CHAPTER 557*
EMPLOYMENT REGULATION

      *Function of commissioner of labor with respect to this chapter. 129 C. 345.

      Temporary injunctions would not be granted to restrain the enforcement of the penal provisions even if the enforcement of this chapter would be accompanied by injury to the plaintiff's property. 9 CS 116.


Table of Contents

Sec. 31-12. Hours of labor of minor, elderly and handicapped persons in manufacturing or mechanical establishments.
Sec. 31-13. Hours of labor of minors, elderly and handicapped persons in mercantile establishments.
Sec. 31-13a. Employer to furnish record of hours worked, wages earned and deductions.
Sec. 31-13b. Visible clock required as part of time card system.
Sec. 31-14. Night work of minors regulated.
Sec. 31-15. Penalty.
Sec. 31-15a. Criminal penalty.
Sec. 31-16. Night work in messenger service.
Sec. 31-17. Hours of labor of minors and women in bowling alleys, shoe-shining establishments, billiard and pool rooms.
Sec. 31-18. Hours of labor of minors, elderly and handicapped persons in certain other establishments.
Secs. 31-19 and 31-20. Employment of women between one a.m. and six a.m. Hours of women entertainers.
Sec. 31-21. Legal day's work.
Sec. 31-22. Labor Commissioner's duties of enforcement and reports.
Secs. 31-22a to 31-22l.
Sec. 31-22m. (Formerly Sec. 31-51a). Apprenticeship. Definitions.
Sec. 31-22n. (Formerly Sec. 31-51b). Apprenticeship council.
Sec. 31-22o. (Formerly Sec. 31-51c). Powers and duties of council.
Sec. 31-22p. (Formerly Sec. 31-51d). Labor Commissioner's powers and duties.
Sec. 31-22q. (Formerly Sec. 31-51e). Program of apprentice training.
Sec. 31-22r. Apprenticeship registration; apprentices, sponsors.
Sec. 31-22s. Report re feasibility of on-line apprenticeship registration system.
Sec. 31-22t. (Formerly Sec. 31-51j). Preclusion of apprentice training programs prohibited.
Sec. 31-23. Employment of minors prohibited in certain occupations. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-23a. Minors employed on or after October 1, 2007, deemed to have been lawfully employed.
Sec. 31-24. Hazardous employment of children forbidden.
Sec. 31-25. Operation of elevators by minors.
Secs. 31-26 and 31-27. Employment of women before and after confinement. Seats to be provided for female employees.
Sec. 31-28. Registration of manufacturing and mechanical establishments.
Sec. 31-29. Manufacturing license for residential buildings.
Sec. 31-30. Home workers.
Sec. 31-31. Records of home workers and materials.
Sec. 31-32. Penalty.
Sec. 31-33. Regulation of industrial home work.
Sec. 31-34. Stained glass windows.
Sec. 31-35. Lighting and sanitary condition of factories and roundhouses.
Sec. 31-36. Toilet room required in foundries. Penalty.
Sec. 31-37. Toilet accommodations in manufacturing, mechanical and mercantile establishments and restaurants.
Sec. 31-38. Toilet accommodations on tobacco plantations.
Sec. 31-38a. Sanitary, lighting and heating facilities for railroad employees.
Sec. 31-38b. Commissioner to enforce.
Sec. 31-39. Employees in paper factory to be vaccinated.
Sec. 31-39a. Operation of hydraulic loading and unloading equipment at resources recovery facilities.
Sec. 31-40. Reporting serious accidents in establishments or work places under jurisdiction of Labor Commissioner.
Sec. 31-40a. (Formerly Sec. 19-48). Reports of occupational diseases and investigations concerning them.
Sec. 31-40b. Employers required to provide lung function tests to certain employees.
Sec. 31-40c. Information and notice requirements for employers using or producing carcinogens.
Sec. 31-40d. Complaints of violations. Inspections. Discrimination prohibited.
Sec. 31-40e. Order to comply. Citation. Hearing. Appeal.
Sec. 31-40f. Penalties. Duties of Labor Commissioner. Private right of action.
Sec. 31-40g. Information requirements for employers using or producing substances hazardous to reproductive systems.
Sec. 31-40h. Sterilization as condition of employment prohibited.
Sec. 31-40i. Enforcement. Private right of action.
Sec. 31-40j. Definitions.
Sec. 31-40k. Employee's right to information concerning toxic substances. Employer's list.
Sec. 31-40l. Information requirements for employer using or producing toxic substances.
Sec. 31-40m. Information requirements of supplier of toxic substances. Labor Department assistance.
Sec. 31-40n. Trade secret protections. Registration with Labor Commissioner.
Sec. 31-40o. Discrimination prohibited. Waiver of rights void.
Sec. 31-40p. Severability.
Sec. 31-40q. Smoking in the workplace. Designation of smoking rooms.
Sec. 31-40r. Regulations establishing guidelines for exemptions from nonsmoking area requirements.
Sec. 31-40s. Smoking or use of tobacco products outside of the workplace.
Sec. 31-40t. Employee's right to act in case of hazardous conditions. Complaints to and investigations by Labor Commissioner. Hearings. Regulations.
Sec. 31-40u. Regulations establishing guidelines for use of video display terminals in state facilities.
Sec. 31-40v. Establishment of safety and health committees by certain employers.
Sec. 31-40w. Breastfeeding in the workplace.
Sec. 31-41. Order to remove excessive dust.
Sec. 31-42. Appliances for threading shuttles.
Sec. 31-43. Public laundries; sanitation.
Sec. 31-44. Penalty for violation of orders.
Sec. 31-45. Emergency kits required in factories.
Sec. 31-45a. Protection of feet.
Secs. 31-46 and 31-46a. Safety regulations for workmen in building operations. Regulations for safe working conditions where no other provision; industrial safety committee.
Sec. 31-47. Inspection of employee lodging houses.
Sec. 31-48. Laborers not to be overcharged.
Sec. 31-48a. Recruitment or referral of professional strikebreaker restricted.
Sec. 31-48b. Use of electronic surveillance devices by employers limited. Prohibition on recording negotiations between employers and employees.
Sec. 31-48c. Hiring of municipal police during labor dispute prohibited.
Sec. 31-48d. Employers engaged in electronic monitoring required to give prior notice to employees. Exceptions. Civil penalty.
Sec. 31-49. Care required of a master for his servant's safety.
Sec. 31-50. Enforcement.
Sec. 31-50a. Noncompete agreements: Security guards.
Sec. 31-50b. Noncompete agreements: Broadcast employees.
Sec. 31-51. Blacklisting.
Secs. 31-51a to 31-51e.
Sec. 31-51f. Participation in Manpower Development and Training Act.
Sec. 31-51g. Use of polygraph prohibited. Penalty. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-51h. Employer not to cancel insurance coverage or cease making contributions to welfare fund of employee eligible to receive or receiving workers' compensation or sick leave payments. Employer accident report. Complaint. Hearing. Appeal.
Sec. 31-51i. Employer inquiries about erased criminal record prohibited. Discrimination on the basis of erased criminal record or provisional pardon prohibited. Availability of information on employment application form. Duties of consumer reporting agency issuing consumer report for employment purposes containing criminal matters of public record.
Sec. 31-51j.
Sec. 31-51k. Employment of alien not entitled to residence.
Sec. 31-51l. Leave of absence for certain public and private employees elected to public office.
Sec. 31-51m. Protection of employee who discloses employer's illegal activities or unethical practices. Civil action.
Sec. 31-51n. Definitions.
Sec. 31-51o. Continuation of group health insurance for employees affected by relocation or closing of covered establishment. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-51p. Membership in health care center as part of health benefits plan.
Sec. 31-51q. Liability of employer for discipline or discharge of employee on account of employee's exercise of certain constitutional rights.
Sec. 31-51r. Execution of employment promissory note prohibited.
Sec. 31-51s. Notice to retired employees of sale of employer's business and effect on retirement benefits.
Sec. 31-51t. Drug testing: Definitions.
Sec. 31-51u. Drug testing: Requirements.
Sec. 31-51v. Drug testing: Prospective employees.
Sec. 31-51w. Drug testing: Observation prohibited. Privacy of results.
Sec. 31-51x. Drug testing: Reasonable suspicion required. Random tests.
Sec. 31-51y. Drug testing: Medical screenings, regulation of employees and testing of gaming participants permitted.
Sec. 31-51z. Drug testing: Enforcement. Damages.
Sec. 31-51aa. Drug testing: Effect of collective bargaining agreement.
Sec. 31-51bb. Right of employee to pursue cause of action.
Secs. 31-51cc to 31-51gg. Family and medical leave: Definitions, length of leave, eligibility. Prohibition of discrimination. Regulations, report. Phase-in provisions. Report on establishment of state-wide job bank.
Sec. 31-51hh. Reimbursement by employee of any loss or shortage resulting from wrongdoing by a customer.
Sec. 31-51ii. Meal periods. Exemptions. Regulations.
Sec. 31-51jj. Notice to employees of incoming emergency telephone calls.
Sec. 31-51kk. Family and medical leave: Definitions.
Sec. 31-51ll. Family and medical leave: Length of leave; eligibility; intermittent or reduced leave schedules; substitution of accrued paid leave; notice to employer.
Sec. 31-51mm. Family and medical leave: Certification.
Sec. 31-51nn. Family and medical leave: Employment and benefits protection.
Sec. 31-51oo. Family and medical leave: Confidentiality of medical records and documents.
Sec. 31-51pp. Family and medical leave: Prohibited acts, complaints, rights and remedies.
Sec. 31-51qq. Family and medical leave: Regulations, report.
Sec. 31-51rr. Family and medical leave benefits for employees of political subdivisions.
Sec. 31-51ss. Leave from employment for victims of family violence. Action for damages and reinstatement.
Sec. 31-51tt.
Sec. 31-51uu. Optional exclusion of employee health insurance premiums from gross income.
Sec. 31-51vv. Employment of person coerced to engage in such employment prohibited.
Sec. 31-51ww. Individual development account programs: Definitions.
Sec. 31-51xx. Connecticut IDA Initiative established. Implementation.
Sec. 31-51yy. Eligibility. Duties of community-based organizations and financial institutions.
Sec. 31-51zz. Individual Development Account Reserve Fund: Funds deposited in.
Sec. 31-51aaa. Individual Development Account Reserve Fund: Use and administration.
Sec. 31-51bbb. Account funds excluded in determination of eligibility for or benefit level of certain programs.
Sec. 31-51ccc. Program evaluation. Report.
Sec. 31-51ddd. Regulations.
Sec. 31-51eee. Receipt of funds authorized.
Sec. 31-51fff. Restrictions on funding expenditures to apply.
Sec. 31-52. Preference to state citizens in construction of public buildings. Enforcement of violations.
Sec. 31-52a. Residents' preference in work on other public facilities.
Sec. 31-52b. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-53. Construction, alteration or repair of public works project by state or political subdivision; wage rates; certified payroll. Penalties. Civil action. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-53a. Distribution of accrued payments. Debarment list. Limitation on awarding contracts. Sworn affidavits required of subcontractors. Civil penalty. Right of action.
Sec. 31-53b. Construction safety and health course. New miner training program. Proof of completion required for mechanics, laborers and workers on public works projects. Enforcement. Regulations. Exceptions.
Sec. 31-54. Rate of wages for work on state highways.
Sec. 31-55. Posting of wage rates by contractors doing state work.
Sec. 31-55a. Annual adjustments to wage rates by contractors doing state work.
Sec. 31-56. Hours of labor on state bridges.
Sec. 31-57. Hours of labor on construction, alteration or repair of public works project.
Sec. 31-57a. Awarding of contracts to National Labor Relations Act violators prohibited.
Sec. 31-57b. Awarding of contracts to occupational safety and health law violators prohibited.
Sec. 31-57c. Disqualification of certain contractors from bidding on, applying for or participating in public works contracts with the state: Disqualification by Commissioner of Public Works; procedure; causes. Exception permitting disqualified contractor to participate in contract or subcontract.
Sec. 31-57d. Disqualification of certain contractors from bidding on, applying for or participating in public works contracts with the state: Disqualification by Commissioner of Transportation; procedure; causes. Exception permitting disqualified contractor to participate in contract or subcontract.
Sec. 31-57e. Contracts between the state and federally recognized Indian tribes. Employment Rights Code; protection of persons employed by a tribe.
Sec. 31-57f. Standard wage rate for certain service workers. Definitions. Standard rate required. Civil penalty. Complaints. Determination of standard rate by Labor Commissioner. Effect on employers bound by collective bargaining agreements. Recordkeeping requirement. Penalty for filing false certified payroll. Exemptions. Regulations.
Sec. 31-57g. Employment protection for displaced service contract workers at Bradley International Airport. Definitions. Obligations of awarding authority and contractors upon termination of service contract; ninety-day retention requirement; required offer of continued employment. Civil action for damages. Penalty for violations.
Sec. 31-57h. Joint enforcement commission on employee misclassification. Members. Duties. Report.
Sec. 31-57i. Employee Misclassification Advisory Board. Members. Duties.

PART I
HOURS OF LABOR

      Sec. 31-12. Hours of labor of minor, elderly and handicapped persons in manufacturing or mechanical establishments. (a) None of the following persons under the conditions hereinafter described shall be employed in any manufacturing or mechanical establishment more than nine hours in any day or forty-eight hours in any calendar week: (1) Persons under the age of eighteen years who are not enrolled in and have not graduated from a secondary educational institution; (2) persons sixty-six years of age or older, except with their consent; (3) handicapped persons, so designated by medical or governmental authority, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health; (4) disabled veterans, as defined under state or federal law, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health.

      (b) If the Labor Commissioner finds, upon application of an employer, that an emergency exists or that seasonal or peak demand places an unusual and temporary burden upon any manufacturing or mechanical establishment, any such person may be employed in such establishment not more than ten hours in any day and not more than fifty-five hours in any calendar week, but the total number of weeks of any such employment in any twelve consecutive months shall not exceed twelve.

      (c) With respect to any group, category or class of employees for which a work week of less than five days has been established or agreed upon, the employer shall adhere to the applicable weekly limitation period prescribed but may extend the number of hours per day for each day of the shortened work week provided the number of hours shall be the same for each day of the work week.

      (d) In the event of war or other national emergency, the commissioner after investigation may, with the approval of the Governor, extend the number of weeks of any such employment if such extension is necessary to meet scheduled production of war or critical material.

      (e) No person under eighteen years of age shall be employed in any manufacturing or mechanical establishment more than (1) six hours in any regularly scheduled school day unless the regularly scheduled school day immediately precedes a nonschool day or eight hours in any other day, and (2) thirty-two hours in any calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is in session, or forty-eight hours in any calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is not in session. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, the number of hours such person participates in a work experience that is part of an approved educational plan, cooperative program or school-to-work program shall not be counted against the daily or weekly limits set forth in this section.

      (f) The provisions of this section shall not apply to permanent salaried employees in executive, administrative or professional positions as defined by the Labor Commissioner, or to persons under eighteen years of age who have graduated from a secondary educational institution.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7343; September, 1950, S. 3009d; 1963, P.A. 158; 1969, P.A. 802, S. 1; P.A. 73-65, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-28, S. 1; P.A. 98-210, S. 1; P.A. 06-139, S. 1; P.A. 07-217, S. 142.)

      History: 1963 act deleted provision requiring employers' to post required work hours for minors and women and prohibiting employment of such persons for longer on any day than posted required hours and added provision excluding permanent salaried employees in executive, administrative or professional positions from section provisions; 1969 act changed maximum number of weeks in a year when 10-hour days or 55-hour weeks may be required from 8 to 12; P.A. 73-65 deleted women from applicability of provisions and extended applicability to cover persons 66 and older, handicapped persons and disabled veterans and added provision re shortened work weeks; P.A. 85-28 exempted persons who have graduated from a secondary educational institution from the employment restrictions placed on minors; P.A. 98-210 clarified that applicability is to persons under 18 years of age who are not enrolled in and have not graduated from a secondary educational institution, reduced the number of hours a student under 18 years of age may work in a manufacturing or mechanical establishment while school is in session, created an exemption for graduates under 18 years of age, and added alphabetic Subsec. indicators and numeric Subdiv. indicators; P.A. 06-139 made a technical change in Subsec. (c) and deleted former Subsec. (f) re penalties for violation of section, redesignating existing Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (f), effective January 1, 2007; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

      See Secs. 31-15a, 31-69a re penalties for violation of section.

      Cited. 203 C. 34.

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      Sec. 31-13. Hours of labor of minors, elderly and handicapped persons in mercantile establishments. (a) None of the following persons under the conditions hereinafter described shall be employed in any mercantile establishment more than eight hours in any one day, or more than six days in any one calendar week or more than forty-eight hours in any one calendar week: (1) Persons under the age of eighteen years who are not enrolled in and have not graduated from a secondary educational institution; (2) persons sixty-six years of age or older, except with their consent; (3) handicapped persons, so designated by medical or governmental authority, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health; (4) disabled veterans, as defined under state or federal law, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health; but any such person may be permitted to work in any such establishment one day in any calendar week for not more than ten hours, for the purpose of making one shorter day during such week, and any employer who, during any year, gives not fewer than seven holidays with pay shall be exempt from the foregoing provisions hereof during the period from the eighteenth to the twenty-fifth day of December of such year.

      (b) If the Labor Commissioner finds, upon application of an employer, that an emergency exists or that seasonal or peak demand places an unusual and temporary burden upon any mercantile establishment, any such person may be employed in such establishment not more than ten hours in any day and not more than fifty-two hours in any calendar week, but the total number of weeks of any such employment in any twelve months shall not exceed eight.

      (c) No person under eighteen years of age shall be employed in any mercantile establishment more than (1) six hours in any regularly scheduled school day unless the regularly scheduled school day immediately precedes a nonschool day or eight hours in any other day, and (2) thirty-two hours in any calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is in session, or forty-eight hours in any other calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is not is session. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, the number of hours such person participates in a work experience that is part of an approved educational plan, cooperative program or school-to-work program shall not be counted against the daily or weekly limits set forth in this section.

      (d) Each employer in any such establishment shall post in a conspicuous place in each room where such persons are employed a notice, the form of which shall be furnished by the Labor Commissioner, stating specifically the hours of work required of such persons on each day of the week, and the employment of any such persons for a longer time than so stated shall be a violation of this section.

      (e) The provisions of this section shall not apply to permanent salaried employees in executive, managerial or supervisory positions excepted from the provisions of part I of chapter 558 who receive a regular salary of not less than the minimum fixed for such employment in any wage order or administrative regulation issued under authority of said part, or to persons under eighteen years of age who have graduated from a secondary educational institution.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7344; 1953, S. 3010d; 1969, P.A. 802, S. 2; P.A. 73-83, S. 1, 3; P.A. 85-28, S. 2; P.A. 98-210, S. 2; P.A. 06-139, S. 2; P.A. 07-217, S. 143.)

