of Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of the cancellation of private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policies. When.
Sec. 38a-344. (Formerly Sec. 38-175j). Proof of notice.
Sec. 38a-345. (Formerly Sec. 38-175k). Notice of possible eligibility for assigned risk plan.
Sec. 38a-346. (Formerly Sec. 38-175l). Liability of persons furnishing information to insured.
Sec. 38a-347. (Formerly Sec. 38-175m). Safe driver classification plans for motor vehicle insurance. Review.
Sec. 38a-348. (Formerly Sec. 38-175n). Mandatory medical examination; cost to be paid by insurer.
Sec. 38a-349. (Formerly Sec. 38-175p). Insurer to file automobile liability policy underwriting rules and regulations with commissioner. Approval procedure.
Sec. 38a-350. (Formerly Sec. 38-175q). Automobile liability policy information to be filed with commissioner.
Sec. 38a-351. (Formerly Sec. 38-175r). Automobile liability insurance for volunteer firemen and members of volunteer ambulance companies. Nonrenewal and surcharge prohibited.
Sec. 38a-351a. Collision deductible included in subrogation demand.
Sec. 38a-352. (Formerly Sec. 38-175s). Motor vehicle claims to be paid by check, electronic transfer or other immediately accessible means.
Sec. 38a-353. (Formerly Sec. 38-175y). Calculation of settlement amount on totalled motor vehicle. Disclosures required.
Sec. 38a-354. (Formerly Sec. 38-175u). Automobile appraisers and insurers prohibited from requiring where repairs should be made or making certain statements. Notice required on appraisals or estimates.
Sec. 38a-355. (Formerly Sec. 38-175z). Notice required concerning parts used to repair damaged private passenger motor vehicles.
Sec. 38a-356. (Formerly Sec. 38-175v). Disclosure of information by insurance company re motor vehicle losses or fraudulent claims. Insurance company reports to commissioner. Immunity from liability. Confidentiality.
Sec. 38a-357. (Formerly Sec. 38-175w). Insurer to report motor vehicle theft or fire loss to National Insurance Crime Bureau. Bureau to establish central index file.
Sec. 38a-358. (Formerly Sec. 38-175x). Declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of private passenger nonfleet auto insurance policies prohibited for certain reasons.
Secs. 38a-359 to 38a-362.
Sec. 38a-363. (Formerly Sec. 38-319). Definitions.
Sec. 38a-364. (Formerly Sec. 38-319a). Insurance identification cards. Temporary card to be issued with binder.
Secs. 38a-365 to 38a-369. (Formerly Secs. 38-320 to 38-323, 38-325). Liability of owner's insurer for basic reparations benefits. Payees of basic reparations benefits. Injury to employee. Cause of action allowable, when. Subrogation.
Sec. 38a-370. (Formerly Sec. 38-326). Residual liability insurance.
Sec. 38a-371. (Formerly Sec. 38-327). Mandatory security requirements.
Sec. 38a-372. (Formerly Sec. 38-328). Insurers required to declare that policies deemed to provide required security.
Secs. 38a-373 to 38a-378. (Formerly Secs. 38-329 to 38-334). Property damage coverage not included. Optional reparations coverage. Converter of private passenger vehicle disqualified. Person intentionally causing injury not covered. Payments as economic loss accrues. Award of attorney's fees.
Sec. 38a-379. (Formerly Sec. 38-335). Civil action to enforce rights and obligations.
Secs. 38a-380 to 38a-384. (Formerly Secs. 38-336 to 38-340). Benefits exempt from garnishment, etc. Insurer's liability for rehabilitation treatment or training. Benefits available through assigned claims plan, when. Assigned claims bureau and plan. Filing of application for claim with bureau.
Sec. 38a-385. (Formerly Sec. 38-341). Assigned risk plan.
Sec. 38a-386. (Formerly Sec. 38-342). Submission of data to commissioner. Plan for allocation and compilation of claims and loss experience data.
Sec. 38a-387. (Formerly Sec. 38-344). Special surety or guaranty filings. Order to suspend or modify filing requirements.
Sec. 38a-388. (Formerly Sec. 38-350). Conflict with chapters 246, 247, 248.
Sec. 38a-389. Filing of rates to reflect premium savings. Prior rate approval.
Secs. 38a-390 to 38a-392.
Sec. 38a-393. (Formerly Sec. 38-370a). Record of cancellation of professional liability policies. Regulations.
Sec. 38a-394. (Formerly Sec. 38-370c). Mandatory provisions for professional liability insurance policies issued on a claims-made basis. Additional requirements for certain claims-made medical malpractice policies.
Sec. 38a-395. (Formerly Sec. 38-370d). Medical malpractice data: Closed claims reports. Database. Annual report.
Secs. 38a-396 to 38a-399.

PART I*
IN GENERAL

      *Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Sec. 38a-305. (Formerly Sec. 38-107). Additional powers of fire insurance companies. (a) Domestic insurance companies having power to insure against loss by fire, in addition to such other powers as they may have under their respective charters, and foreign and alien insurance companies authorized to do business in this state and having power to insure against such loss, may make insurances on any kind of property or valuable interest therein (1) against loss or damage by fire, lightning and other electrical disturbances, wind, tornado, cyclone, earthquake, hail, frost, snow, ice, weather or climatic conditions, including excess or deficiency of moisture, flood, rain or drought, rising of the waters of the ocean or its tributaries, bombardment, invasion, insurrection, riot, strikes, sabotage, war, civil war or commotion, military or usurped power, and by explosions whether fire ensues or not, except explosions of steam boilers; (2) against loss or damage by insects, disease or other causes to trees, crops or other products of the soil; (3) against loss or damage arising from the breakage or leakage of sprinklers, pumps or other apparatus erected for extinguishing fires or of water pipes or other conduits or containers; (4) against accidental injury to or by such sprinklers, pumps, apparatus, water pipes, conduits or containers; (5) against loss or damage by water entering through leaks or openings in buildings; (6) on automobiles, airplanes, seaplanes, dirigibles and other aircraft and on any valuable interest therein; (7) against loss or damage from all or any of the hazards of fire, explosion, transportation and collision and from legal liability for damage to property resulting from the maintenance and use thereof, and from burglary, theft, vandalism, malicious mischief or wrongful conversion, disposal or concealment whether or not held under a conditional sale contract or subject to chattel mortgage; (8) against intentional or other damage to, or loss of, property of any kind, real or personal; and (9) to effect reinsurances of any risks taken by them.

      (b) "Loss or damage", as used in this section, includes loss of use and occupancy, loss of rents, rental values and profits and consequential damages.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6103; P.A. 90-243, S. 51.)

      History: P.A. 90-243 divided the section into Subsecs., substituted "foreign" for "nonresident" and "alien" for "foreign", and added Subdiv. indicators in the new Subsec. (a); Sec. 38-107 transferred to Sec. 38a-305 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-306. (Formerly Sec. 38-97). Standard form of fire insurance policy; designation; penalty. The form of policy of fire insurance set forth in section 38a-307 shall be known and designated as "The Standard Fire Insurance Policy of the State of Connecticut". The standard form of policy shall be plainly printed, and no portion thereof shall be in type smaller than the type used in printing such form on file in the office of the commissioner. The provisions of this section shall not limit insurance companies to the use of any particular size of paper or manner of folding the paper upon which their policies may be issued, and each agent who makes, issues or delivers a policy of fire insurance other than the standard form of fire insurance policy shall forfeit for each offense not more than one thousand dollars, but such policy shall be binding upon the issuing company to the same extent and on the same conditions as if it had been in the standard form.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6105; P.A. 08-178, S. 13.)

      History: Sec. 38-97 transferred to Sec. 38a-306 in 1991; P.A. 08-178 made technical changes and increased maximum forfeiture from $200 to $1,000 per offense.

      Annotations to former section 38-97:

      Annotations to former standard policy. Effect of requirement that waiver be in writing. 66 C. 238; 74 C. 700; 79 C. 388. Acceptance of policy in one company received after issuance of policy in another, violation of provision in latter against other insurance, though former policy was applied for first. 70 C. 566. Effect of provision limiting suit to one year. 74 C. 510; Id., 684. Distribution of loss among companies where some policies cover all items by general description, and others, specific items. 75 C. 397. Effect of provision as to arbitration of amount of loss. 77 C. 679; 79 C. 388; 81 C. 707. Subrogation of company to rights of insured where loss due to negligence of another. 83 C. 690. Conditions precedent and subsequent; false swearing by insured after loss. 86 C. 15. Prohibition against alienation of property. 89 C. 35. "Sole and unconditional ownership." Id., 175; 97 C. 342; 102 C. 371. Failure to give notice of loss; waiver and estoppel; forfeiture will not be implied. 90 C. 205. Effect of misstatement in proofs of loss. 94 C. 122. Acceptance of oral notice of loss and unsworn proof of loss as waiver of requirements of policy. Id. Construction of provision as to loss due to "military or usurped power"; what is regarded as the cause of a fire. 95 U.S. 117. Effect of war as suspending provision for limitation of action. 13 Wall. 158. Knowledge of agent is knowledge of company; reformation of policy where inoperative because of mutual mistake. 97 C. 342; But see 102 C. 374. "All direct loss or damage by fire" construed; "hostile" and "friendly" fires. 105 C. 729. Pleading and burden of proof. 108 C. 565. Failure of officer of insured to disclose his embezzlement and other acts constitutes concealment; his knowledge imputed to insured. 109 C. 673. Insured entrusting settlement to agent responsible for agent's fraud within scope of authority, though ignorant of it. Id., 686. Cited. 217 C. 340.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-307. (Formerly Sec. 38-98). Standard form. Except as provided in section 38a-307a, the standard form of fire insurance policy of the state of Connecticut, with permission to substitute for the word "Company" a more accurate descriptive term of the type of insurer, shall be as follows:

      [Space for insertion of name of company or companies issuing the policy and other matter permitted to be stated at the head of the policy.]

      [Space for listing amounts of insurance, rates and premiums for the basic coverages insured under the standard form of policy and for additional coverages or perils insured under endorsements attached.]

In Consideration of the Provisions and Stipulations
Herein or Added Hereto

In Consideration of the Provisions and Stipulations
Herein or Added Hereto

AND OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DOLLARS PREMIUM

this company, for the term


of ....
)
)
)
)
from the .... day of .... 20..


to the .... day of .... 20..
(
(
(
(
at noon,
Standard Time, at
location of
property involved

to an amount not exceeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dollars,
does insure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and legal representatives, to the extent of the actual cash value of the property at the time of loss, but not exceeding the amount which it would cost to repair or replace the property with material of like kind and quality within a reasonable time after such loss, without allowance for any increased cost of repair or reconstruction by reason of any ordinance or law regulating construction or repair, and without compensation for loss resulting from interruption of business or manufacture, nor in any event for more than the interest of the insured, against all DIRECT LOSS BY FIRE, LIGHTNING AND BY REMOVAL FROM PREMISES ENDANGERED BY THE PERILS INSURED AGAINST IN THIS POLICY, EXCEPT AS HEREINAFTER PROVIDED, to the property described hereinafter while located or contained as described in this policy, or pro rata for five days at each proper place to which any of the property shall necessarily be removed for preservation from the perils insured against in this policy, but not elsewhere.

      Assignment of this policy shall not be valid except with the written consent of this Company.

      This policy is made and accepted subject to the foregoing provisions and stipulations and those hereinafter stated, which are hereby made a part of this policy, together with such other provisions, stipulations and agreements as may be added hereto, as provided in this policy.

      In Witness Whereof, this Company has executed and attested these presents.

      .... (Secretary).
.... (President).


      Concealment, fraud. This entire policy shall be void if, whether before or after a loss, the insured has wilfully concealed or misrepresented any material fact or circumstance concerning this insurance or the subject thereof, or the interest of the insured therein, or in case of any fraud or false swearing by the insured relating thereto.

      Uninsurable and excepted property. This policy shall not cover accounts, bills, currency, deeds, evidences of debt, money or securities; nor, unless specifically named hereon in writing, bullion or manuscripts.

      Perils not included. This Company shall not be liable for loss by fire or other perils insured against in this policy caused, directly or indirectly, by: (a) Enemy attack by armed forces, including action taken by military, naval or air forces in resisting an actual or an immediately impending enemy attack; (b) invasion; (c) insurrection; (d) rebellion; (e) revolution; (f) civil war; (g) usurped power; (h) order of any civil authority except acts of destruction at the time of and for the purpose of preventing the spread of fire, provided that such fire did not originate from any of the perils excluded by this policy; (i) neglect of the insured to use all reasonable means to save and preserve the property at and after a loss, or when the property is endangered by fire in neighboring premises; (j) nor shall this Company be liable for loss by theft.

      Other Insurance. Other insurance may be prohibited or the amount of insurance may be limited by endorsement attached hereto.

      Conditions suspending or restricting insurance. Unless otherwise provided in writing added hereto this Company shall not be liable for loss occurring (a) while the hazard is increased by any means within the control or knowledge of the insured; or (b) while a described building, whether intended for occupancy by owner or tenant, is vacant or unoccupied beyond a period of sixty consecutive days; or (c) as a result of explosion or riot, unless fire ensue, and in that event for loss by fire only.

      Other perils or subjects. Any other peril to be insured against or subject of insurance to be covered in this policy shall be by endorsement in writing hereon or added hereto.

      Added provisions. The extent of the application of insurance under this policy and of the contribution to be made by this Company in case of loss, and any other provision or agreement not inconsistent with the provisions of this policy, may be provided for in writing added hereto, but no provision may be waived except such as by the terms of this policy is subject to change.

      Waiver provisions. No permission affecting this insurance shall exist, or waiver of any provision be valid, unless granted herein or expressed in writing added hereto. No provision, stipulation or forfeiture shall be held to be waived by any requirement or proceeding on the part of this Company relating to appraisal or to any examination provided for herein.

      Cancellation of policy. This policy shall be cancelled at any time at the request of the insured, in which case this Company shall, upon demand and surrender of this policy, refund the excess of paid premium above the customary short rates for the expired time. This policy may be cancelled at any time by this Company by giving to the insured and any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a, a thirty days' written notice of cancellation accompanied by the reason therefor with or without tender of the excess of paid premium above the pro rata premium for the expired time, which excess, if not tendered, shall be refunded on demand. Notice of cancellation shall state that said excess premium (if not tendered) will be refunded on demand. Where cancellation is for nonpayment of premium at least ten days' written notice of cancellation accompanied by the reason therefor shall be given.

      Mortgagee interests and obligations. If loss hereunder is made payable, in whole or in part, to a designated mortgagee not named herein as the insured, such interest in this policy may be cancelled by giving to such mortgagee a ten days' written notice of cancellation.

      If the insured fails to render proof of loss such mortgagee, upon notice, shall render proof of loss in the form herein specified within sixty (60) days thereafter and shall be subject to the provisions hereof relating to appraisal and time of payment and of bringing suit. If this Company shall claim that no liability existed as the mortgagor or owner, it shall, to the extent of payment of loss to the mortgagee, be subrogated to all the mortgagee's rights of recovery, but without impairing mortgagee's right to sue; or it may pay off the mortgage debt and require an assignment thereof and of the mortgage. Other provisions relating to the interests and obligations of such mortgagee may be added hereto by agreement in writing.

      Pro rata liability. This Company shall not be liable for a greater proportion of any loss than the amount hereby insured shall bear to the whole insurance covering the property against the peril involved, whether collectible or not.

      Requirements in case loss occurs. The insured shall give immediate written notice to this Company of any loss, protect the property from further damage, forthwith separate the damaged and undamaged personal property, put it in the best possible order, furnish a complete inventory of the destroyed, damaged and undamaged property, showing in detail quantities, costs, actual cash value and amount of loss claims; AND WITHIN SIXTY DAYS AFTER THE LOSS, UNLESS SUCH TIME IS EXTENDED IN WRITING BY THIS COMPANY, THE INSURED SHALL RENDER TO THIS COMPANY A PROOF OF LOSS, signed and sworn to by the insured, stating the knowledge and belief of the insured as to the following: The time and origin of the loss, the interest of the insured and of all others in the property, the actual cash value of each item thereof and the amount of loss thereto, all encumbrances thereon, all other contracts of insurance, whether valid or not, covering any of said property, any changes in the title, use, occupation, location, possession or exposures of said property since the issuing of this policy, by whom and for what purpose any building herein described and the several parts thereof were occupied at the time of loss and whether or not it then stood on leased ground, and shall furnish a copy of all the descriptions and schedules in all policies and, if required, verified plans and specification of any building, fixtures or machinery destroyed or damaged. The insured, as often as may be reasonably required, shall exhibit to any person designated by this Company all that remains of any property herein described, and submit to examinations under oath by any person named by this Company, and subscribe the same; and, as often as may be reasonably required, shall produce for examination all books of account, bills, invoices and other vouchers, or certified copies thereof if originals be lost, at such reasonable time and place as may be designated by this Company or its representative, and shall permit extracts and copies thereof to be made.

      Appraisal. In case the insured and this Company shall fail to agree as to the actual cash value or the amount of loss, then, on the written demand of either, each shall select a competent and disinterested appraiser and notify the other of the appraiser selected within twenty days of such demand. The appraisers shall first select a competent and disinterested umpire; and failing for fifteen days to agree upon such umpire, then, on request of the insured or this Company, such umpire shall be selected by a judge of a court of record in this state in which the property covered is located. The appraisers shall then appraise the loss, stating separately actual cash value and loss to each item; and, failing to agree, shall submit their differences, only, to the umpire. An award in writing, so itemized, of any two when filed with this Company shall determine the amount of actual cash value and loss. Each appraiser shall be paid by the party selecting him and the expenses of appraisal and umpire shall be paid by the parties equally.

      Company's options. It shall be optional with this Company to take all, or any part, of the property at the agreed or appraised value, and also to repair, rebuild or replace the property destroyed or damaged with other of like kind and quality within a reasonable time, on giving notice of its intention so to do within thirty days after the receipt of the proof of loss herein required.

      Abandonment. There can be no abandonment to this Company of any property.

      When loss payable. The amount of loss for which this Company may be liable shall be payable thirty days after proof of loss, as herein provided, is received by this Company and ascertainment of the loss is made either by agreement between the insured and this Company expressed in writing or by the filing with this Company of an award as herein provided. This Company and the insured may agree in writing to a partial payment of the amount of loss as an advance payment. Any advance payment shall be credited against the total amount of loss due to the insured. An advance payment shall not affect the requirement of this Company to pay the total amount of loss not later than thirty days after proof of loss.

      Suit. No suit or action on this policy for the recovery of any claim shall be sustainable in any court of law or equity unless all the requirements of this policy shall have been complied with, and unless commenced within eighteen months next after inception of the loss.

      Subrogation. This Company may require from the insured an assignment of all right of recovery against any party for loss to the extent that payment therefor is made by this Company.

      (1949 Rev., App. A; P.A. 77-199, S. 7, 12; P.A. 02-60, S. 4; P.A. 04-140, S. 2; P.A. 09-164, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-199 required insurance against "direct loss by fire, lightning and by removal from premises endangered by the perils insured against in this form", required notice to insured of policy cancellation of 30 days rather than 5 days and notice of reasons for cancellations and added special provision re cancellation for nonpayment of premium, and required that proof of loss be given to company within 60 days unless extension granted by company; Sec. 38-98 transferred to Sec. 38a-307 in 1991; (Revisor's note: The references in this section to the date "19.." were changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium); P.A. 02-60 amended "Cancellation of policy" provisions to reference "any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a"; P.A. 04-140 added exception re Sec. 38a-307a, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 09-164 amended "When loss payable" provision by reducing the number of days amount of loss is payable after proof of loss from 60 to 30, and by allowing partial payment as an advance payment with a written agreement, and amended "suit" provision by extending limitation period for filing suit for recovery of a claim from 12 to 18 months.

      Annotations to former section 38-98:

      Cited. 174 C. 229. Where insurer did not concede liability and refused to select an appraiser, provision for selection of umpire by appraisers or judge does not come into play. Interrelationship with sections 52-410 and 52-411 discussed. 177 C. 273. Cited. Id., 281. Cited. 190 C. 594. Cited. 205 C. 424. Cited. 207 C. 179. Cited. 216 C. 830. Cited. 217 C. 340. Cited. 219 C. 339; Id., 644.

      Fraud or false swearing, to work a forfeiture, must be wilful and with intent to deceive and defraud the insurer and must be proved by clear and convincing testimony. 21 CS 265. Phrase "actual cash value" construed. Id. Cancellation notice held defective without premium refund policy. 30 CS 291. Cited. 40 CS 299.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 219 C. 339; Id., 644. Cited. 236 C. 375. Cited. 239 C. 658. Under the clear language of section, right of recovery belongs to insured, and insurer only obtains that right when the insured grants it. 269 C. 527. Legislature has not explicitly granted insurer either an automatic right to be subrogated to any rights held by insured, as have other states, or an independent right to bring an action, as our legislature has granted under Sec. 31-293(a). Id.

      Cited. 28 CA 270. Cited. 38 CA 555. Cited. 44 CA 415. Cited re standard fraud and concealment provisions. 55 CA 488.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-307a. Terrorism exclusion in condominium association master policy prohibited. Conditions re terrorism exclusion in other commercial risk insurance policy. From July 1, 2004, until the expiration of the Terrorism Insurance Program established in the federal Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, P.L. 107-297, as amended from time to time, (1) for any master policy that is required to be purchased by a condominium association pursuant to section 47-83 or by a unit owners' association pursuant to section 47-255, the standard form of fire insurance policy set forth in section 38a-307 shall not exclude coverage for loss by fire or other perils insured against in the policy caused, directly or indirectly, by terrorism, as defined by the Insurance Commissioner; and (2) for any other commercial risk insurance policy, the standard form of fire insurance policy set forth in section 38a-307 may provide that the company shall not be liable for loss by fire or other perils insured against in the policy caused, directly or indirectly, by terrorism, as defined by the Insurance Commissioner, provided the premiums charged for such policy shall reflect any savings projected from the exclusion of such perils.

      (P.A. 04-140, S. 1; P.A. 09-164, S. 2; P.A. 10-5, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 04-140 effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 09-164 added Subdiv. (1) prohibiting terrorism exclusion in a condominium association master policy, designated existing application to other commercial risk policy as Subdiv. (2) and made a technical change; P.A. 10-5 made technical changes, effective May 5, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-308. (Formerly Sec. 38-99). Provisions of policy or contract. (a) No policy or contract of fire insurance shall be made, issued or delivered by any insurer or any agent or representative thereof, on any property in this state, unless it conforms as to all provisions, stipulations, agreements and conditions with the form of policy set forth in section 38a-307. There shall be printed at the head of such policy the name of the insurer or insurers issuing the policy, the location of the home office thereof, a statement showing whether such insurer or insurers are stock or mutual corporations or are reciprocal insurers or Lloyd's underwriter, provided any company organized under special charter provisions may so indicate upon its policy and may add a statement of the plan under which it operates in this state, and there may be added thereon such device or devices as the insurer or insurers issuing such policy desire. Such policy shall be clearly designated on the back of the form as "The Standard Fire Insurance Policy of the State of Connecticut"; and this designation may include the names of such other states as have adopted this standard form. The standard fire insurance policy provided for in section 38a-307 need not be used for effecting reinsurance between insurers. If the policy is issued by a mutual, cooperative or reciprocal insurer having special regulations with respect to the payment by the policyholder of assessments, such regulations shall be printed upon the policy and any such insurer may print upon the policy such regulations as are appropriate to or required by its form of organization. Insurers issuing the standard fire insurance policy pursuant to section 38a-307 are authorized to affix thereto or include therein a written statement that the policy does not cover loss or damage caused by nuclear reaction or nuclear radiation or radioactive contamination, all whether directly or indirectly resulting from an insured peril under such policy; provided nothing herein contained shall be construed to prohibit the attachment to any such policy of an endorsement or endorsements specifically assuming coverage for loss or damage caused by nuclear reaction or nuclear radiation or radioactive contamination.