      History: 1969 act increased period during which 10-hour days and 52-hour weeks are permissible from 4 to 8 weeks during any year; P.A. 73-83 deleted women from applicability of provisions and extended applicability to cover persons 66 or older, handicapped persons and disabled veterans; P.A. 85-28 exempted persons who have graduated from a secondary educational institution from the employment restrictions placed on minors; P.A. 98-210 clarified that applicability is to persons under 18 years of age who are not enrolled in and have not graduated from a secondary educational institution, reduced the number of hours a student under 18 years of age may work in a mercantile establishment while school is in session, created an exemption for graduates under 18 years of age, and added alphabetic Subsec. indicators and numeric Subdiv. indicators; P.A. 06-139 deleted former Subsec. (e) re penalty for violation of section, redesignating existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (e), effective January 1, 2007; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

      See Secs. 31-15a, 31-69a re penalties for violation of section.

      Cited. 129 C. 339.

      Nominal president deemed an employee. 10 CS 171.


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      Sec. 31-13a. Employer to furnish record of hours worked, wages earned and deductions. With each wage payment each employer shall furnish to each employee in writing a record of hours worked, the gross earnings showing straight time and overtime as separate entries, itemized deductions and net earnings, except that the furnishing of a record of hours worked and the separation of straight time and overtime earnings shall not apply in the case of any employee with respect to whom the employer is specifically exempt from the keeping of time records and the payment of overtime under the Connecticut Minimum Wage Act or the Fair Labor Standards Act.

      (1959, P.A. 338; P.A. 80-79.)

      History: P.A. 80-79 required that employees be furnished records of earnings "showing straight time and overtime as separate entries", specified that provisions are inapplicable where employer is exempt from paying overtime and deleted provisions which had excluded salaried employees from applicability.

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      Sec. 31-13b. Visible clock required as part of time card system. On and after January 1, 1977, no employer, private, municipal or state, shall use a time card system, recording clock or other device intended to record the work time of an employee unless such system, clock or device has incorporated within it a clock which is synchronized with such system, clock or device and which is displayed so as to be easily visible.

      (P.A. 76-87.)

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      Sec. 31-14. Night work of minors regulated. (a) No person under eighteen years of age shall be employed in any manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile establishment between the hours of ten o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning, except that such persons may be employed in any manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile establishment until eleven o'clock in the evening or any supermarket until twelve o'clock midnight on any night other than a night preceding a regularly scheduled school day. No such person may be discharged or discriminated against in any manner for refusing to work later than ten o'clock in the evening.

      (b) In the event of war or other serious emergency, the Governor may suspend the limitations upon evening or night work contained in this section as to any industries or occupations as he may find such emergency demands.

      (c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to persons under eighteen years of age who have graduated from a secondary educational institution.

      (d) For purposes of this section, "supermarket" means any retail food store occupying a total retail sales area of more than three thousand five hundred square feet.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7345; P.A. 84-501, S. 1; P.A. 85-28, S. 3; P.A. 98-210, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 84-501 provided that minors may be employed in supermarkets until midnight on nights not preceding a school day, but prohibited discrimination for refusing to work the extra hours, and defined "supermarket"; P.A. 85-28 exempted persons who have graduated from a secondary educational institution from the employment restrictions placed on minors; P.A. 98-210 established eleven p.m. limit for employment of persons under 18 years of age on days preceding nonschool days in manufacturing, mechanical and mercantile establishments, replaced the term "minor" with the term "person" throughout section, and added alphabetic Subsec. indicators and numeric Subdiv. indicators.

      Cited. 126 C. 682.

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      Sec. 31-15. Penalty. (a) Any parent or guardian who permits any minor to be employed in violation of section 31-12, 31-13 or 31-14 shall be subject to penalties under sections 31-15a and 31-69a.

      (b) A certificate of the age of a person made as provided in section 10-193 shall be conclusive evidence of such person's age upon the trial of any person other than the parent or guardian for violation of any provision of said section 31-12, 31-13 or 31-14.

      (c) Nothing in this chapter shall affect the provisions of section 10-184.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7346; P.A. 86-333, S. 25, 32; P.A. 97-263, S. 7; P.A. 98-210, S. 4; P.A. 06-139, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 86-333 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 10-189; P.A. 97-263 doubled the amount of all fines; P.A. 98-210 replaced the term "minor" with the term "person" throughout section and added alphabetic Subsec. indicators and numeric Subdiv. indicators; P.A. 06-139 deleted former Subsec. (a) re penalties for violation of Sec. 31-14, redesignated existing Subsecs. (b), (c) and (d) as Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c), respectively, amended Subsec. (a) to reference penalties under Secs. 31-15a and 31-69a, and made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective January 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 31-15a. Criminal penalty. Any employer, officer, agent or other person who violates any provision of section 31-12, 31-13 or 31-14, subsection (a) of section 31-15 or section 31-18, 31-23 or 31-24 shall be fined not less than two thousand dollars or more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, for each offense.

      (P.A. 06-139, S. 7; P.A. 07-217, S. 144.)

      History: P.A. 06-139 effective January 1, 2007; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change, effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 31-16. Night work in messenger service. No person under the age of eighteen years shall be employed by any telegraph or messenger company, in cities having a population of twenty thousand or over, to distribute, transmit or deliver goods or messages between the hours of ten o'clock at night and five o'clock in the morning. The manager of the office of any corporation who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not more than fifty dollars for each day of such employment. The provisions of this section shall not apply to persons under the age of eighteen who have graduated from a secondary educational institution.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7347; P.A. 85-28, S. 4; P.A. 97-263, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 85-28 exempted persons who have graduated from a secondary educational institution from the employment restrictions placed on minors; P.A. 97-263 increased amount of fine from $20 to $50.

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      Sec. 31-17. Hours of labor of minors and women in bowling alleys, shoe-shining establishments, billiard and pool rooms. Section 31-17 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7348; 1963, P.A. 159.)

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      Sec. 31-18. Hours of labor of minors, elderly and handicapped persons in certain other establishments. (a) No public restaurant, cafe, dining room, barber shop, hairdressing or manicuring establishment, amusement or recreational establishment, bowling alley, shoe-shining establishment, billiard or pool room or photograph gallery shall employ or permit to work any person under eighteen years of age (1) between the hours of ten o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning, or any of the persons described below under conditions herein set forth more than nine hours in any day: (A) Persons sixty-six years of age or older, except with their consent; (B) handicapped persons, so designated by medical or governmental authority, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health; (C) disabled veterans, as defined under state or federal law, except with their consent and after certification by a physician that the extended hours of work will not be injurious to their health; provided any such person may be permitted to work in any such establishment one day in a week for not more than ten hours on such day, but not more than six days or forty-eight hours in any one week, and provided further, persons between sixteen and eighteen years of age may be employed in any amusement or recreational establishment, restaurant, cafe or dining room, or employed in any theater until twelve o'clock midnight unless such persons are regularly attending school in which case such minors may be employed until eleven o'clock in the evening on days which precede a regularly scheduled school day and until twelve o'clock midnight during any regular school vacation season and on days which do not precede a regularly scheduled school day, and (2) more than (A) six hours in any regularly scheduled school day unless the regularly scheduled school day immediately precedes a nonschool day or eight hours in any other day, and (B) thirty-two hours in any calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is in session or forty-eight hours in any other calendar week during which the school in which such person is enrolled is not in session. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, the number of hours such person participates in a work experience that is part of an approved educational plan, cooperative program or school-to-work program shall not be counted against the daily or weekly limits set forth in this section.

      (b) The hours of labor of such persons shall be conspicuously posted in such establishment in such form and manner as the Labor Commissioner determines.

      (c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person under eighteen years of age who has graduated from a secondary educational institution.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7349; 1963, P.A. 160; 1971, P.A. 479; P.A. 73-83, S. 2, 3; 73-84; 73-616, S. 63; P.A. 77-204; P.A. 81-114; P.A. 85-28, S. 5; P.A. 97-263, S. 9; P.A. 98-210, S. 5; P.A. 06-139, S. 3.)

      History: 1963 act extended applicability to cover amusement or recreational establishments, bowling alleys, shoe-shining establishments and billiard or pool rooms; 1971 act added provision re employment of minors between 16 and 18 years old who do not regularly attend school, in restaurants, cafes or dining rooms; P.A. 73-83 deleted provision prohibiting employment of women for more than nine hours a day in specified establishments and extended nine-hour limit to persons 66 or older, handicapped persons and disabled veterans; P.A. 73-84 allowed employment of persons 16 to 18 years old who do not regularly attend school, in restaurants, cafes and dining rooms until midnight rather than eleven p.m. as was previously the case; P.A. 73-616 extended midnight limit for employment of minors in eating establishments to persons who regularly attend school, during vacations and days which do not precede school days; P.A. 77-204 made provisions re minors between 16 and 18 years old applicable to those employed as ushers in nonprofit theaters; P.A. 81-114 allowed minors who regularly attend school to work in restaurants, cafes or theaters until eleven o'clock in the evening on days preceding school days and replaced alphabetic Subdiv. indicators with numeric indicators; P.A. 85-28 exempted persons who have graduated from a secondary educational institution from the employment restrictions placed on minors; P.A. 97-263 increased the amount of fine from $100 to $200; P.A. 98-210 allowed employment of persons between 16 and 18 years of age who do not regularly attend school, in amusement and recreational establishments and for-profit theaters until midnight rather than ten p.m. as was previously the case, limited employment of persons between 16 and 18 years of age who regularly attend school, in public restaurants, cafes, dining rooms, barber shops, bowling alleys, hairdressing, manicuring, amusement, recreational or shoe shining establishments while school is in session, deleted the exemption for hotel establishments, created an exemption for graduates under 18 years of age, replaced the term "minor" with the term "person" throughout the section and added alphabetic Subsec. indicators and numeric Subdiv. indicators; P.A. 06-139 deleted former Subsec. (d) re penalty for violation of section, effective January 1, 2007.

      See Secs. 31-15a, 31-69a re penalties for violation of section.

      Former statute a valid exercise of police power. 126 C. 678. Women entertainers within statute. Id.

      Constitutionality. 14 CS 485. Prohibition of employment of females between designated hours in certain establishments held to be valid exercise of police powers. Id.


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      Secs. 31-19 and 31-20. Employment of women between one a.m. and six a.m. Hours of women entertainers. Sections 31-19 and 31-20 are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7350, 7351; 1949, S. 3011; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 60; P.A. 74-185, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 31-21. Legal day's work. Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 51-247a, eight hours of labor performed in any one day by any one person shall be a legal day's work unless otherwise agreed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7355; P.A. 08-103, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 08-103 inserted "Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 51-247a".

      Statute is superseded by agreement express or implied; earnings on excess above eight hours, in absence of agreement, not recoverable. 37 C. 221.

      Cited. 18 CS 158.


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      Sec. 31-22. Labor Commissioner's duties of enforcement and reports. The Labor Commissioner shall examine into the employment of minors and into the observance of the regulations contained in parts I and II of this chapter and part II of chapter 558, investigate all complaints of violations thereof and report all cases of such violations to the prosecuting officer having jurisdiction thereof. Said commissioner shall include in his annual report to the Governor, as provided in section 4-60, the number of such violations so reported by him and of the prosecutions instituted thereon.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7370; September, 1957, P.A. 11, S. 13; P.A. 74-185, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 74-185 deleted references to commissioner's duty to study employment of women.

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      Secs. 31-22a to 31-22l. Reserved for future use.

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PART Ia
APPRENTICESHIP

      Sec. 31-22m. (Formerly Sec. 31-51a). Apprenticeship. Definitions. When used in sections 31-22m to 31-22q, inclusive, "apprentice" means a person employed under a written agreement to work at and learn a specific trade; "apprentice agreement" means a written agreement entered into by an apprentice, or on his behalf by his parent or guardian, with an employer, or with an association of employers and an organization of employees acting as a joint apprenticeship committee, which agreement provides for not less than two thousand hours of work experience in approved trade training consistent with recognized requirements established by industry or joint labor-industry practice and for the number of hours of related and supplemental instructions prescribed by the Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council or which agreement meets requirements of the federal government for on-the-job training schedules which are essential, in the opinion of the Labor Commissioner, for the development of manpower in Connecticut industries; "council" means the Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council.

      (1959, P.A. 390, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 180; P.A. 78-325.)

      History: 1963 act redefined "apprentice agreement" to include agreements meeting federal requirements for on-the-job training schedules; P.A. 78-325 redefined "apprenticeship agreement" to change minimum hours of work experience from 4,000 to 2,000 and to add "consistent with recognized requirements established by industry or joint labor-industry practice"; Sec. 31-51a transferred to Sec. 31-22m in 2005.

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      Sec. 31-22n. (Formerly Sec. 31-51b). Apprenticeship council. The Governor shall appoint twelve members to the Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council, each of whom shall have some association with apprentice training. Four shall be representative of Connecticut industry, with one representative each from the manufacturing, building, mechanical and service industries, provided at least one such member represents a business that operates without a collective bargaining agreement; four shall be Connecticut members of national labor organizations with apprentice training programs; four shall represent the public, one of whom shall be the Labor Commissioner. Members shall each serve a term which is coterminous with the term of the Governor, each member to hold office until a successor is appointed. Any vacancy in the membership of the council shall be filled by the Governor for the unexpired term. It shall meet on the call of the chairman, who shall be the Labor Commissioner. On or before August first of each year, the council shall prepare a report describing the activities of the council, this report to be included in the Labor Commissioner's report to the Governor. The members of the council shall not be compensated for their services, but the members, except the Labor Commissioner and any state employee, shall be reimbursed for necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties.

      (1959, P.A. 390, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-21; P.A. 85-580; P.A. 01-170, S. 5.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-21 increased the payments to members from $25 to $40 per day, and specifically excluded from receipt of such payments the deputy labor commissioner and state employees; P.A. 85-580 increased membership on the council from 9 to 12 members, adding an additional member for each category and specifying the background of each industry representative, provided for terms which are coterminous with the governor, provided that the deputy labor commissioner shall be the council chairman, and provided for the reimbursement to the members of necessary expenses, replacing provisions for staggered terms, election of chairman and other officers by the council and for payment of $40 per day in lieu of expenses; P.A. 01-170 changed membership by replacing the Deputy Labor Commissioner with the Labor Commissioner and made technical changes; Sec. 31-51b transferred to Sec. 31-22n in 2005.

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      Sec. 31-22o. (Formerly Sec. 31-51c). Powers and duties of council. The council may adopt recommendations for minimum standards of apprenticeship and for related and supplementary instruction, encourage registration and approval of apprentice agreements and training programs, and issue certificates of completion upon the verification by employers or joint apprenticeship committees of the satisfactory completion of the term of apprenticeship. The council shall formulate policies for the effective administration of sections 31-22m to 31-22q, inclusive. Such policies by the council shall not invalidate any apprenticeship provision in any collective bargaining agreement between employers and employees. All apprentice programs adopted and registered with the council under said sections shall be on a voluntary basis and shall be installed for the purpose of developing skilled workers for the service trades and industries of Connecticut.

      (1959, P.A. 390, S. 3.)

      History: Sec. 31-51c transferred to Sec. 31-22o in 2005.

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      Sec. 31-22p. (Formerly Sec. 31-51d). Labor Commissioner's powers and duties. The Labor Commissioner, with the advice and guidance of the council, shall formulate work training standards which will ensure necessary safeguards for the welfare of apprentices and a full craft experience in any skill, in order to provide equal opportunities to all, without regard to their race, color, religion, sex, age or national origin, and to provide training, employment and upgrading opportunities for disadvantaged workers to acquire a comprehensive skilled work experience and to extend the application of such standards of skill training by inclusion thereof in apprenticeship agreements, and shall bring together representatives of management and labor for the development of training programs and terms of apprenticeship incidental thereto and cooperate with state and federal agencies similarly interested in furtherance of training requirements in keeping with established and new processes of Connecticut industries. The Labor Commissioner shall publish information relating to existing and proposed work standards of apprenticeship, hold area conferences throughout the state for the purpose of promoting interest in skilled trades training and appoint such advisory committees as may be deemed necessary to evaluate the skilled manpower requirements of Connecticut in order to cope with any new technological changes in industry.

      (1959, P.A. 390, S. 4; 1969, P.A. 743, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act deleted reference to cooperative effort of representatives of industry, labor and education in formulation of standards, required that standards provide equal opportunities "to all, without regard to their race, color, religion, sex, age or national origin" and that they provide training, employment and upgrading opportunities for disadvantaged workers, and made publication of information re apprenticeship standards, holding of conferences, etc. mandatory rather than optional, substituting "shall" for "may"; Sec. 31-51d transferred to Sec. 31-22p in 2005.

      Annotation to former section 31-51d:

      Cited. 243 C. 66.


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      Sec. 31-22q. (Formerly Sec. 31-51e). Program of apprentice training. To assist in the administration of sections 31-22m to 31-22q, inclusive, there shall continue to be maintained in the Labor Department a program of apprentice training. The Labor Commissioner is authorized to appoint, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 67, such personnel as may be necessary for effective administration of said sections.

      (1959, P.A. 390, S. 5; P.A. 77-614, S. 480, 610.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 referred to "program" of apprentice training rather than to "division" of apprentice training in the labor department, effective January 1, 1979; Sec. 31-51e transferred to Sec. 31-22q in 2005.

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      Sec. 31-22r. Apprenticeship registration; apprentices, sponsors. (a)(1) Each person who registered as an apprentice with the Labor Department before July 1, 2003, and has not completed an apprenticeship as of July 9, 2003, shall pay to the Labor Department a registration fee of twenty-five dollars on or before July 1, 2003, and a renewal registration fee of twenty-five dollars on or before July first of each subsequent year until (A) such registration is withdrawn, or (B) such person has completed an apprenticeship and possesses a valid journeyperson card of occupational license, if required.

      (2) Each person who initially registers as an apprentice with the Labor Department on or after July 1, 2003, shall pay to the Labor Department a registration fee of fifty dollars at the time of registration and an annual renewal registration fee of fifty dollars until (A) such registration is withdrawn, or (B) such person has completed an apprenticeship and possesses a valid journeyperson card of occupational license, if required.

      (b) Each person sponsoring an apprenticeship program registered with the Labor Department as of July 1, 2003, shall pay to the Labor Department an annual registration fee of sixty dollars for each apprentice participating in such program until the apprentice has completed the apprenticeship and possesses a valid journeyperson card of occupational license, if required, or such program is cancelled by the sponsor or deregistered for cause by the Labor Department in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to this chapter, whichever is earlier.

      (c) Fifty per cent of any amount collected by the Labor Department pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the General Fund and fifty per cent of such amount shall be credited to a separate nonlapsing appropriation to the Labor Department, for the purpose of administering the department's apprentice training program and sections 31-22m to 31-22p, inclusive.

      (P.A. 03-207, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 368; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 108.)

      History: P.A. 03-207 effective July 9, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 increased registration fees in Subsec. (a)(2) from $25 to $50, increased registration fee in Subsec. (b) from $30 to $60 and deleted provision re credit of amount collected to separate nonlapsing appropriation to Labor Department and purpose of same in Subsec. (c); Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that 50% of amount collected be credited to separate nonlapsing appropriation to Labor Department for purpose of apprentice training program and Secs. 31-22m to 31-22p.

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      Sec. 31-22s. Report re feasibility of on-line apprenticeship registration system. Not later than February 4, 2004, the Labor Commissioner shall report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to labor and higher education and employment advancement, concerning the feasibility of establishing an on-line system for registering apprentices and apprenticeship programs with the Labor Department.

      (P.A. 03-207, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 03-207 effective July 9, 2003.

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      Sec. 31-22t. (Formerly Sec. 31-51j). Preclusion of apprentice training programs prohibited. All collective bargaining clauses which, in the judgment of the federal or state contracting agency administering the contract, preclude, prohibit or in any way discourage employers or groups of employers from engaging in any federal, state or on-the-job apprentice training program approved by any federal or state agency so empowered shall be void and unenforceable. This section shall not apply to any collective bargaining agreement in effect on July 1, 1969, for the duration of such agreement.

      (1969, P.A. 743, S. 2.)

      History: Sec. 31-51j transferred to Sec. 31-22t in 2005.

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PART II
PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES

      Sec. 31-23. Employment of minors prohibited in certain occupations. Exceptions. (a) No minor under sixteen years of age shall be employed or permitted to work in any manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile or theatrical industry, restaurant or public dining room, or in any bowling alley, shoe-shining establishment or barber shop, provided the Labor Commissioner may authorize such employment of any minor between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who is enrolled in (1) a public school in a work-study program as defined and approved by the Commissioner of Education and the Labor Commissioner or in a program established pursuant to section 10-20a, or (2) a summer work-recreation program sponsored by a town, city or borough or by a human resources development agency which has been approved by the Labor Commissioner, or both, and provided the prohibitions of this section shall not apply to any minor over the age of fourteen who is under vocational probation pursuant to an order of the Superior Court as provided in section 46b-140 or to any minor over the age of fourteen who has been placed on vocational parole by the Commissioner of Children and Families.

      (b) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, a minor who has reached the age of fourteen may be employed or permitted to work as a caddie or in a pro shop at any municipal or private golf course, and a minor who has reached the age of fifteen may be employed or permitted to work in any mercantile establishment, as a bagger, cashier or stock clerk, provided such employment is (A) limited to periods of school vacation during which school is not in session for five consecutive days or more except that such minor employed in a retail food store may work on any Saturday during the year; (B) for not more than forty hours in any week; (C) for not more than eight hours in any day; and (D) between the hours of seven o'clock in the morning and seven o'clock in the evening, except that from July first to the first Monday in September in any year, any such minor may be employed until nine o'clock in the evening. (2) (A) Each person who employs a fourteen-year-old minor as a caddie or in a pro shop at any municipal or private golf course pursuant to this section shall obtain a certificate stating that such minor is fourteen years of age or older, as provided in section 10-193, and (B) each person who employs a fifteen-year-old minor in any mercantile establishment pursuant to this subsection shall obtain a certificate stating that such minor is fifteen years of age or older, as provided in section 10-193. Such certificate shall be kept on file at the place of employment and shall be available at all times during business hours to the inspectors of the Labor Department. (3) The Labor Commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, as the commissioner deems necessary to implement the provisions of this subsection.

      (c) No minor under the age of eighteen years shall be employed or permitted to work in any occupation which has been or shall be pronounced hazardous to health by the Department of Public Health or pronounced hazardous in other respects by the Labor Department. This section shall not apply to the employment or enrollment of minors sixteen years of age and over as apprentices in bona fide apprenticeship courses in manufacturing or mechanical establishments, vocational schools or public schools, or to the employment of such minors who have graduated from a public or private secondary or vocational school, in any manufacturing or mechanical establishment or to the enrollment of such minors in a cooperative work-study program approved by the Commissioner of Education and the Labor Commissioner or in a program established pursuant to section 10-20a. No provision of this section shall apply to agricultural employment, domestic service, street trades or the distribution of newspapers. For purposes of this subsection, the term "cooperative work-study program" means a program of vocational education, approved by the Commissioner of Education and the Labor Commissioner, for persons who, through a cooperative arrangement between the school and employers, receive instruction, including required academic courses and related vocational instruction by alternation of study in school with a job in any occupational field, provided these two experiences are planned and supervised by the school and employers so that each contributes to the student's education and to his employability. Work periods and school attendance may be on alternate half days, full days, weeks or other periods of time in fulfilling the cooperative work-study program.

      (d) Each person who employs a minor under the age of eighteen years shall obtain a certificate stating the age of such minor as provided in section 10-193. Such certificates shall be kept on file at the place of employment and shall be available at all times during business hours to the inspectors of the Labor Department.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7352; February, 1965, P.A. 186, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 203, S. 1; 498, S. 2; P.A. 73-49, S. 2, 3; P.A. 75-16; 75-282; P.A. 76-436, S. 617, 681; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 86-333, S. 26, 32; P.A. 87-195, S. 1; P.A. 88-360, S. 52, 53, 63; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-16, S. 85, 89; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-116, S. 27, 28; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 97-38; 97-263, S. 10; P.A. 00-144, S. 3; P.A. 02-44, S. 1; P.A. 06-139, S. 4, 8; P.A. 08-108, S. 1.)

      History: 1965 act authorized employment of minor between 14 and 16 years old who is enrolled in school in a work-study program in Subsec. (a); 1969 acts authorized employment of minors between 14 and 16 in summer work-recreation programs and specified that prohibitions of section do not apply to minors over 14 years old who are under vocational probation by order of juvenile court in Subsec. (a); P.A. 73-49 specified that provisions do not apply to minors over 14 years old who are placed on vocational probation by children and youth services commissioner in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-16 defined "cooperative work-study program" in Subsec. (b) and specified that provisions do not apply to minors enrolled in such programs approved by state board of education and labor commissioner; P.A. 75-282 specified in Subsec. (b) that provisions do not apply to minors who have graduated from secondary or vocational schools who are employed in a manufacturing or mechanical establishment; P.A. 76-436 replaced juvenile court with superior court in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 86-333 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 10-189 in Subsec. (c); P.A. 87-195 inserted new Subsec. (b) permitting minors who are 15 years of age to work in any mercantile establishment as baggers, cashiers or stock clerks until September 30, 1992, with certain restrictions on the hours of work and relettered prior Subsecs. (b) to (d), inclusive, accordingly; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (b)(2) provided that the certificate be obtained pursuant to Sec. 10-193, i.e., from the superintendent of schools, rather than from the state board of education and in Subsec. (d) deleted the provision specifying that the certificate be obtained from the state board of education; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-16 amended Subsec. (b) by limiting employment of minors 15 years of age to school vacations of five consecutive days or longer and deleting provision limiting employment of such minors to not more than two consecutive days without a day off; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-116 replaced references to "state board" with "commissioner" and added a provision allowing minors to participate in the Connecticut career certificate program under Sec. 10-20a, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-38 amended Subsec. (b) to extend period a minor may work in any mercantile establishment to September 30, 2002; P.A. 97-263 amended Subsec. (e) to increase amount of fine from $100 to $200; P.A. 00-144 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision permitting minor employed in a retail food store to work on any Saturday; P.A. 02-44 amended Subsec. (b) to extend period during which a minor may work in a mercantile establishment to September 30, 2007, and make technical changes; P.A. 06-139 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to permit employment of 14-year-old minor as caddie or in pro shop at municipal or private golf course, and added new Subsec. (b)(2)(A) requring employer of 14-year-old minor as caddie or in pro shop to obtain certificate stating age of minor, designating existing provisions as Subpara. (B), effective June 6, 2006, and made a technical change in Subsec. (a) and deleted former Subsec. (e) re penalty for violation of section, effective January 1, 2007; P.A. 08-108 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by deleting "from September 20, 2002, to September 30, 2007, inclusive" and replacing "shall be" with "is", effective June 2, 2008.

      See Secs. 22-13 to 22-17, inclusive, re employment of minors in agriculture.

      See Secs. 31-15a, 31-69a re penalties for violation of section.

      See Sec. 46b-140(g) re employment of certain children for whom continued school attendance is deemed to be of no benefit.


      Child employed in violation of this section is not thereby precluded from compensation for injury otherwise compensable. 95 C. 164. Former statute cited. 111 C. 232. Violation of statute as actionable cause of death. 129 C. 439. Although employed in violation of statute, plaintiff within workmen's compensation act. 131 C. 157.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 203 C. 34. Cited. 221 C. 465.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 221 C. 465.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 221 C. 465.


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      Sec. 31-23a. Minors employed on or after October 1, 2007, deemed to have been lawfully employed. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of section 31-23 in effect prior to June 2, 2008, any minor who reached the age of fifteen and was employed, on or after October 1, 2007, as a bagger, cashier or stock clerk shall be deemed to have been lawfully employed, provided such employment was in accordance with the provisions of subparagraphs (A) to (D), inclusive, of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of said section 31-23. Any person who employed such minor shall not be deemed (1) to have violated the provisions of subsection (a) of said section 31-23, or (2) subject to the penalties of section 31-15a or 31-69a.

      (P.A. 08-108, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 08-108 effective June 2, 2008.

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      Sec. 31-24. Hazardous employment of children forbidden. Except in state vocational schools or in public schools teaching manual training, no child under sixteen years of age shall be employed or permitted to work in adjusting or assisting in adjusting any belt upon any machine, or in oiling or assisting in oiling, wiping or cleaning machinery, while power is attached, or in preparing any composition in which dangerous acids are used, or in soldering, or in the manufacture or packing of paints, dry colors or red or white lead, or in the manufacture, packing or storing of gun or blasting powder, dynamite, nitroglycerine compounds, safety fuses in the raw or unvarnished state, electric fuses for blasting purposes or any other explosive, or in the manufacture or use of any dangerous or poisonous gas or dye, or composition of lye in which the quantity thereof is injurious to health, or upon any scaffolding, or in any heavy work in any building trade or in any tunnel, mine or quarry, or in operating or assisting to operate any emery, stone or buffing wheel; and, except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of section 31-23, no child under sixteen years of age shall be employed or permitted to work in any capacity requiring such child to stand continuously.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7353; P.A. 74-185, S. 3; P.A. 87-195, S. 2; P.A. 97-263, S. 11; P.A. 06-139, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 74-185 prohibited employment of all children under 16, regardless of sex, in capacity which requires continuous standing where previously prohibition applied to females only; P.A. 87-195 allowed children under 16 years of age to work in jobs requiring them to stand continuously as provided in Sec. 31-23; P.A. 97-263 increased amount of fine from $100 to $200; P.A. 06-139 eliminated provision re penalty for violation of section, effective January 1, 2007.

      See Secs. 31-15a, 31-69a re penalties for violation of section.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-25. Operation of elevators by minors. No person under sixteen years of age shall be employed or permitted to have the care, custody, operation or management of an elevator; any person, partnership or corporation violating this provision shall be fined not more than fifty dollars for each offense. No person under eighteen years of age shall be employed or permitted to have the care, custody, management or operation of an elevator, either for freight or passengers, running at a speed of over two hundred feet per minute; any person, whether acting for himself or as agent for another, who authorizes or permits the employment of any person in violation of this provision shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7354; P.A. 97-263, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 97-263 doubled the amount of both fines.

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      Secs. 31-26 and 31-27. Employment of women before and after confinement. Seats to be provided for female employees. Sections 31-26 and 31-27 are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7357, 7368; 1972, P.A. 53, S. 1; P.A. 74-185, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 31-28. Registration of manufacturing and mechanical establishments. (a) Each person who operates or intends to operate in this state any manufacturing or mechanical establishment which has not been registered with the Labor Commissioner or included by him in the "List of Connecticut Factories" shall register each establishment so operated or to be operated with said commissioner, stating, on forms to be supplied by the commissioner, the name and address of the owner, the name under which the business is carried on, the nature of the business, the location of the establishment and such other pertinent information as the commissioner requires. No such person shall open any such establishment until he has secured a certificate of registration signed by the commissioner or his authorized deputy. No such person shall change the location of his place of business until he has secured a certificate of registration for the new place of business, signed by the commissioner or his authorized deputy. Such certificates shall be issued forthwith upon registration and in any event before the expiration of forty-eight hours from the receipt of such registration in the office of the commissioner or his authorized deputy.

      (b) Any employer covered by this section who fails to register in compliance with the provisions of this section shall, for the first offense, be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars and, for any subsequent offense, be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than sixty days or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3748.)

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      Sec. 31-29. Manufacturing license for residential buildings. No person, except a member of the immediate family residing in a dwelling house, tenement house, rooming house, apartment house or other residential building, and no firm, partnership or corporation shall use such building, in whole or in part, for the manufacture of any products, or parts thereof, until the owner thereof has obtained from the Labor Commissioner a license authorizing its use for such purpose. Said commissioner shall, before granting such license, establish the fact, by thorough inspection, that the building conforms in every respect to the requirements of the general statutes relating to heat, light, safety, health, ventilation and sanitation. The fee for such inspection, which shall accompany such application, shall be twenty-five dollars, payable, whether a license is granted or not, to the Labor Department.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3762.)

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      Sec. 31-30. Home workers. Any person, other than a member of the immediate family residing therein, who, or firm, partnership or corporation which, engages in the manufacture of any products, or parts thereof, in any dwelling house, tenement house, rooming house, apartment house or other residential building, which has been licensed in accordance with section 31-29, shall conform in every respect to the provisions of the general statutes governing the registration and operation of manufacturing and mechanical establishments. Any member or members of the immediate family residing in any dwelling house, tenement house, rooming house, apartment house or other residential building, whether licensed for such purpose or not, may use such place of residence for the purpose of manufacturing products, or parts thereof, either on their own behalf, or on behalf of other manufacturing or mechanical establishments located within the state as hereinafter provided. Such home workers shall conform in every respect to the provisions of the general statutes governing the working hours and conditions of women and minors in manufacturing and mechanical establishments, and, in the observance thereof, they shall be subject to inspection under the supervision of said commissioner. Said commissioner shall report to the board of health, humane society or other agency having jurisdiction any condition believed to be unhealthful, insanitary or otherwise prejudicial to the well-being of such home workers, in order that such condition may be investigated and corrected by such agency.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3763.)

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      Sec. 31-31. Records of home workers and materials. Manufacturing and mechanical establishments may furnish materials to be manufactured in whole or in part by home workers, if such establishments are located within the state and subject to inspection and supervision by said commissioner or other agencies, as authorized by the general statutes, for the protection of life and health. Such establishments shall record the names and home addresses of all persons to whom materials for manufacturing purposes have been furnished and all payments made to such persons for work thus performed. All such records shall be preserved at least three years. They shall be accessible, during the actual operating hours of such establishments, to said commissioner or his representatives upon presentation of properly executed credentials, in order that the inspection and supervision of home work as provided by section 31-30 may be conducted freely and expeditiously at the discretion of said commissioner.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3764.)

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      Sec. 31-32. Penalty. Any person who, or firm, partnership or corporation which, violates any provision of sections 31-29 to 31-31, inclusive, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars for each separate offense.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3765.)

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      Sec. 31-33. Regulation of industrial home work. (a) The following terms, as used in this section, shall have the meanings hereinafter specified, unless the context indicates otherwise. (1) "Person" means an individual, a corporation, a limited liability company, a partnership, an association, a joint stock company or a trust or any other unincorporated organization, except charitable organizations. (2) "To process" means to manufacture, finish, repair, prepare, alter, pack, wrap or handle any material and the different forms of the verb shall be interpreted in accordance with this definition. (3) "Home" means any dwelling house, tenement house, rooming house, apartment house or other residential building.

      (b) Except as hereinafter provided, no person shall distribute materials, either directly, indirectly or through an employee, agent or independent contractor or any other third party, to a home for the purpose of having such materials processed and thereafter returned to such person or someone designated by him for any purpose other than the personal use of such person or any member of his family.

      (c) The Labor Commissioner may issue a certificate permitting a person to distribute materials to any individual sixteen years of age or more to be processed in his home by such individual only, upon submission of proof that injury or illness, not of a communicable nature, or old age physically incapacitates him for work in a factory or other regular place of business or that his services are essential in the home to care for a member of the household; provided the commissioner may issue such certificates to other individuals for processes not requiring mechanical apparatus other than simple hand tools, when he finds, after a satisfactory showing of proof, that home work is customary in such industry or occupation in the state of Connecticut and that the suspension of such home work would work undue hardship on labor or industry; and provided no certificate permitting home work shall be issued for the processing of materials in any home in which any member of the household has a communicable disease; and provided the wage rates paid shall not be lower than the wage rates paid within a factory or other place of business for similar work.

      (d) The commissioner may grant to a reputable employer a certificate permitting such employer to distribute approved materials to be processed in approved homes by home workers having permits, upon proof that such processing in the homes is customary and necessary in such employer's industry, that no harmful or dangerous apparatus or substances are to be used and that the persons who are to do the processing fulfill the requirements specified for home workers in subsection (c) of this section. Each such employer shall pay a fee of twenty-five dollars each year for such certificate of permission. The commissioner may grant a permit to process specified materials in his home to a person who fulfills the requirements for a home worker specified in subsection (c) of this section. The commissioner may revoke any employer's certificate or any home worker's permit, at any time, for cause.

      (e) No employer shall be granted a permit to distribute materials of any kind to any worker or workers to be processed at home unless such employer keeps an accurate record of the name and address of each such worker, an accurate description of the kind and amount of materials so distributed, the rates of compensation to be paid for each kind of processing and the total earnings each week of each worker. Such records shall be available to the inspectors of the department at any time during business hours.

      (f) The commissioner shall have power to seize, for use as evidence, any goods which are processed in violation of any provision of this section and any materials which are brought or sent into this state from other states to be processed in Connecticut homes, provided such goods or materials shall be returned to their owners after being used as evidence.

      (g) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not more than twenty-five dollars for each day such violation has been committed or imprisoned not more than thirty days or both, and such violation shall constitute grounds for revoking an employer's certificate or a home worker's permit.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3766; P.A. 95-79, S. 106, 189; P.A. 05-288, S. 135.)

      History: P.A. 95-79 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "person" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (d), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 31-34. Stained glass windows. Section 31-34 is repealed, effective October 1, 2002.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3750; P.A. 02-89, S. 90.)

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      Sec. 31-35. Lighting and sanitary condition of factories and roundhouses. Section 31-35 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3751; P.A. 73-379, S. 20, 21.)