      (b) Any policy or contract which includes, either on an unspecified basis as to coverage or for an indivisible premium, coverage against the peril of fire and substantial coverage against other perils need not comply with the provisions of subsection (a) hereof, provided (1) such policy or contract shall afford coverage, with respect to the peril of fire, not less than the substantial equivalent of the coverage afforded by said standard fire insurance policy, (2) the provisions in relation to mortgagee interests and obligations in said standard fire insurance policy shall be incorporated therein without change, (3) such policy or contract is complete as to all of its terms without reference to any other document and (4) the commissioner is satisfied that such policy or contract complies with the provisions hereof.

      (c) None of the provisions of this section shall apply to policies of automobile or aircraft physical damage insurance or to policies of inland marine insurance.

      (d) The provisions of section 38a-346 shall apply in the event of cancellation of a policy issued pursuant to this chapter.

      (e) Any policies made, issued or delivered through a fire, liability and allied lines underwriting facility established by the Insurance Commissioner pursuant to section 38a-328 shall not be subject to the cancellation of policy provisions or notice of cancellation requirements of section 38a-307 provided such policies comply with any regulation adopted by the Insurance Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of section 38a-328.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6106; 1959, P.A. 99; P.A. 77-199, S. 8, 12; P.A. 80-207, S. 6, 7.)

      History: 1959 act added provisions re loss or damage caused by nuclear reaction, radiation or contamination in Subsec. (a) and Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 77-199 added Subsec. (d); P.A. 80-207 added Subsec. (e); Sec. 38-99 transferred to Sec. 38a-308 in 1991.

      Annotations to former section 38-99:

      Cited. 219 C. 644.

      Cited. 30 CS 291.

      Subsecs. (a):

      Cited. 190 C. 594.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 190 C. 594.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 219 C. 644.

      Cited re standard fraud and concealment provisions. 55 CA 488.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-309. (Formerly Sec. 38-100). Binders for temporary insurance. Written binder as evidence of insurance on mortgaged property. (a) Binders or other contracts for temporary insurance may be made, orally or in writing, for a period which shall not exceed sixty days, and shall be deemed to include all the terms of a standard fire insurance policy and all such applicable endorsements, approved by the commissioner, as are designated in such contract of temporary insurance, except that the cancellation clause of such standard fire insurance policy, and the clause thereof specifying the hour of the day at which the insurance shall commence, may be superseded by the express terms of such contract of temporary insurance.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, no person shall, at the time of title closing for a loan secured by a one-to-four-family residential property, refuse to accept a written binder issued by an insurer, or a duly authorized representative of an insurer, licensed to do business in this state, as evidence that hazard insurance has been procured for the mortgaged premises. The commissioner may require such binders to contain any additional information to permit such binders to comply with the reasonable requirements of the Federal National Mortgage Association or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation for the purchase of mortgage loans. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a person from requiring the borrower to also furnish a receipt indicating that the annual or installment premium on such insurance policy has been paid for twelve months following the date of closing, or for less than twelve months at the option of the person.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6107; P.A. 89-48, S. 1; P.A. 99-145, S. 22, 23.)

      History: P.A. 89-48 increased to 60 the number of days a binder may be effective; Sec. 38-100 transferred to Sec. 38a-309 in 1991; P.A. 99-145 designated existing language as Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) re binders as evidence of hazard insurance on mortgaged premises at time of title closing, effective June 8, 1999.

      Annotation to former section 38-100:

      Cited. 217 C. 340.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-310. (Formerly Sec. 38-101). Combination standard form of fire insurance policy. Two or more insurers authorized to do the business of property insurance in this state may, with the approval of the commissioner, issue a combination standard form of fire insurance policy which shall contain the following provisions: (a) A provision substantially to the effect that the insurers executing such policy shall be severally liable for the full amount of any loss or damage, according to the terms of the policy, or for specified percentages or amounts thereof, aggregating the full amount of such insurance under such policy; (b) a provision substantially to the effect that service of process, or of any notice or proof of loss required by such policy, upon any of the insurers executing such policy, shall be deemed to be service upon all such insurers.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6108; P.A. 90-243, S. 49.)

      History: P.A. 90-243 made technical corrections, substituted "alien" for "foreign" and moved phrase "in this state"; Sec. 38-101 transferred to Sec. 38a-310 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-311. (Formerly Sec. 38-102). Forms of supplemental contracts or extended coverage endorsements. Appropriate forms of supplemental contract or contracts or extended coverage endorsements and additional contracts or endorsements, in addition to the perils covered by said standard fire insurance policy, may be approved by the commissioner and their use in connection with a standard fire insurance policy may be authorized by him. The first page of the policy may, in form approved by the commissioner, be rearranged to provide space for the listing of amounts of insurance, rates and premiums for the basic coverages insured under the standard form of policy and for additional coverages or perils insured under supplemental or additional contracts or endorsements, and such other data as may be conveniently included for duplication on daily reports for office records.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6109; 1953, S. 2823d.)

      History: Sec. 38-102 transferred to Sec. 38a-311 in 1991.

      Annotation to former section 38-102:

      Homeowners' policy, which excluded liability for articles covered by more specific insurance, upheld. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 112.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-312. (Formerly Sec. 38-103). Renewal certificates. Nothing contained in sections 38a-306 to 38a-311, inclusive, shall be construed to prohibit the renewal of any policy conforming to the requirements of said sections by the issuance of a renewal certificate, subject to such regulations as the commissioner may prescribe.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6110.)

      History: Sec. 38-103 transferred to Sec. 38a-312 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-313. (Formerly Sec. 38-104). Replacement insurance. Nothing contained in section 38a-307 shall be construed to preclude insurance indemnifying the insured against the amount actually expended, in excess of actual cash value at the time any loss or damage occurs, to repair, rebuild or replace the insured property.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6111.)

      History: Sec. 38-104 transferred to Sec. 38a-313 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-313a. Notice to insured re repair or remediation work under a personal or commercial risk policy. Exceptions. Prior to commencing any repair or remediation pursuant to a loss covered under a personal risk insurance policy, as defined in section 38a-663, or a commercial risk policy, as defined in section 38a-663, the person who will perform the repair or remediation shall provide the insured with a written notice that indicates the scope of the work to be completed and the estimated total price. Such notice shall not be required for (1) any repair of an automobile that is subject to this chapter, or (2) any repair that is subject to chapter 400. As used in this section, "remediation" includes, but is not limited to, cleaning services.

      (P.A. 04-108, S. 1.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-314. (Formerly Sec. 38-105). Conditions to be stated in body of policy. No condition in any policy of insurance against loss by fire shall be valid unless stated in the body of the policy.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6104.)

      History: Sec. 38-105 transferred to Sec. 38a-314 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-315. (Formerly Sec. 38-106). Form of policies in other states. Any domestic property insurance company doing or proposing to do business in another state may frame and issue policies in such other state in accordance with the laws thereof.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6112; P.A. 90-243, S. 50.)

      History: P.A. 90-243 substituted "property" for "fire" insurance; Sec. 38-106 transferred to Sec. 38a-315 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-316. (Formerly Sec. 38-114). Premium notes subject to set-off. Section 38a-316 is repealed, effective October 1, 1998.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6122; P.A. 90-243, S. 53; P.A. 98-214, S. 32.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-316a. Insurers prohibited from refusing to issue or renew homeowners insurance policies solely on basis that homeowner failed to install permanent storm shutters to mitigate loss from hurricanes and other severe storms. No insurer that delivers, issues for delivery, renews, amends or endorses a homeowners insurance policy in this state shall refuse to renew or issue such a policy solely on the basis that the insured or prospective insured has failed to install permanent storm shutters on his or her residential dwelling as a means of mitigating loss from hurricanes or other severe storms.

      (P.A. 07-77, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 26.)

      History: P.A. 07-77 effective January 1, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 changed effective date from January 1, 2008, to July 1, 2007.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-316b. Premium discount on homeowners insurance policies for installation of permanent storm shutters or impact-resistant glass. Each insurer that delivers, issues for delivery, renews, amends or endorses in this state a homeowners insurance policy for a residential dwelling shall offer a premium discount on any such policy to any homeowner who submits to such insurer proof of installation of permanent storm shutters or impact-resistant glass on his or her dwelling as a means of mitigating loss from hurricanes or other severe storms. Such discount shall be based on sound actuarial principles and shall be applicable to premium charges for any such policy delivered, issued for delivery, renewed, amended or endorsed on or after January 1, 2008.

      (P.A. 07-77, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-77 effective January 1, 2008.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-316c. Coastal market assistance program established to assist coastal area residents to obtain homeowners insurance. Regulations. (a) The Insurance Commissioner may establish a coastal market assistance program to assist homeowners to obtain homeowners insurance for their residential dwellings located in proximity to the coastal area of the state. Such program may consist of a network of participating insurers and insurance producers that act on a voluntary basis and operate under the auspices of the commissioner to provide such assistance to homeowners. The commissioner may require any insurer that declines to issue or renew a homeowners insurance policy to provide notice, in writing, to the affected applicant or insured of the existence of such program.

      (b) The commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (P.A. 07-77, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 07-77 effective May 30, 2007.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-317. (Formerly Sec. 38-114g). Owner of mobile home eligible for homeowners policy. An owner of a mobile home shall be a homeowner for purposes of sections 38a-72 to 38a-75, inclusive, 38a-285, 38a-305 to 38a-318, inclusive, 38a-328, 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive, 38a-827 and 38a-894 to 38a-898, inclusive, and homeowners policies as regulated under said sections shall be offered on the same terms to such an owner as to other homeowners, when such owner of a mobile home owns and occupies a mobile dwelling equipped for year-round living which is permanently attached to a permanent foundation on property owned or leased by such owner of a mobile home, is connected to utilities, is assessed as real property on the tax list of the town in which it is located and is in conformance with applicable state and local laws and ordinances.

      (1971, P.A. 481; P.A. 73-616, S. 35; P.A. 01-174, S. 7; P.A. 02-89, S. 79; P.A. 07-77, S. 4; P.A. 10-32, S. 119.)

      History: P.A. 73-616 added reference to chapter 682a; Sec. 38-114g transferred to Sec. 38a-317 in 1991; P.A. 01-174 substituted reference to Sec. 38a-696 for Sec. 38a-697 and made technical changes, including changes for the purpose of gender neutrality; P.A. 02-89 deleted reference to Sec. 38a-286, reflecting repeal of said section by the same public act; P.A. 07-77 included Secs. 38a-316a to 38a-316c within scope of section, effective May 30, 2007; P.A. 10-32 substituted "owner of a mobile home" for "mobile homeowner", effective May 10, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-318. (Formerly Sec. 38-114h). Information to be furnished relative to fire losses. Limitation on liability. Confidentiality of information. Testimony concerning information given authorized agencies. (a) Any authorized agency may in writing request any insurance company to release information relative to any investigation it has made concerning a loss or potential loss due to fire of suspicious or incendiary origin which shall include but not be limited to: (1) An insurance policy relative to such loss, (2) policy premium records, (3) history of previous claims, and (4) other relevant material relating to such loss or potential loss.

      (b) If any insurance company has reason to suspect that a fire loss to its insured's real or personal property was caused by incendiary means, the company shall furnish any authorized agency with all relevant material acquired during its investigation of the fire loss, cooperate with and take such action as may be requested of it by the authorized agency and permit any person ordered by a court to inspect any of its records pertaining to the policy and the loss. Such insurance company may request any authorized agency to release information relative to any investigation it has made concerning any such fire loss of suspicious or incendiary origin.

      (c) No insurance company, authorized agency or person who furnished information on behalf of such company or agency, shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for any oral or written statement made or any other action taken that is necessary to supply information requested pursuant to this section, unless there is fraud, actual malice or conduct relating to the release of such information which constitutes a criminal act.

      (d) Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, any authorized agency receiving any information furnished pursuant to this section shall hold the information in confidence until such time as its release is required pursuant to a criminal or civil proceeding.

      (e) Any authorized agency personnel may be required to testify as to any information in the agency's possession regarding the fire loss of real or personal property in any civil action in which any person seeks recovery under a policy against an insurance company for the fire loss.

      (f) For the purposes of this section, "authorized agency" means: (1) The State Fire Marshal or the local fire marshal when authorized or charged with the investigation of fires at the place where the fire actually took place; and (2) the Insurance Commissioner.

      (g) For the purposes of this section, "insurance company" shall include organizations issuing insurance policies in this state pursuant to the provisions of section 38a-328.

      (h) Any authorized agency provided with information pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, may, in furtherance of its own purposes, release any information in its possession to any other authorized agency.

      (i) The provisions of this section shall apply to fire losses occurring on or after October 1, 1979.

      (P.A. 77-139, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-367; P.A. 80-482, S. 3, 345, 348; P.A. 81-425; 81-472, S. 155, 159; P.A. 04-10, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 79-367 inserted new Subsec. (f) defining "authorized agency", redesignating former Subsec. (f) as (g) and changing applicable date from July 1, 1977, to October 1, 1979, substituted references to authorized agencies for references to state fire marshal, fire officials, etc., and made provisions applicable to potential loss as well as actual loss; P.A. 80-482 made division of insurance an independent department as it was prior to P.A. 77-614, retaining insurance commissioner as its head, and abolished the department of business regulation created by P.A. 77-614; P.A. 81-425 inserted new Subsecs. (g) and (h) adding definition of "insurance company" and permitting any authorized agency to release information in its possession to any other authorized agency and relettered former Subsec. (g) accordingly; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; Sec. 38-114h transferred to Sec. 38a-318 in 1991; P.A. 04-10 inserted "and" in Subsec. (f).

      Private investigators for insurance companies were not agents of the state because of reporting requirement of the statute and their entry into defendant's business premises did not constitute an illegal search under federal and state constitutions. 40 CA 789.

      Subsec. (c):

      Defendants were required pursuant to Subsec. (b) to turn over to the authorities all relevant material acquired during their investigation of suspicious fires, and because the record revealed nothing that could be considered malicious in the disclosure by defendants, the protections afforded under this Subsec. applied to bar a claim of malicious prosecution against defendants. 118 CA 480.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-318a. Information to be furnished to Commissioner of Administrative Services re filed liability insurance claims. Confidentiality of information. Costs and reimbursement. Immunity from liability. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, each insurer authorized to issue policies of liability insurance in the state shall, upon the filing of any claim for damages because of bodily injury or death for a resident of this state, provide notice of such claim to the Commissioner of Administrative Services for the purposes of identifying potential liabilities to the state that the commissioner is authorized to collect pursuant to the general statutes. The content of such notice and the manner of its transmission shall be determined by the department in consultation with the insurers, except that insurers may provide such required notification directly to the commissioner or through a central reporting organization to which the insurer subscribes.

      (b) The state shall maintain, as confidential, any information obtained, collected, prepared or received pursuant to this section. The state shall not store or maintain any information provided pursuant to this section unless the state identifies the claimant as having a potential liability to the state.

      (c) The commissioner shall reimburse insurers or central reporting organizations, as applicable, for the reasonable documented costs, as determined by the commissioner, incurred for compliance with this section.

      (d) Each insurer, its directors, agents, and employees and each central reporting organization, its agents and employees, authorized by an insurer to act on its behalf, that provide or attempt to provide data pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be immune from any liability under any law to any person or entity for any alleged or actual damages that occur as a result of providing or attempting to provide data pursuant to this section, provided said damages are not caused by intentional, wilful or wanton misconduct. Compliance with the requirements of this section shall not subject any insurer, its directors, agents, employees and insureds, or any central reporting organization, its agents and employees, authorized by an insurer to act on its behalf, to any claims brought pursuant to sections 38a-816, 38a-975 to 38a-999a, inclusive, or section 42-110b, or any penalty pursuant to section 38a-15.

      (e) Information provided by or obtained from an insurer or the central reporting organization pursuant to this section shall not be subject to disclosure under section 1-210.

      (P.A. 05-251, S. 88; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 59.)

      History: P.A. 05-251 effective September 1, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) to notwithstand general statutes, delete references to workers' compensation insurance, and revise provisions re purpose and collection of information, inserted new Subsec. (b) designator and amended Subsec. (b) to require the state to maintain information as confidential and delete provision that no insurer or company shall issue payment on any claim until 25 days after required notice is provided, inserted new Subsec. (c) re costs and reimbursement, redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (d) and amended same to add references to agents of central reporting organizations and rewrite provisions re immunity, added new Subsec. (e) re information not subject to disclosure under Sec. 1-210, and made technical changes, effective September 1, 2005.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-319. (Formerly Sec. 38-31). Agreement of indemnification for injury from future accident to constitute contract. Any agreement in any form, which in effect provides for the indemnification of one person by another for injurious results to property from a future accident or other contingency, shall, to the extent of such provision for indemnification, constitute a contract of insurance within the meaning of the statutes concerning insurance, whether such indemnification is agreed to be by means of a money payment or by means of repair to or replacement of the property injured or any part thereof or by means of any work to be done upon such property; but the provisions of this section shall not apply to an agreement of any seller with a purchaser, guaranteeing workmanship and materials in connection with the sale of such property.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6090.)

      History: Sec. 38-31 transferred to Sec. 38a-319 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-320. (Formerly Sec. 38-31a). Home warranty contract or home warranty service agreement. Definition. Constitutes insurance contract. (a) As used in this section, "home warranty contract" or "home warranty service agreement" means any agreement in which any person, firm, corporation or association promises or agrees to repair or replace any structural component of a single or multiple-family dwelling of four or less units, necessitated by (1) wear and tear, (2) deterioration or inherent defect, (3) failure of an inspection to detect the likelihood of wear and tear, deterioration or such defect, or (4) substandard material or workmanship. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to an agreement of any seller with a purchaser, guaranteeing workmanship and materials in connection with the sale of such property.

      (b) A home warranty contract or home warranty service agreement as defined in subsection (a) of this section shall constitute a contract of insurance within the meaning of section 38a-319.

      (P.A. 80-228, S. 1, 2; P.A. 81-314, S. 2, 4; P.A. 97-48.)

      History: P.A. 81-314 replaced reference to Sec. 38-72(a) with reference to Sec. 38-72(b); Sec. 38-31a transferred to Sec. 38a-320 in 1991; P.A. 97-48 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting reference to appliances, or systems or parts thereof, adding Subdiv. (4) re substandard material or workmanship and making technical changes.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-321. (Formerly Sec. 38-175). Liability of insurer under liability policy. Each insurance company which issues a policy to any person, firm or corporation, insuring against loss or damage on account of the bodily injury or death by accident of any person, or damage to the property of any person, for which loss or damage such person, firm or corporation is legally responsible, shall, whenever a loss occurs under such policy, become absolutely liable, and the payment of such loss shall not depend upon the satisfaction by the assured of a final judgment against him for loss, damage or death occasioned by such casualty. No such contract of insurance shall be cancelled or annulled by any agreement between the insurance company and the assured after the assured has become responsible for such loss or damage, and any such cancellation or annulment shall be void. Upon the recovery of a final judgment against any person, firm or corporation by any person, including administrators or executors, for loss or damage on account of bodily injury or death or damage to property, if the defendant in such action was insured against such loss or damage at the time when the right of action arose and if such judgment is not satisfied within thirty days after the date when it was rendered, such judgment creditor shall be subrogated to all the rights of the defendant and shall have a right of action against the insurer to the same extent that the defendant in such action could have enforced his claim against such insurer had such defendant paid such judgment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6191.)

      History: Sec. 38-175 transferred to Sec. 38a-321 in 1991.

      Annotations to former section 38-175:

      Applies only to contracts made after statute took effect; constitutionality discussed; effect of payment by liability insurance company after judgment on obligation of surety on bond releasing attachment. 97 C. 16. Under former law, where policy indemnified against loss and not liability, insurer need not pay unless assured actually paid over money; bankruptcy of assured before satisfaction of judgment; effect of present statute. 98 C. 452; 119 C. 416. Gives no greater rights except for cancellation and annulment than assured had. 107 C. 651. Breach of covenant by assured is a defense; facts held not to amount to breach by assured of covenant to render insurer "all cooperation and assistance in his power". Id., 654. Pleading and burden of proof. 108 C. 566. Provision in policy that there should be no coverage if car is driven in violation of law as to age of driver construed; facts held to show violation of provision. Id., 599. Cited. 111 C. 550. Judgment creditor cannot recover from insurer if assured, because of breach of condition of policy, could not. 114 C. 313. Rights of injured persons recovering judgments are to be determined as creditors, not lienors; in interpleader where policy amount inadequate, equity will distribute pro rata. 115 C. 193. Waiver or estoppel may arise where insurer undertakes or continues defense of action with knowledge of breach by assured of cooperation clause. 117 C. 89. Settlement of multiple claims; insurer liable for fraud or bad faith in failing or refusing to settle claims within policy limit. Id., 147. "Absolutely liable" means only that payment is not dependent upon satisfaction by plaintiff of a judgment; claimant has only inchoate right against insurer until judgment. Id., 153. Judgment in original action that person was driving car is not res judicata that he was an assured in action by judgment creditor against insurer. 118 C. 194. Where insurer pleads breach of policy, burden is on one suing on it to prove performance. Id. To avoid policy, breach must be substantial and material. Id., 198. Settlement with assured made in good faith in accordance with policy discharges insurer's obligation; creditor thereafter obtaining judgment has no claim against insurer. Cited. 121 C. 514. Cited. 122 C. 196. Cited. 125 C. 509. Cited. 126 C. 87. Cited. 127 C. 258. Cited. 141 C. 574. Cited. 142 C. 251. The owner of a tort judgment has a right of recovery from the insurer of the judgment debtor if the plaintiff has recovered a final judgment; the judgment is against a person who is insured by the defendant against liability on it, and the judgment remains unsatisfied. Id., 388. Cited. 145 C. 74. Automobile liability policy covered any person using automobile with permission of insured, held "use" not limited to operation of vehicle. 147 C. 713. Phrase "person responsible for the operation of the motor vehicle with the express or implied consent of the insured" construed. 148 C. 15. If express language releasing the debtor is lacking, a person secondarily liable has the defense of accord and satisfaction if actual performance of the composition agreement has been completed as to a given signatory creditor. Id., 115. Cited. 150 C. 211. Insurer is not deprived of any defense it may have under policy, in absence of collusion, against judgment creditor of insured. 152 C. 31. Injunctive relief against insurer to compel payment of judgment against insured ordinarily denied on grounds of adequate remedy at law under this statute. Id., 249. Where, in declaratory judgment action to determine insurance company's obligation to defend and pay judgment, another adequate remedy exists, demurrer will be sustained. 153 C. 349, 350. Declaratory judgment may be made by trial court on matters which are litigable under this section and becomes res judicata in subsequent action. 158 C. 251. Cited. 161 C. 388. Cited. 163 C. 131, 552. Cited. 176 C. 676. Cited. 178 C. 32. The words "property" and "casualty" as used in this section discussed. 187 C. 363. Cited. 199 C. 245. Cited. 206 C. 668. Cited. 213 C. 696. Cited. 217 C. 371. Cited. 220 C. 285. Cited. 232 C. 559.

      Cited. 2 CA 282. Cited. 10 CA 125; Id., 135. Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Statute does not impose absolute liability. 1 CS 81. Cited. 3 CS 364. Injured party becomes subrogated to the rights of the assured against the insurer, without extending such rights in any way, except by prohibiting any termination of the coverage by separate agreement. 5 CS 306. Whether policy classified is one against "loss" or "liability" is resolved by this statute. Contract beneficiary need not allege insolvency of insured to prove it. 6 CS 468. An insolvent tortfeasor may not by his breach of contract of insurance bar the action granted to an injured person against an insurer where the breach of contract does not prejudice the insurer. 8 CS 469. Cited. 19 CS 396; 20 CS 455. A judgment creditor may be subrogated to the insured's rights. 32 CS 52. When default judgment against car driver, allegedly driving with permission of insured, was unsatisfied within thirty days, insurer cited as codefendant pursuant to omnibus clause of policy. 33 CS 523. Cited. 39 CS 85. Cited. 42 CS 164.

      Motorcycle held not an "automobile" within meaning of exclusion clause of policy. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 164.

      Annotations to present section:


      Cited. 217 C. 371. Cited. 231 C. 756. Cited. 232 C. 559. Cited. 234 C. 182. Cited. 235 C. 185. Cited. 239 C. 144. Default in declaratory judgment action does not bar suit under statute. 247 C. 331.

      Cited. 28 CA 145. Cited. 35 CA 94; judgment reversed, see 235 C. 185. Cited. 42 CA 177. Cited. 44 CA 220. Cited. 58 CA 39. Collateral estoppel cannot be asserted against an insurer in action brought pursuant to this section. 69 CA 507. Court found insurer bound by final judgment against insured that included finding of negligence. Id.

      Cited. 42 CS 164.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-322. (Formerly Sec. 38-185v). Binders for personal and commercial risk insurance. Binders or other contracts for temporary insurance may be made, orally or in writing, for a period which shall not exceed sixty days, and shall be deemed to include all the terms and applicable endorsements, approved by the commissioner, as are designated in the policy to which the binder applies. The clause of such policy specifying the hour of the day at which the insurance shall commence may be superseded by the express terms of such contract of temporary insurance. The provisions of this section shall apply to any insurance policy which is subject to the provisions of sections 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive, except standard fire insurance policies and automobile liability insurance policies.

      (P.A. 85-55; P.A. 89-48, S. 3; P.A. 01-174, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 89-48 increased to 60 the number of days a binder may be effective; Sec. 38-185v transferred to Sec. 38a-322 in 1991; P.A. 01-174 substituted reference to Sec. 38a-696 for Sec. 38a-697.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-323. (Formerly Sec. 38-185w). Notice of nonrenewal and premium billing for personal and commercial risk policies. Applicable to surplus lines insurers. Good faith effort as market conduct examination criterion. (a) No insurer shall refuse to renew any policy which is subject to the requirements of sections 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive, unless such insurer or its agent sends, by registered or certified mail or by mail evidenced by a certificate of mailing, or delivers to the named insured, at the address shown in the policy, at least sixty days' advance notice of its intention not to renew. The notice of intent not to renew shall state or be accompanied by a statement specifying the reason for such nonrenewal. This section shall not apply: (1) In case of nonpayment of premium; (2) if the insured fails to pay any advance premium required by the insurer for renewal, provided, notwithstanding the failure of an insurer to comply with this subsection, with respect to automobile liability insurance policies the policy shall terminate on the effective date of any other insurance policy with respect to any automobile designated in both policies; or (3) if the policy is transferred from the insurer to an affiliate of such insurer for another policy with no interruption of coverage and contains the same terms, conditions and provisions, including policy limits, as the transferred policy, except that the insurer to which the policy is transferred shall not be prohibited from applying its rates and rating plans at the time of renewal. With respect to an automobile or homeowners policy, each insurer that sends or delivers a notice of nonrenewal pursuant to this subsection shall use the same method to send or deliver such notice to any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a.

      (b) (1) On or before September 30, 1987, a premium billing notice for any policy subject to the requirements of sections 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive, except a workers' compensation policy, shall be mailed or delivered to the insured by the insurer or its agent not less than forty-five days in advance of the renewal date or the anniversary date of the policy. On or after October 1, 1987, such notice shall be so mailed or delivered to the insured not less than thirty days in advance of the policy's renewal or anniversary date, except that on or after October 1, 1998, such notice shall not be required for a commercial risk policy if the premium for the ensuing policy period is to increase less than ten per cent on an annual basis. The premium billing notice shall be based on the rates and rules applicable to the ensuing policy period and shall include a notice of transfer when the policy has been transferred from an insurer to an affiliate of such insurer pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any such policy for which the annual premium was less than fifty thousand dollars for the preceding annual policy period.

      (2) For purposes of any commercial risk policy subject to the requirements of sections 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive, except a workers' compensation policy, the mailing or delivery of a premium billing notice by an insurer's managing general agent, in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall constitute compliance by such insurer with said subdivision.

      (c) Failure of the insurer or its agent to provide the insured with the required notice of nonrenewal or premium billing shall entitle the insured to: (1) Renewal of the policy for a term of not less than one year, and (2) the privilege of pro-rata cancellation at the lower of the current or previous year rates if exercised by the insured within sixty days from the renewal date or anniversary date. Renewal of a policy shall not constitute a waiver or estoppel with respect to grounds for cancellation which existed before the effective date of such renewal.

      (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the advance notice period for any premium billing notice shall be at least sixty days for any liability insurance policy wherein a municipality is the named insured.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the advance notice period for any refusal to renew any professional liability policy shall be at least ninety days.

      (f) (1) No surplus lines insurer shall be deemed eligible to write coverage for risks as provided in sections 38a-741 to 38a-744, inclusive, 38a-777, and 38a-794, unless such surplus lines insurer complies with the requirements of this section. (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, premium billing notices shall be provided by any surplus lines insurer to the insured at least sixty days in advance of the renewal or anniversary date of the policy. Notices of nonrenewal or premium billing required by this section shall be provided by the surplus lines insurer or its duly authorized representative to the insured. (3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, failure of any surplus lines insurer to provide the insured with the required notice of nonrenewal or premium billing shall entitle the insured to an extension of the policy for a period of ninety days after the renewal or anniversary date of such policy, provided if the surplus lines insurer fails to provide the required notice on or before the renewal or anniversary date of such policy, the provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall apply. In the event of such a ninety-day extension of coverage, the premium for the extended period of coverage shall be the current rate or the previous rate, whichever is lower.

      (g) For purposes of any market conduct examination performed pursuant to section 38a-15, the Insurance Commissioner may find an insurer to be in compliance with the requirements of this section upon a determination that such insurer made a good faith effort to so comply.

      (P.A. 85-156, S. 1; P.A. 86-98, S. 1; P.A. 87-175, S. 1, 4; P.A. 88-82, S. 1; P.A. 96-124, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-213; P.A. 01-113, S. 32, 42; 01-174, S. 9; P.A. 02-60, S. 5; P.A. 06-109, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 86-98 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the notice requirement for nonrenewals from 30 to 60 days, amended Subsec. (b) to increase the premium billing notice requirement from 30 to 45 days until October 1, 1987, and to broaden the applicability of the section to policies with annual premiums of less than $50,000, and added Subsec. (d) establishing a 60-day premium billing notice requirement for municipal liability insurance policies; P.A. 87-175 added Subsec. (e), making the notice requirements of the section applicable to surplus lines insurers, with certain modifications; P.A. 88-82 inserted new Subsec. (e) requiring a 90-day advance notice period for any refusal to renew any professional liability policy, relettering prior Subsecs. as necessary (this provision was formerly contained in Sec. 38-370b which was repealed by the same act); Sec. 38-185w transferred to Sec. 38a-323 in 1991; P.A. 96-124 added Subsec. (b)(2) re commercial-risk-policy billing practices, and added new Subsec. (g) re market conduct examinations to let the commissioner find compliance based on an insurer's good faith effort; P.A. 98-213 amended Subdiv. (b)(1) to create an exception from the 45-day notice requirement for commercial risk policies if the premium is to increase less than 10% on an annual basis; P.A. 01-113 amended Subsec. (f) to delete reference to Sec. 38a-795, effective September 1, 2002; P.A. 01-174 substituted reference to Sec. 38a-696 for Sec. 38a-697 in Subsecs. (a) and (b); P.A. 02-60 amended Subsec. (a) to require nonrenewal notices for an automobile or homeowners policy to be sent to any third party designated pursuant to Sec. 38a-323a, substitute "sends" for "shall send" and "delivers" for "deliver" and delete "On or after October 1, 1986"; P.A. 06-109 added Subsec. (a)(3) re exception from notice of intent not to renew requirement if policy is transferred from insurer to affiliate of insurer for another policy, and amended Subsec. (b)(1) to require premium billing notice to include notice of transfer when policy has been transferred from insurer to affiliate of insurer.

      Annotations to former section 38-185w:

      Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Subsec. (a):

      Sixty-day advance notice of intent not to renew is not applicable because insurer did not want to cancel the policy through nonrenewal-insurer made an offer of renewal that was rejected because it was not accepted by payment of the renewal premium. 48 CS 460.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-323a. Designation of a third party to receive nonrenewal and cancellation notices on behalf of an individual aged fifty-five or older. Option available for automobile and homeowners policies. (a) Each insurer that issues, renews, amends or endorses an automobile or homeowners insurance policy in this state on or after October 1, 2002, shall include with the policy a conspicuous statement specifying that any individual aged fifty-five or over may designate a third party to receive notice of cancellation or nonrenewal of the policy. The statement shall include a designation form and mailing address the senior citizen may use to designate a third party. Such statement shall be in a form approved by the Insurance Commissioner.

      (b) No designation form shall be effective unless it contains a written acceptance by the third party designee to receive copies of notices of cancellation or nonrenewal from the insurer on behalf of the senior citizen. The third party designation shall be effective not later than ten business days after the date the insurer receives the designation form and the acceptance of the third party. The third party may terminate the status as a third party designee by providing written notice to both the insurer and the senior citizen insured. The senior citizen may terminate the third party designation by providing written notice to the insurer and the third party designee. The insurer may require the senior citizen and the third party to send the notices to the insurer by certified mail, return receipt requested.

      (c) The insurer's transmission to the third party designee of a copy of any notice of cancellation or nonrenewal shall be in addition to the transmission of the original document to the senior citizen insured. When a third party is so designated all such notices and copies shall be mailed in an envelope clearly marked on its face with the following: "IMPORTANT INSURANCE POLICY INFORMATION: OPEN IMMEDIATELY". The copy of the notice of cancellation or nonrenewal transmitted to the third party shall be governed by the same law and policy provisions that govern the notice being transmitted to the senior citizen insured. The designation of a third party shall not constitute acceptance of any liability on the part of the third party or insurer for services provided to the senior citizen insured.

      (P.A. 02-60, S. 1.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-323b. Written notice of personal risk claim denial. Notice to include Insurance Department contact information. Each insurer, or designee of an insurer, that denies a claim under a personal risk insurance policy issued in this state shall provide the insured with written notice of the denial. The written notice shall include the following statement, which shall appear in the final paragraph of the notice in not less than twelve point type: "If you do not agree with this decision, you may contact the Division of Consumer Affairs within the Insurance Department". The notice shall include the address and toll-free telephone number for the division and the Insurance Department's Internet address. As used in this section, "personal risk insurance" means personal risk insurance, as defined in section 38a-663.

      (P.A. 03-55, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 03-55 effective January 1, 2004.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-323c. Notice of late fee amount and applicability re personal risk insurance policies. Each insurer that assesses a fee for late payment of premium on a policy for personal risk insurance, as defined in section 38a-663, shall indicate the amount and applicability of the fee in a conspicuous manner on the bill sent to the policyholder.

      (P.A. 05-162, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 05-162 effective January 1, 2006.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-324. (Formerly Sec. 38-185x). Cancellation of commercial risk insurance policies. Notice requirements. Applicable to surplus lines insurers. (a) After a policy of commercial risk insurance, other than workers' compensation insurance and automobile insurance issued under a residual market mechanism as described in section 38a-329, has been in effect for more than sixty days, or after the effective date of a renewal policy, no insurer may cancel any policy unless the cancellation is based on the occurrence, after the effective date of the policy or renewal, of one or more of the following conditions: (1) Nonpayment of premium; (2) conviction of a crime arising out of acts increasing the hazard insured against; (3) discovery of fraud or material misrepresentation by the insured in obtaining the policy or in perfecting any claim thereunder; (4) discovery of any wilful or reckless act or omission by the insured increasing the hazard insured against; (5) physical changes in the property which increase the hazard insured against; (6) a determination by the commissioner that continuation of the policy would violate or place the insurer in violation of the law; (7) a material increase in the hazard insured against; or (8) a substantial loss of reinsurance by the insurer affecting this particular line of insurance. If the basis for cancellation is nonpayment of premium, at least ten days' advance notice shall be given and the insured may continue the coverage and avoid the effect of the cancellation by payment in full at any time prior to the effective date of cancellation. If the basis for cancellation is conviction of a crime arising out of acts increasing the hazard insured against, discovery of fraud or material misrepresentation by the insured in obtaining the policy or in perfecting any claim thereunder, discovery of any wilful or reckless act or omission by the insured increasing the hazard insured against or a determination by the commissioner that continuation of the policy would violate or place the insurer in violation of the law, at least ten days' advance notice shall be given. In all other cases, at least sixty days' advance notice shall be given. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the advance notice period for cancellation of any professional liability policy, as defined in section 38a-393, shall be at least ninety days. No notice of cancellation shall be required if such policy is transferred from an insurer to an affiliate of such insurer for another policy with no interruption of coverage and contains the same terms, conditions and provisions, including policy limits, as the transferred policy, except that the insurer to which the policy is transferred shall not be prohibited from applying its rates and rating plans at the time of renewal. No notice of cancellation shall be effective unless it is sent, by registered or certified mail or by mail evidenced by a United States Post Office certificate of mailing, or delivered by the insurer to the named insured by the required date.

      (b) No surplus lines insurer shall be deemed to be eligible to write coverage for risks as provided in sections 38a-741 to 38a-744, inclusive, 38a-777 and 38a-794, unless such insurer complies with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section.

      (P.A. 86-98, S. 2, 6; P.A. 87-18; 87-128; 87-175, S. 2, 4; P.A. 88-82, S. 2; P.A. 90-90, S. 1; P.A. 01-113, S. 33, 42; P.A. 06-109, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 87-18 exempted automobile insurance issued under a residual market mechanism from the provisions of the section; P.A. 87-128 established advance notice requirements for the various bases of cancellation and set mailing and delivery requirements for the notice to be effective; P.A. 87-175 added Subsec. (b), making the requirements of Subsec. (a) applicable to surplus lines insurers; P.A. 88-82 amended Subsec. (a) to require a 90-day advance notice period for cancellation of any professional liability policy; P.A. 90-90 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); Sec. 38-185x transferred to Sec. 38a-324 in 1991; P.A. 01-113 amended Subsec. (b) to delete reference to Sec. 38a-795, effective September 1, 2002; P.A. 06-109 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that no notice of cancellation is required if policy is transferred from insurer to affiliate of insurer for another policy.

      Cited. 239 C. 658.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-325. Notice of cancellation or discontinuation of professional liability insurance to covered employees. (a) Any individual, partnership, corporation, or unincorporated association providing professional liability insurance coverage for its employees shall furnish each insured employee, upon cancellation or discontinuation of such professional liability insurance, notice of the cancellation or discontinuation of such insurance. Such notice shall be mailed or delivered to the insured employee not less than forty-five days next preceding the effective date of cancellation or discontinuation. This section shall apply to any such individual, partnership, corporation or unincorporated association which substitutes one policy providing such professional liability insurance coverage for another such policy with no interruption in coverage.

      (b) If any individual, partnership, corporation, or unincorporated association fails to furnish notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the individual or entity shall be liable for benefits to the same extent as the professional liability insurer would have been liable if coverage had not been cancelled or discontinued.

      (c) For the purposes of this section, "professional liability insurance" shall be construed as defined in regulations adopted by the commissioner pursuant to subsection (b) of section 38a-393.

      (P.A. 90-63; P.A. 91-406, S. 8, 29.)

      History: P.A. 91-406 substituted "professional liability insurance" for "professional" in Subsec. (c).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-326. (Formerly Sec. 38-185y). Insurance loss information provided upon cancellation or nonrenewal. Claim information provided upon request. (a) Whenever a policy for commercial automobile insurance or general liability insurance is nonrenewed or cancelled for whatever reason by the insured or by the insurer, the insurer shall furnish the insured with written reports for the insured portion of the period beginning four years prior to the nonrenewal or cancellation date and ending six months prior to that date. Such reports shall include the following: (1) Each policy number; (2) each period of coverage provided; (3) evidence that the reports are furnished by the insurer; (4) written premiums; (5) pricing information as specified by regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (c) of this section and modifications used if requested by the insured; and (6) a detailed listing of incurred losses. If the policy is nonrenewed or cancelled by the insurer for reasons other than those permitting cancellation upon ten days' notice under section 38a-324, such reports shall be provided to the insured first named in the policy or the insured's authorized producer, not later than the date of notice of nonrenewal or cancellation. If the policy is nonrenewed or cancelled by the insured or cancelled by the insurer for any reason for which ten days' notice of cancellation is required under section 38a-324, such reports shall be provided within sixty days of receipt of the written request from the insured first named in the policy or the insured's authorized producer. If subsequent reports updating the required information are needed to properly rate or to obtain insurance coverage with a different insurer, such reports shall be furnished by the prior insurer within sixty days of receipt of a written request from the insured first named in the policy or the insured's authorized producer.

      (b) An insurer shall provide, upon request by the principal named insured, a summary of policy claim information on a policy for commercial insurance for a period commencing not more than four years prior to the date of the request. Such information shall include the following: (1) Each policy number; (2) each period of coverage; (3) the number of claims; (4) the paid losses of all loss information; and (5) the date of each loss. For purposes of this subsection, "principal named insured" shall not include any additional named insured.

      (c) The Insurance Commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, as deemed necessary to implement the provisions of this section.

      (P.A. 87-208; P.A. 92-75, S. 1; P.A. 93-239, S. 28; P.A. 96-193, S. 9, 36.)

      History: Sec. 38-185y transferred to Sec. 38a-326 in 1991; P.A. 92-75 inserted a new Subsec. (b) requiring an insurer to provide claim information upon the request of the principal named insured and relettered former Subsec. (b) as (c); P.A. 93-239 amended Subsec. (b) deleting the references limiting provisions to commercial automobile insurance or general liability insurance, making subsection applicable to all commercial insurance; P.A. 96-193 substituted "producer" for "agent or broker" in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 1996.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-327. (Formerly Sec. 38-17a). Regulations on claims-made policies. On or before April 1, 1988, the Insurance Commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to establish standards for insurance policies written on a claims-made basis.

      (P.A. 87-133, S. 1, 2.)

      History: Sec. 38-17a transferred to Sec. 38a-327 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-328. (Formerly Sec. 38-114f). Adoption of a fire, liability and allied lines underwriting facility. (a) The Insurance Commissioner shall make and enforce such reasonable regulations as he deems necessary to adopt and implement a fire, liability and allied lines underwriting facility as authorized in the Federal Property Protection and Reinsurance Act of 1968. Such liability coverage shall be limited to those forms of insurance available on the normal voluntary market on October 1, 1978, for single-family, two-family, three-family or seasonal dwellings. The same deductibles as are available on the normal voluntary market shall also be made available for commercial properties now eligible for fire and allied lines insurance. The authority to adopt and implement such regulations specifically shall include the power to establish the lines of insurance to be included and the procedures to be used in the implementation.

      (b) All insurance companies licensed in this state to write any or all such lines of insurance shall participate in the program and be subject to all regulations issued under subsection (a) of this section.

      (1969, P.A. 152, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 78-90; P.A. 80-482, S. 295, 348.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-90 made commissioner's regulation duty mandatory rather than discretionary, made provisions applicable re liability coverage and added provisions limiting liability coverage in Subsec. (a); P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-114f transferred to Sec. 38a-328 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-329. (Formerly Sec. 38-185l). Residual market mechanism for property and casualty insurance. (a) After consultation with insurance carriers authorized to issue property and casualty policies in this state, the Insurance Commissioner shall establish and approve a reasonable plan or plans to provide insurance coverage for applicants for such property and casualty policies who are in good faith entitled to but unable to procure such policies through ordinary methods. Any such plan concerning automobile insurance shall (1) offer for all participants, including owners and lessees of commercial vehicles registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles as provided in section 14-12, the minimal liability coverage mandated by law and physical damage coverage, fire, theft and collision, with or without deductibles, (2) include a careful driver credit rule providing for reduced rates, approved by the commissioner prior to their implementation, for eligible drivers insured through the plan, (3) provide for a governing committee composed of ten voting members, selected in accordance with the plan of operation, to operate such plan, provided eight members shall be representatives of insurance carriers participating in the plan and one member each shall be representatives of the Professional Insurance Agents of Connecticut and the Independent Insurance Agents Association of Connecticut or their successor organizations, (4) provide for a service fee of thirty-five dollars which a producer may charge on each initial policy with an insured, (5) provide that the minimum down payment for such policies shall be twenty-five per cent of the annual premium and that the minimum earned premium shall be equal to the down payment, and that the policy shall not be terminated until the later of (A) the date of completion of the period covered by the premium down payment or (B) the date of cancellation as determined pursuant to section 38a-343, (6) provide for a limited assignment distribution system permitting insurers to enter into agreements with other mutually agreeable insurers to transfer their applicants under such plan to such insurers, and (7) offer to all participants liability coverage for private passenger nonfleet motor vehicles of (A) up to two hundred fifty thousand dollars per person and five hundred thousand dollars per accident for bodily injury or death and one hundred thousand dollars per accident for property damage, or (B) in lieu thereof a single limit of liability of five hundred thousand dollars against claims for bodily injury or death and property damage. When any such plan has been approved all such insurance carriers shall subscribe thereto and participate therein. Any applicant for any such policy, any person insured under any such plan and any insurance carrier affected may appeal to the Insurance Commissioner from any ruling or decision of the manager or committee designated to operate such plan. The provisions of section 38a-19 shall be applicable to any such applicant, person or insurance carrier aggrieved by any adverse order or decision rendered by the Insurance Commissioner upon such appeal.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (5) of subsection (a) of this section, the insured shall be refunded the unearned portion of the premium down payment whenever, prior to completion of the period covered by the premium down payment: (1) The insured requests the cancellation of the policy because (A) the insured motor vehicle is sold or repossessed, (B) the motor vehicle is stolen or destroyed, (C) the insured enters the armed forces of the United States, (D) the insured replaces such coverage in the voluntary market, (E) the insured has not taken title or possession of the motor vehicle, or (F) the insured moves out of state and the vehicle is thereafter registered in another state; or (2) the insured requests an adjustment in such policy premium because he has cancelled one motor vehicle from the policy and such policy remains in effect for one or more other motor vehicles.