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      Sec. 31-36. Toilet room required in foundries. Penalty. The commissioner shall have authority by order to that effect to require the proprietor of any foundry in which ten or more persons are employed, situated in a locality where there is such system for the disposal of sewage as to make such order practicable, to provide for the use of such employees a toilet room of such suitable dimensions as said commissioner determines, containing washbowls or sinks connected with running water, with facilities for heating the same, such room to be directly connected with such foundry building, properly heated, ventilated and protected from the dust of such foundry. Any person, company or corporation failing to comply with such order shall be fined not more than fifty dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3752; P.A. 74-185, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 74-185 referred to foundries which employed ten or more "persons" rather than "men".

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      Sec. 31-37. Toilet accommodations in manufacturing, mechanical and mercantile establishments and restaurants. Section 31-37 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3753; February, 1965, P.A. 324; P.A. 73-379, S. 20, 21.)

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      Sec. 31-38. Toilet accommodations on tobacco plantations. Any person, firm or corporation employing twenty-five or more laborers on a tobacco plantation, which fails to provide adequate toilet accommodations for such employees, so arranged as to secure reasonable privacy for both sexes of such employees, shall be fined not less than twenty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8638.)

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      Sec. 31-38a. Sanitary, lighting and heating facilities for railroad employees. Each railroad company, as that term is defined in section 16-1, shall provide for its employees employed in, at or near depots, terminals, passenger yards, coach yards, freight yards, switching yards, garages, repair shops, warehouses, assembly points, headquarters and other facilities of such company located in this state, adequate sanitary, lighting and heating facilities. The Labor Commissioner shall promulgate such regulations as he deems necessary and reasonable for the provision of such sanitary, lighting and heating facilities as the health of such employees requires. Such regulations shall provide, among other things, for the following: A water supply and drinking facilities; adequate toilet accommodations, which accommodations shall include adequate fixtures and be maintained in good repair and in a clean and sanitary condition, adequately ventilated with windows or suitable ventilators opening to the outside; adequate lighting and means for artificial lighting to illuminate all parts of the required facilities; washing rooms, rest rooms and dressing rooms, including provisions for showers where the nature of the work requires, hot water and lockers; heating facilities to provide sixty-five degrees Fahrenheit heat during the months of November through March; maintenance of such facilities; and such other items as are necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section.

      (1959, P.A. 126, S. 1; P.A. 77-2, S. 3, 4.)

      History: P.A. 77-2 changed minimum required temperature during months of November through March from 68 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-38b. Commissioner to enforce. The commissioner or his deputies shall inquire into the compliance with the provisions of section 31-38a and the regulations promulgated thereunder, shall make at least one inspection each year of all the facilities involved and shall investigate any complaint regarding the sanitary, lighting or heating facilities of such companies. The commissioner shall issue such orders of compliance as are required to enforce section 31-38a or the regulations thereunder and he shall report any failure to comply with such orders within sixty days to the prosecutor of the criminal court having jurisdiction in the area where the violation occurs. Any railroad company which fails to comply with such order or violates section 31-38a shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars for each such violation. Sections 31-7, 31-8, 31-44 and 31-50 shall, so far as they do not conflict with the terms of section 31-38a and this section, apply to the orders of the Labor Commissioner.

      (1959, P.A. 126, S. 2, 3.)

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      Sec. 31-39. Employees in paper factory to be vaccinated. Section 31-39 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7358; P.A. 87-134.)

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      Sec. 31-39a. Operation of hydraulic loading and unloading equipment at resources recovery facilities. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, each owner or operator of a resources recovery facility, as defined in section 22a-207, that (1) serves more than four municipalities, and (2) employs a floor level feed system to load solid waste into a combustion unit, but does not use overhead cranes to load municipal solid waste into the waste feed hoppers, shall have, during such times as solid waste is being moved with hydraulic loading or unloading equipment, at least two employees of the facility familiar with the operation of such equipment present in the work area in which such equipment is being operated.

      (b) No resources recovery facility shall be required to comply with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section if such facility has (1) a properly working camera trained on and with an unobscured view of the feed hopper area, or (2) a device that stops the feeder from operating whenever a person enters onto the feed hopper.

      (P.A. 07-136, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 31-40. Reporting serious accidents in establishments or work places under jurisdiction of Labor Commissioner. Except as otherwise provided by law, the person in active charge of any establishment or work place coming under the jurisdiction of the Labor Commissioner shall forward by mail to the commissioner at his office, within fifteen days after each accident resulting in serious physical injury to an employee while at work in such establishment or work place, a written notice of every such accident of which he has knowledge, which notice shall state the name of the injured employee, the time of the accident and the nature of the injury and shall also contain a general description of the location in the establishment and of the character of the machine, if any, upon which the employee was at work at the time. The commissioner shall forthwith transmit to the person in charge of such establishment a written acknowledgment of the receipt of such notice, and shall keep a record of such accidents thus reported to him. Such records, notices and reports to the commissioner and any investigation made by him or his deputies or agents shall be privileged and confidential and shall not be open for examination or inspection, and neither such commissioner nor any of his deputies or agents shall be a competent witness as to the facts involved in such accident in any proceeding pending in any court, unless such commissioner, deputy or agent was present at the time of the occurrence of the accident. The term "accident resulting in serious physical injury", as used in this section, shall be construed to mean an accident which results in the death of the employee or causes his absence from work for at least one week. Any person, after having received from the commissioner forms for such notices, who fails to send notice of any accident as required by this section, shall be fined not more than twenty dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3754; 1967, P.A. 444.)

      History: 1967 act deleted reference to Hartford as location of commissioner's office, deleted reference to "manufacturing or mercantile" establishments and added reference to work places under commissioner's jurisdiction.

      See Sec. 31-316 re employer's duty to record and report employees' injuries and to report insurance coverage and welfare fund payment provided to employees.

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      Sec. 31-40a. (Formerly Sec. 19-48). Reports of occupational diseases and investigations concerning them. Each physician having knowledge of any person whom he believes to be suffering from poisoning from lead, phosphorus, arsenic, brass, wood alcohol or mercury or their compounds, or from anthrax or from compressed-air illness or any other disease, contracted as a result of the nature of the employment of such person, shall, within forty-eight hours, mail to the Labor Department, Department of Factory Inspection, as provided in section 31-9, a report stating the name, address and occupation of such patient, the name, address and business of his employer, the nature of the disease and such other information as may reasonably be required by said department. The department shall prepare and furnish to the physicians of this state suitable blanks for the reports herein required. No report made pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be admissible as evidence of the facts therein stated in any action at law or in any action under the Workers' Compensation Act against any employer of such diseased person. Any physician who fails to send any report herein required or who fails to send the same within the time specified herein shall be liable to the state for a penalty of not more than ten dollars, recoverable by civil action in the name of the state by said department. The Labor Department, Department of Factory Inspection, as provided in section 31-9, is authorized to investigate and make recommendations for the elimination or prevention of occupational diseases reported to it in accordance with the provisions of this section. Said department is also authorized to study and provide advice in regard to conditions suspected of causing occupational diseases, provided information obtained upon investigations made in accordance with the provisions of this section shall not be admissible as evidence in any action at law to recover damages for personal injury or in any action under the Workers' Compensation Act.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3867; P.A. 73-449, S. 2; P.A. 78-349, S. 1, 3; P.A. 79-376, S. 28.)

      History: P.A. 73-449 replaced department of health with labor department, department of factory inspection; Sec. 19-48 transferred to Sec. 31-40a in 1975; P.A. 78-349 deleted provision requiring labor department to pay physicians $0.50 for making report; P.A. 79-376 substituted "workers' compensation act" for "workmen's compensation act".

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      Sec. 31-40b. Employers required to provide lung function tests to certain employees. (a) Each employer shall, when required by the Labor Commissioner, at his own expense, provide lung function tests to each of his employees who, in the course of his employment, comes into contact with chemicals, materials, gases or other substances which have been identified as toxic and hazardous under the Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Subpart Z, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter XVII. The tests to be required, their frequency and the standards of administration of such tests shall be prescribed by regulation by the Labor Commissioner, with the advice of a physician specializing in pulmonary disease. No employee shall be required to have a lung function test against his will.

      (b) Each employer employing persons within a foundry shall provide a mandatory lung function test at least once every two years and where appropriate, chest x-rays as prescribed by the Labor Commissioner for those employees exposed to the day to day manufacturing process, at the employer's expense. The tests to be required, the definition of who shall take the tests and the standards for administration of such tests shall be prescribed by regulation adopted on or before January 1, 1981, by the Labor Commissioner, with the advice of a panel of physicians specializing in pulmonary disease. Said panel shall have five members, consisting of three physicians chosen by the Labor Commissioner from a list of qualified pulmonary specialists submitted by The American College of Chest Physicians, one physician chosen by the foundry employers and one physician chosen by the foundry employees. Employees shall be paid for the time involved in such testing. An employee shall be exempted from such testing if the tenets of his religion forbid participation in such tests, and he requests such an exemption. As used in this section, "foundry" means any business or works which utilizes sand in the casting of metals.

      (P.A. 77-445; P.A. 80-132.)

      History: P.A. 80-132 added Subsec. (b) re mandatory lung function tests.

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      Sec. 31-40c. Information and notice requirements for employers using or producing carcinogens. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons.

      (2) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has employees, including the state and any political subdivision thereof.

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in a business of his employer.

      (b) Each employer shall post a list of all carcinogenic substances, as described in sections 19a-329 and 19a-331, which he uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment. Such list shall be readily available for viewing by the employees. Such list shall be updated to reflect any changes to sections 19a-329 and 19a-331 within ninety days of the effective date of such changes.

      (c) Upon offering employment to a prospective employee and on January first of each year each employer shall furnish to each of his employees a list of all such carcinogenic substances which he uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment, and the dangers inherent in exposure to such substances.

      (d) Each employer shall provide an education and training program for his new employees, during the first month of their employment, adequately describing the presence of such carcinogenic substances which he uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment, the dangers inherent in exposure to such substances and proper methods for avoiding harmful effects from such substances by keeping exposure within the allowable limits set by regulations promulgated by the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

      (e) Any person who supplies such carcinogenic substances to an employer shall label all such substances by generic or basic chemical name only and shall provide safe handling procedures for such substances.

      (P.A. 80-257, S. 1-5; P.A. 95-79, S. 107, 189.)

      History: P.A. 95-79 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-40d. Complaints of violations. Inspections. Discrimination prohibited. (a) Any employee or representative of employees who believes that there is a violation by the employer of such employee of any provisions of section 31-40c may request an inspection by filing a complaint of such violation with the Labor Commissioner. The complaint shall be in writing, signed and set forth with reasonable particularity the grounds for the complaint. Within a reasonable period of time after receipt of such complaint, the Labor Commissioner shall notify the employer in writing of the complaint and permit the employer to demonstrate compliance with the provisions of section 31-40c. If such compliance has not been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the commissioner within fourteen days of the mailing of the notification, the commissioner or his authorized representative, upon presenting appropriate credentials to the employer, operator or agent in charge, shall inspect, at reasonable times, the employer's workplace and all conditions pertinent to the grounds of the complaint and shall, in a reasonable manner, make any additional investigation deemed necessary by the commissioner or his representative for the full and effective determination of such employer's compliance with the provisions of section 31-40c. Whenever the commissioner or his authorized representative, proceeding pursuant to this section, is denied admission to any such place of employment, he shall obtain a warrant to make an inspection or investigation of such place of employment from any judge of the Superior Court. Any judge of the Superior Court within the state is authorized to issue a warrant pursuant to this section and shall issue such warrant whenever he is satisfied that the following conditions are met: That the individual seeking the warrant is a duly authorized agent of the department; and that such individual has established under oath or affirmation that the place of employment to be investigated in accordance with this section is to be inspected to determine compliance or noncompliance with the requirements of section 31-40c.

      (b) An employer shall not discriminate against or discipline, in any manner, any employee because such employee has filed a complaint of violations of section 31-40c, as provided in this section, or has assisted the commissioner or his authorized representative in the investigation of such a complaint.

      (P.A. 81-291, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 31-40e. Order to comply. Citation. Hearing. Appeal. (a) If, upon inspection or investigation of a complaint, the Labor Commissioner or his authorized representative believes that an employer has violated any requirements of section 31-40c, he shall with reasonable promptness issue to the employer an order to comply. Such order shall be in writing and shall specifically describe the nature of the violation, and shall state a reasonable time period within which the violation must be corrected by the employer. If such violation has not been corrected within such time period, the Labor Commissioner or his authorized representative shall with reasonable promptness issue a citation to the employer. Each citation shall be in writing and shall specifically describe the nature of the violation, and shall state a reasonable time period within which the violation must be corrected by the employer.

      (b) The employer may request the commissioner to provide a hearing concerning any orders to comply, citations or penalties issued to the employer under the provisions of this section or section 31-40d or 31-40f, and such hearing shall then be afforded in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-181a, inclusive. The employer may appeal the final decision of such hearing in accordance with section 4-183.

      (P.A. 81-291, S. 2; P.A. 88-317, S. 90, 107.)

      History: P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-177 to 4-181 in Subsec. (b) to include new sections added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date.

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      Sec. 31-40f. Penalties. Duties of Labor Commissioner. Private right of action. (a) Any employer who has received a citation for a violation of the requirements of section 31-40c may be assessed a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each such violation.

      (b) Any employer who fails to correct a violation for which a citation has been issued under the provisions of section 31-40d or 31-40e within the period permitted for its correction may be assessed a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each day during which such failure or violation continues.

      (c) Any person who gives advance notice of any inspection to be conducted under section 31-40d or 31-40e, without authority from the Labor Commissioner or his designees, shall be assessed a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars.

      (d) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement, representation or certification in any list, record or other document required to be maintained pursuant to section 31-40c shall be assessed a civil penalty of not more than ten thousand dollars.

      (e) Any employer or individual who refuses entry to any authorized representative of the Labor Commissioner while such representative is attempting to conduct an investigation or inspection pursuant to the provisions of section 31-40d or 31-40e, or in any way wilfully obstructs him from carrying out his investigation or inspection, shall be assessed a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars.

      (f) Any employer or individual who wilfully causes bodily harm to any authorized representative of the Labor Commissioner while such representative is attempting to conduct an investigation or inspection pursuant to the provisions of section 31-40d or 31-40e, shall be assessed a civil penalty of not more than ten thousand dollars.

      (g) The Labor Commissioner shall have authority to assess all civil penalties provided in this section, giving due consideration to the appropriateness of the penalty with respect to the size of the business of the employer or owner being charged, the gravity of the violation, the good faith of the employer or owner, and the history of previous violations.

      (h) Civil penalties owed under this section shall be paid to the commissioner for deposit into the Treasury of the state and may be recovered in a civil action in the name of the state of Connecticut brought in the superior court for the judicial district where the violation is alleged to have occurred or where the employer has its principal office. The penalties collected shall be used to defray the costs of enforcement of section 31-40c, as provided in sections 31-40d and 31-40e and this section.

      (i) If an employer has not made timely correction of the violation stated in an order to comply issued according to the provisions of sections 31-40d and 31-40e, and the Labor Commissioner or his authorized representative has not issued a citation for such violation within sixty days of the expiration of such order to comply, any employee of such employer may bring a civil action for judicial enforcement of the requirements of section 31-40c, in the superior court for the judicial district where the violation is alleged to have occurred or where the employer has its principal office.

      (P.A. 81-291, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 31-40g. Information requirements for employers using or producing substances hazardous to reproductive systems. Upon offering employment to a prospective employee, each employer shall inform the prospective employee of any chemicals, toxic substances, radioactive materials or any other substances which he uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment, which the employer should have reasonable cause to believe will cause birth defects or constitute a hazard to an individual's reproductive system or to a fetus when the individual is exposed to any of such substances in the course of his job assignment. Such information shall be made available to current employees who are exposed to such hazards.

      (P.A. 81-382, S. 3.)

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-40h. Sterilization as condition of employment prohibited. No employer, including the state or any political subdivision thereof, shall condition the employment, transfer or promotion of any individual on the sterilization of such individual.

      (P.A. 81-382, S. 4.)

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      Sec. 31-40i. Enforcement. Private right of action. If an employer has violated any of the provisions of section 31-40h, any individual aggrieved by such violation may bring a civil action for judicial enforcement of such provisions in the superior court for the judicial district where the violation is alleged to have occurred or where the employer has its principal office. Any individual who prevails in such civil action shall be awarded reasonable attorney's fees and costs to be taxed by the court.

      (P.A. 81-382, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 31-40j. Definitions. As used in sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive:

      (1) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons.

      (2) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has employees, including the state and any political subdivision thereof.

      (3) "Employee" means any person who may be exposed under normal operating conditions or foreseeable emergencies to toxic substances while engaged in service to an employer in a business of his employer. For the purposes of this subdivision, "emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers or failure of control equipment which may or does result in an uncontrolled release of a toxic substance.

      (4) "Toxic substance" means any substance: (A) Which has been identified as an air contaminant under the Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter XVII, Subpart Z, Section 1910.1000, and (B) which an employer uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment. "Toxic substance" shall not include carcinogenic substances, as described in sections 19a-329 and 19a-331.

      (5) "Trade secret" means any unpatented, secret, commercially valuable plan, appliance, formulation or process which is used for the making, preparing, compounding, treating or processing of articles or materials which are trade commodities obtained from a person and which are recognized by law as confidential.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 1, 8; P.A. 95-79, S. 108, 189.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-40k. Employee's right to information concerning toxic substances. Employer's list. (a) Each employer shall post a sign, at a location readily available for viewing by employees, which informs the employees that they have the right to information from their employer regarding the toxic substances which the employer uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment.

      (b) On January 1, 1984, and annually thereafter, the employer shall furnish to the Labor Department a list of all such toxic substances.

      (c) Each employee, or his representative, may request in writing from his employer all information relating to toxic substances, as provided in section 31-40l. If an employee, or his representative, has made a request for information on such a substance, and the employer has not supplied such information within five working days, the employer shall not require the employee to work with the substance until the information has been provided to the employee.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 2, 8.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983.

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      Sec. 31-40l. Information requirements for employer using or producing toxic substances. (a) Each employer shall provide information on the toxic substances which he uses or produces in the manufacture of any item, product or material, or which he uses or produces for purposes of research, experimentation or treatment, for each of his new employees, during the first month of their employment, as follows: (1) The name of the toxic substance, including generic or chemical name; (2) the location of toxic substances to which the employee may be exposed; (3) the properties of toxic substances to which employees may be exposed; (4) the acute and chronic effects of exposure at hazardous levels and the symptoms of effect of such exposure, to the extent such information is available from the manufacturer, the supplier, the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Labor Department's Division of Occupational Safety and Health; (5) appropriate emergency treatment; (6) proper conditions for safe use of and exposure to such toxic substances; and (7) procedures for cleanup of leaks and spills of such toxic substances. All such information shall be provided, to the extent practicable, in informal and readily understandable language. Each employer shall also provide such information for any employee who is transferred from one job to another by the employer, within one month of such transfer, if the employee is exposed to additional toxic substances in his new job.

      (b) Upon distribution of information to an employee under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or subsection (c) of section 31-40k, the employer may require the employee to sign a statement acknowledging receipt of such information.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 3, 8.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983.

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      Sec. 31-40m. Information requirements of supplier of toxic substances. Labor Department assistance. (a) Any person who supplies any toxic substance to an employer shall provide the following information to the employer: (1) The generic or basic chemical name of the toxic substance; (2) the level at which exposure to the substance is determined to be hazardous, if known; (3) the acute and chronic effects of exposure at hazardous levels; (4) the symptoms of such effects; (5) appropriate emergency treatment; (6) proper conditions for safe use and exposure to such toxic substance; (7) procedures for cleanup of leaks and spills of such toxic substance; and (8) a label on each container of any such substance which states, in a clearly legible and conspicuous form, that a toxic substance is contained therein, except that no such label shall be required for any container of alcoholic liquor, as defined in section 30-1, or food, as defined in section 21a-92.

      (b) Upon request of an employer, the Labor Department shall provide such employer with all the information concerning the employer's toxic substances which is available to the department at the time of such request, and which is relevant to the information requirements of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 4, 8; P.A. 83-511, S. 1, 4.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983; P.A. 83-511 amended Subsec. (a)(8) to exclude containers of food and alcoholic liquor from the labeling requirements.

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      Sec. 31-40n. Trade secret protections. Registration with Labor Commissioner. When an employer or an employer's supplier claims that revealing the identity of a toxic substance, pursuant to the requirements of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive, would constitute the disclosure of a legally protectable trade secret, he may register this information as a trade secret with the Labor Commissioner. The commissioner shall assign a registry number to the substance. No employee of the Labor Department shall disclose to any person the identity of any substance so registered, except as required under the provisions of section 1-210. When responding to any request for information under the provisions of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive, such employer or supplier may refer to such substance by its registry number, and the employer or supplier shall not be required to reveal the name of such substance. All other information concerning such substance shall be provided by the employer or supplier as required by the provisions of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 5, 8.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983.

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      Sec. 31-40o. Discrimination prohibited. Waiver of rights void. (a) No employer shall discharge, or cause to be discharged, or in any manner discriminate against any employee who exercises the rights afforded to him pursuant to the provisions of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive, nor shall any pay, position, seniority or other benefits to which the employee may be entitled be lost because the employee exercised the rights provided by said sections.

      (b) Any waiver by an employee or applicant for employment of the benefits or requirements of the provisions of sections 31-40j to 31-40p, inclusive, shall be against public policy and shall be null and void. Any employer's request or requirement that an employee waive any rights provided under said sections as a condition of employment shall constitute an act of discrimination, for purposes of this section.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 6, 8.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983.

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      Sec. 31-40p. Severability. If any section, clause or provision of sections 31-40j to 31-40o, inclusive, shall be unconstitutional or be ineffective in whole or in part, to the extent that it is not unconstitutional or ineffective, it shall be valid and effective and no other section, clause or provision shall on account thereof be deemed invalid or ineffective.

      (P.A. 82-251, S. 7. 8.)

      History: P.A. 82-251 effective July 1, 1983.

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      Sec. 31-40q. Smoking in the workplace. Designation of smoking rooms. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons.

      (2) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has employees, including the state and any political subdivision thereof.

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in the business of his employer.

      (4) "Business facility" means a structurally enclosed location or portion thereof at which employees perform services for their employer. The term "business facility" does not include: (A) Facilities listed in subparagraph (A), (C) or (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 19a-342; (B) any establishment with a permit for the sale of alcoholic liquor pursuant to section 30-23 issued on or before May 1, 2003; (C) for any business that is engaged in the testing or development of tobacco or tobacco products, the areas of such business designated for such testing or development; or (D) during the period from October 1, 2003, to April 1, 2004, establishments with a permit issued for the sale of alcoholic liquor pursuant to section 30-22a or 30-26 or the bar area of a bowling establishment holding a permit pursuant to subsection (a) of section 30-37c.

      (5) "Smoking" means the burning of a lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe or any other matter or substance which contains tobacco.

      (b) Each employer with fewer than five employees in a business facility shall establish one or more work areas, sufficient to accommodate nonsmokers who request to utilize such an area, within each business facility under his control, where smoking is prohibited. The employer shall clearly designate the existence and boundaries of each nonsmoking area by posting signs which can be readily seen by employees and visitors. In the areas within the business facility where smoking is permitted, existing physical barriers and ventilation systems shall be used to the extent practicable to minimize the effect of smoking in adjacent nonsmoking areas.

      (c) (1) Each employer with five or more employees shall prohibit smoking in any business facility under said employer's control, except that an employer may designate one or more smoking rooms.

      (2) Each employer that provides a smoking room pursuant to this subsection shall provide sufficient nonsmoking break rooms for nonsmoking employees.

      (3) Each smoking room designated by an employer pursuant to this subsection shall meet the following requirements: (A) Air from the smoking room shall be exhausted directly to the outside by an exhaust fan, and no air from such room shall be recirculated to other parts of the building; (B) the employer shall comply with any ventilation standard adopted by (i) the Commissioner of Labor pursuant to chapter 571, (ii) the United States Secretary of Labor under the authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, as from time to time amended, or (iii) the federal Environmental Protection Agency; (C) such room shall be located in a nonwork area, where no employee, as part of his or her work responsibilities, is required to enter, except such work responsibilities shall not include any custodial or maintenance work carried out in the smoking room when it is unoccupied; and (D) such room shall be for the use of employees only.

      (d) Nothing in this section may be construed to prohibit an employer from designating an entire business facility as a nonsmoking area.

      (P.A. 83-268; P.A. 87-149, S. 1, 3; P.A. 91-94; P.A. 95-79, S. 109, 189; P.A. 03-45, S. 2; 03-235, S. 3; P.A. 04-9, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 87-149 amended Subsec. (b) to require employers to establish sufficient nonsmoking areas in business facilities and added Subsec. (c) to enable the labor commissioner to exempt certain employers from compliance with those requirements, effective April 1, 1988; P.A. 91-94 amended Subsec. (a) by reducing the minimum number of employees from 50 to 20 in Subdiv. (4); P.A. 95-79 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 03-45 redefined "business facility" in Subsec. (a)(4), amended Subsec. (b) and replaced former Subsec. (c) with new Subsecs. (c) and (d) to prohibit smoking in any workplace with 5 or more employees, delete provision for exemption by Labor Commissioner, and provide for designation of smoking rooms, if desired by employer; P.A. 03-235 amended Subsec. (a)(4)(D) by adding the bar area of a bowling establishment holding a permit issued pursuant to Sec. 30-37c(a) to definition of "business facility"; P.A. 04-9 amended Subsec. (a)(4) by making technical changes.

      Cited. 224 C. 666. Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-40r. Regulations establishing guidelines for exemptions from nonsmoking area requirements. Section 31-40r is repealed, effective October 1, 2003.

      (P.A. 87-149, S. 2, 3; P.A. 03-45, S. 4.)

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      Sec. 31-40s. Smoking or use of tobacco products outside of the workplace. (a) No employer or agent of any employer shall require, as a condition of employment, that any employee or prospective employee refrain from smoking or using tobacco products outside the course of his employment, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to compensation, terms, conditions or privileges of employment for smoking or using tobacco products outside the course of his employment, provided any nonprofit organization or corporation whose primary purpose is to discourage use of tobacco products by the general public shall be exempt from the provisions of this section.

      (b) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to affect (1) the provisions of section 31-40q, (2) municipal hiring practices involving paid firefighters and paid police officers, and (3) any collective bargaining agreement between a municipality and paid firefighters or paid police officers.

      (P.A. 91-271, S. 3; P.A. 03-45, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 03-45 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 31-40r in Subsec. (b)(1).

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      Sec. 31-40t. Employee's right to act in case of hazardous conditions. Complaints to and investigations by Labor Commissioner. Hearings. Regulations. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons;

      (2) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has employees, including the state and any political subdivision of the state;

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in a business of his employer;

      (4) "Hazardous condition" means a condition which (A) causes or creates a substantial risk of death, disease or serious physical harm, whether imminent or as a result of long-term exposure, and which is beyond the ordinary expected risks inherent in a job after all feasible safety and health precautions have been taken, and (B) results from the employer's violation of applicable safety and health standards established under any federal, state and local laws and regulations, any collective bargaining agreements and any industry codes.

      (b) No employer shall discharge, discipline or otherwise penalize any employee because the employee (1) informs another employee that such other employee is working in or exposed to a hazardous condition or (2) refuses in good faith to expose himself to a hazardous condition in the workplace, provided (A) the condition causing the employee's apprehension of death, disease or serious physical harm is of such a nature that a reasonable person, having the knowledge, education, training and experience necessary for the performance of the employee's job, under the circumstances confronting the employee, would conclude that there is a hazardous condition, (B) there is insufficient time, due to the urgency of the situation, to eliminate or abate the hazardous condition through resort to regular statutory enforcement procedures, (C) the employee notifies the employer of the hazardous condition and asks the employer to correct or abate the hazardous condition and (D) the employer is unable or refuses to correct or abate such condition. No employee shall be discharged, disciplined or otherwise penalized while a hazardous condition continues to exist or is in the process of being corrected or abated.

      (c) Any employee who believes that there is a violation by his employer of any provision of this section may file a written complaint with the Labor Commissioner within one hundred eighty days of the alleged violation. The complaint shall be signed and shall set forth with reasonable particularity the grounds for the complaint. Within thirty days after receipt of such complaint, the Labor Commissioner shall notify the employer in writing of the complaint. The commissioner, or his authorized representative, upon presenting appropriate credentials to the employer, operator or agent in charge, may inspect, at reasonable times, the employer's workplace and all conditions pertinent to the grounds of the complaint and shall, in a reasonable manner, make any additional investigation deemed necessary by the commissioner or his representative for full and effective determination of any complaint he receives.

      (d) If, upon inspection or investigation of a complaint, the Labor Commissioner or his authorized representative believes that an employer has violated any provisions of this section, he shall hold a hearing and shall, at least thirty days prior to the date of such hearing, mail a notice of such hearing to the employer and the employee. The commissioner shall resolve all issues relating to any dispute arising under the provisions of this section.

      (e) The Labor Commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (f) Nothing in this section shall be construed to diminish or impair the rights of any person under any collective bargaining agreement.

      (P.A. 91-33; P.A. 92-27; P.A. 95-79, S. 110, 189.)

      History: P.A. 92-27 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to include the state and any political subdivision of the state in the definition of "employer"; P.A. 95-79 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Sec. 31-40u. Regulations establishing guidelines for use of video display terminals in state facilities. Not later than July 1, 1994, the Labor Commissioner, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health shall issue guidelines establishing standards for the use of video display terminals by state employees. Such standards shall include, but not be limited to: (1) Maximum time limits that state employees may be required to work with a video display terminal without a rest break and the duration of the rest break; (2) requirements for protective screens or other safety devices; and (3) requirements designed to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of repetitive motion in connection with the use of such terminals.

      (P.A. 93-228, S. 29, 35; 93-381, S. 9, 39; 93-435, S. 59, 95; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: P.A. 93-228 effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 and P.A. 93-435 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of public health and addiction services for commissioner and department of health services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

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      Sec. 31-40v. Establishment of safety and health committees by certain employers. (a) In order to promote health and safety in places of employment in this state, each employer of twenty-five or more employees in this state, including the state and any political subdivision of the state, and each employer whose rate of work related injury and illness exceeds the average incidence rate of all industries in this state, shall administer a safety and health committee in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. For purposes of this subsection, "incidence rate" means the number of federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration recordable injuries and illnesses per one hundred full-time employees.

      (b) The chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission, in consultation with the Labor Commissioner and in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, shall adopt regulations to carry out the provisions of this section. The regulations shall (1) prescribe the membership of safety and health committees to ensure representation of employees and employers; (2) specify the frequency of committee meetings; (3) require employers to make, file and maintain adequate written records of each committee meeting subject to inspection by the chairman or his authorized designee; (4) require employers to compensate employee representatives at their regular hourly wage while the employee representatives are engaged in safety and health committee training or are attending committee meetings; (5) prescribe the duties and functions of safety and health committees, which shall include (A) establishing procedures for workplace safety inspections by the committee, (B) establishing procedures for investigating all safety incidents, accidents, illnesses and deaths, (C) evaluating accident and illness prevention programs, (D) establishing training programs for the identification and reduction of hazards in the workplace which damage the reproductive systems of employees, and (E) establishing training programs to assist committee members in understanding and identifying the effects of employee substance abuse on workplace accidents and safety; and (6) prescribe guidelines for the training of safety and health committee members.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, each employer who, on July 1, 1993, has an existing health and safety program or other program determined by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission to be effective in the promotion of health and safety in the workplace, shall not be required to comply with this section. The chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission, in consultation with the Labor Commissioner, shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, establishing the criteria for evaluating such programs.

      (P.A. 93-228, S. 28, 35.)

      History: P.A. 93-228 effective July 1, 1993.

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      Sec. 31-40w. Breastfeeding in the workplace. (a) Any employee may, at her discretion, express breast milk or breastfeed on site at her workplace during her meal or break period.

      (b) An employer shall make reasonable efforts to provide a room or other location, in close proximity to the work area, other than a toilet stall, where the employee can express her milk in private.

      (c) An employer shall not discriminate against, discipline or take any adverse employment action against any employee because such employee has elected to exercise her rights under subsection (a) of this section.

      (d) As used in this section, "employer" means a person engaged in business who has one or more employees, including the state and any political subdivision of the state; "employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in the business of the employer; "reasonable efforts" means any effort that would not impose an undue hardship on the operation of the employer's business; and "undue hardship" means any action that requires significant difficulty or expense when considered in relation to factors such as the size of the business, its financial resources and the nature and structure of its operation.

      (P.A. 01-182.)

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      Sec. 31-41. Order to remove excessive dust. Section 31-41 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3755; P.A. 73-379, S. 20, 21.)

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      Sec. 31-42. Appliances for threading shuttles. Each person, firm or corporation engaged in weaving shall furnish suitable appliances to permit the threading of shuttles without the necessity of the operator putting any thread into his mouth or touching any portion of the shuttle with his lips.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3758.)

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      Sec. 31-43. Public laundries; sanitation. A public laundry shall be regarded as a manufacturing establishment within the provisions of the statutes. No laundry work shall be done in any public laundry in a room used as a sleeping or living room. No employer shall permit any person to work in his public laundry who is affected with pulmonary tuberculosis, a scrofulous or venereal disease or a communicable skin affection.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3759.)

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      Sec. 31-44. Penalty for violation of orders. Each owner, lessee or occupant of a factory or other building included within the provisions of this chapter, or owning or controlling the use of any room in such building, shall, for the violation of any provision of section 31-42 or 31-43, or for obstructing or hindering the commissioner or the commissioner's deputies in carrying out the duties imposed on them by law, be fined not more than fifty dollars; but no prosecution shall be brought for any such violation until four weeks after notice has been given by the commissioner to such owner, lessee or occupant of any changes necessary to be made to comply with the provisions of said sections, and not then if, in the meantime, such changes have been made in accordance with such notification. Nothing herein shall limit the right of a person injured to bring an action to recover damages.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3761; P.A. 74-338, S. 34, 94; P.A. 02-89, S. 71.)

      History: P.A. 74-338 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 31-35; P.A. 02-89 deleted reference to Sec. 31-34, reflecting repeal of said section by the same public act, and made a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality.

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      Sec. 31-45. Emergency kits required in factories. Section 31-45 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7369; P.A. 73-379, S. 20, 21.)

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      Sec. 31-45a. Protection of feet. The Labor Commissioner may promulgate and enforce regulations concerning adequate protection for those individuals who are employed in occupations where injuries to the foot present a hazard. Said commissioner may authorize the use of safety work shoes, boots or inner soles that provide adequate protection against puncture, bruises or other wounds which may be inflicted by nails, glass or other objects encountered in the normal course of employment.

      (1972, P.A. 230.)

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

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      Secs. 31-46 and 31-46a. Safety regulations for workmen in building operations. Regulations for safe working conditions where no other provision; industrial safety committee. Sections 31-46 and 31-46a are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7359; 1951, S. 3012d; 1959, P.A. 525; 1961, P.A. 248; 1971, P.A. 870, S. 88; P.A. 73-379, S. 20, 21.)

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      Sec. 31-47. Inspection of employee lodging houses. Any agent of a firm or corporation and every other person who maintains or has charge of any structure used as a boarding house or place of abode for laborers employed by such person, firm or corporation shall, within seventy-two hours after such structure has been occupied for such purpose or purposes, notify the director of health of the town, city or borough in which such structure is located. Such director, within five days thereafter, shall inspect such premises and may forbid the use of the same altogether or make such other orders as he deems necessary to protect the health of the inmates. Any person violating any provision of this section or failing to comply with any order of a director of health made pursuant to this section shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7364.)

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      Sec. 31-48. Laborers not to be overcharged. Any agent of a corporation, or other person employing laborers, who charges or exacts for articles or merchandise sold to such laborers a greater sum than is a reasonable price therefor in the town or city where such sales are made, shall be fined not more than twenty-five dollars for such sale of each separate article.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7365.)

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      Sec. 31-48a. Recruitment or referral of professional strikebreaker restricted. (a) As used in this section, "professional strikebreaker" means any person who has been employed anywhere two or more times in the same craft or industry in place of employees involved in strikes or lockouts. No person, partnership, agency, firm or corporation, or officer or agent thereof, shall recruit, procure, supply or refer any professional strikebreaker for employment in place of an employee involved in a strike or lockout in which such person, partnership, agency, firm or corporation is not directly interested. No professional strikebreaker shall take or offer to take the place in employment of employees involved in a strike or lockout. Any person, partnership, agency, firm or corporation which violates this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than three years or both.

      (b) Nothing in this section shall prevent or interfere with the recruiting or procuring of any person who is not a professional strikebreaker within the meaning of subsection (a) of this section, provided there shall be compliance with the provisions of section 31-121.

      (1967, P.A. 509, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 31-48b. Use of electronic surveillance devices by employers limited. Prohibition on recording negotiations between employers and employees. (a) For purposes of this section, "employer" means the owner or owners in the case of an unincorporated business, the partners in the case of a partnership, the officers in the case of a corporation or in the case of the state, any town, city or borough, or district, local or regional board of education, or housing authority or district department of health, the chief executive officer thereof.