      (1969, P.A. 619, S. 1; P.A. 75-209; P.A. 77-521; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-316, S. 1, 2; 80-482, S. 304, 348; P.A. 82-28; P.A. 83-174; P.A. 85-90, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-128; P.A. 87-163; P.A. 90-243, S. 129; P.A. 91-406, S. 11, 29; P.A. 96-193, S. 10, 36.)

      History: P.A. 75-209 added provision specifically concerning plans involving automobile insurance; P.A. 77-521 added Subdiv. (2) in provision re plans concerning automobile insurance; P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-316 replaced detailed provisions of Subdiv. (2) re credits for accident-free persons with general statement requiring reduced rates for careful drivers; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 82-28 permitted commissioner to establish a joint underwriting association, in addition to an assigned risk plan, for fire and casualty insurance applicants; P.A. 83-174 added Subdiv. (3) requiring that the plan provide for a governing committee of ten voting members, include a service fee of $35, a minimum down payment requirement of 25% and a limited assignment distribution system; P.A. 85-90 amended Subsec. (a) to limit the carrier's authority to terminate any policy under the plan, and added Subsec. (b) re refunds of premium down payments; P.A. 86-128 amended Subsec. (a) to make the provisions of Sec. 38-349 applicable to any party aggrieved by an order or decision of the commissioner on an appeal by such party; P.A. 87-163 added Subsec. (a)(7) requiring that the plan offer bodily injury coverage of $250,000 per person and $500,000 per accident and property damage coverage of $100,000, or a single limit of liability coverage of $500,000; P.A. 90-243 substituted "property" for "fire" insurance in Subsec. (a); Sec. 38-185l transferred to Sec. 38a-329 in 1991; P.A. 91-406 corrected an internal reference; (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference in Subsec. (a) to "Motor Vehicle Department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Motor Vehicles" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 96-193 substituted "producer" for "agent or broker" in Subsec. (a), effective June 3, 1996.

      Cited. 36 CA 587.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-330. Transfer of policy to affiliate due to merger or acquisition. Notice. Each property and casualty insurer which at the time of policy renewal, transfers any policy to an affiliate as a result of a merger or acquisition of control, shall provide notice to policyholders at least sixty days prior to the effective date of transfer. Such transfer shall not require a nonrenewal or cancellation of the policy.

      (P.A. 98-64; P.A. 06-109, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 06-109 provided that transfer shall not require cancellation of the policy.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-331 to 38a-333. Reserved for future use.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

PART II*
MOTOR VEHICLE POLICIES

      *Sec. 38a-334 et seq. cited. 222 C. 631; Id., 657. Cited. 234 C. 182. Sec. 38a-334 et seq. cited. Id.

      Sec. 38a-334 et seq. Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744.


      Sec. 38a-334. (Formerly Sec. 38-175a). Minimum provisions in automobile liability policies. (a) The Insurance Commissioner shall adopt regulations with respect to minimum provisions to be included in automobile liability insurance policies issued after the effective date of such regulations and covering private passenger motor vehicles, as defined in subsection (e) of section 38a-363, motor vehicles with a commercial registration, as defined in section 14-1, motorcycles, as defined in section 14-1, motor vehicles used to transport passengers for hire, motor vehicles in livery service, as defined in section 13b-101, and vanpool vehicles, as defined in section 14-1, registered or principally garaged in this state. Such regulations shall relate to the insuring agreements, exclusions, conditions and other terms applicable to the bodily injury liability, property damage liability, medical payments and uninsured motorists coverages under such policies, shall make mandatory the inclusion of bodily injury liability, property damage liability and uninsured motorists coverages and shall include a provision that the insurer shall, upon request of the named insured, issue or arrange for the issuance of a bond which shall not exceed the aggregate limit of bodily injury coverage for the purpose of obtaining release of an attachment.

      (b) The commissioner, before adopting such regulations or any subsequent modifications or amendments thereof, shall consult with insurers licensed to write automobile liability insurance in this state and other interested parties. Nothing contained in such regulations or in sections 38a-334 to 38a-336a, inclusive, 38a-338 and 38a-340 shall prohibit any insurer from affording broader coverage under a policy of automobile liability insurance than that required by such regulations.

      (1967, P.A. 510, S. 1, 2; 1971, P.A. 364; P.A. 73-212; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 298, 348; P.A. 84-429, S. 71; P.A. 85-12; P.A. 90-263, S. 56, 74; P.A. 93-297, S. 9, 29.)

      History: 1971 act added reference to regulations covering commercial motor vehicles in Subsec. (a); P.A. 73-212 required that regulations require insurer to issue bond or arrange for issuance of a bond not exceeding aggregate limit of bodily injury coverage upon insured's request in Subsec. (a) and deleted obsolete date reference re deadline for adoption of regulations; P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 84-429 made technical change for statutory consistency; P.A. 85-12 amended Subsec. (a) to specify that such regulations concern policies covering private passenger motor vehicles, motorcycles, public service motor vehicles, livery vehicles and vanpool vehicles; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute phrase motor vehicles with a commercial registration for commercial motor vehicles and to substitute motor vehicles used to transport passengers for hire for public service motor vehicles; Sec. 38-175a transferred to Sec. 38a-334 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical change in section reference and amended Subsec. (b) to add reference to Sec. 38a-336a, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-175a:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited. 165 C. 466, 469. Cited. 169 C. 502, 505; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371 et seq. Cited. 171 C. 252. Discussion of uninsured motorist coverage required in accordance with regulations adopted by insurance commissioner as outlined in this section. Id., 443. Cited. Id., 463. Cited. 172 C. 416; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371. Cited. 197 C. 26. Cited. 201 C. 478. Cited. 203 C. 45; Id., 258; Id., 305. Cited. 205 C. 178. Cited. 211 C. 640. Cited. 213 C. 532; Id., 625. Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 222 C. 631. Cited. 224 C. 8. Cited. 226 C. 427. Regulations adopted under statute authorize reduction of award from uninsured or underinsured motorist by amount received from settlement in malpractice claim against attorney. 275 C. 748.

      Cited. 22 CA 27; judgment reversed, see 217 C. 631.

      Cited. 28 CS 126. Cited. 31 CS 229. Insurance policy provision providing for deductibility of workers' compensation awards for uninsured motorist coverage is valid; liability of secondary carrier is for excess over coverage of primary insurer, to the extent of its own coverage. 36 CS 256. Cited. 38 CS 318.

      Subsec. (a):

      Regulations explained relating to recovery allowed under uninsured motorist provisions of insurance contract. 174 C. 329, 331. Cited. 188 C. 245. Cited. 224 C. 152.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 221 C. 206. Cited. 222 C. 631. Cited. 223 C. 22. Cited. 224 C. 8. Cited. 226 C. 427. Cited. 234 C. 182, 188. Pursuant to regulations adopted under statute, motor vehicle with municipal registration used to transport medical equipment and firefighters to emergency not considered to be motor vehicle requiring underinsured and uninsured motorist coverage. 254 C. 404. Regulations adopted under former Sec. 38-175a authorize reduction of award from uninsured or underinsured motorist by amount received from settlement in malpractice claim against attorney. 275 C. 748.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 28 CA 145. Cited. 45 CA 630. Regulations adopted pursuant to Sec. 38a-334, which shall cover motor vehicles, motorcycles and so forth, shall not cover license plates. 104 CA 345.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 224 C. 152, 161. Commissioner did not act outside scope of his authority in adopting regulations that permit an insurer to offset available uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage by amount of a potential alternative resource available to the insured such as Social Security disability benefits paid or payable to the insured. 245 C. 169. In accordance with regulations adopted under section, insurer may exclude vehicles owned by self-insurers from scope of underinsured motorist coverage and such reading does not contravene purpose of the underinsured motorist statute. 248 C. 195.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 41 CA 625.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-335. (Formerly Sec. 38-175b). Minimum coverages. Applicability. Statement of coverage for rented motor vehicle. (a) Each automobile liability insurance policy shall provide insurance in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to section 38a-334 against loss resulting from the liability imposed by law, with limits not less than those specified in subsection (a) of section 14-112, for damages because of bodily injury or death of any person and injury to or destruction of property arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a specific motor vehicle or motor vehicles within any state, territory, or possession of the United States of America or Canada.

      (b) Each automobile liability insurance policy issued, renewed, amended or endorsed on or after October 1, 1988, and covering a private passenger motor vehicle as defined in subsection (e) of section 38a-363, shall contain or have attached thereto a conspicuous statement specifying whether the policy provides liability, collision or comprehensive coverage for damage to a rented private passenger motor vehicle and, where the policy provides such coverage, the limit of coverage provided and whether any deductible amount applies.

      (c) Each automobile liability insurance policy issued, renewed, amended or endorsed on or after April 8, 1974, shall provide that if the provisions of the motor vehicle financial responsibility law or the motor vehicle compulsory insurance law or any similar law of any state, territory or possession of the United States of America or any Province of Canada, require insurance with respect to the operation or use of the motor vehicle in such state, territory, possession or province and such insurance requirements are greater than the insurance provided by the policy, the limits of the company's liability and the kinds of coverage afforded by the policy shall be as set forth in such law, in lieu of the insurance otherwise provided by the policy, but only to the extent required by such law and only with respect to the operation or use of the motor vehicle in such state, territory, possession or province; provided the insurance under this subsection shall be reduced to the extent that there is other valid and collectible insurance under such policy or any other motor vehicle insurance policy. In no event shall any person be entitled to receive duplicate payments for the same element of loss.

      (d) With respect to the insured motor vehicle, the coverage afforded under the bodily injury liability and property damage liability provisions in any such policy shall apply to the named insured and relatives residing in his household unless any such person is specifically excluded by endorsement.

      (1967, P.A. 510, S. 3; P.A. 74-30, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-13; P.A. 88-157, S. 1; P.A. 90-243, S. 126; P.A. 99-145, S. 3, 23.)

      History: P.A. 74-30 clarified applicability re geographical location in Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b); P.A. 85-13 added Subsec. (c), clarifying the applicability of the bodily injury and property damage liability provisions; P.A. 88-157 inserted new Subsec. (b) requiring statement of whether policy provides coverage for rented motor vehicle and the extent of such coverage, relettering existing Subsecs. as necessary; P.A. 90-243 added a reference to "each automobile liability insurance policy" and made technical changes for statutory consistency; Sec. 38-175b transferred to Sec. 38a-335 in 1991; P.A. 99-145 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute "subsection (e) of section 38a-363" for "subsection (g) of section 38a-363", effective June 8, 1999.

      Annotations to former section 38-175b:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited. 169 C. 502; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371. Cited. 171 C. 252; Id., 463. Cited. 187 C. 386. Cited. 203 C. 45. Cited (as Sec. 38-175a et seq.). Id., 258.

      Cited. 31 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 256.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 203 C. 305.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 225 C. 257.

      Cited. 45 CA 630.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 41 CA 632.

      Subsec. (c):

      In action for underinsured motorist benefits, since jury verdict was less than amount insured had already recovered from tortfeasor, insured not entitled to recover any additional damages because to do so would result in impermissible double recovery. 49 CA 306.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 225 C. 257. Statute is not an absolute prohibition on household exclusions, but merely requires notice and acceptance by insured of an endorsement that specifically excludes relatives residing in the household of the named insured. Statute prescribes a process by which such exclusions must be executed to be valid. 282 C. 454.

      Cited. 34 CA 679. Cited. 45 CA 630.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-335a. Disclosure of automobile insurance policy limits. (a) Not later than thirty days after an insurer receives a written request by or on behalf of an individual that alleges the individual has suffered bodily injury or death caused in a motor vehicle collision by an insured under a private passenger automobile liability insurance policy issued by the insurer, the insurer shall provide written disclosure of such insured's automobile insurance policy limits to the individual making the request. The written request for disclosure shall be sent by certified mail directed to the insurance adjuster or to the insurance company at its last-known principal place of business.

      (b) Each written request for disclosure shall be accompanied by a letter from an attorney-at-law admitted to practice in this state or an affidavit of the individual that sets forth: (1) The type of claim alleged against the insured; (2) the date and approximate time of the alleged incident that gave rise to the request for disclosure; (3) a description of the injuries alleged to have been caused by the insured and a copy of the individual's medical bills and medical records from the treatment of such injuries; and (4) a copy of the accident report, if available, of the motor vehicle collision that allegedly caused the individual's injuries or death. An attorney-at-law who submits a letter requesting disclosure pursuant to this section shall include the attorney's juris number in the letter.

      (c) The disclosure provided by the insurer shall indicate all private passenger automobile coverage provided by the insurer to the insured, including, but not limited to, any applicable umbrella or excess liability insurance issued by the insurer.

      (d) The disclosure required under this section shall be applicable to requests for disclosure made on any claim arising on or after October 1, 2009.

      (P.A. 09-240, S. 1.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-336. (Formerly Sec. 38-175c). Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage. (a)(1) Each automobile liability insurance policy shall provide insurance, herein called uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage, in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to section 38a-334, with limits for bodily injury or death not less than those specified in subsection (a) of section 14-112, for the protection of persons insured thereunder who are legally entitled to recover damages from owners or operators of uninsured motor vehicles and underinsured motor vehicles and insured motor vehicles, the insurer of which becomes insolvent prior to payment of such damages, because of bodily injury, including death resulting therefrom. Each insurer licensed to write automobile liability insurance in this state shall provide uninsured and underinsured motorists coverage with limits requested by any named insured upon payment of the appropriate premium, provided each such insurer shall offer such coverage with limits that are twice the limits of the bodily injury coverage of the policy issued to the named insured. The insured's selection of uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage shall apply to all subsequent renewals of coverage and to all policies or endorsements which extend, change, supersede or replace an existing policy issued to the named insured, unless changed in writing by any named insured. No insurer shall be required to provide uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage to (A) a named insured or relatives residing in his household when occupying, or struck as a pedestrian by, an uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle or a motorcycle that is owned by the named insured, or (B) any insured occupying an uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle or motorcycle that is owned by such insured.

      (2) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, each automobile liability insurance policy issued or renewed on and after January 1, 1994, shall provide uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage with limits for bodily injury and death equal to those purchased to protect against loss resulting from the liability imposed by law unless any named insured requests in writing a lesser amount, but not less than the limits specified in subsection (a) of section 14-112. Such written request shall apply to all subsequent renewals of coverage and to all policies or endorsements that extend, change, supersede or replace an existing policy issued to the named insured, unless changed in writing by any named insured. No such written request for a lesser amount shall be effective unless any named insured has signed an informed consent form that shall contain: (A) An explanation of uninsured and underinsured motorist insurance approved by the commissioner; (B) a list of uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage options available from the insurer; and (C) the premium cost for each of the coverage options available from the insurer. Such informed consent form shall contain a heading in twelve-point type and shall state: "WHEN YOU SIGN THIS FORM, YOU ARE CHOOSING A REDUCED PREMIUM, BUT YOU ARE ALSO CHOOSING NOT TO PURCHASE CERTAIN VALUABLE COVERAGE WHICH PROTECTS YOU AND YOUR FAMILY. IF YOU ARE UNCERTAIN ABOUT HOW THIS DECISION WILL AFFECT YOU, YOU SHOULD GET ADVICE FROM YOUR INSURANCE AGENT OR ANOTHER QUALIFIED ADVISER."

      (b) An insurance company shall be obligated to make payment to its insured up to the limits of the policy's uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage after the limits of liability under all bodily injury liability bonds or insurance policies applicable at the time of the accident have been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements, but in no event shall the total amount of recovery from all policies, including any amount recovered under the insured's uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage, exceed the limits of the insured's uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage. In no event shall there be any reduction of uninsured or underinsured motorist coverage limits or benefits payable for amounts received by the insured for Social Security disability benefits paid or payable pursuant to the Social Security Act, 42 USC Section 301, et seq. The limitation on the total amount of recovery from all policies shall not apply to underinsured motorist conversion coverage purchased pursuant to section 38a-336a.

      (c) Each automobile liability insurance policy issued on or after October 1, 1971, which contains a provision for binding arbitration shall include a provision for final determination of insurance coverage in such arbitration proceeding. With respect to any claim submitted to arbitration on or after October 1, 1983, the arbitration proceeding shall be conducted by a single arbitrator if the amount in demand is forty thousand dollars or less or by a panel of three arbitrators if the amount in demand is more than forty thousand dollars.

      (d) Regardless of the number of policies issued, vehicles or premiums shown on a policy, premiums paid, persons covered, vehicles involved in an accident, or claims made, in no event shall the limit of liability for uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage applicable to two or more motor vehicles covered under the same or separate policies be added together to determine the limit of liability for such coverage available to an injured person or persons for any one accident. If a person insured for uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage is an occupant of a nonowned vehicle covered by a policy also providing uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage, the coverage of the occupied vehicle shall be primary and any coverage for which such person is a named insured shall be secondary. All other applicable policies shall be excess. The total amount of uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage recoverable is limited to the highest amount recoverable under the primary policy, the secondary policy or any one of the excess policies. The amount paid under the excess policies shall be apportioned in accordance with the proportion that the limits of each excess policy bear to the total limits of the excess policies. If any person insured for uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage is an occupant of an owned vehicle, the uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage afforded by the policy covering the vehicle occupied at the time of the accident shall be the only uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage available.

      (e) For the purposes of this section, an "underinsured motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle with respect to which the sum of the limits of liability under all bodily injury liability bonds and insurance policies applicable at the time of the accident is less than the applicable limits of liability under the uninsured motorist portion of the policy against which claim is made under subsection (b) of this section.

      (f) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of section 31-284, an employee of a named insured injured while occupying a covered motor vehicle in the course of employment shall be covered by such insured's otherwise applicable uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage.

      (g) (1) No insurance company doing business in this state may limit the time within which any suit may be brought against it or any demand for arbitration on a claim may be made on the uninsured or underinsured motorist provisions of an automobile liability insurance policy to a period of less than three years from the date of accident, provided, in the case of an underinsured motorist claim the insured may toll any applicable limitation period (A) by notifying such insurer prior to the expiration of the applicable limitation period, in writing, of any claim which the insured may have for underinsured motorist benefits and (B) by commencing suit or demanding arbitration under the terms of the policy not more than one hundred eighty days from the date of exhaustion of the limits of liability under all automobile bodily injury liability bonds or automobile insurance policies applicable at the time of the accident by settlements or final judgments after any appeals.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, in the case of an uninsured motorist claim, if the motor vehicle of a tortfeasor is an uninsured motor vehicle because the automobile liability insurance company of such tortfeasor becomes insolvent or denies coverage, no insurance company doing business in this state may limit the time within which any suit may be brought against it or any demand for arbitration on a claim may be made on the uninsured motorist provisions of an automobile liability insurance policy to a period of less than one year from the date of receipt by the insured of written notice of such insolvency of, or denial of coverage by, such automobile liability insurance company.

      (1967, P.A. 510, S. 4; 1969, P.A. 202; 1971, P.A. 767; P.A. 79-235; P.A. 82-441, S. 20, 23; P.A. 83-267, S. 2; 83-461; P.A. 85-7; P.A. 86-403, S. 79, 132; P.A. 90-243, S. 127; P.A. 93-77, S. 2, 4; 93-297, S. 1, 29; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 35, 36, 130; P.A. 98-189, S. 1, 2; P.A. 00-143; P.A. 10-5, S. 9.)

      History: 1969 act added proviso re limited coverage of uninsured motorists requested by insured; 1971 act specified that policies issued on or after October 1, 1971, which contain provision for binding arbitration shall provide for final determination of insurance coverage in arbitration proceedings; P.A. 79-235 added coverage re "underinsured" vehicles and added Subsec. (b), defining "underinsured motor vehicle" and detailing payments which insurance company is obligated to make; P.A. 82-441 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "Such arbitration proceeding shall be conducted by a single arbitrator," effective July 1, 1983; P.A. 83-267 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for arbitration of any claim submitted on or after October 1, 1983, by panel of three arbitrators if amount in demand exceeds $40,000; P.A. 83-461 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that an insurer is not required to provide uninsured motorist coverage to a named insured or a resident relative who is injured by an uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle owned by the named insured, or to any insured injured while occupying an uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle owned by the insured and added Subdiv. (2) requiring uninsured motorist coverage limits to be the same as those purchased to protect against loss resulting from the liability imposed by law unless a different amount is requested in writing by the insured, on every policy issued or renewed on and after July 1, 1984; P.A. 85-7 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that no insurer is required to provide uninsured motorist coverage to an insured occupying an uninsured or underinsured motorcycle owned by the insured, and to clarify the applicability of written requests for less coverage; P.A. 86-403 made technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 90-243 added a reference to "each automobile liability insurance policy", made technical changes for statutory consistency, deleted the numerical Subsec. indicators and substituted alphabetical Subsecs. (b) to (d); Sec. 38-175c transferred to Sec. 38a-336 in 1991; P.A. 93-77 added new Subsec. (e) (designated as (g) by the Revisors because of the relettering of subsections by P.A. 93-297) prohibiting an insurance company limiting the time for bringing suit or demanding arbitration on uninsured or underinsured motorist provisions of a motor vehicle policy to a period of less than three years and specifying the manner in which an insured may toll the limitation period in the case of an underinsured motorist claim, effective May 20, 1993; P.A. 93-297 replaced "uninsured motorist coverage" with "uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage" where appearing, amended Subsec. (a)(1) to replace "the named insured" with "any named insured", replace the provision that an insurer is not required to provide uninsured motorist coverage with limits in excess of the limits of the bodily injury coverage with provision that requires each insurer to offer uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage with limits that are twice the limits of the bodily injury coverage and add provision that the insured's selection of coverage applies to all subsequent renewals, policies and endorsements unless changed in writing by any named insured, amended Subsec. (a)(2) to change the date from July 1, 1984, to January 1, 1994, replace "the insured" with "any named insured", add provision that a written request for a lesser amount is not effective unless an informed consent form is signed and specify the contents of such form, amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the limitation on the total amount of recovery from all policies does not apply to underinsured motorist conversion coverage, inserted a new Subsec. (d) to prohibit the aggregation of the limits of liability, specify which policy coverages are primary, secondary and excess and the total amount of recovery thereunder when a person is an occupant of a nonowned vehicle and specify the availability of coverage when a person is an occupant of an owned vehicle, relettered former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e) and added Subsec. (f) re coverage of a named insured injured in the course of employment, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g) by making technical changes, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 98-189 amended Subsec. (g) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and making technical changes thereto and adding new Subdiv. (2) to prohibit an insurance company limiting the time for bringing suit or demanding arbitration on an uninsured motorist claim where the insurance company of the tortfeasor becomes insolvent or denies coverage to a period of less than one year from the date the insured received notice of such insolvency or denial of coverage, effective October 1, 1998, and applicable to insurance policies issued or renewed on or after January 1, 1999; P.A. 00-143 amended Subsec. (b) to add provision prohibiting any reduction of uninsured or underinsured motorist coverage limits or benefits payable for amounts received by the insured for Social Security disability benefits; P.A. 10-5 made technical changes in Subsec. (a)(2), effective May 5, 2010.