      (b) No employer or agent or representative of an employer shall operate any electronic surveillance device or system, including but not limited to the recording of sound or voice or a closed circuit television system, or any combination thereof, for the purpose of recording or monitoring the activities of his employees in areas designed for the health or personal comfort of the employees or for safeguarding of their possessions, such as rest rooms, locker rooms or lounges.

      (c) Any employer, who violates any provision of subsection (b) of this section shall, for the first offense, be fined five hundred dollars, for the second offense be fined one thousand dollars and for the third and any subsequent offense be imprisoned thirty days.

      (d) No employer or his agent or representative and no employee or his agent or representative shall intentionally overhear or record a conversation or discussion pertaining to employment contract negotiations between the two parties, by means of any instrument, device or equipment, unless such party has the consent of all parties to such conversation or discussion.

      (e) Any employer or his agent or representative or any employee or his agent or representative who violates any provision of subsection (d) of this section shall be fined one thousand dollars or imprisoned one year, or both.

      (1971, P.A. 338, S. 1-3; P.A. 80-209.)

      History: P.A. 80-209 added Subsecs. (d) and (e) prohibiting secretive overhearing or recording of employment contract negotiations and imposing penalty for violation.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 201 C. 685.


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      Sec. 31-48c. Hiring of municipal police during labor dispute prohibited. No employer, except the state or any political subdivision thereof, or employee organization involved in a labor dispute shall hire any member of a municipal police department in the town in which the labor dispute is taking place for protection or other duties related to the labor dispute during the period of the labor dispute.

      (P.A. 81-77.)

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      Sec. 31-48d. Employers engaged in electronic monitoring required to give prior notice to employees. Exceptions. Civil penalty. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Employer" means any person, firm or corporation, including the state and any political subdivision of the state which has employees;

      (2) "Employee" means any person who performs services for an employer in a business of the employer, if the employer has the right to control and direct the person as to (A) the result to be accomplished by the services, and (B) the details and means by which such result is accomplished; and

      (3) "Electronic monitoring" means the collection of information on an employer's premises concerning employees' activities or communications by any means other than direct observation, including the use of a computer, telephone, wire, radio, camera, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photo-optical systems, but not including the collection of information (A) for security purposes in common areas of the employer's premises which are held out for use by the public, or (B) which is prohibited under state or federal law.

      (b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, each employer who engages in any type of electronic monitoring shall give prior written notice to all employees who may be affected, informing them of the types of monitoring which may occur. Each employer shall post, in a conspicuous place which is readily available for viewing by its employees, a notice concerning the types of electronic monitoring which the employer may engage in. Such posting shall constitute such prior written notice.

      (2) When (A) an employer has reasonable grounds to believe that employees are engaged in conduct which (i) violates the law, (ii) violates the legal rights of the employer or the employer's employees, or (iii) creates a hostile workplace environment, and (B) electronic monitoring may produce evidence of this misconduct, the employer may conduct monitoring without giving prior written notice.

      (c) The Labor Commissioner may levy a civil penalty against any person that the commissioner finds to be in violation of subsection (b) of this section, after a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive. The maximum civil penalty shall be five hundred dollars for the first offense, one thousand dollars for the second offense and three thousand dollars for the third and each subsequent offense.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a criminal investigation. Any information obtained in the course of a criminal investigation through the use of electronic monitoring may be used in a disciplinary proceeding against an employee.

      (P.A. 98-142.)

      There is no private cause of action under this section, and legislature intended enforcement mechanisms for violation of section to be limited to proceedings before the Labor Commissioner. 294 C. 461.

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      Sec. 31-49. Care required of a master for his servant's safety. It shall be the duty of the master to exercise reasonable care to provide for his servant a reasonably safe place in which to work, reasonably safe appliances and instrumentalities for his work and fit and competent persons as his colaborers and to exercise reasonable care in the appointment or designation of a vice-principal and to appoint as such vice-principal a fit and competent person. The default of a vice-principal in the performance of any duty imposed by law on the master shall be the default of the master.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7367.)

      Cited. 80 C. 205. Cited. 143 C. 197. No basis for action under this statute where case is clearly within scope of Workers' Compensation Act. 196 C. 529. Cited. 243 C. 66. Employer's refusal to accommodate employee's work-at-home request did not create an unlawful working condition under the section. 249 C. 766.

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      Sec. 31-50. Enforcement. The commissioner shall enforce the provisions of part I of this chapter and sections 31-23 to 31-49, inclusive, by giving proper orders or notices to the persons or corporations owning, operating or managing the factories or buildings inspected by him and shall make complaint to the state's attorneys of any violation of said provisions.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3760.)

      Statute does not apply when it is agreed that reciprocal notice shall be given. 58 C. 104. Cited. 196 C. 529.

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      Sec. 31-50a. Noncompete agreements: Security guards. (a) No employer may require any person employed in the classification 339032 of the standard occupational classification system of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor to enter into an agreement prohibiting such person from engaging in the same or a similar job, at the same location at which the employer employs such person, for another employer or as a self-employed person, unless the employer proves that such person has obtained trade secrets, as defined in subsection (d) of section 35-51, of the employer.

      (b) (1) Any person who is aggrieved by a violation of this section may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to recover damages and for such injunctive and equitable relief as the court deems appropriate.

      (2) The Labor Commissioner may request the Attorney General to bring an action in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford for restitution on behalf of any person injured by any violation of this section and for such injunctive or equitable relief as the court deems appropriate.

      (c) The provisions of this section shall apply to agreements entered into, renewed or extended on or after October 1, 2007.

      (P.A. 07-237, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 31-50b. Noncompete agreements: Broadcast employees. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Associated broadcast entities" means entities that provide reporting services to broadcast television or radio stations, including without limitation, subcontractors that provide weather, sports, traffic and other reports for broadcast or cablecast;

      (2) "Broadcast employee" means any employee of a broadcast industry employer, except those employees whose services primarily include sales or management functions;

      (3) "Broadcast industry employer" means the owner or operator of one or more broadcast television or radio stations, including any associated broadcast entity, but excluding cable stations or cable networks;

      (4) "Broadcast television or radio station" means an entity that is owned or operated either by holding a Federal Communications Commission television or radio license for the station, or by operating a station through a local service, sales, marketing or outsourcing agreement;

      (5) "Cable network" means an entity that distributes programming to two or more local cable systems;

      (6) "Cable station" means an entity that produces or transmits programming to one or more local cable systems; and

      (7) "Local cable system" means a cable system, as defined in 47 USC 522, as from time to time amended, operating in the state.

      (b) No broadcast industry employer employment contract for the services of a broadcast employee may contain a provision requiring that such broadcast employee:

      (1) Refrain from obtaining employment in a specified geographical area for a specified period of time after termination of employment with that broadcast industry employer;

      (2) Disclose the terms or conditions of an offer of employment, or the existence of any such offer, from any other broadcast industry employer following the expiration of the term of the employment contract; or

      (3) Agree to enter into a subsequent employment contract with the broadcast industry employer, or extend or renew the existing employment contract, upon the same terms and conditions offered by a prospective employer.

      (c) Any person who is aggrieved by a violation of this section may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to recover damages, together with court costs and reasonable attorney's fees.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall apply to employment contracts entered into, renewed or extended on or after July 1, 2007.

      (P.A. 07-237, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-237 effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 31-51. Blacklisting. Any person, or any officer or agent of any corporation, company, firm, or the state or any political subdivision thereof, who blacklists any employee, mechanic or laborer, or publishes or causes to be published the name of any such employee, mechanic or laborer, with the intent and for the purpose of preventing such employee, mechanic or laborer from engaging in or securing employment from any other person, corporation, company, firm, or the state or any political subdivision thereof, or, in any manner, conspires or contrives, by correspondence or otherwise, to prevent such employee, mechanic or laborer from procuring employment, shall be fined not less than fifty and not more than two hundred dollars; but the provisions of this section shall not be construed so as to prohibit any person, or any officer or agent of any corporation, company, firm, or the state or any political subdivision thereof, from giving a truthful statement of any facts concerning a present or former employee of such person, corporation, company, firm, or the state or any political subdivision thereof, on the application of such employee or of any person, or any officer or agent of any corporation, company, firm, or the state or any political subdivision thereof, who may be considering the employment of such employee.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8531; P.A. 75-104.)

      History: P.A. 75-104 made provisions applicable to the state and its political subdivisions.

      See Sec. 31-105 re unfair labor practices.

      Cited. 313 U.S. 184. Section does not preclude application of a qualified privilege to statements made in an employment reference. 284 C. 35.

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      Secs. 31-51a to 31-51e. Transferred to Chapter 557, Part Ia, Secs. 31-22m to 31-22q, inclusive.

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      Sec. 31-51f. Participation in Manpower Development and Training Act. The Labor Department and the Department of Education are authorized to participate in the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962, as amended, by providing from funds appropriated or transferred to them for such purpose, in accordance with and to the extent required by said federal act, amounts necessary to match the amounts expended by the United States Treasury.

      (1963, P.A. 608, S. 1.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference to "Education Department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Department of Education" for consistency with customary statutory usage).

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      Sec. 31-51g. Use of polygraph prohibited. Penalty. Exceptions. (a) For the purposes of this section "polygraph" means any mechanical or electrical instrument or device of any type used or allegedly used to examine, test or question individuals for the purpose of determining truthfulness.

      (b) (1) No person, firm, corporation, association or the state or any political subdivision thereof shall request or require any prospective employee or any employee to submit to, or take, a polygraph examination as a condition of obtaining employment or of continuing employment with such employer or dismiss or discipline in any manner an employee for failing, refusing or declining to submit to or take a polygraph examination. (2) No employment agency, as defined in section 31-129, and no agent for an employer shall require any person to submit to, or take, a polygraph examination for any purposes whatsoever.

      (c) Any person, firm, corporation or association which violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars for each violation.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to persons to be employed (1) by the state or any local government or any political subdivision thereof in any police department except for civilian employees within the department or (2) by the Department of Correction, but shall apply with respect to obtaining and maintaining employment of other persons by the state or any local government or political subdivision thereof.

      (1967, P.A. 488, S. 1-4; P.A. 75-631; P.A. 98-126, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-631 made provisions applicable to the state and its political subdivisions; P.A. 98-126 amended Subsec. (d) to make provisions of section inapplicable to persons to be employed by the Department of Correction.

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      Sec. 31-51h. Employer not to cancel insurance coverage or cease making contributions to welfare fund of employee eligible to receive or receiving workers' compensation or sick leave payments. Employer accident report. Complaint. Hearing. Appeal. Section 31-51h is repealed.

      (1967, P.A. 782; P.A. 76-420, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-116; P.A. 79-376, S. 29; P.A. 81-464, S. 1; P.A. 82-398, S. 7.)

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      Sec. 31-51i. Employer inquiries about erased criminal record prohibited. Discrimination on the basis of erased criminal record or provisional pardon prohibited. Availability of information on employment application form. Duties of consumer reporting agency issuing consumer report for employment purposes containing criminal matters of public record. (a) For the purposes of this section, "employer" means any person engaged in business who has one or more employees, including the state or any political subdivision of the state.

      (b) No employer or an employer's agent, representative or designee may require an employee or prospective employee to disclose the existence of any arrest, criminal charge or conviction, the records of which have been erased pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a.

      (c) An employment application form that contains any question concerning the criminal history of the applicant shall contain a notice, in clear and conspicuous language: (1) That the applicant is not required to disclose the existence of any arrest, criminal charge or conviction, the records of which have been erased pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a, (2) that criminal records subject to erasure pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a are records pertaining to a finding of delinquency or that a child was a member of a family with service needs, an adjudication as a youthful offender, a criminal charge that has been dismissed or nolled, a criminal charge for which the person has been found not guilty or a conviction for which the person received an absolute pardon, and (3) that any person whose criminal records have been erased pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a shall be deemed to have never been arrested within the meaning of the general statutes with respect to the proceedings so erased and may so swear under oath.

      (d) No employer or an employer's agent, representative or designee shall deny employment to a prospective employee solely on the basis that the prospective employee had a prior arrest, criminal charge or conviction, the records of which have been erased pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a or that the prospective employee had a prior conviction for which the prospective employee has received a provisional pardon pursuant to section 54-130a.

      (e) No employer or an employer's agent, representative or designee shall discharge, or cause to be discharged, or in any manner discriminate against, any employee solely on the basis that the employee had, prior to being employed by such employer, an arrest, criminal charge or conviction, the records of which have been erased pursuant to section 46b-146, 54-76o or 54-142a or that the employee had, prior to being employed by such employer, a prior conviction for which the employee has received a provisional pardon pursuant to section 54-130a.

      (f) The portion of an employment application form which contains information concerning the criminal history record of an applicant or employee shall only be available to the members of the personnel department of the company, firm or corporation or, if the company, firm or corporation does not have a personnel department, the person in charge of employment, and to any employee or member of the company, firm or corporation, or an agent of such employee or member, involved in the interviewing of the applicant.

      (g) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, the portion of an employment application form which contains information concerning the criminal history record of an applicant or employee may be made available as necessary to persons other than those specified in said subsection (f) by:

      (1) A broker-dealer or investment adviser registered under chapter 672a in connection with (A) the possible or actual filing of, or the collection or retention of information contained in, a form U-4 Uniform Application for Securities Industry Registration or Transfer, (B) the compliance responsibilities of such broker-dealer or investment adviser under state or federal law, or (C) the applicable rules of self-regulatory organizations promulgated in accordance with federal law;

      (2) An insured depository institution in connection with (A) the management of risks related to safety and soundness, security or privacy of such institution, (B) any waiver that may possibly or actually be sought by such institution pursuant to section 19 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 USC 1829(a), (C) the possible or actual obtaining by such institution of any security or fidelity bond, or (D) the compliance responsibilities of such institution under state or federal law; and

      (3) An insurance producer licensed under chapter 701a in connection with (A) the management of risks related to security or privacy of such insurance producer, or (B) the compliance responsibilities of such insurance producer under state or federal law.

      (h) (1) For the purposes of this subsection: (A) "Consumer reporting agency" means any person who regularly engages, in whole or in part, in the practice of assembling or preparing consumer reports for a fee, which reports compile and report items of information on consumers that are matters of public record and are likely to have an adverse effect on a consumer's ability to obtain employment, but does not include any public agency; (B) "consumer report" means any written, oral or other communication of information bearing on an individual's credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, general reputation, personal characteristics or mode of living; and (C) "criminal matters of public record" means information obtained from the Judicial Department relating to arrests, indictments, convictions, outstanding judgments, and any other conviction information, as defined in section 54-142g.

      (2) Each consumer reporting agency that issues a consumer report that is used or is expected to be used for employment purposes and that includes in such report criminal matters of public record concerning the consumer shall:

      (A) At the time the consumer reporting agency issues such consumer report to a person other than the consumer who is the subject of the report, provide the consumer who is the subject of the consumer report (i) notice that the consumer reporting agency is reporting criminal matters of public record, and (ii) the name and address of the person to whom such consumer report is being issued;

      (B) Maintain procedures designed to ensure that any criminal matter of public record reported is complete and up-to-date as of the date the consumer report is issued, which procedures shall, at a minimum, conform to the requirements set forth in section 54-142e.

      (3) This subsection shall not apply in the case of an agency or department of the United States government seeking to obtain and use a consumer report for employment purposes if the head of the agency or department makes a written finding pursuant to 15 USC 1681b(b)(4)(A).

      (1969, P.A. 679; P.A. 02-136, S. 2; P.A. 03-203, S. 3; P.A. 06-187, S. 87; P.A. 07-243, S. 1; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 35; P.A. 08-53, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 02-136 added new Subsecs. (a) to (e) to define "employer", to prohibit employers from requiring disclosure by applicants or employees of erased criminal records, to require notice on employment application forms advising applicants that they are not required to disclose erased criminal records, to prohibit the denial of employment solely on the basis of an erased criminal record and to prohibit discharge or discrimination against an employee solely on the basis that the employee had criminal records erased prior to the employment, respectively, designated existing provisions as Subsec. (f) and amended said Subsec. by replacing "a job application form" with "an employment application form", replacing "arrest record of a job applicant" with "criminal history record of an applicant or employee", deleting former provisions re availability of arrest records and adding provisions re availability of employment application forms containing criminal history records; P.A. 03-203 added Subsec. (g) re exceptions to confidentiality of criminal history record portion of employment application, effective July 9, 2003; P.A. 06-187 amended Subsec. (d) to prohibit denial of employment solely on the basis that prospective employee had a prior conviction for which the prospective employee has received a provisional pardon pursuant to Sec. 54-130a and amended Subsec. (e) to prohibit discrimination against any employee solely on the basis that employee had, prior to being employed by such employer, a prior conviction for which the employee has received a provisional pardon pursuant to Sec. 54-130a; P.A. 07-243 added Subsec. (h) re duties of consumer reporting agency issuing consumer report used for employment purposes that includes criminal matters of public record, effective February 1, 2008; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 changed effective date of P.A. 07-243, S. 1, from February 1, 2008, to May 1, 2008, effective January 25, 2008; P.A. 08-53 amended Subsec. (h) to delete erased records and pardons in definition of "criminal matters of public record" in Subdiv. (1)(C), to delete former Subdiv. (2)(B) re access to information on Judicial Department's Internet web site, to redesignate existing Subdiv. (2)(C) as new Subdiv. (2)(B) and to amend same to require procedures that, at a minimum, conform to requirements in Sec. 54-142e, effective May 1, 2008.

      See Sec. 54-142e re duties of consumer reporting agencies and Judicial Department re information necessary to identify and delete erased criminal records.

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      Sec. 31-51j. Transferred to Chapter 557, Part Ia, Sec. 31-22t.

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      Sec. 31-51k. Employment of alien not entitled to residence. (a) No employer shall knowingly employ an alien who is not entitled to lawful residence in the United States.

      (b) Violation of the provisions of this section shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two hundred nor more than five hundred dollars and, for any subsequent offense, by the penalty for a class A misdemeanor.

      (c) The Labor Commissioner shall, on or before October 1, 1972, promulgate regulations specifying the procedure to be followed by each employer to insure compliance with the provisions of this section.

      (1972, P.A. 275, S. 1-3.)

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      Sec. 31-51l. Leave of absence for certain public and private employees elected to public office. Any person employed by a private employer which employs more than twenty-five persons, or by a municipality in which there is no ordinance or charter provision to the contrary, who leaves such employment to accept a full-time elective municipal or state office shall be granted a personal leave of absence from such employment for not more than two consecutive terms of such office. Upon reapplication for his original position at the expiration of such term or terms of office, such person shall be reinstated to his original position or a similar position with equivalent pay and accumulated seniority, retirement, fringe benefits and other service credits, unless the employer's circumstances have so changed as to make it impossible or unreasonable to do so. Such person shall give notice in writing to his employer that he is a candidate for a full-time municipal or state office within thirty days after nomination for that office.

      (P.A. 73-258; P.A. 74-241; P.A. 77-120.)

      History: P.A. 74-241 made provisions re personal leaves of absence for persons elected to office applicable to municipalities "in which there is no ordinance or charter provision to the contrary"; P.A. 77-120 permitted leaves of absence for not more than two consecutive terms rather than for a single term.

      See Sec. 2-3a re prohibition against employers' discrimination against candidates for or members of General Assembly.

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      Sec. 31-51m. Protection of employee who discloses employer's illegal activities or unethical practices. Civil action. (a) As used in this section and section 31-278:

      (1) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons;

      (2) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has employees, including the state and any political subdivision of the state;

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in a business of his employer;

      (4) "Public body" means (A) any public agency, as defined in subdivision (1) of section 1-200, or any employee, member or officer thereof, or (B) any federal agency or any employee, member or officer thereof.

      (b) No employer shall discharge, discipline or otherwise penalize any employee because the employee, or a person acting on behalf of the employee, reports, verbally or in writing, a violation or a suspected violation of any state or federal law or regulation or any municipal ordinance or regulation to a public body, or because an employee is requested by a public body to participate in an investigation, hearing or inquiry held by that public body, or a court action. No municipal employer shall discharge, discipline or otherwise penalize any employee because the employee, or a person acting on behalf of the employee, reports, verbally or in writing, to a public body concerning the unethical practices, mismanagement or abuse of authority by such employer. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable when the employee knows that such report is false.

      (c) Any employee who is discharged, disciplined or otherwise penalized by his employer in violation of the provisions of subsection (b) may, after exhausting all available administrative remedies, bring a civil action, within ninety days of the date of the final administrative determination or within ninety days of such violation, whichever is later, in the superior court for the judicial district where the violation is alleged to have occurred or where the employer has its principal office, for the reinstatement of his previous job, payment of back wages and reestablishment of employee benefits to which he would have otherwise been entitled if such violation had not occurred. An employee's recovery from any such action shall be limited to such items, provided the court may allow to the prevailing party his costs, together with reasonable attorney's fees to be taxed by the court. Any employee found to have knowingly made a false report shall be subject to disciplinary action by his employer up to and including dismissal.

      (d) This section shall not be construed to diminish or impair the rights of a person under any collective bargaining agreement.

      (P.A. 82-289, S. 1; P.A. 85-58; 85-245, S. 2; 85-613, S. 71, 154; P.A. 87-14; P.A. 95-79, S. 111, 189; P.A. 97-47, S. 48.)

      History: P.A. 85-58 redefined "public body" to include any federal agency or any employee, member or officer thereof; P.A. 85-245 amended definition of "employer" in Subsec. (a) to include the state; P.A. 85-613 made technical change deleting reference to Sec. 31-278 as section to which definitions apply; P.A. 87-14 amended Subsec. (b) to prohibit municipal employers from penalizing employees who report their employers' unethical practices, mismanagement or abuse of authority; P.A. 95-79 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 97-47 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(4).

      Cited. 193 C. 558. Cited. 224 C. 693.

      Cited. 4 CA 69. Cited. 15 CA 130. Cited. 40 CA 577. Section allows for costs, but does not expressly provide for expert witness fees; therefore, general cost provisions of Secs. 52-257 and 52-260 apply, which do not mention nontestimonial costs. Accordingly, the nontestimonial work performed by plaintiff's economics expert was not taxable as costs. 79 CA 501. Nothing in the legislative history indicates that legislature's use of term "costs" in either this section or Sec. 31-51q was intended to authorize court to award prevailing party the cost of an economist. Further, because an economist is not a listed expert witness whose cost may be reimbursed under Sec. 52-260(f), testimonial fees of plaintiff's expert economist cannot be reimbursed. Id.

      Subsec. (b):

      Existence of a statutory remedy in this section precludes plaintiff from bringing a common-law wrongful discharge action. 252 C. 153.

      Cited. 15 CA 130. In an action under this subsec., plaintiff has initial burden of proving by a preponderance of evidence a prima facie case of retaliatory discharge. Once plaintiff has made prima facie showing of a retaliatory discharge, defendant is obligated to produce evidence that, if taken as true, would permit conclusion that there was a nonretaliatory reason for termination of employment. If defendant provides a legitimate and nonretaliatory reason for the discharge, plaintiff must offer some significantly probative evidence showing that defendant's proffered reason is pretextual and that retaliatory intention resulted in his discharge. 79 CA 501.

      Subsec. (c):

      Employer is entitled to attorney's fees as a prevailing party only if plaintiff acted in bad faith in bringing or conducting the action. 265 C. 210.

      Cited. 15 CA 130. Unemployment compensation is not an administrative remedy under section, and receipt of unemployment benefits does not toll the statute of limitations provided. 74 CA 67.


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      Sec. 31-51n. Definitions. When used in this section and section 31-51o:

      (1) "Covered establishment" means any industrial, commercial or business facility which employs, or has employed at any time in the preceding twelve-month period, one hundred or more persons;

      (2) "Employer" means any person who directly or indirectly owns, operates or has a controlling interest in a covered establishment, excluding the state or any political subdivision thereof, or any agricultural enterprise or any construction enterprise;

      (3) "Employee" means any individual engaged in service to an employer in a business of his employer;

      (4) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, business trusts, legal representatives or any organized group of persons;

      (5) "Relocation" means the removal of all or substantially all of industrial or commercial operations in a covered establishment to a location outside the state of Connecticut;

      (6) "Closing" means the permanent shutting down of all operations within a covered establishment, provided "closing" shall not include the reopening of a covered establishment within the state, covered establishments which close under the provisions of the Federal Bankruptcy Act, as amended (USC Title 11), or covered establishments shutting down operations due to natural disasters.

      (P.A. 83-451, S. 1, 4; P.A. 95-79, S. 112, 189.)

      History: P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995.

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      Sec. 31-51o. Continuation of group health insurance for employees affected by relocation or closing of covered establishment. Exceptions. (a) Whenever a relocation or closing of a covered establishment occurs, the employer of the covered establishment shall pay in full for the continuation of existing group health insurance, no matter where the group policy was written, issued or delivered, for each affected employee and his dependents, if covered under the group policy, from the date of relocation or closing for a period of one hundred twenty days or until such time as the employee becomes eligible for other group coverage, whichever is the lesser, provided any right of such employee and his dependents to a continuation of coverage, as required by section 38a-538 or 38a-554, shall not be affected by the provisions of this section, and provided further the period of continued coverage required by said sections shall not commence until the period of continued coverage established by this section has terminated.

      (b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to those employees who, upon the relocation or closing of a covered establishment, choose to continue their employment with the employer at the new location of the facility.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any contractual agreement arrived at through a collective bargaining process that contains provisions requiring the employer to pay for the continuation of existing group health insurance for his affected employees in the event of a relocation or closing of a covered establishment shall supersede the requirements of this section and, in the event of a conflict, the contractual provisions shall be deemed to be controlling.

      (P.A. 83-451, S. 2, 4; P.A. 85-362, S. 2; P.A. 87-274, S. 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 22, 121; P.A. 10-13, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 85-362 amended Subsec. (a) to increase from 90 to 120 days the maximum period of continuation of group health insurance coverage to be paid by employers of employees and dependents affected by a relocation or closing; P.A. 87-274 amended Subsec. (a) to change the reference to coverage continuation periods required in Secs. 38-262d and 38-374 to 78 and 156 weeks in recognition of the changes made to those sections in the same public act; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subsec. (c) to change the reference to "plant" to a "covered establishment", effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 10-13 amended Subsec. (a) to delete provision re continuation of coverage for up to 78 or 156 weeks, effective May 5, 2010.

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      Sec. 31-51p. Membership in health care center as part of health benefits plan. (a) All employers subject to the provisions of chapter 567 employing twenty-five or more employees shall, at the request of a health care center, include in any health benefits plan offered to their employees the option of membership in a health care center, provided such health care center serves an area in which at least twenty-five employees of such employer reside.

      (b) For those employees of an employer represented by a bargaining representative, the offer of the health care center alternative shall be made in a manner which is consistent with the collective bargaining process.

      (c) If there is more than one health care center which is engaged in the provision of health services in the area in which at least twenty-five eligible employees of the employer reside and which has requested inclusion in the health benefits plan offered by the employer, the employer shall be required to offer the option of membership in (1) at least one health care center which provides health services primarily through staff physicians or medical groups or a combination thereof; and (2) at least one health care center which arranges for the delivery of health services primarily through physicians who provide services out of their own offices, provided that health care centers in the area differ in their primary method of health service delivery.

      (d) No employer shall be required to pay more for health benefits as a result of the application of subsection (b) of section 38a-199, subsection (b) of section 38a-214 or this section than would otherwise be required by any prevailing collective bargaining agreement or other legally enforceable contract for the provision of health benefits between an employer and its employees.

      (e) Each employer required to offer the option of membership in a health care center pursuant to the provisions of this section and which provides payroll deductions as a means of paying employees' contributions for health benefits shall, with the consent of an employee who exercises such option, provide for the collection of employee premiums through payroll deductions provided such payroll deductions are made for employees who choose other health benefits options.

      (P.A. 83-216, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 31-51q. Liability of employer for discipline or discharge of employee on account of employee's exercise of certain constitutional rights. Any employer, including the state and any instrumentality or political subdivision thereof, who subjects any employee to discipline or discharge on account of the exercise by such employee of rights guaranteed by the first amendment to the United States Constitution or section 3, 4 or 14 of article first of the Constitution of the state, provided such activity does not substantially or materially interfere with the employee's bona fide job performance or the working relationship between the employee and the employer, shall be liable to such employee for damages caused by such discipline or discharge, including punitive damages, and for reasonable attorney's fees as part of the costs of any such action for damages. If the court determines that such action for damages was brought without substantial justification, the court may award costs and reasonable attorney's fees to the employer.

      (P.A. 83-578.)

      Cited. 193 C. 558. Cited. 209 C. 807. Right to jury trial cannot be implied; must be affirmatively expressed. 211 C. 370. Cited. 214 C. 464. Cited. 222 C. 346. Cited. 224 C. 693. Cited. 226 C. 314. Cited. 239 C. 356. Whether subject matter addressed by a particular statement is of public concern involves a question of law for the court, and whether the statement addresses such a matter depends on its content, form and context which is a question of fact, and in this case, it was within court's discretion to submit the question to the jury. 249 C. 766. In an action under this section it is within province of trial court to determine as a matter of law which topics are considered to be of public concern, but whether employee's statements address such a topic is within the province of the jury to be determined by looking at content, form and context. Id. Jury instruction was permissible that for protection to apply, employee's statement must concern a broader issue of public concern and not merely employee's personal matters. Id. Section extends protection of rights of free speech under federal and state constitutions to employees in a private workplace. 251 C. 1. Managerial decision about placement of flags in the workplace does not involve employee's constitutional rights of free speech. Id.

      Section (Sec. 31-15q cited in error) constitutes a waiver of sovereign immunity. 15 CA 297. See certification for appeal of 209 C. 807. Cited. 20 CA 231. Cited. 33 CA 600. Cited. 40 CA 577. Cited. 45 CA 712. Statute applies to some activities and speech that occur at the workplace. 48 CA 618. Plaintiff's failure to display an American flag at his workstation is not constitutionally protected speech to which the statute applies since plaintiff's expression did not involve a matter of public concern. Id. Nothing in the legislative history indicates that legislature's use of term "costs" in either Sec. 31-51m or this section was intended to authorize court to award prevailing party the cost of an economist. Further, because an economist is not a listed expert witness whose cost may be reimbursed under Sec. 52-260(f), testimonial fees of plaintiff's expert economist cannot be reimbursed. 79 CA 501.


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      Sec. 31-51r. Execution of employment promissory note prohibited. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Employer" means any person engaged in business who has twenty-six or more employees, including the state and any political subdivision thereof.

      (2) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in the business of his employer.

      (3) "Employment promissory note" means any instrument or agreement executed on or after October 1, 1985, which requires an employee to pay the employer, or his agent or assignee, a sum of money if the employee leaves such employment before the passage of a stated period of time. "Employment promissory note" includes any such instrument or agreement which states such payment of moneys constitutes reimbursement for training previously provided to the employee.

      (b) On or after October 1, 1985, no employer may require, as a condition of employment, any employee or prospective employee to execute an employment promissory note. The execution of an employment promissory note as a condition of employment is against public policy and any such note shall be void. If any such note is part of an employment agreement, the invalidity of such note shall not affect the other provisions of such agreement.

      (c) Nothing in this section shall prohibit or render void any agreement between an employer and an employee (1) requiring the employee to repay to the employer any sums advanced to such employee, (2) requiring the employee to pay the employer for any property it has sold or leased to such employee, (3) requiring educational personnel to comply with any terms or conditions of sabbatical leaves granted by their employers, or (4) entered into as part of a program agreed to by the employer and its employees' collective bargaining representative.

      (P.A. 85-521, S. 2; P.A. 87-42; 87-589, S. 8, 87.)

      History: P.A. 87-42 made technical change in Subsec. (b) and added Subsec. (c) which established certain exceptions from the prohibition of the use of employment promissory notes; P.A. 87-589 made technical change in Subsec. (a).

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      Sec. 31-51s. Notice to retired employees of sale of employer's business and effect on retirement benefits. At least thirty days prior to the intended date of sale of any business in this state which (1) employs twenty-five or more employees and (2) has retirees from such employment who are receiving health or life insurance benefits, or both, from such former employer, the chief executive of such business shall mail or deliver to each such retiree written notice stating what the status of the retiree's health and life insurance benefits will be after such sale. A copy of such notice shall be mailed or delivered at the same time to the Labor Commissioner.

      (P.A. 87-548.)

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      Sec. 31-51t. Drug testing: Definitions. For the purposes of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive:

      (1) "Employee" means any individual currently employed or formerly employed and currently being rehired by the same employer within twelve months of terminating his employment, and includes any individual in a managerial position;

      (2) "Employer" means any individual, corporation, partnership or unincorporated association, excluding the state or any political subdivision thereof;

      (3) "Prospective employee" means any individual applying for employment with an employer, other than an individual who terminated his employment with such employer within twelve months prior to such application.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 1; P.A. 94-42.)

      History: P.A. 94-42 amended the definition of "employee" to include any individual referred by the same employer within 12 months of terminating his employment and added a definition for "prospective employee".

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      Sec. 31-51u. Drug testing: Requirements. (a) No employer may determine an employee's eligibility for promotion, additional compensation, transfer, termination, disciplinary or other adverse personnel action solely on the basis of a positive urinalysis drug test result unless (1) the employer has given the employee a urinalysis drug test, utilizing a reliable methodology, which produced a positive result and (2) such positive test result was confirmed by a second urinalysis drug test, which was separate and independent from the initial test, utilizing a gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methodology or a methodology which has been determined by the Commissioner of Public Health to be as reliable or more reliable than the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methodology.

      (b) No person performing a urinalysis drug test pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall report, transmit or disclose any positive test result of any test performed in accordance with subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section unless such test result has been confirmed in accordance with subdivision (2) of said subsection (a).

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 2; P.A. 91-271, S. 1; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: P.A. 91-271 designated existing section as Subsec. (a), eliminated the requirement for a third urinalysis drug test and added Subsec. (b) re disclosure of test results; P.A. 93-381 replaced commissioner of health services with commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

      Cited. 26 CA 553.

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      Sec. 31-51v. Drug testing: Prospective employees. No employer may require a prospective employee to submit to a urinalysis drug test as part of the application procedure for employment with such employer unless (1) the prospective employee is informed in writing at the time of application of the employer's intent to conduct such a drug test, (2) such test is conducted in accordance with the requirements of subdivisions (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51u and (3) the prospective employee is given a copy of any positive urinalysis drug test result. The results of any such test shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed by the employer or its employees to any person other than any such employee to whom such disclosure is necessary.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 3; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 43, 70.)

      History: May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 made a technical change in Subdiv. (2) by correcting a statutory reference.

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      Sec. 31-51w. Drug testing: Observation prohibited. Privacy of results. (a) No employer or employer representative, agent or designee engaged in a urinalysis drug testing program shall directly observe an employee or prospective employee in the process of producing the urine specimen.

      (b) Any results of urinalysis drug tests conducted by or on behalf of an employer shall be maintained along with other employee medical records and shall be subject to the privacy protections provided for in sections 31-128a to 31-128h, inclusive. Such results shall be inadmissible in any criminal proceeding.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 4, 5.)

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      Sec. 31-51x. Drug testing: Reasonable suspicion required. Random tests. (a) No employer may require an employee to submit to a urinalysis drug test unless the employer has reasonable suspicion that the employee is under the influence of drugs or alcohol which adversely affects or could adversely affect such employee's job performance. The Labor Commissioner shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to specify circumstances which shall be presumed to give rise to an employer having such a reasonable suspicion, provided nothing in such regulations shall preclude an employer from citing other circumstances as giving rise to such a reasonable suspicion.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, an employer may require an employee to submit to a urinalysis drug test on a random basis if (1) such test is authorized under federal law, (2) the employee serves in an occupation which has been designated as a high-risk or safety-sensitive occupation pursuant to regulations adopted by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to chapter 54, or is employed to operate a school bus, as defined in section 14-275, or a student transportation vehicle, as defined in section 14-212, or (3) the urinalysis is conducted as part of an employee assistance program sponsored or authorized by the employer in which the employee voluntarily participates.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 6, 7; P.A. 91-271, S. 2; P.A. 07-224, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 91-271 amended Subsec. (a) to require the labor commissioner to adopt regulations specifying circumstances giving rise to reasonable suspicion; (Revisor's note: In 1997 references to "Commissioner of Labor" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "Labor Commissioner" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 07-224 amended Subsec. (b)(2) by adding provision re employee employed to operate a school bus or student transportation vehicle, effective July 1, 2007.

      Cited. 243 C. 66.

      Subsec. (a):

      Issue of voluntary testing under the statute should be resolved in manner consistent with federal fourth amendment constitutional law. 244 C. 598. Plaintiff seen as voluntarily consenting to testing in case in which he was motivated by fear that he would be dismissed for attempting to remove employer's property from the plant without authorization. Id.


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      Sec. 31-51y. Drug testing: Medical screenings, regulation of employees and testing of gaming participants permitted. (a) Nothing in sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, shall prevent an employer from conducting medical screenings, with the express written consent of the employees, to monitor exposure to toxic or other unhealthy substances in the workplace or in the performance of their job responsibilities. Any such screenings or tests shall be limited to the specific substances expressly identified in the employee consent form.

      (b) Nothing in sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, shall restrict an employer's ability to prohibit the use of intoxicating substances during work hours or restrict an employer's ability to discipline an employee for being under the influence of intoxicating substances during work hours.