      Annotations to former section 38-175c:

      Cited. 155 C. 279. Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited (Diss. Op.). 165 C. 466, 474. "Uninsured" is not the same as "underinsured" and a court will not torture words to import ambiguity where the ordinary meaning leaves no room for ambiguity. Id., 466, 471, 472. "Uninsured motorist" does not include "unidentified motorists". 169 C. 502, 504, 505; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371 et seq. Cited. 171 C. 254. Every automobile policy is required to provide uninsured motorist coverage in accordance with regulations adopted by insurance commissioner. Id., 443. Statute does not require that uninsured motorist coverage be made available when insured has been otherwise protected. Id., 463. Cited. Id. Cited. 172 C. 416; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371. All issues relating to coverage including notice provision are determined through arbitration. 181 C. 37. Underinsured motorist benefits discussed. 187 C. 386 et seq. The exclusion in defendant's policy was invalid as against public policy underlying uninsured motorist coverage. Uninsured motorist coverage discussed. 188 C. 245. Cited. 189 C. 16; Id., 449. Cited. 197 C. 26. Cited. 199 C. 618. Review of case law on "stacking" benefits and application thereof to passengers as distinguished from policy holder and resident members of family. 201 C. 478. Cited. 202 C. 178. Cited. 203 C. 45; Id., 258. Cited. 205 C. 178. Cited. 211 C. 640. Cited. 212 C. 652. "Stacking" does not extend to fleet insurance contracts. 213 C. 525. Contains no mandate that uninsured motorist coverage may not be reduced by previously paid workers' compensation benefits. Id., 532. Umbrella insurance policy not an automobile liability policy within meaning of section. Id., 540. Cited. Id., 625. Cited. 214 C. 734. Cited. 215 C. 399. Cited. 216 C. 390. Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 218 C. 54; Id., 646. Physical contact requirement discussed: Weingarten v. Allstate Ins. Co., 169 C. 502, and Rosnick v. Aetna Casualty and Surety Co., 172 C. 502, overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage. 219 C. 371. Cited. Id., 391. Cited. 221 C. 185; Id., 206; Id., 779. Recovery of punitive damages not allowed under uninsured motorist coverage. 222 C. 480. Personal excess policy (umbrella) not an automobile liability policy within meaning of this section; policy not required to provide uninsured motorist coverage. Id., 631. Cited. Id., 657. Cited. 224 C. 133; Id., 145; Id., 152. Cited. 225 C. 165; Id., 223. Defendant is limited to coverage purchased on own vehicle. Id., 257. Cited. Id., 566. Cited. 236 C. 653.

      Cited. 1 CA 219. Amendment to statute in Public Act 79-235, effective October 1, 1979, was not intended to be given retroactive effect. 3 CA 697. Cited. 4 CA 137; Id., 339. Cited. 16 CA 209. Cited. 22 CA 27; judgment of appellate court reversed, see 217 C. 631. Section is person rather than vehicle oriented. 24 CA 655. Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 27 CA 573. Cited. 29 CA 484. Cited. 31 CA 781. Cited. 34 CA 863. Cited. 39 CA 429. Cited. 42 CA 225. P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2, 3 cited. Id.

      Cited. 31 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 256. Cited. 38 CS 318. Cited. 39 CS 90. Cited. 40 CS 156. Cited. 42 CS 336.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (2): Does not provide statutory basis for payment limitation in policies. 211 C. 640. Subdiv. (2): Any reductions in uninsured motorist coverage would require a request for such reduction after July 1, 1984. 215 C. 399. Subdiv. (1) cited. 218 C. 681. Subdiv. (2): Requires signature of all named insureds on a written request to reduce uninsured motorist coverage. 219 C. 764.

      Cited. 3 CA 250. Subdiv. (1) cited. 14 CA 153; 23 CA 585. Subdiv. (2) cited. 38 CA 290; 45 CA 558.

      Subsec. (b):

      Subdiv. (1): Set-off provisions do not apply to payments under Sec. 30-102. 205 C. 178. Subdiv. (2): "Underinsured" discussed. 213 C. 625. Subdiv. (1): Meaning of "exhaust" discussed. 214 C. 209. Subdiv. (1) cited. 215 C. 157. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id. Cited. 224 C. 758.

      Subdiv. (2) cited. 26 CA 793.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 226 C. 427.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 218 C. 51; Id., 646. Cited. 219 C. 391. Cited. 220 C. 30. Cited. 221 C. 185; Id., 206; Id., 779. Recovery of punitive damages not allowed under uninsured motorist coverage. 222 C. 480. Personal excess policy (umbrella) not an automobile liability policy within meaning of this section; policy not required to provide uninsured motorist coverage. Id., 631. Cited. Id., 657. Cited. 222 C. 744; Id., 769. Uninsured motorist carrier may limit its ability by taking credit for payment made by tortfeasor to insured. 223 C. 22. Cited. Id., 31. Cited. 224 C. 8; Id., 133; Id., 145; Id., 152. Cited. 225 C. 165; Id., 223. Defendant limited to coverage purchased on own vehicle. Id., 257. Cited. Id., 566. Does not require insurer to aggregate underinsured motorist coverage provided in policy covering two passenger vehicles if insured paid single actuarial appropriate premium for coverage and policy expressly excludes stacking. 226 C. 427. Cited. 228 C. 909. Cited. 229 C. 359. Cited. 230 C. 795. Cited. 231 C. 938. P.A. 93-77 cited. Id. Cited. 233 C. 437. P.A. 93-77 and P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2 cited. Id. Cited. Id., 460. P.A. 93-77 and P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2 cited. Id. Cited. Id., 474. P.A. 93-77 and P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2 cited. Id. Cited. 234 C. 182. Underinsured motorist coverage is not applicable if insured person's uninsured motorist limits are equal to or less than the tortfeasor's liability limits; section does not violate equal protection clauses of state and federal constitutions. 236 C. 299; Id., 318; Id., 653. Cited. 238 C. 285. Cited. 240 C. 799. Cited. 241 C. 792. Insurer is entitled pursuant to regulations adopted by insurance commissioner to offset available limits of uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage by amount of social security disability benefits paid or payable to the insured; allowing such offset does not conflict with basic intent of statute. 245 C. 169. Court adopted trial court's determination concerning named insured coverage re underinsured motorist conversion coverage. Id., 546. Uninsured motorist coverage discussed. Id., 727. In accordance with regulations adopted under Sec. 38a-334, insurer may exclude vehicles owned by self-insurers from scope of underinsured motorist coverage and such reading does not contravene purpose of the underinsured motorist statute. 248 C. 195. Court found that tortfeasor's vehicle was not underinsured within meaning of the statute in case where tortfeasor had a one-hundred-thousand-dollar single limit liability policy and plaintiff had a one-hundred-thousand-dollar per person and three-hundred-thousand-dollar per accident split limit underinsured motorist policy. 252 C. 79. Policy exclusion of government-owned vehicles was authorized pursuant to Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies section 38a-334-6(c)(2)(C) and exclusion did not conflict with public policies embodied in uninsured motorist statute. 278 C. 794. Section's mandate that, as a general matter, uninsured motorist coverage shall be portable, was intended to apply to ordinary, personal use vehicles, and not to antique vehicles maintained solely for use in exhibitions, club activities, parades or other functions of public interest. 279 C. 808.

      Section is person rather than vehicle oriented. 24 CA 655. Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Subdiv. (1) cited. 29 CA 484. Cited. 26 CA 793. Cited. 28 CA 145. Cited. 29 CA 484. Cited. 31 CA 132; Id., 781. Cited. 32 CA 617; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 795. Cited. 33 CA 626. Cited. 34 CA 27; Id., 40; Id., 444; Id., 833; Id., 863. Cited. 35 CA 338; Id., 638. Cited. 36 CA 141. P.A. 93-77 cited. Id. Cited. 38 CA 290. Cited. 39 CA 429. Cited. 40 CA 294. Cited. 41 CA 625. Cited. 42 CA 225. P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2, 3 cited. Id. Cited. 44 CA 1; Id., 377. Cited. 45 CA 554. P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2 cited. Id. Cited. 46 CA 313. In absence of evidence that the amendment to this statute in P.A. 93-297 was intended to clarify existing law, new requirements may not be applied retroactively. 50 CA 701. "Requests in writing a lesser amount" is unambiguous and therefore a review of legislative history is unnecessary. Id. Arbitration panel has jurisdiction to consider provisions of the guaranty act as necessary to arbitrate defendant's uninsured motorist claim. 52 CA 212. If contract of insurance contains an arbitration provision, arbitration of coverage issue is mandatory. Id. Exhaustion of benefits must be demonstrated by legal determination and cannot be decided by claimant on the basis of his understanding of the policy. 69 CA 330. Self-insured municipal employer not required to create a writing to give notice of its intention to reduce the amount of its uninsured motorist coverage by the amount of workers' compensation benefits paid to plaintiff employee because the self-insured municipality functions as both insurer and insured. 82 CA 752.

      Cited. 42 CS 336. Cited. 43 CS 147. Cited. 44 CS 59. Judicial review limited to whether arbitrator's award conforms to the submission. For statute to allow a policy exclusion, there must be substantial congruence between the statutory and the policy provision. 45 CS 144.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1) cited. 218 C. 681. Subdiv. (2): Requires signature of all named insureds on a written request to reduce uninsured motorist coverage. 219 C. 764. Subdiv. (2): Section neither mandates nor prohibits stacking; depends on reasonable expectation of parties. 226 C. 427. Subdiv. (2) cited re amendment in P.A. 93-297 that informed consent form be signed by "any named insured" rather than "the named insured". Held: amendment was not retroactive, appellate court decision overturned; and appellate decision correct that Nationwide Mutual Ins. Co. v. Pasion inapplicable to these facts. 245 C. 710. Subdiv. (2) discussed: legislature did not intend to require written consent of all named insureds on a commercial fleet policy as prerequisite to a reduction in coverage. Id., 727. Twelve-point type requirement in Subdiv. (2) not required for commercial fleet policies. 277 C. 398.

      Cited. 34 CA 679. Subdiv. (1) cited. 44 CA 53. Subdiv. (2) cited. 45 CA 558; 46 CA 313. Statute imposes no duty on lessor or lessor's insurer to procure insurance for benefit of lessee because obligation to procure insurance rests on owner and lessee is owner when vehicle is subject of long-term lease granting lessee an option to purchase. 59 CA 47. Because motorcycle is a covered vehicle, plaintiff has rightful claim for underinsured motorist coverage. 63 CA 815. Parity is required between liability and underinsured motorist coverage. Id. It is not mandated that the amount of coverage be provided. Id. Statutory requirements concerning provisions in consent form for premiums for each of coverage options available from insurer not required in the context of commercial fleet insurance. 79 CA 800.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 224 C. 758; Id., 766. Terms of policy and statute required reduction of judgment; judgment of appellate court in Bennett v. Automobile Ins. Co. of Hartford, 32 CA 617, reversed. 230 C. 795. Cited. 234 C. 807. Court concluded "... equitable subrogation is not the equivalent of a personal injury action", overruled Berlinsky v. Ovelette, 164 C. 482, which invalidated subrogation actions by providers of uninsured motorist benefits. 236 C. 362, 365. Re a claim for uninsured motorist benefits, the statute of limitations in Sec. 52-576 does not begin to run until plaintiff knew or should have known the tortfeasor was uninsured and in this case plaintiff could not have known the tortfeasor was uninsured until she received answers to her interrogatories which thereby put her on notice there was no insurance coverage for the accident. 255 C. 601.

      Cited. 27 CA 573. In action for underinsured motorist benefits, since jury verdict was less than amount insured had already recovered from tortfeasor, insured not entitled to recover any additional damages because to do so would result in impermissible double recovery. 49 CA 306. Exhaustion by payment of an uncertified check occurs when such check is honored and paid on presentment which terminates its conditional nature and it becomes absolute payment, date of payment relating back to date of delivery of the check. 67 CA 753. In a multiple tortfeasor context, injured party not precluded as matter of law from recovering under uninsured motorist policy where she had settled with one tortfeasor for an amount greater than the uninsured motorist coverage against which she is claiming. 72 CA 588. Subsec. imposes cap on amount recoverable under an uninsured motorist claim. 84 CA 236. Plaintiff's ability to recover against insurer is affected not by any issue of apportionment, but by terms of plaintiff's policy. Id., 594.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 224 C. 758. Cited. 234 C. 817. Choice of law issue is not an issue of coverage subject to compulsory arbitration pursuant to statute and de novo review; trial court properly determined that arbitration award was not subject to de novo review; in cases in which issue before the arbitrators is a choice of law issue, when the substantive laws of respective states deal with claimant's right to recover damages from the uninsured motorist or the measure of such damages rather than recovery of damages from an insurer, the choice of law issue is a damages issue, even though the choice of law may affect the amount of damages awarded to claimant and, ultimately, the amount recovered from the insurer. 256 C. 225.

      Cited. 30 CA 729; Id., 803. Cited. 32 CA 190.

      Cited. 44 CS 499.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 224 C. 766. Cited. 233 C. 910. Cited. 234 C. 807.

      Cited. 27 CA 573. Cited. 36 CA 623. Held to be inapplicable to gap policies and could not be applied to frustrate insurance company's stacking terms in relevant policies. 61 CA 336.

      Subsec. (e):

      P.A. 93-77, Sec. 2(e) cited. 233 C. 460; Id., 474. Cited. 234 C. 807.

      Cited. 44 CS 499.

      Subsec. (f):

      Benefits of uninsured motorist coverage extend to all employees regardless of status of their employer as self-insurer or as purchaser of commercial insurance policy. 243 C. 677. Employee injured in course of his employment while occupying a motor vehicle owned by employer entitled to uninsured motorist benefits from his self-insured employer. Id., 687.

      Employee not barred from recovering uninsured motorist coverage benefits against employer's insurer in regard to motor vehicle accident occurring prior to effective date of P.A. 93-297. 44 CA 1. P.A. 93-297, Sec. 1(f) cited. Id. Court properly construed Subsec. as limiting underinsured motorist coverage to those employees of a named insured who are injured while "occupying" a covered motor vehicle. 87 CA 416. Court properly determined that the exception to workers' compensation exclusivity rule provided by Subsec. does not apply to plaintiff because he was not occupying a covered motor vehicle within meaning of statute. Id.

      Police officer struck by uninsured motorist while directing traffic in course of his employment was not "occupying" a motor vehicle for purposes of Subsec. and is therefore limited to workers' compensation benefits under Sec. 31-284; "occupying" requires the driver to have physical contact with the vehicle. 51 CS 326; judgment affirmed, see 117 CA 656.

      Subsec. (g):

      Subdiv. (1) is not an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power, as it neither entrusts private insurers with any authority nor renders them agents of the legislature, rather it restricts the discretion of insurance companies. 297 C. 589.

      Cited. 42 CA 225. Legislature, in enacting Sec. 2 of P.A. 93-77, did not effect substitution of a three-year statute of limitation in plaintiff's automobile policy that contained the then recently prohibited two-year limitation for filing a claim for underinsured motorists benefits. 61 CA 806. Tolling provisions of Subdiv. (1) apply to insurance policy that expressly includes limitation provision of three years. 76 CA 329. Under plain language of statute, in order to toll applicable limitation period under Subdiv. (1), insured must inform insurer not merely that insured is pursuing a claim, but that insured is pursuing a claim for underinsured motorist benefits; thus, trial court properly interpreted statute and correctly concluded that plaintiff's notice of "any potential claim" was insufficient to satisfy notice requirement of statute. 90 CA 557.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-336a. Underinsured motorist conversion coverage. (a) Each insurer licensed to write automobile liability insurance in this state shall offer, for an additional premium, underinsured motorist conversion coverage with limits in accordance with section 38a-336. The purchase of such underinsured motorist conversion coverage shall be in lieu of underinsured motorist coverage pursuant to section 38a-336. For each new automobile liability insurance policy issued, the insurer shall disclose to an insured at the time of sale or issuance the availability of, the premium cost and a description of underinsured motorist conversion coverage. Such description of coverage shall be included in a conspicuous manner with the informed consent form specified in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 38a-336.

      (b) Such underinsured motorist conversion coverage shall provide for the protection of persons insured thereunder who are legally entitled to recover damages from owners or operators of underinsured motor vehicles.

      (c) Each insurer shall be obligated to pay to the insured, up to the limits of the policy's underinsured motorist conversion coverage, after the limits of liability under all bodily injury liability bonds or insurance policies applicable at the time of the accident have been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. If the insured purchases such underinsured motorist conversion coverage, then in no event shall the underinsured motorist coverage be reduced on account of any payment by or on behalf of the tortfeasor or by any third party.

      (d) The selection of coverage under this section shall apply to all subsequent renewals of coverage and to all policies or endorsements which extend, change, supersede or replace an existing policy issued to the named insured, unless changed in writing by any named insured.

      (e) For purposes of this section, an "underinsured motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle with respect to which the sum of all payments received by or on behalf of the covered person from or on behalf of the tortfeasor are less than the fair, just and reasonable damages of the covered person.

      (P.A. 93-297, S. 2, 29; P.A. 94-243, S. 5, 6; P.A. 96-180, S. 121, 166; 96-227, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 69, 121; P.A. 09-72, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 93-297 effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date; P.A. 94-243 amended Subsec. (c) by requiring each insurer to be obligated to pay to the insured, up to the limits of the policy's underinsured motorist conversion coverage, after the limits of liability under all bodily injury liability bonds or insurance coverage applicable at the time of the accident have been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements, amended Subsec. (e) by redefining "underinsured motor vehicle" and added Subsec. (f) making provisions of this section applicable to all new and renewal policies issued on or after January 1, 1994, effective June 7, 1994; P.A. 96-180 and P.A. 96-227 both amended Subsec. (e) to make technical change restoring language inadvertently omitted from the 1995 revision, effective June 3, 1996; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (d), effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 09-72 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re disclosure of underinsured motorist conversion coverage at time of sale or issuance of new automobile liability insurance policy, made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and deleted former Subsec. (f) re application of section, effective January 1, 2010.

      Cited. 236 C. 299. Court adopted trial court's determination concerning policy definition of an underinsured motor vehicle. 245 C. 546.

      Plaintiff could not collect conversion benefits on vehicle owned by him because of policy provision excluding coverage for vehicles owned by insured. 45 CS 355.

      Subsec. (c):

      Whether policy for leased vehicle applicable at time of accident depends on whether driver authorized to drive vehicle under terms of lease. 121 CA 597.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-336b. Subrogation against owner or operator of underinsured motor vehicle prohibited. No insurer providing underinsured motorist coverage as required under this title shall have any right of subrogation against the owner or operator of the underinsured motor vehicle for underinsured motorist benefits paid or payable by the insurer.

      (P.A. 97-58, S. 4, 5.)

      History: P.A. 97-58 effective May 27, 1997, and applicable to any claim or cause of action pending on or brought after March 19, 1996.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-336c. Claims for uninsured or underinsured motorist benefits. (a) An insured, when making a claim for uninsured or underinsured motorist benefits, shall make reasonable efforts to establish what liability coverage there is for the owner and operator of an alleged uninsured or underinsured vehicle.

      (b) For any motor vehicle accident occurring on or after October 1, 2006, no insurer may require its insured, as a condition of eligibility for payment of uninsured motorist benefits, to provide affidavits or written statements from the owner or operator of the alleged uninsured vehicle attesting to the fact that the individual did not maintain any liability coverage at the time of the motor vehicle accident.

      (c) For any motor vehicle accident occurring on or after October 1, 2006, no insurer may require its insured, as a condition of eligibility for payment of underinsured motorist benefits, to provide affidavits or written statements from the owner or operator of the alleged underinsured vehicle attesting to the lack of any additional bodily injury liability bonds or insurance applicable at the time of the motor vehicle accident.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall relieve any person seeking to secure any coverage under an automobile insurance policy of any duty or obligation imposed by contract or law.

      (P.A. 06-104, S. 1.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-337. (Formerly Sec. 14-130). Apportionment of risks. After consultation with insurance carriers authorized to issue automobile policies in this state, the Insurance Commissioner shall approve a reasonable plan or plans for the equitable apportionment among such carriers of applicants for such policies and for motor vehicle policies who are in good faith entitled to but are unable to procure such policies through ordinary methods. When any such plan has been approved, all such insurance carriers shall subscribe thereto and participate therein. Any applicant for any such policy, any person insured under any such plan and any insurance carrier affected may appeal to the Insurance Commissioner from any ruling or decision of the manager or committee designated to operate such plan. Any person aggrieved by any order or act of the Insurance Commissioner under this section may appeal therefrom, in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183, except venue for such appeal shall be in the judicial district of New Britain.

      (1951, S. 1368d; 1967, P.A. 356; 1971, P.A. 870, S. 38; P.A. 76-436, S. 345, 681; P.A. 77-603, S. 35, 125; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 5, 127; P.A. 80-482, S. 35, 348; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 99-215, S. 24, 29.)

      History: 1967 act deleted word "liability" with reference to automobile or motor vehicle policies; 1971 act replaced superior court with court of common pleas, effective September 1, 1971, except that courts with cases pending retain jurisdiction unless pending matters deemed transferable; P.A. 76-436 replaced court of common pleas with superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-603 replaced provision re court review of order or act of commissioner with statement that appeals be made in accordance with Sec. 4-183 except that venue is in Hartford county; P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-280 replaced Hartford county with judicial district of Hartford-New Britain; P.A. 80-482 deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; Sec. 14-130 transferred to Sec. 38a-337 in 1991; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 99-215 replaced "judicial district of Hartford" with "judicial district of New Britain", effective June 29, 1999.

      Annotations to former section 14-130:

      Cited. 143 C. 202. Cited. 169 C. 267.

      Annotation to present section:

      Cited. 36 CA 587.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-338. (Formerly Sec. 38-175d). Policies deemed to provide coverage in accordance with regulations. Policies affording bodily injury liability, property damage liability and uninsured motorist coverages to which the provisions of sections 38a-334 to 38a-336a, inclusive, 38a-338 and 38a-340 apply shall be deemed to provide insurance under such coverages in accordance with such regulations. Policies affording medical payments coverage to which the provisions of said sections apply shall be deemed to provide insurance under such coverage in accordance with such regulations.

      (1967, P.A. 510, S. 5; P.A. 93-297, S. 20, 29.)

      History: Sec. 38-175d transferred to Sec. 38a-338 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 added reference to Sec. 38a-336a, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-175d:

      Cited. 155 C. 279. Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited (Diss. Op.). 165 C. 466. Cited. 169 C. 502; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371; 171 C. 252; Id., 443; Id., 463; 172 C. 416; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371. 174 C. 329. Cited. 181 C. 37. Cited. 187 C. 386. Cited. 199 C. 618. Cited. 203 C. 45. Cited as Sec. 38-175a et seq. Id., 258. Cited. 222 C. 480.

      Cited. 31 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 256.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 222 C. 480. Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-339. (Formerly Sec. 38-175t). Comprehensive automobile coverage to include optional coverage for repair or replacement of damaged safety glass without deductible or minimum amount. Each automobile insurance policy providing comprehensive coverage, whether designated as such or included in a policy providing broader coverage, shall provide at the option of the insured complete coverage for repair or replacement of all damaged safety glass without regard to any deductible or minimum amount.

      (P.A. 79-241; P.A. 85-68; P.A. 03-199, S. 4; P.A. 05-140, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 85-68 added Subsec. (b), requiring insurers to give notice to insureds of the availability of such coverage at the time of initial renewal in 1986; Sec. 38-175t transferred to Sec. 38a-339 in 1991; P.A. 03-199 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute "Each" for "Any" and delete reference to policies on or after October 1, 1979, and amended Subsec. (b) to delete reference to policy renewal during 1986; P.A. 05-140 deleted Subsec. (a) designator and former Subsec. (b) re notice of availability of safety glass coverage.

      See Sec. 14-151a re filing of police report as condition precedent to settling a motor vehicle theft claim.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-340. (Formerly Sec. 38-175e). Binders, renewal endorsements and evidences of renewal. Any insurer authorized to issue an automobile liability insurance policy may, pending the issue of such a policy, make an agreement, for a period which shall not exceed sixty days, to be known as a binder, or may, in lieu of such a policy, issue a renewal endorsement or evidence of renewal of an existing policy. The provisions of sections 38a-334 to 38a-336a, inclusive, 38a-338, and 38a-340 to 38a-345, inclusive, shall apply to such binders, renewal endorsements or evidences of renewal.

      (1967, P.A. 510, S. 6; P.A. 87-209; P.A. 89-48, S. 2; P.A. 93-297, S. 19, 29.)

      History: P.A. 87-209 provided that the provisions of Secs. 38-175f to 38-175h, inclusive, and 38-175j and 38-175k are applicable to binders, renewal endorsements and other evidences of renewal; P.A. 89-48 increased to 60 the number of days a binder may be effective; Sec. 38-175e transferred to Sec. 38a-340 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 added reference to Sec. 38a-336a, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-175e:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited. 169 C. 502; overruled with respect to holding an uninsured motorist coverage, see 219 C. 371. Cited. 171 C. 252; Id., 463. Cited. 203 C. 45. Cited as Sec. 38-175a et seq. Id., 258.

      Cited. 31 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 256, 260.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Section did not require insurer to issue cancellation notice in accordance with Sec. 38a-343 before terminating plaintiff's policy. 52 CA 497.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-341. (Formerly Sec. 38-175f). Cancellation of motor vehicle liability policy: Definitions. As used in sections 38a-341 to 38a-346, inclusive:

      (1) "Policy" means an automobile liability insurance policy providing among other coverage bodily injury liability, delivered or issued for delivery in this state, insuring a single individual or husband and wife resident of the same household, as named insured, and under which the insured vehicles therein designated are of the following types only: (A) A motor vehicle of the private passenger or station wagon type that is not used as a public or livery conveyance for passengers, nor rented to others, or (B) any other four-wheel motor vehicle with a load capacity of fifteen hundred pounds or less which is not used in the occupation, profession or business of the insured, provided said sections shall not apply (i) to any policy insuring more than four automobiles, or (ii) to any policy covering garage, automobile sales agency, repair shop, service station or public parking place operation hazards, or (iii) to any policy of insurance issued principally to cover personal or premises liability of an insured even though the insurance may also provide some incidental coverage for liability arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle on the premises of the insured or on the ways immediately adjoining the premises;

      (2) "Renewal" or "to renew" means the issuance and delivery by an insurer of a policy replacing at the end of the policy period a policy previously issued and delivered by the same insurer, or the issuance and delivery of a certificate or notice extending the term of the policy beyond its policy period or term. Any policy with a policy period or term of less than six months shall, for the purpose of sections 38a-341 to 38a-346, inclusive, be considered as if written for a policy period or term of six months and any policy written for a term longer than one year or any policy with no fixed expiration date, shall for the purpose of said sections, be considered as if written for successive policy periods or terms of one year. Such a policy may be terminated at the expiration of any annual period upon giving thirty days' notice of cancellation prior to the anniversary date, and such cancellation shall not be subject to any other provisions of said sections;

      (3) "Nonpayment of premium" means failure of the named insured to discharge when due any of his obligations in connection with the payment of premiums on the policy, or any installment of such premium, whether the premium is payable directly to the insurer or its agent or indirectly under any premium finance plan or extension of credit. Nonpayment of premium includes, but is not limited to, the dishonor of any check, draft or other remittance upon presentment for payment;

      (4) "Declination" means: (A) With respect to a producer, denial in whole or in part of an applicant's written request for coverage; failure to submit within a reasonable period of time a completed written application for coverage to a specific insurer which the producer represents or with which the producer has an account and which is requested in writing by the applicant; placement of a risk with a residual market, an unauthorized insurer, or an insurer which specializes in substandard risks; or refusal to provide, upon written request, an application for coverage; (B) with respect to an insurer which conducts its business through independent licensed insurance producers, refusal to issue a policy after receipt of a completed written application for coverage from a producer who represents it or from a producer with whom it has an account; or (C) with respect to an insurer other than one specified in subparagraph (B), refusal to issue a policy after receipt of a completed written application, or refusal to provide, upon written request, an application for coverage.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 1; P.A. 77-199, S. 3, 12; P.A. 82-353, S. 15; P.A. 83-186, S. 1; P.A. 90-243, S. 128; P.A. 96-193, S. 11, 36; P.A. 98-80, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-199 required 30, rather than 20, days' notice of cancellation; P.A. 82-353 added a definition for "declination"; P.A. 83-186 removed policies issued under an automobile assigned risk plan from the definition of "policy" as defined for the purposes of Secs. 38-175f to 38-175l, inclusive; P.A. 90-243 made technical changes for statutory consistency; Sec. 38-175f transferred to Sec. 38a-341 in 1991; P.A. 96-193 amended definition of "declination" to substitute "producer" for "agent" and "broker", effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 98-80 redefined "nonpayment of premium" in Subdiv. (3) to include the dishonor of any check, draft or other remittance upon presentment for payment.

      Annotations to former section 38-175f:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169. Cited. 203 C. 45.

      Cited. 1 CA 409. Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182. Cited. 240 C. 86.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Subdiv. (2):

      Did not require insurer to issue cancellation notice in accordance with Sec. 38a-343 before terminating plaintiff's policy. 52 CA 497.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-342. (Formerly Sec. 38-175g). Bases for cancellation. (a) A notice of cancellation of a policy shall be effective only if it is based on one or more of the following reasons: (1) Nonpayment of premium; (2) the driver's license or motor vehicle registration of either the named insured or any operator either resident in the same household or who customarily operates an automobile insured under the policy has been revoked during the policy period or, if the policy is a renewal, during its policy period or the one hundred eighty days next preceding its effective date.

      (b) This section shall not apply to any policy issued under an automobile residual market mechanism or to any policy or coverage which has been in effect less than sixty days at the time notice of cancellation is mailed or delivered by the insurer unless it is a renewal policy or to nonrenewal.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 203; P.A. 83-186, S. 2.)

      History: 1971 act made technical correction, removing "(3)" preceding "if the policy is a renewal ..." in Subsec. (a); P.A. 83-186 amended Subsec. (b) so that this section shall not apply to policies issued under an automobile residual market mechanism; Sec. 38-175g transferred to Sec. 38a-342 in 1991.

      See Sec. 38a-358 re prohibited reasons for declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of private passenger nonfleet auto insurance policies.

      Annotations to former section 38-175g:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169.

      Cited. 1 CA 409. Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182. Cited. 240 C. 86.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 42 CA 177.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-343. (Formerly Sec. 38-175h). Receipt of cancellation notice. Reason for cancellation. Notice of cancellation. Requirements. Cancellation fee limited. (a) No notice of cancellation of a policy to which section 38a-342 applies shall be effective unless sent, by registered or certified mail or by mail evidenced by a certificate of mailing, or delivered by the insurer to the named insured, and any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a, at least forty-five days before the effective date of cancellation, except that (1) where cancellation is for nonpayment of the first premium on a new policy, at least fifteen days' notice of cancellation accompanied by the reason for cancellation shall be given, and (2) where cancellation is for nonpayment of any other premium, at least ten days' notice of cancellation accompanied by the reason for cancellation shall be given. No notice of cancellation of a policy that has been in effect for less than sixty days shall be effective unless mailed or delivered by the insurer to the insured and any third party designee at least forty-five days before the effective date of cancellation, except that (A) at least fifteen days' notice shall be given where cancellation is for nonpayment of the first premium on a new policy, and (B) at least ten days' notice shall be given where cancellation is for nonpayment of any other premium or material misrepresentation. The notice of cancellation shall state or be accompanied by a statement specifying the reason for such cancellation. Any notice of cancellation for nonpayment of the first premium on a new policy may be retroactive to the effective date of such policy, provided at least fifteen days' notice has been given to the insured and any third party designee and payment of such premium has not been received during such notice period.

      (b) Where a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance company sends a notice of cancellation under subsection (a) of this section to the named insured of a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy, or a third party designee, such company shall provide with such notice a warning, in a form approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and the Insurance Commissioner, that informs the named insured that (1) the cancellation will be reported to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles; (2) the named insured may be receiving one or more mail inquiries from the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, concerning whether or not required insurance coverage is being maintained, and that the named insured must respond to these inquiries; (3) if the required insurance coverage lapses at any time, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend the registration or registrations for the vehicle or vehicles under the policy and the number plates will be subject to confiscation and any person operating any such vehicle will be subject to legal penalties for operating a motor vehicle with a suspended registration; (4) the named insured will not be able to have the registration restored or obtain a new registration, or any other registration or renewal in the insured's name, except upon presentation to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of evidence of required security or coverage and the entering into of a consent agreement with the commissioner in accordance with the provisions of section 14-12g.

      (c) If a passenger motor vehicle liability insurance company cancels a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy pursuant to section 38a-342, such company shall send a written notice of such cancellation to any lienholder shown on the records of such company as having a legal interest in such motor vehicle.

      (d) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to nonrenewal or if the private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy is transferred from an insurer to an affiliate of such insurer for another policy with no interruption of coverage and contains the same terms, conditions and provisions, including policy limits, as the transferred policy, except that the insurer to which the policy is transferred shall not be prohibited from applying its rates and rating plans at the time of renewal.

      (e) No insurance company that renews, amends or endorses in this state a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy shall charge any fee or other charge exceeding one hundred dollars in the aggregate to an insured who cancels such policy prior to the expiration of such policy.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 3; P.A. 77-199, S. 4, 12; P.A. 81-289, S. 2; P.A. 82-353, S. 2; P.A. 86-95, S. 1; P.A. 93-298, S. 1, 11; P.A. 98-80, S. 2; P.A. 02-60, S. 2; P.A. 04-10, S. 6; P.A. 05-282, S. 5; P.A. 06-109, S. 4; P.A. 09-98, S. 1; P.A. 10-7, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 77-199 required 30, rather than 20, days' notice of cancellation and made notification of reason for cancellation mandatory in all cases where previously cancellation notice could simply inform insured that reason would be given "upon written request ... mailed or delivered to the insurer not less than fifteen days next preceding the effective date of cancellation" in Subsec. (a), deleted Subsec. (b) which had repeated provision of Subsec. (a) re insured's request for reason for cancellation and relettered former Subsec. (c) accordingly; P.A. 81-289 specified that notice of cancellation for automobile insurance policies be sent by registered or certified mail or by mail evidenced by certificate of mailing; P.A. 82-353 amended Subsec. (a), adding a provision concerning cancellation notices for policies in effect for less than 60 days; P.A. 86-95 increased the notice of cancellation requirement from 30 to 45 days; Sec. 38-175h transferred to Sec. 38a-343 in 1991; P.A. 93-298 inserted new Subsec. (b) detailing the cancellation procedure required when a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurer sends a cancellation notice and relettered former Subsec. (b) accordingly, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 98-80 amended Subsec. (a) to insert designators (1), (2), (A) and (B), to require notice of cancellation based on nonpayment of the first premium on a new policy to be at least 15 days, retaining 10 days' notice for other reasons, and to allow notice of cancellation for nonpayment of first premium on a new policy to be retroactive to the effective date of the policy, provided 15 days' notice is given and no payment is received; P.A. 02-60 added references to a third party designated pursuant to Sec. 38a-323, substituted "for cancellation" for "thereof", "the insured's" for "his" and "provided" for "provided that" and, in Subsec. (b)(4), inserted a comma; P.A. 04-10 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 05-282 amended Subsec. (b) by changing "will" to "may" and "will cancel" to "may suspend", replacing provision re operation of unregistered motor vehicle with provision re operating a motor vehicle with a suspended registration, replacing provision re payment of fees for restoration, confiscation and posting of financial responsibility for one year with provision making restoration of registration or new or renewal registration contingent upon presentation to Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of evidence of required security or coverage and entering into consent agreement as provided in Sec. 14-12g; P.A. 06-109 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that section shall not apply if private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy is transferred from insurer to affiliate of insurer for another policy; P.A. 09-98 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) to (c) and added Subsec. (d) limiting aggregate fee or charge for cancellation of motor vehicle liability issuance policy to not more than $100; P.A. 10-7 added new Subsec. (c) requiring insurance company that cancels a private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy to send written notice to lienholder and redesignated existing Subsecs. (c) and (d) as Subsecs. (d) and (e).

      Annotations to former section 38-175h:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169.

      Cited. 25 CA 95. Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Cited. 39 CS 206.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 1 CA 409.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182. Cited. 240 C. 86.

      Cited. 25 CA 95; Id., 492. Cited. 42 CA 177. Cancellation provisions discussed. 52 CA 497.

      Subsec. (a):

      Statute only requires certificate of mailing as proof of mailing cancellation notice and does not require firsthand testimony verifying actual delivery to post office, or proof of actual delivery to insured. 275 C. 408.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-343a. Notification of Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of the cancellation of private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policies. When. (a) Each insurance company which issues private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policies in this state shall, each month, on a date specified by the commissioner, notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of the cancellation by the insurance company of all such policies which occurred during the preceding month. The notice required shall include the name of the named insured in the policy, the policy number, the vehicle identification number of each automobile covered by the policy and the effective date of the policy's cancellation. The commissioner shall specify an acceptable method of notification. The method of notification specified may include computer tapes or electronic transmission. The failure of an insurance company to comply with the requirements of this section shall not affect the cancellation of any private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance policy.

      (b) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall receive or accept all notices of policy cancellation from private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance companies, as required pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. The commissioner shall review and analyze the cancellation data submitted, together with such other information as he may obtain from the private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance companies, from the records of the Department of Motor Vehicles, or from any other public or private agency or firm in possession of relevant information, for the purpose of determining whether any registered owner identified in any such notice has failed to continuously maintain insurance coverage in violation of sections 14-12c and 38a-371. In conducting such an inquiry to determine insured status, the commissioner may contact registered vehicle owners by mail and require that such mail inquiries be answered in not less than thirty days, in a satisfactory manner containing such information and verification of insurance coverage as the commissioner shall deem necessary and acceptable.

      (P.A. 93-298, S. 2, 11; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 93-298 effective January 1, 1994; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate proviso that no notification shall be made for any cancellation of any policy of commercial insurance, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 14-12g re cancellation of motor vehicle registrations by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles.

      See Sec. 14-12h re record of motor vehicle registrations cancelled by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles.


      Cited. 234 C. 182.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-344. (Formerly Sec. 38-175j). Proof of notice. Proof of mailing by certified mail, return receipt requested, notice of cancellation, or of intention not to renew or of reasons for cancellation, to the named insured, and any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a, at the address shown in the policy, shall be sufficient proof of notice.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 5; P.A. 02-60, S. 3.)

      History: Sec. 38-175j transferred to Sec. 38a-344 in 1991; P.A. 02-60 added reference to "any third party designated pursuant to section 38a-323a".

      Annotations to former section 38-175j:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182. Cited. 240 C. 86.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-345. (Formerly Sec. 38-175k). Notice of possible eligibility for assigned risk plan. When automobile bodily injury and property damage liability coverage is cancelled, other than for nonpayment of premium, or in the event of failure to renew the policy as provided in section 38a-323, the insurer shall notify the named insured of his possible eligibility for automobile liability insurance through the automobile liability assigned risk plan. Such notice shall accompany or be included in the notice of cancellation or the notice of intent not to renew.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 6; P.A. 85-156, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 85-156 substituted reference to Sec. 38-185w for reference to Sec. 38-175i; Sec. 38-175k transferred to Sec. 38a-345 in 1991.

      Annotations to former section 38-175k:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-346. (Formerly Sec. 38-175l). Liability of persons furnishing information to insured. There shall be no liability on the part of and no cause of action of any nature shall arise against the Insurance Commissioner or against any insurer, its authorized representative, its agents, its employees, or any firm, person or corporation furnishing to the insured information as to reasons for cancellation or refusal to renew, for any statement made by any of them in any written notice of cancellation or of intention not to renew, or in any other communication, oral or written specifying the reasons for cancellation or refusal to renew, or the providing of information pertaining thereto, or for statements made or evidence submitted at any hearings conducted in connection therewith.

      (1969, P.A. 809, S. 7; P.A. 77-199, S. 6, 12; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 299, 348.)

      History: P.A. 77-199 added references to refusal to renew and notification of intention not to renew; P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-175l transferred to Sec. 38a-346 in 1991.

      Annotations to former section 38-175l:

      Cited. 160 C. 280. Regulations under this statute make "other insurance" clauses in conflict with the regulations. 161 C. 169.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 234 C. 182.

      Cited. 42 CA 177.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-347. (Formerly Sec. 38-175m). Safe driver classification plans for motor vehicle insurance. Review. (a) The Insurance Commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, with regard to safe driver classification plans for automobile insurance policies issued or delivered in this state.

      (b) Such regulations shall provide for the establishment of an authority by the Insurance Commissioner to review, upon the request of an insured, an insurance company's action in assigning a point or points under any such safe driver classification plan and to determine whether such action is consistent with the terms of the plan and the provisions of sections 38a-663 to 38a-696, inclusive.

      (1971, P.A. 453, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 300, 348; P.A. 01-174, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-175m transferred to Sec. 38a-347 in 1991; P.A. 01-174 substituted reference to Sec. 38a-696 for Sec. 38a-697 in Subsec. (b) and made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b).

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-348. (Formerly Sec. 38-175n). Mandatory medical examination; cost to be paid by insurer. Any insurance company pursuant to the terms of an automobile liability or physical damage insurance policy or policies, existing between the insurer and the insured, requiring a medical examination as a prerequisite for the renewal of any such policy delivered or issued for delivery in this state shall do so at its own expense.

      (P.A. 75-359.)

      History: Sec. 38-175n transferred to Sec. 38a-348 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-349. (Formerly Sec. 38-175p). Insurer to file automobile liability policy underwriting rules and regulations with commissioner. Approval procedure. (a) Each insurance company which issues in this state automobile liability policies as defined in section 38a-341 insuring against loss resulting from liability for damages because of bodily injury or death of any person and injury to or destruction of property arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a specific motor vehicle or motor vehicles, shall file with the Insurance Commissioner the rules and regulations, or any modifications of such rules and regulations, used by such company to determine whether or not to underwrite such policies.

      (b) Such rules and regulations, or modification of such rules and regulations, shall be on file with the commissioner for a waiting period of thirty days before they become effective. The commissioner may extend the waiting period for an additional extension period not to exceed thirty days if the commissioner gives the insurance company that made the filing written notice within the waiting period. The written notice shall indicate that the commissioner needs additional time to consider the filing. Upon written application by such insurance company, the commissioner may authorize a filing that the commissioner has reviewed to become effective before the expiration of the waiting period or any extension period. A filing shall be deemed approved unless disapproved by the commissioner within the waiting period or any extension period. If, within the waiting period or any extension period, the commissioner disapproves the filing, the commissioner shall send the insurance company that made such filing written notice of disapproval, specifying the reasons for disapproval, and stating that such filing shall not become effective. Such finding of the commissioner shall be subject to review as provided in section 38a-19.

      (P.A. 77-199, S. 10, 12; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 301, 348; P.A. 00-7, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-175p transferred to Sec. 38a-349 in 1991; P.A. 00-7 designated existing language as Subsec. (a), deleted "On or before January 1, 1978", rewrote section and deleted reference that modification of rules and regulations be on file with the commissioner for a thirty-day waiting period, and added new Subsec. (b) concerning waiting period for approval, extension period and disapproval re rules, regulations and modifications of rules and regulations.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-350. (Formerly Sec. 38-175q). Automobile liability policy information to be filed with commissioner. Each insurance company which issues in this state automobile liability policies as defined in section 38a-341, insuring against loss resulting from liability for damages because of bodily injury or death of any person and injury to or destruction of property arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a specific motor vehicle or motor vehicles, shall file for each calendar year in which it does business within the state, not later than sixty days after the end of such calendar year, with the Insurance Commissioner, a record of the number of such policies insuring motor vehicles principally garaged in Connecticut in force as of January first of such year, the number of car years of such insurance in force as of January first of such year, the number of such policies nonrenewed in such year, the number of such policies cancelled in such year, the number of such new policies underwritten in such year, the total number of such policies in force as of December thirty-first of such year and the number of car years of such insurance in force as of December thirty-first of such year.

      (P.A. 77-199, S. 11, 12; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 302, 348; P.A. 81-35.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 81-35 limited the term "automobile liability policies" to the definition set forth in Sec. 38-175f; Sec. 38-175q transferred to Sec. 38a-350 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-351. (Formerly Sec. 38-175r). Automobile liability insurance for volunteer firemen and members of volunteer ambulance companies. Nonrenewal and surcharge prohibited. No insurer shall refuse to renew any automobile liability policy, as defined in section 38a-341, or assign any surcharge on any automobile liability insurance premium solely on the basis that the named insured or any operator either resident in the same household or who customarily operates an automobile insured under the policy is either (1) a volunteer fireman or (2) a member of a volunteer ambulance company who performs volunteer ambulance duties, as defined in section 19a-189.

      (P.A. 78-27; P.A. 86-62.)

      History: P.A. 86-62 made the section applicable to members of volunteer ambulance companies who perform volunteer ambulance duties; Sec. 38-175r transferred to Sec. 38a-351 in 1991.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-351a. Collision deductible included in subrogation demand. Except as prohibited by section 38a-336b, if an insurer chooses to exercise its right of subrogation pursuant to the terms of an automobile liability insurance policy, such insurer shall include in such subrogation demand the amount of any collision deductible paid by such insured, unless such insured requests such insurer not to include such amount. The insurer shall share subrogation recoveries with the insured on a proportionate basis.

      (P.A. 09-72, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 09-72 effective January 1, 2010.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-352. (Formerly Sec. 38-175s). Motor vehicle claims to be paid by check, electronic transfer or other immediately accessible means. All claims paid by an insurer, a holding company of an insurer or a wholly owned subsidiary of an insurer for any loss to a motor vehicle or any claim for damages to a motor vehicle, shall be paid to the claimant by check, electronic transfer to the claimant or other means that provide the claimant immediate access to the funds.

      (P.A. 79-141; P.A. 00-111; P.A. 10-5, S. 10.)

      History: Sec. 38-175s transferred to Sec. 38a-352 in 1991; P.A. 00-111 added electronic transfer to claimant or other means that provide claimant immediate access to funds as permissible payment methods; P.A. 10-5 made technical changes, effective May 5, 2010.

      See Sec. 14-151a re filing of police report as condition precedent to settling a motor vehicle theft claim.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-353. (Formerly Sec. 38-175y). Calculation of settlement amount on totalled motor vehicle. Disclosures required. (a) Whenever any damaged motor vehicle covered under an automobile insurance policy has been declared to be a constructive total loss by the insurer, the insurer shall, in calculating the value of such vehicle for purposes of determining the settlement amount to be paid to the claimant, use at least the average of the retail values given such vehicle by (1) the National Automobile Dealers Association used car guide or any other publicly available automobile industry source that has been approved for such use by the Insurance Commissioner, and (2) one other automobile industry source that has been approved for such use by said commissioner. For the purposes of this section, "constructive total loss" means the cost to repair or salvage damaged property, or the cost to both repair and salvage such property, equals or exceeds the total value of the property at the time of loss.

      (b) The insurer shall provide to the claimant, not later than the date the insurer pays the claimant the settlement amount for such vehicle, (1) a detailed copy of such insurer's calculation of such vehicle's constructive total loss value, (2) if applicable, a copy of any valuation report provided to the insurer by any automobile industry source that is not publicly available, and (3) a written notice disclosing that the claimant may dispute such settlement amount by contacting the Insurance Department. The written notice shall include the following statement, which shall appear in the final paragraph of the notice in not less than twelve-point type: "If you do not agree with this valuation, you may contact the Consumer Affairs Division within the Insurance Department". The notice shall include the address and toll-free telephone number for the division and the Insurance Department's Internet address.

      (P.A. 87-158; P.A. 10-7, S. 7.)

      History: Sec. 38-175y transferred to Sec. 38a-353 in 1991; P.A. 10-7 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and amended same to make technical changes and add "or any other publicly available automobile industry source that has been approved for such use by the Insurance Commissioner" and added Subsec. (b) to require insurer to provide certain documents and disclosures to claimant re settlement amount, effective January 1, 2011.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-354. (Formerly Sec. 38-175u). Automobile appraisers and insurers prohibited from requiring where repairs should be made or making certain statements. Notice required on appraisals or estimates. (a) No automobile physical damage appraiser shall require that appraisals or repairs should or should not be made in a specified facility or repair shop or shops.

      (b) No insurance company doing business in this state, or agent or adjuster for such company shall (1) require any insured to use a specific person for the provision of automobile physical damage repairs, automobile glass replacement, glass repair service or glass products, or (2) state that choosing a facility other than a motor vehicle repair shop participating in a motor vehicle repair program established by such company will result in delays in repairing the motor vehicle or a lack of guarantee for repair work.

      (c) Any appraisal or estimate for a motor vehicle physical damage claim written on behalf of an insurer shall include the following notice, printed in not less than ten-point boldface type:

NOTICE:

      YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE THE LICENSED REPAIR SHOP WHERE THE DAMAGE TO YOUR MOTOR VEHICLE WILL BE REPAIRED.

      (P.A. 79-624; P.A. 92-259; P.A. 08-146, S. 1; P.A. 09-237, S. 2.)

      History: Sec. 38-175u transferred to Sec. 38a-354 in 1991; P.A. 92-259 divided section into two Subsecs., inserting new language as Subsec. (b), prohibiting insurers from requiring insureds to use a specific person for physical damage repairs, glass replacement, glass repair service or products unless otherwise agreed to by insured; P.A. 08-146 added Subsec. (c) requiring written notice on appraisals or estimates of consumer's right to choose repair shop where repairs will be done, effective January 1, 2009; P.A. 09-237 amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing provisions re required use of specific person as Subdiv. (1), deleting proviso therein allowing required use of specific person if insured agrees in writing, and adding Subdiv. (2) re prohibition against making certain statements re facilities not participating in insurer's motor vehicle repair program.

      See Sec. 38a-790 re licensing of motor vehicle physical damage appraisers.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-355. (Formerly Sec. 38-175z). Notice required concerning parts used to repair damaged private passenger motor vehicles. (a)(1) Whenever repairs are necessary to the visible exterior sheet metal or plastic parts of a damaged private passenger motor vehicle, as defined in section 38a-363, any insurer or repairer, as defined in section 14-51, preparing a written estimate of the cost of such repairs shall clearly identify in such estimate each major replacement part to be used which is not manufactured by the original manufacturer of the damaged part in such motor vehicle. For the purposes of this section, "parts" means motor vehicle replacement parts of sheet metal or plastic, which constitute the visible exterior of the vehicle, including inner and outer panels, and which are generally repaired or replaced as the result of a collision.

      (2) Attached to any such estimate shall be the following notice, printed in no less than ten-point type:

NOTICE

This repair estimate is based in part on the use of replacement parts which are not made by the original manufacturer of the damaged parts in your motor vehicle.

      (3) The insurer or repairer, as the case may be, shall give a copy of such estimate and notice to the person requesting such estimate.

      (b) Any violation of the provisions of this section by an insurer shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive insurance practice under section 38a-816. Any violation of the provisions of this section by a repairer shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b.

      (P.A. 87-334.)

      History: Sec. 38-175z transferred to Sec. 38a-355 in 1991.

      Cited. 231 C. 707.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-356. (Formerly Sec. 38-175v). Disclosure of information by insurance company re motor vehicle losses or fraudulent claims. Insurance company reports to commissioner. Immunity from liability. Confidentiality. (a) Any authorized employee of the Department of Public Safety, Department of Motor Vehicles or a local police department may in writing request any insurance company to release to such employee information relative to any investigation it has made concerning a motor vehicle's loss or potential loss or any information relating to fraud or potential fraud in any claim under a motor vehicle insurance policy. Any insurance company, on its own initiative, may provide and disclose information relating to fraud or potential fraud to such authorized persons. Such information shall include, but not be limited to: (1) An insurance policy relative to such loss, (2) policy premium records, (3) history of previous claims, and (4) other relevant material relating to such loss or potential loss or to such fraud or potential fraud.

      (b) Any insurance company so requested shall furnish such information to any such employee and shall permit the Insurance Commissioner or the commissioner's designee and any person ordered by a court to inspect its records pertaining to the policy and loss. Any insurance company may request any such employee to release information relative to any departmental investigation concerning the loss. Any information obtained relative to fraud or potential fraud may be disclosed to any central reporting bureau and any law enforcement agency.

      (c) On or before March thirty-first of each year, each insurance company shall provide the Insurance Commissioner annual reports detailing all information received or investigations conducted by such company during the past year concerning insurance fraud in any claim under a motor vehicle insurance policy. Such reports shall be filed in a manner prescribed by the commissioner.

      (d) In the absence of fraud, malice or criminal act, no insurance company, authorized employee or person who furnished information on behalf of such company or department, shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for any oral or written statement made pursuant to the provisions of this section.

      (e) Information furnished pursuant to this section shall be held in confidence until its release is required pursuant to a criminal or civil proceeding.

      (P.A. 80-292, S. 13; P.A. 82-23; P.A. 00-211, S. 4; P.A. 01-5.)

      History: P.A. 82-23 added provisions regarding the disclosure of information relating to fraud or potential fraud in motor vehicle insurance claims; Sec. 38-175v transferred to Sec. 38a-356 in 1991; P.A. 00-211 amended Subsec. (b) to permit inspection by the commissioner or his designee, inserted a new Subsec. (c) requiring insurance companies to submit annual reports to the commissioner detailing all information received or investigations conducted during the past year concerning insurance fraud, and redesignated former Subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively; P.A. 01-5 amended Subsec. (c) to substitute "March thirty-first of each year" for "December 15, 2000, and on or before each July thirty-first thereafter" re annual report filings.

      See Sec. 14-16c re insurance companies' duties re totalled vehicles and certificates of title.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-357. (Formerly Sec. 38-175w). Insurer to report motor vehicle theft or fire loss to National Insurance Crime Bureau. Bureau to establish central index file. (a) Each insurance company which issues in this state motor vehicle insurance policies providing theft or fire coverage, including policies written under an assigned risk plan under section 38a-329, shall report the theft, larceny or loss due to fire of any motor vehicle, or any of its component parts, to the National Insurance Crime Bureau. "Component part", for purposes of this section, means any major part of a motor vehicle, other than a tire, having a manufacturer's identification number or other unique identifier issued in accordance with the laws of this or any other state, jurisdiction or country.

      (b) Each insurance company which issues in this state motor vehicle insurance policies, including policies written under an assigned risk plan under section 38a-329, shall report all constructive total losses involving salvage for any motor vehicle to the National Insurance Crime Bureau.

      (c) Such reports shall include the vehicle identification number and any other information required, pursuant to regulations adopted by the Insurance Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. The commissioner shall designate the National Insurance Crime Bureau as the central index reporting bureau in the state. The bureau shall, in cooperation with the Insurance Department, establish a central index file of all such reports. Any costs of administration or operation of such system shall be paid by such insurance companies in accordance with procedures established by the commissioner.

      (P.A. 82-71; P.A. 83-587, S. 54, 96; P.A. 84-169; P.A. 96-227, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 83-587 substituted "Automobile" for "Auto" in bureau name; P.A. 84-169 required insurance companies to report the larceny or loss due to fire of any motor vehicle or its component parts, and to report all constructive total losses involving salvage, to the National Automobile Theft Bureau and defined "component part"; Sec. 38-175w transferred to Sec. 38a-357 in 1991; P.A. 96-227 substituted "National Insurance Crime Bureau" for "National Automobile Theft Bureau".

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-358. (Formerly Sec. 38-175x). Declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of private passenger nonfleet auto insurance policies prohibited for certain reasons. The declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of a policy for private passenger nonfleet automobile insurance is prohibited if the declination, cancellation or nonrenewal is based: (1) On the race, religion, nationality or ethnicity of the applicant or named insured; (2) solely on the lawful occupation or profession of the applicant or named insured, except that this provision shall not apply to any insurer which limits its market to one lawful occupation or profession or to several related lawful occupations or professions; (3) on the principal location of the insured motor vehicle unless such decision is for a business purpose which is not a mere pretext for unfair discrimination; (4) solely on the age, sex or marital status of an applicant or an insured, except that this subdivision shall not apply to an insurer in an insurer group if one or more other insurers in the group would not decline an application for essentially similar coverage based upon such reasons; (5) on the fact that the applicant or named insured previously obtained insurance coverage through a residual market; (6) on the fact that another insurer previously declined to insure the applicant or terminated an existing policy in which the applicant was the named insured; (7) the first or second accident within the current experience period in relation to which the applicant or insured was not convicted of a moving traffic violation and was not at fault; or (8) solely on information contained in an insured's or applicant's credit history or credit rating or solely on an applicant's lack of credit history. For the purposes of subdivision (8) of this section, an insurer shall not be deemed to have declined, cancelled or nonrenewed a policy if coverage is available through an affiliated insurer.

      (P.A. 82-353, S. 16; P.A. 89-192, S. 1; P.A. 10-7, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 89-192 added Subdiv. (7) prohibiting declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of a policy if based on the first or second accident within the current experience period in which the applicant or insured was not convicted of a moving traffic violation and was not at fault; Sec. 38-175x transferred to Sec. 38a-358 in 1991; P.A. 10-7 added Subdiv. (8) prohibiting declination, cancellation or nonrenewal of policy based solely on applicant's or insured's credit history or rating or applicant's lack of credit history and added provision re coverage through affiliated insurer, effective January 1, 2011.

      See Sec. 38a-342 re permissible reasons for cancellation of an auto liability policy.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-359 to 38a-362. Reserved for future use.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

PART III*
NO-FAULT MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE

      *See Sec. 14-289f re insurance requirement for motorcycle operators.

      Annotations to former chapter 690:

      Cited. 167 C. 151. Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 179 C. 372. Cited. 186 C. 507. Declaratory judgment as to whether amounts previously paid by defendant insurance company to six declarants as basic reparations benefits under this chapter should be distributed or reimbursed to the defendant pursuant to Sec. 38-325(b). 187 C. 451 et seq. Cited. 193 C. 670. No-fault motor vehicle insurance act, Secs. 38-319 through 38-351 cited. 200 C. 630; 201 C. 632. Application of doctrine of lex loci delicti discussed; judgment of appellate court reversed. Connecticut statute to be applied. Id. Cited. 219 C. 391.

      Cited. 3 CA 240. "Basic reparations benefits" as used throughout act include entire amount of benefits paid pursuant to increased coverage provided for under Sec. 38-330. Id., 432.

      Section 38-319 et seq. cited. 35 CS 119. Cited. 37 CS 723; Id., 806. Cited. 38 CS 318. Cited. 39 CS 165.


      Sec. 38a-363. (Formerly Sec. 38-319). Definitions. As used in sections 38a-17, 38a-19 and 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive:

      (a) "Injury" means bodily injury, sickness or disease, including death resulting therefrom, accidentally caused and arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of (1) a private passenger motor vehicle; or (2) a vehicle with a commercial registration, as defined in section 14-1.

      (b) "Insurer" or "insurance company" includes a self-insurer and a person having the rights and obligations of an insurer under sections 38a-19 and 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, as provided by section 38a-371.

      (c) "Occupying" a vehicle means to be in or upon or entering into or alighting from the vehicle.

      (d) "Owner" of a private passenger motor vehicle means the person who owns the legal title thereto, except where the motor vehicle is the subject of a security agreement or lease with option to purchase with the debtor or lessee having the right to possession, in which event "owner" means the debtor or lessee.

      (e) "Private passenger motor vehicle" means a: (1) Private passenger type automobile; (2) station-wagon-type automobile; (3) camper-type motor vehicle; (4) high-mileage-type motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1; (5) truck-type motor vehicle with a load capacity of fifteen hundred pounds or less, registered as a passenger motor vehicle, as defined in said section, or as a passenger and commercial motor vehicle, as defined in said section, or used for farming purposes; or (6) a vehicle with a commercial registration, as defined in subdivision (12) of said section. It does not include a motorcycle or motor vehicle used as a public or livery conveyance.

      (f) "Relative" of a person means one who is related to the person by blood, marriage or adoption.

      (g) "Use" of a motor vehicle includes the loading or unloading thereof.

      (h) "Pedestrian" means any person not occupying a vehicle of any type other than a vehicle designed to be drawn or driven by muscular power.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 1; P.A. 74-17, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-182, S. 1; P.A. 80-128; P.A. 81-394, S. 7; P.A. 84-429, S. 73; P.A. 93-297, S. 10, 29; P.A. 94-243, S. 4; P.A. 01-139, S. 5; P.A. 05-288, S. 142; P.A. 08-110, S. 1; 08-150, S. 38.)

      History: P.A. 74-17 defined "pedestrian" in new Subdiv. (l); P.A. 76-182 redefined "economic loss" to include losses incurred by persons unemployed at time of accident, i.e. equivalency of unemployment compensation benefits; P.A. 80-128 redefined "private passenger motor vehicle"; P.A. 81-394 amended Subdiv. (g) to include a high-mileage type motor vehicle within the definition of "private passenger motor vehicle"; P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; Sec. 38-319 transferred to Sec. 38a-363 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 deleted definitions of "basic reparations insured", "economic loss", "added reparations benefits" and "basic reparations benefits" and relettered the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date; P.A. 94-243 redefined "injury" to include injuries involving vehicles with commercial registrations and redefined "private passenger motor vehicle" to include vehicles with commercial registrations; P.A. 01-139 applied definitions to Sec. 38a-17, and applied definition of an "insurer" to an "insurance company"; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subdiv. (a), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 08-110 made technical change in Subsec. (a), effective May 27, 2008; P.A. 08-150 amended Subsec. (a) to insert Subdiv. designators (1) and (2) and make a technical change.

      Annotations to former section 38-319:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507. Cited. 187 C. 451.

      Cited. 36 CS 317. Cited. 38 CS 318.

      Subdiv. (b):

      Cited. 3 CA 432.

      Cited. 31 CS 229.

      Subdiv. (d):

      Cited. 36 CS 561.

      Subdiv. (f):

      Cited. 194 C. 129.

      Subdiv. (g):

      Cited. 181 C. 650. Cited. 203 C. 45.

      Cited. 3 CA 240.

      Cited. 37 CS 723. A police car is a private passenger motor vehicle within definition of statute. 39 CS 165.

      Subdiv. (k):

      Cited. 200 C. 630.

      Cited. 3 CA 432. Cited. 22 CA 27; judgment reversed, see 217 C. 631.

      Cited. 31 CS 229.

      Annotation to present section:

      Subdiv. (g):

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-364. (Formerly Sec. 38-319a). Insurance identification cards. Temporary card to be issued with binder. (a) For the purposes of sections 14-12b and 14-12c, subsection (a) of section 14-13, sections 14-213b and 14-217 and this section, "private passenger motor vehicle" shall have the same meaning as in subsection (e) of section 38a-363.

      (b) Each insurance company that issues private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance providing the security required by sections 38a-19 and 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, shall issue annually to each such insured an automobile insurance identification card, in duplicate, for each insured vehicle, one of which shall be presented to the commissioner as provided in section 14-12b and the other carried in the vehicle as provided in section 14-12f. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, such card shall be effective for a period of one year and shall include the name of the insured and insurer, the policy number, the effective date of coverage, the year, make or model and vehicle identification number of the insured vehicle and an appropriate space wherein the insured may set forth the year, make or model and vehicle identification number of any private passenger motor vehicle that becomes covered as a result of a change in the covered vehicle during the effective period of the identification card. When an insured has five or more private passenger motor vehicles registered in this state, the insurer may use the designation "all owned vehicles" on each card in lieu of a specific vehicle description. Each insurance company that delivers, issues for delivery or renews such private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance in this state on or after January 1, 2009, shall include on such card, the following notice, printed in capital letters and boldface type:

NOTICE:

      YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE THE LICENSED REPAIR SHOP WHERE THE DAMAGE TO YOUR MOTOR VEHICLE WILL BE REPAIRED.

      (c) Whenever a binder for such insurance is issued by an agent, the agent shall also issue a temporary identification card, in duplicate, for each covered vehicle effective for a period of sixty days from the date on which the binder becomes effective. Such temporary cards shall include the name of the insured and insurer, the printed name and signature of the agent or authorized representative, the effective date of the binder, the policy number or, if such number is not available, the agent's code number and the year, make or model and vehicle identification number of the insured vehicle.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall apply only to private passenger motor vehicles registered in this state.

      (P.A. 79-577, S. 1, 8; P.A. 81-217, S. 1; 81-394, S. 8; P.A. 82-31, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-429, S. 74; P.A. 93-297, S. 11, 29; P.A. 08-146, S. 2; P.A. 09-74, S. 16.)

      History: P.A. 81-217 required that cards be issued in duplicate, that permanent card include model of vehicle, that temporary cards include printed name and signature of agent or authorized representative, policy number or agent's code number and model of vehicle, allowed use of "all owned vehicles" rather than specific vehicle description when insured has five or more passenger vehicles registered and added Subsec. (d) specifying applicability of provisions; P.A. 81-394 made technical change; P.A. 82-31 amended Subsec. (b) to eliminate the requirement that insurer's authorized officer's signature be on the identification card; P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; Sec. 38-319a transferred to Sec. 38a-364 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 amended Subsec. (a) to make a technical change in a section reference and amended Subsec. (b) to delete the term "no-fault" in the description of an insurance identification card, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date (Revisor's note: The reference in Subsec. (a) to sections "14-12b to 14-12d, inclusive," was changed editorially by the Revisors to "sections 14-12b and 14-12c," to reflect the repeal of Sec. 14-12d by P.A. 93-298, S. 10; P.A. 08-146 amended Subsec. (b) by making a technical change and adding requirement re written notice on insurance identification cards of consumer's right to choose repair shop where repairs will be done, effective January 1, 2009; P.A. 09-74 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective May 27, 2009.

      See Sec. 14-12f re exempt vehicles.

      Annotation to former section 38-319a:

      Cited. 186 C. 507.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-365 to 38a-369. (Formerly Secs. 38-320 to 38-323, 38-325). Liability of owner's insurer for basic reparations benefits. Payees of basic reparations benefits. Injury to employee. Cause of action allowable, when. Subrogation. Sections 38a-365 to 38a-369, inclusive, are repealed, effective January 1, 1994.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 2-4, 7; P.A. 76-182, S. 2; P.A. 80-131; 80-483, S. 144, 186; P.A. 81-386, S. 2; 81-394, S. 9; P.A. 93-297, S. 28, 29.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-370. (Formerly Sec. 38-326). Residual liability insurance. (a) Under residual liability insurance the insurer is liable to pay, on behalf of the owner or other persons insured, sums which the owner or insured is legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury and property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a private passenger motor vehicle as a motor vehicle if the injury or damage occurs within the United States of America, its territories or possessions or Canada.

      (b) Residual liability insurance shall afford coverage which satisfies the requirements of sections 38a-334 to 38a-336a, inclusive, 38a-338, and 38a-340 to 38a-343, inclusive.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 8; P.A. 93-297, S. 21, 29.)

      History: Sec. 38-326 transferred to Sec. 38a-370 in 1991; P.A. 93-297 added reference to Sec. 38a-336a, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-326:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507. Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 219 C. 391.

      Cited. 22 CA 27; judgment reversed, see 217 C. 631.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 25 CA 492.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 1 CA 569.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 219 C. 391. Cited. 222 C. 744.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-371. (Formerly Sec. 38-327). Mandatory security requirements. (a)(1) The owner of a private passenger motor vehicle required to be registered in this state shall provide and continuously maintain throughout the registration period security in accordance with sections 38a-334 to 38a-343, inclusive. (2) The owner of a private passenger motor vehicle not required to be registered in this state shall maintain security in accordance with this section, in effect continuously throughout the period of its operation, maintenance or use as a motor vehicle within this state with respect to accidents occurring in this state.

      (b) The security required by this section, may be provided by a policy of insurance complying with this section issued by or on behalf of an insurer licensed to transact business in this state or, if the vehicle is registered in another state, by a policy of insurance issued by or on behalf of an insurer licensed to transact business in either this state or the state in which the vehicle is registered.

      (c) Subject to approval of the Insurance Commissioner the security required by this section, may be provided by self-insurance by filing with the commissioner in satisfactory form: (1) A continuing undertaking by the owner or other appropriate person to perform all obligations imposed by this section; (2) evidence that appropriate provision exists for the prompt and efficient administration of all claims, benefits, and obligations provided by this section; and (3) evidence that reliable financial arrangements, deposits or commitments exist providing assurance for payment of all obligations imposed by this section substantially equivalent to those afforded by a policy of insurance that would comply with this section. A person who provides security under this subsection is a self-insurer. A municipality may provide the security required under this section by filing with the commissioner a notice that it is a self-insurer.

      (d) Except as provided in subsection (b) of section 14-213b, the owner of any private passenger motor vehicle required to be registered in this state who operates it or permits it to be operated in this state is guilty of a class C misdemeanor if he fails to provide the security required by this section.

      (e) An owner of a private passenger motor vehicle with respect to which security is required who fails to have such security in effect at the time of an accident shall have all of the rights and obligations of an insurer under sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, and shall remain subject to all the obligations of the Financial Responsibility Law, sections 14-112 to 14-133, inclusive.

      (f) Upon receipt of a signed written request for suspension from the owner of a registered motor vehicle stating that such vehicle will not be operated upon any highway during a period of not less than thirty consecutive days, the insurer of such vehicle shall suspend, to the extent requested by the owner, insurance coverage afforded under the policy providing the security required by sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, for such vehicle until notified by the owner that the coverage should be reinstated. During the period of suspension only, the provisions of subsections (a) to (e), inclusive, of this section shall not apply with respect to such vehicle, provided, if such vehicle is operated upon any highway by or with the permission of the owner during the period of suspension, the provisions of said subsections (a) to (e), inclusive, of this section, shall thereupon become applicable. As used in this subsection, "highway" shall be defined as in section 14-1. This subsection shall not apply to a motor vehicle for which proof of financial responsibility is required under the provisions of sections 14-112 to 14-133, inclusive.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 9; P.A. 73-174, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-13; 74-338, S. 4, 94; P.A. 75-567, S. 62, 80; P.A. 81-36; P.A. 82-145; P.A. 88-73, S. 2; P.A. 92-60, S. 8; P.A. 93-297, S. 12, 29; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 73-174 added Subsec. (f) re suspension of insurance; P.A. 74-13 deleted reference to car "owned by a nonresident" in provision which requires that security be in effect with regard to cars not registered in state while operated in Connecticut under Subsec. (a); P.A. 74-338 substituted reference to Sec. 14-133 for reference to Sec. 14-144 in Subsec. (f); P.A. 75-567 substituted reference to Sec. 14-133 for reference to Sec. 14-144 in Subsec. (e); P.A. 81-36 required that owners who are members of military service and who garage vehicle out-of-state provide security for payment of basic reparations benefits only while vehicle is operated in this state; P.A. 82-145 permitted municipalities to provide the required security by filing notice stating it is a self-insurer in Subsec. (c); P.A. 88-73 amended Subsec. (b) to require that the insurer be licensed rather than authorized to transact business in this state; Sec. 38-327 transferred to Sec. 38a-371 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency; P.A. 93-297 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to require that security be maintained "in accordance with sections 38a-334 to 38a-343, inclusive," rather than "in accordance with sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, for payment of basic reparations benefits and the liabilities under residual liability insurance" and delete provision re security and coverage required to be maintained by a member of the military service who garages his vehicle outside of this state, amended Subsec. (a)(2) to require that security be maintained in accordance with "this section" rather than in accordance with "sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive", amended Subsec. (b) to replace references to "sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive" with "this section", amended Subsec. (c) to replace references to "sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive" with "this section" and delete provisions re payment of basic reparations benefits and the liabilities covered by residual liability insurance, amended Subsec. (d) to replace reference to "sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive" with "this section" and delete requirement that owner "provide the proof of financial responsibility required under section 14-112", amended Subsec. (e) to delete provision re personal liability of the owner for payment of basic reparations benefits and amended Subsec. (f) to delete provisions re applicability of Sec. 38a-372 during the period of suspension, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (d) to add exception re Sec. 14-213b(b), effective January 1, 2006.

      Annotations to former section 38-327:

      Compulsory security requirement of no-fault insurance law applies only to owners of vehicles. 169 C. 267. Criminal prosecution for failure to carry compulsory security cannot be based upon admission made pursuant to Sec. 14-108. Id., 267. Cited. Id., 267. Cited. 186 C. 507. Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 219 C. 391.

      Cited. 19 CA 169. Cited. 22 CA 27; judgment reversed, see 217 C. 631. Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 30 CA 742.

      Cited. 36 CS 561. Cited. 37 CS 117; Id., 672. Cited. 38 CS 318.

      Subsec. (d):

      Fault under this section does not deprive the uninsured motorist of the benefits of section 38-323. 31 CS 229.

      Subsec. (e):

      This section gives the uninsured motorist the benefit of section 38-323. This subsection and section 38-323 are construed together. 31 CS 229. Cited. 36 CS 561.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 217 C. 631. Cited. 219 C. 391. Cited. 222 C. 744. Self-insurance provision discussed. 248 C. 195. Legislature's requirement that vehicle owners maintain liability coverage does not require that such owner coverage be primary if other coverage that satisfies the statutory minimum standards is available. 282 C. 535.

      Cited. 25 CA 492; judgment reversed, see 222 C. 744. Cited. 27 CA 346. Cited. 30 CA 742. Self-insured municipal employer not required to create a writing to give notice of its intention to reduce the amount of its uninsured motorist coverage by the amount of workers' compensation benefits paid to plaintiff employee because the self-insured municipality functions as both insurer and insured. 82 CA 752.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-372. (Formerly Sec. 38-328). Insurers required to declare that policies deemed to provide required security. Every insurance company authorized to transact the business of private passenger motor vehicle liability insurance in this state shall file with the Insurance Commissioner as a condition of its continued transaction of such business within this state a form approved by the commissioner declaring that its policies shall be deemed to provide the security required by section 38a-371. Any nonadmitted insurer may file such a form.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 10; P.A. 77-369; 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 324, 348; P.A. 92-60, S. 9; P.A. 93-297, S. 13, 29.)

      History: P.A. 77-369 added Subsec. (c) re physical examination of insured; P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-328 transferred to Sec. 38a-372 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency; P.A. 93-297 deleted Subsec. (a) re when a policy is deemed to include all coverages required by Secs. 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, replaced "the security required by sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive" with "the security required by section 38a-371" and deleted Subsec. (c) re physical examination of insured, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-328:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 3 CA 432.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-373 to 38a-378. (Formerly Secs. 38-329 to 38-334). Property damage coverage not included. Optional reparations coverage. Converter of private passenger vehicle disqualified. Person intentionally causing injury not covered. Payments as economic loss accrues. Award of attorney's fees. Sections 38a-373 to 38a-378, inclusive, are repealed, effective January 1, 1994.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 11-16; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 79-316, S. 1, 3; 79-376, S. 66; P.A. 80-482, S. 325, 348; P.A. 86-38, S. 1; P.A. 92-60, S. 10; P.A. 93-297, S. 28, 29.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-379. (Formerly Sec. 38-335). Civil action to enforce rights and obligations. Except as otherwise provided in sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, any right or obligation provided by said sections is enforceable by civil action. Actions under said sections shall be brought within the periods allowed under section 52-584 or section 52-555, respectively for the commencement of actions for injury to the person or death.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 17; P.A. 92-60, S. 11; P.A. 93-297, S. 14, 29.)

      History: Sec. 38-335 transferred to Sec. 38a-379 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency; P.A. 93-297 replaced "Actions for benefits payable under said sections" with "Actions under said sections", effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-335:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507.

      Cited. 38 CS 318.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-380 to 38a-384. (Formerly Secs. 38-336 to 38-340). Benefits exempt from garnishment, etc. Insurer's liability for rehabilitation treatment or training. Benefits available through assigned claims plan, when. Assigned claims bureau and plan. Filing of application for claim with bureau. Sections 38a-380 to 38a-384, inclusive, are repealed, effective January 1, 1994.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 18-22; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 79-172, S. 1-4; P.A. 80-482, S. 326, 348; P.A. 89-302, S. 6, 7; P.A. 92-60, S. 12, 13; P.A. 93-297, S. 28, 29.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-385. (Formerly Sec. 38-341). Assigned risk plan. The Insurance Commissioner shall require that the plan established pursuant to section 38a-329 with respect to automobile liability insurance shall apply to residual liability insurance required by sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, so that such insurance will be available to all applicants who are in good faith entitled to but unable to procure such insurance through ordinary methods.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 23; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 327, 348; P.A. 92-60, S. 14; P.A. 93-297, S. 15, 29.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; Sec. 38-341 transferred to Sec. 38a-385 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency; P.A. 93-297 deleted requirement that plan apply to basic and added reparations, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to acts or omissions occurring on or after said date.

      Annotations to former section 38-341:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-386. (Formerly Sec. 38-342). Submission of data to commissioner. Plan for allocation and compilation of claims and loss experience data. Section 38a-386 is repealed, effective January 1, 1994.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 24; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 328, 348; P.A. 82-353, S. 12, 26; P.A. 92-60, S. 15; P.A. 93-297, S. 28, 29.)

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-387. (Formerly Sec. 38-344). Special surety or guaranty filings. Order to suspend or modify filing requirements. (a) Any special filing with respect to a surety or guaranty bond required by law or by court or executive order or by order, rule or regulation of a public body, not covered by a previous filing, shall become effective when filed and shall be deemed to meet the requirements of sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, until such time as the commissioner reviews the filing and so long thereafter as the filing remains in effect.

      (b) If, within forty-five days after a special surety or guaranty filing subject to subsection (a) of this section has become effective, the commissioner finds that such filing does not meet the requirements of sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, he shall send to the insurer which made such filing written notice of disapproval, specifying therein in what respects he finds such filing fails to meet the requirements of said sections and stating, within a reasonable period thereafter, when such filing shall be deemed no longer effective. Such disapproval shall not affect any contract made or issued prior to the expiration of the period set forth in such notice.

      (c) Under such regulations as he adopts the commissioner may, by written order, suspend or modify the requirement of filing as to any kind of insurance, subdivision or combination thereof, or as to classes of risks, the rates for which cannot practicably be filed before they are used. Such orders and regulations shall be made known to such insurers.

      (d) Upon the written application of the insured, stating his reasons therefor, filed with and approved by the commissioner, a rate in excess of that provided by a filing otherwise applicable may be used on any specific risk.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 26; P.A. 82-353, S. 14, 26; P.A. 92-60, S. 16.)

      History: P.A. 82-353 eliminated the provisions re filing of manual of classifications, rules, rates, rating plans and modifications, review of filings and the waiting period and added a provision re disapproval of special surety or guaranty filings, effective July 1, 1983; Sec. 38-344 transferred to Sec. 38a-387 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency.

      See Secs. 38a-676 and 38a-688 re review of rates for commercial risk insurance and personal risk insurance.

      Annotations to former section 38-344:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-388. (Formerly Sec. 38-350). Conflict with chapters 246, 247, 248. The provisions of sections 38a-363 to 38a-388, inclusive, shall be construed to be supplementary and not as a substitute for the provisions of chapters 246, 247 and 248. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of said sections and the provisions of chapters 246, 247 and 248, then the provisions of said chapters shall prevail.

      (1972, P.A. 273, S. 35; P.A. 92-60, S. 17.)

      History: Sec. 38-350 transferred to Sec. 38a-388 in 1991; P.A. 92-60 made technical corrections for statutory consistency.

      Annotations to former section 38-350:

      Cited. 169 C. 267. Cited. 186 C. 507.


(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-389. Filing of rates to reflect premium savings. Prior rate approval. (a) The General Assembly finds and concludes that the system of bodily injury liability, basic and added reparations benefits and uninsured and underinsured motorist insurance, as amended by the provisions of public act 93-297*, will generate premium savings for policyholders with such coverages.

      (b) Each insurer licensed to sell private passenger automobile insurance in this state shall refile, with the Insurance Commissioner, its base rates for such coverages to reflect the elimination of mandatory basic and added reparations benefits pursuant to public act 93-297* and any additional premium savings attributable to said act. Such rates shall be refiled, as soon as practicable, for use with policies effective on or after January 1, 1994.

      (c) Upon receipt of the initial base rate filing made under this section, the Insurance Commissioner, before permitting such filing to become effective, shall consult with an independent actuary for the purpose of assuring that such rates reflect both (1) the insurer's rates on file on May 1, 1993, adjusted for cost trends from the date of filing to January 1, 1994; and (2) the elimination of mandatory basic and added reparations benefits pursuant to public act 93-297* and any additional premium savings attributable to said act. Such revised rates shall be applicable to all new and renewal policies effective on or after January 1, 1994.

      (d) The base rates for bodily injury liability coverage and uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage that are filed subsequent to the initial filing of base rates pursuant to this section shall be subject to prior rate approval in the same manner as in a noncompetitive market pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 38a-688.

      (P.A. 93-297, S. 27, 29; P.A. 97-303.)

      *Note: Public act 93-297 is entitled "An Act Concerning Automobile Insurance Reform". (See Reference Table captioned "Public Acts of 1993" in Volume 16 which lists the sections amended, created or repealed by the act.)


      History: P.A. 93-297 effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 97-303 made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and amended Subsec. (d) to eliminate sunset provision ending December 31, 1997.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-390 to 38a-392. Reserved for future use.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

PART IV
PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE

      Sec. 38a-393. (Formerly Sec. 38-370a). Record of cancellation of professional liability policies. Regulations. (a) Each insurance company doing business in this state shall, annually, on or before the first day of March, render to the Insurance Commissioner a true record of the number, according to classification, of cancellations of and refusals to renew professional liability insurance policies for the year ending on the thirty-first day of December next preceding.

      (b) For purposes of sections 38a-393 to 38a-395, inclusive, "professional liability insurance" means professional liability contracts for: (1) Physicians and surgeons, (2) hospitals, (3) lawyers, (4) dentists, (5) architects and engineers, (6) chiropractors, (7) licensed natureopaths, (8) podiatrists, (9) advanced practice registered nurses, and (10) physical therapists and such other categories as the Insurance Commissioner, in the commissioner's discretion, shall adopt by regulations in accordance with chapter 54.

      (P.A. 76-61; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 330, 348; P.A. 84-208; P.A. 90-90, S. 2; P.A. 94-71, S. 6; P.A. 99-102, S. 44; 99-168, S. 7; P.A. 06-195, S. 85.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 placed insurance commissioner within the department of business regulation and made insurance department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored insurance commissioner and division to prior independent status and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 84-208 added Subsec. (b), requiring the insurance commissioner to adopt regulations defining the word "professional" for purposes of this chapter; P.A. 90-90 amended Subsec. (b) to define "professional liability insurance", replacing prior provision which had authorized commissioner to adopt regulations defining "professional"; Sec. 38-370a transferred to Sec. 38a-393 in 1991; P.A. 94-71 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to "osteopathic physicians", "chiropractors", "licensed natureopaths" and "podiatrists" in definition of "professional liability insurance"; P.A. 99-102 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting former Subdiv. (6) re obsolete reference to osteopathic physicians, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. and making a technical change; P.A. 99-168 amended Subsec. (b) by adding advanced practice registered nurses and making a technical change; P.A. 06-195 added Subsec. (b)(10) to include physical therapists in definition of "professional liability insurance".

      See Sec. 20-73d re professional liability insurance requirements for physical therapists.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-394. (Formerly Sec. 38-370c). Mandatory provisions for professional liability insurance policies issued on a claims-made basis. Additional requirements for certain claims-made medical malpractice policies. (a) Each professional liability insurance policy issued on a claims-made basis that is delivered, issued for delivery or renewed in this state on or after October 1, 1978, shall contain (1) a provision for the purchase of prior acts coverage, and (2) a contractual right of the insured to purchase at any time during the policy period and not later than thirty days after termination of such policy period equivalent coverage for all claims occurring during an insured policy period regardless of when made.

      (b) Each professional liability insurance policy issued on a claims-made basis that is delivered, issued for delivery or renewed in this state on or after October 1, 2006, to a physician or surgeon, hospital, advanced practice registered nurse or physician assistant shall provide unlimited extended reporting period coverage without additional charge to the insured if, while the insured is covered under the policy, the insurer discontinues offering such policy in this state as a result of a voluntary withdrawal from this state and the insured (1) is sixty years of age or older, or (2) has been insured by the insurer for the five consecutive years immediately preceding the discontinuance. Unlimited extended reporting period coverage under this subsection shall be enforceable against an insurer that discontinues offering such policy in this state, provided the insured is covered under the policy on the date such insurer discontinues offering the policy. The insurer shall provide such unlimited extended reporting period coverage with equivalent terms and conditions and with an aggregate liability limit at least equal to the aggregate liability limit specified in the policy.

      (P.A. 78-91; P.A. 05-103, S. 1; P.A. 06-108, S. 1.)

      History: Sec. 38-370c transferred to Sec. 38a-394 in 1991; P.A. 05-103 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and substituted "Each" for "Every" and made a technical change therein, and added new Subsec. (b) re policies for a physician or surgeon, hospital, advanced practice registered nurse or physician assistant; P.A. 06-108 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to make technical changes, and further amended Subsec. (b) to delete requirement that professional liability insurance policy issued on a claims-made basis that is delivered, issued for delivery or renewed on or after October 1, 2006, to a physician or surgeon, hospital, advanced practice registered nurse or physician assistant provide prior acts coverage without additional charge to the insured, to require that policy provide unlimited extended reporting period coverage at no additional charge if, while insured is covered under the policy, insurer discontinues offering such policy in Connecticut because of voluntary withdrawal from the state and insured is 60 years of age or older or has been insured by insurer for 5 consecutive years immediately preceding discontinuance, and to require insurer to provide unlimited extended reporting period coverage with equivalent terms and conditions and with aggregate liability limit at least equal to that specified in policy.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Sec. 38a-395. (Formerly Sec. 38-370d). Medical malpractice data: Closed claims reports. Database. Annual report. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Claim" means a request for indemnification filed by a medical professional or hospital pursuant to a professional liability policy for a loss for which a reserve amount has been established by an insurer;

      (2) "Closed claim" means a claim that has been settled, or otherwise disposed of, where the insurer has made all indemnity and expense payments on the claim;

      (3) "Insurer" means an insurer that insures a medical professional or hospital against professional liability. "Insurer" includes, but is not limited to, a captive insurer or a self-insured person; and

      (4) "Medical professional" has the same meaning as provided in section 38a-976.

      (b) On and after January 1, 2006, each insurer shall provide to the Insurance Commissioner a closed claim report, on such form as the commissioner prescribes, in accordance with this section. The insurer shall submit the report not later than ten days after the last day of the calendar quarter in which a claim is closed. The report shall only include information about claims settled under the laws of this state.

      (c) The closed claim report shall include:

      (1) Details about the insured and insurer, including: (A) The name of the insurer; (B) the professional liability insurance policy limits and whether the policy was an occurrence policy or was issued on a claims-made basis; (C) the name, address, health care provider professional license number and specialty coverage of the insured; and (D) the insured's policy number and a unique claim number.

      (2) Details about the injury or loss, including: (A) The date of the injury or loss that was the basis of the claim; (B) the date the injury or loss was reported to the insurer; (C) the name of the institution or location at which the injury or loss occurred; (D) the type of injury or loss, including a severity of injury rating that corresponds with the severity of injury scale that the Insurance Commissioner shall establish based on the severity of injury scale developed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners; and (E) the name, age and gender of any injured person covered by the claim. Any individually identifiable health information, as defined in 45 CFR 160.103, as from time to time amended, submitted pursuant to this subdivision shall be confidential. The reporting of the information is required by law. If necessary to comply with federal privacy laws, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, (P.L. 104-191) (HIPAA), as from time to time amended, the insured shall arrange with the insurer to release the required information.

      (3) Details about the claims process, including: (A) Whether a lawsuit was filed and, if so, in which court; (B) the outcome of such lawsuit; (C) the number of other defendants, if any; (D) the stage in the process when the claim was closed; (E) the dates of the trial, if any; (F) the date of the judgment or settlement, if any; (G) whether an appeal was filed and, if so, the date filed; (H) the resolution of any appeal and the date such appeal was decided; (I) the date the claim was closed; (J) the initial indemnity and expense reserve for the claim; and (K) the final indemnity and expense reserve for the claim.

      (4) Details about the amount paid on the claim, including: (A) The total amount of the initial judgment rendered by a jury or awarded by the court; (B) the total amount of the settlement if there was no judgment rendered or awarded; (C) the total amount of the settlement if the claim was settled after judgment was rendered or awarded; (D) the amount of economic damages, as defined in section 52-572h, or the insurer's estimate of the amount in the event of a settlement; (E) the amount of noneconomic damages, as defined in section 52-572h, or the insurer's estimate of the amount in the event of a settlement; (F) the amount of any interest awarded due to the failure to accept an offer of judgment or compromise; (G) the amount of any remittitur or additur; (H) the amount of final judgment after remittitur or additur; (I) the amount paid by the insurer; (J) the amount paid by the defendant due to a deductible or a judgment or settlement in excess of policy limits; (K) the amount paid by other insurers; (L) the amount paid by other defendants; (M) whether a structured settlement was used; (N) the expense assigned to and recorded with the claim, including, but not limited to, defense and investigation costs, but not including the actual claim payment; and (O) any other information the commissioner determines to be necessary to regulate the professional liability insurance industry with respect to medical professionals or hospitals, ensure the industry's solvency and ensure that such liability insurance is available and affordable.

      (d) (1) The commissioner shall establish an electronic database composed of closed claim reports filed pursuant to this section.

      (2) The commissioner shall compile the data included in individual closed claim reports into an aggregated summary format and shall prepare a written annual report of the summary data. The report shall provide an analysis of closed claim information including a minimum of five years of comparative data, when available, trends in frequency and severity of claims, itemization of damages, timeliness of the claims process, and any other descriptive or analytical information that would assist in interpreting the trends in closed claims.

      (3) The annual report shall include a summary of rate filings for professional liability insurance for medical professionals or hospitals, which have been approved by the department for the prior calendar year, including an analysis of the trend of direct losses, incurred losses, earned premiums and investment income as compared to prior years. The report shall include base premiums charged by insurers for each specialty and the number of providers insured by specialty for each insurer.

      (4) Not later than March 15, 2007, and annually thereafter, the commissioner shall submit the annual report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to insurance in accordance with section 11-4a. The commissioner shall also (A) make the report available to the public, (B) post the report on its Internet site, and (C) provide public access to the contents of the electronic database after the commissioner establishes that the names and other individually identifiable information about the claimant and practitioner have been removed.

      (e) The Insurance Commissioner shall provide the Commissioner of Public Health with electronic access to all information received pursuant to this section. The Commissioner of Public Health shall maintain the confidentiality of such information in the same manner and to the same extent as required for the Insurance Commissioner.

      (P.A. 86-365, S. 4, 5; P.A. 05-275, S. 14; P.A. 07-25, S. 1.)

      History: Sec. 38-370d transferred to Sec. 38a-395 in 1991; P.A. 05-275 replaced former provisions with new Subsecs. (a) to (e) re closed claims reports and data, effective January 1, 2006; P.A. 07-25 added Subsec. (a)(4) to define "medical professional", amended Subsec. (a)(1) and (3) to substitute "medical professional or hospital" for "physician, surgeon, advanced practice registered nurse or physician assistant", and amended Subsecs. (c)(4)and (d)(3) to substitute "medical professionals or hospitals" for "physicians, surgeons, advanced practice registered nurses or physician assistants".

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)

      Secs. 38a-396 to 38a-399. Reserved for future use.

(Return to
Chapter Table of Contents)
(Return to
List of Chapters)
(Return to
List of Titles)