      (c) Nothing in sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, shall restrict or prevent a urinalysis drug test program conducted under the supervision of the Division of Special Revenue within the Department of Revenue Services relative to jai alai players, jai alai court judges, jockeys, harness drivers or stewards participating in activities upon which pari-mutuel wagering is authorized under chapter 226.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 8-10.)

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      Sec. 31-51z. Drug testing: Enforcement. Damages. (a) Any aggrieved person may enforce the provisions of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, by means of a civil action. Any employer, laboratory or medical facility that violates any provision of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, or who aids in the violation of any provision of said sections shall be liable to the person aggrieved for special and general damages, together with attorney's fees and costs.

      (b) Any employer, laboratory or medical facility that commits, or proposes to commit, an act in violation of any provision of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, may be enjoined therefrom by any court of competent jurisdiction. An action for injunctive relief under this subsection may be brought by any aggrieved person, by the Attorney General or by any person or entity which will fairly and adequately represent the interests of the protected class.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 11.)

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      Sec. 31-51aa. Drug testing: Effect of collective bargaining agreement. No provision of any collective bargaining agreement may contravene or supersede any provision of sections 31-51t to 31-51aa, inclusive, so as to infringe the privacy rights of any employee.

      (P.A. 87-551, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 31-51bb. Right of employee to pursue cause of action. No employee shall be denied the right to pursue, in a court of competent jurisdiction, a cause of action arising under the state or federal Constitution or under a state statute solely because the employee is covered by a collective bargaining agreement. Nothing in this section shall be construed to give an employee the right to pursue a cause of action in a court of competent jurisdiction for breach of any provision of a collective bargaining agreement or other claims dependent upon the provisions of a collective bargaining agreement.

      (P.A. 88-275, S. 1.)

      Permits an employee, despite prior voluntary submission of a related claim to final arbitration under collective bargaining agreement, to pursue statutory cause of action in superior court. 226 C. 475. P.A. 88-275 cited. Id. Cited. 229 C. 801. Cited. 236 C. 421. Section does not create independent right to jury determination of damages when it is unclear that any litigant has such a right. 278 C. 692.

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      Secs. 31-51cc to 31-51gg. Family and medical leave: Definitions, length of leave, eligibility. Prohibition of discrimination. Regulations, report. Phase-in provisions. Report on establishment of state-wide job bank. Sections 31-51cc to 31-51gg, inclusive, are repealed, effective January 1, 1997.

      (P.A. 89-382, S. 1-6; P.A. 95-79, S. 113, 189; P.A. 96-140, S. 9, 10.)

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      Sec. 31-51hh. Reimbursement by employee of any loss or shortage resulting from wrongdoing by a customer. No employer may request or require reimbursement from an employee for any loss or shortage incurred in the course of the employer's business as a result of any wrongdoing on the part of a customer.

      (P.A. 89-78.)

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      Sec. 31-51ii. Meal periods. Exemptions. Regulations. (a) No person shall be required to work for seven and one-half or more consecutive hours without a period of at least thirty consecutive minutes for a meal. Such period shall be given at some time after the first two hours of work and before the last two hours.

      (b) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to alter or impair the provisions of any collective bargaining agreement in effect on July 1, 1990.

      (c) The Labor Commissioner shall exempt any employer from the requirements of this section if he finds that (1) requiring compliance would be adverse to public safety, (2) the duties of a position may only be performed by one employee, (3) the employer employs less than five employees on a shift at a single place of business provided the exemption shall only apply to the employees on such shift or (4) the continuous nature of an employer's operations, such as chemical production or research experiments, requires that employees be available to respond to urgent or unusual conditions at all times and such employees are compensated for break and meal periods. The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to establish the procedures and requirements for the granting of such exemptions.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any professional employee certified by the State Board of Education and employed by a local or regional board of education of any town or regional school district to work directly with children.

      (e) The provisions of this section shall not prevent any employer and employee from entering into a written agreement providing for a different schedule of meal periods than the schedule required by subsection (a) of this section.

      (f) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any employer who provides thirty or more total minutes of paid rest or meal periods to employees within each seven and one-half hour work period.

      (g) Any employer who violates the provisions of this section may be subject to civil penalties in accordance with section 31-69a.

      (P.A. 89-71, S. 1, 2; P.A. 90-37, S. 1, 2; P.A. 96-122.)

      History: P.A. 89-71 effective July 1, 1990; P.A. 90-37 added Subsec. (e) concerning written agreements for different schedules and Subsec. (f) concerning employers who provide 30 or more total minutes of paid rest or meal periods within seven-and-one-half-hour work periods; P.A. 96-122 added Subsec. (g) making employers who violate the section subject to civil penalties.

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      Sec. 31-51jj. Notice to employees of incoming emergency telephone calls. (a) For purposes of this section:

      (1) "Emergency" means a situation in which a member of the employee's family or a person designated by the employee in accordance with section 1-56r has died, has experienced a serious physical injury or is ill and in need of medical attention; and

      (2) "Member of the employee's family" means a mother, father, husband, wife, son, daughter, sister or brother of the employee.

      (b) An employer shall notify an employee of an incoming emergency telephone call for the employee if the caller states that the emergency involves a member of the employee's family or a person designated by the employee in accordance with section 1-56r. It shall not be a violation of this section if the employer proves, by a preponderance of the evidence, that he or she made reasonable efforts to notify the employee of the emergency telephone call.

      (c) The failure of an employer to comply with any provision of this section shall be an infraction.

      (P.A. 93-347; P.A. 02-105, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 02-105 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to redefine "emergency" and amended Subsec. (b) to require employer to notify employee of incoming emergency call from a person designated by the employee in accordance with Sec. 1-56r.

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      Sec. 31-51kk. Family and medical leave: Definitions. As used in sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive:

      (1) "Eligible employee" means an employee who has been employed (A) for at least twelve months by the employer with respect to whom leave is requested; and (B) for at least one thousand hours of service with such employer during the twelve-month period preceding the first day of the leave;

      (2) "Employ" includes to allow or permit to work;

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in the business of the employer;

      (4) "Employer" means a person engaged in any activity, enterprise or business who employs seventy-five or more employees, and includes any person who acts, directly or indirectly, in the interest of an employer to any of the employees of such employer and any successor in interest of an employer, but shall not include the state, a municipality, a local or regional board of education, or a private or parochial elementary or secondary school. The number of employees of an employer shall be determined on October first annually;

      (5) "Employment benefits" means all benefits provided or made available to employees by an employer, including group life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance, sick leave, annual leave, educational benefits and pensions, regardless of whether such benefits are provided by practice or written policy of an employer or through an "employee benefit plan", as defined in Section 1002(3) of Title 29 of the United States Code;

      (6) "Health care provider" means (A) a doctor of medicine or osteopathy who is authorized to practice medicine or surgery by the state in which the doctor practices; (B) a podiatrist, dentist, psychologist, optometrist or chiropractor authorized to practice by the state in which such person practices and performs within the scope of the authorized practice; (C) an advanced practice registered nurse, nurse practitioner, nurse midwife or clinical social worker authorized to practice by the state in which such person practices and performs within the scope of the authorized practice; (D) Christian Science practitioners listed with the First Church of Christ, Scientist in Boston, Massachusetts; (E) any health care provider from whom an employer or a group health plan's benefits manager will accept certification of the existence of a serious health condition to substantiate a claim for benefits; (F) a health care provider as defined in subparagraphs (A) to (E), inclusive, of this subdivision who practices in a country other than the United States, who is licensed to practice in accordance with the laws and regulations of that country; or (G) such other health care provider as the Labor Commissioner determines, performing within the scope of the authorized practice. The commissioner may utilize any determinations made pursuant to chapter 568;

      (7) "Parent" means a biological parent, foster parent, adoptive parent, stepparent or legal guardian of an eligible employee or an eligible employee's spouse, or an individual who stood in loco parentis to an employee when the employee was a son or daughter;

      (8) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, business trusts, legal representatives or organized groups of persons;

      (9) "Reduced leave schedule" means a leave schedule that reduces the usual number of hours per workweek, or hours per workday, of an employee;

      (10) "Serious health condition" means an illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves (A) inpatient care in a hospital, hospice, nursing home or residential medical care facility; or (B) continuing treatment, including outpatient treatment, by a health care provider;

      (11) "Son or daughter" means a biological, adopted or foster child, stepchild, legal ward, or, in the alternative, a child of a person standing in loco parentis, who is (A) under eighteen years of age; or (B) eighteen years of age or older and incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical disability; and

      (12) "Spouse" means a husband or wife, as the case may be.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 1, 10; P.A. 06-102, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 06-102 redefined "son or daughter" to substitute "or, in the alternative, a child" for "or a child".

      Interpretation of state leave statute should be consistent with interpretation of federal Family and Medical Leave Act. 276 C. 16.

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      Sec. 31-51ll. Family and medical leave: Length of leave; eligibility; intermittent or reduced leave schedules; substitution of accrued paid leave; notice to employer. (a)(1) Subject to section 31-51mm, an eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of sixteen workweeks of leave during any twenty-four-month period, such twenty-four-month period to be determined utilizing any one of the following methods: (A) Consecutive calendar years; (B) any fixed twenty-four-month period, such as two consecutive fiscal years or a twenty-four-month period measured forward from an employee's first date of employment; (C) a twenty-four-month period measured forward from an employee's first day of leave taken under sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive; or (D) a rolling twenty-four-month period measured backward from an employee's first day of leave taken under sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive.

      (2) Leave under this subsection may be taken for one or more of the following reasons:

      (A) Upon the birth of a son or daughter of the employee;

      (B) Upon the placement of a son or daughter with the employee for adoption or foster care;

      (C) In order to care for the spouse, or a son, daughter or parent of the employee, if such spouse, son, daughter or parent has a serious health condition;

      (D) Because of a serious health condition of the employee; or

      (E) In order to serve as an organ or bone marrow donor.

      (b) Entitlement to leave under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section may accrue prior to the birth or placement of a son or daughter when such leave is required because of such impending birth or placement.

      (c) (1) Leave under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section for the birth or placement of a son or daughter may not be taken by an employee intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the employer agree otherwise. Subject to subdivision (2) of this subsection concerning an alternative position, subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of this section concerning the duties of the employee and subdivision (5) of subsection (b) of section 31-51mm concerning sufficient certification, leave under subparagraph (C) or (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) or under subsection (i) of this section for a serious health condition may be taken intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule when medically necessary. The taking of leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule pursuant to this subsection shall not result in a reduction of the total amount of leave to which the employee is entitled under subsection (a) of this section beyond the amount of leave actually taken.

      (2) If an employee requests intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule under subparagraph (C), (D) or (E) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) or under subsection (i) of this section that is foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, the employer may require the employee to transfer temporarily to an available alternative position offered by the employer for which the employee is qualified and that (A) has equivalent pay and benefits, and (B) better accommodates recurring periods of leave than the regular employment position of the employee, provided the exercise of this authority shall not conflict with any provision of a collective bargaining agreement between such employer and a labor organization which is the collective bargaining representative of the unit of which the employee is a part.

      (d) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, leave granted under subsection (a) of this section may consist of unpaid leave.

      (e) (1) If an employer provides paid leave for fewer than sixteen workweeks, the additional weeks of leave necessary to attain the sixteen workweeks of leave required under sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, may be provided without compensation.

      (2) (A) An eligible employee may elect, or an employer may require the employee, to substitute any of the accrued paid vacation leave, personal leave or family leave of the employee for leave provided under subparagraph (A), (B) or (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section for any part of the sixteen-week period of such leave under said subsection or under subsection (i) of this section for any part of the twenty-six-week period of such leave.

      (B) An eligible employee may elect, or an employer may require the employee, to substitute any of the accrued paid vacation leave, personal leave, or medical or sick leave of the employee for leave provided under subparagraph (C), (D) or (E) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section for any part of the sixteen-week period of such leave under said subsection or under subsection (i) of this section for any part of the twenty-six-week period of leave, except that nothing in section 5-248a or sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, shall require an employer to provide paid sick leave or paid medical leave in any situation in which such employer would not normally provide any such paid leave.

      (f) (1) In any case in which the necessity for leave under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section is foreseeable based on an expected birth or placement of a son or daughter, the employee shall provide the employer with not less than thirty days' notice, before the date of the leave is to begin, of the employee's intention to take leave under said subparagraph (A) or (B), except that if the date of the birth or placement of a son or daughter requires leave to begin in less than thirty days, the employee shall provide such notice as is practicable.

      (2) In any case in which the necessity for leave under subparagraph (C), (D) or (E) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) or under subsection (i) of this section is foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, the employee (A) shall make a reasonable effort to schedule the treatment so as not to disrupt unduly the operations of the employer, subject to the approval of the health care provider of the employee or the health care provider of the son, daughter, spouse or parent of the employee, as appropriate; and (B) shall provide the employer with not less than thirty days' notice, before the date the leave is to begin, of the employee's intention to take leave under said subparagraph (C), (D) or (E) or said subsection (i), except that if the date of the treatment requires leave to begin in less than thirty days, the employee shall provide such notice as is practicable.

      (g) In any case in which a husband and wife entitled to leave under subsection (a) of this section are employed by the same employer, the aggregate number of workweeks of leave to which both may be entitled may be limited to sixteen workweeks during any twenty-four-month period, if such leave is taken: (1) Under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section; or (2) to care for a sick parent under subparagraph (C) of said subdivision. In any case in which a husband and wife entitled to leave under subsection (i) of this section are employed by the same employer, the aggregate number of workweeks of leave to which both may be entitled may be limited to twenty-six workweeks during any twelve-month period.

      (h) Unpaid leave taken pursuant to sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, shall not be construed to affect an employee's qualification for exemption under chapter 558.

      (i) Subject to section 31-51mm, an eligible employee who is the spouse, son or daughter, parent or next of kin of a current member of the armed forces, as defined in section 27-103, who is undergoing medical treatment, recuperation or therapy, is otherwise in outpatient status or is on the temporary disability retired list for a serious injury or illness incurred in the line of duty shall be entitled to a one-time benefit of twenty-six workweeks of leave during any twelve-month period for each armed forces member per serious injury or illness incurred in the line of duty. Such twelve-month period shall commence on an employee's first day of leave taken to care for a covered armed forces member and end on the date twelve months after such first day of leave. For the purposes of this subsection, (1) "next of kin" means the armed forces member's nearest blood relative, other than the covered armed forces member's spouse, parent, son or daughter, in the following order of priority: Blood relatives who have been granted legal custody of the armed forces member by court decree or statutory provisions, brothers and sisters, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and first cousins, unless the covered armed forces member has specifically designated in writing another blood relative as his or her nearest blood relative for purposes of military caregiver leave, in which case the designated individual shall be deemed to be the covered armed forces member's next of kin; and (2) "son or daughter" means a biological, adopted or foster child, stepchild, legal ward or child for whom the eligible employee or armed forces member stood in loco parentis and who is any age.

      (j) Leave taken pursuant to sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, shall not run concurrently with the provisions of section 31-313.

      (k) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, all further rights granted by federal law shall remain in effect.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 2, 10; P.A. 03-213, S. 2; P.A. 04-95, S. 2; 04-257, S. 49; P.A. 09-70, S. 1; P.A. 10-88, S. 4-6.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 03-213 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "begin with the first day of leave taken," and adding provisions specifying alternative methods for determining the 24-month period during which family and medical leave may be taken; P.A. 04-95 amended Subsec. (a) to expand leave entitlement to organ or bone marrow donors, to reorganize provisions into new Subdivs. (1) and (2), and to redesignate both sets of existing Subdivs. (1) to (4) as Subparas. (A) to (D), respectively, and amended Subsecs. (b), (c), (e) and (f) to make internal references consistent with changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) to (c) and (e) to (g), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 09-70 added new Subsecs. (i) and (j) re additional leave for eligible employees who are family members of armed forces members injured in line of duty, redesignated existing Subsec. (i) as Subsec. (k), and made conforming changes in Subsecs. (c), (e)(2), (f)(2) and (g), effective May 27, 2009; P.A. 10-88 made technical changes in Subsecs. (f)(2), (i) and (j), effective May 26, 2010.

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      Sec. 31-51mm. Family and medical leave: Certification. (a) An employer may require that request for leave based on a serious health condition in subparagraph (C) or (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, or leave based on subsection (i) of section 31-51ll, be supported by a certification issued by the health care provider of the eligible employee or of the son, daughter, spouse, parent or next of kin of the employee, as appropriate. The employee shall provide, in a timely manner, a copy of such certification to the employer.

      (b) Certification provided under subsection (a) of this section shall be sufficient if it states:

      (1) The date on which the serious health condition commenced;

      (2) The probable duration of the condition;

      (3) The appropriate medical facts within the knowledge of the health care provider regarding the condition;

      (4) (A) For purposes of leave under subparagraph (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, a statement that the eligible employee is needed to care for the son, daughter, spouse or parent and an estimate of the amount of time that such employee needs to care for the son, daughter, spouse or parent; and (B) for purposes of leave under subparagraph (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, a statement that the employee is unable to perform the functions of the position of the employee;

      (5) In the case of certification for intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, the dates on which such treatment is expected to be given and the duration of such treatment;

      (6) In the case of certification for intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule under subparagraph (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, a statement of the medical necessity of the intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule, and the expected duration of the intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule;

      (7) In the case of certification for intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule under subparagraph (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, a statement that the employee's intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule is necessary for the care of the son, daughter, parent or spouse who has a serious health condition, or will assist in their recovery, and the expected duration and schedule of the intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule; and

      (8) In the case of certification for intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule under subsection (i) of section 31-51ll, a statement that the employee's intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule is necessary for the care of the spouse, son or daughter, parent or next of kin who is a current member of the armed forces, as defined in section 27-103, who is undergoing medical treatment, recuperation or therapy, is otherwise in outpatient status or is on the temporary disability retired list, for a serious injury or illness incurred in the line of duty, and the expected duration and schedule of the intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. For the purposes of this subsection, "son or daughter" and "next of kin" shall have the same meaning as in subsection (i) of section 31-51ll.

      (c) (1) In any case in which the employer has reason to doubt the validity of the certification provided under subsection (a) of this section for leave under subparagraph (C) or (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) or under subsection (i) of section 31-51ll, the employer may require, at the expense of the employer, that the eligible employee obtain the opinion of a second health care provider designated or approved by the employer concerning any information certified under subsection (b) of this section for such leave.

      (2) A health care provider designated or approved under subdivision (1) of this subsection shall not be employed on a regular basis by the employer.

      (d) (1) In any case in which the second opinion described in subsection (c) of this section differs from the opinion in the original certification provided under subsection (a) of this section, the employer may require, at the expense of the employer, that the employee obtain the opinion of a third health care provider designated or approved jointly by the employer and the employee concerning the information certified under subsection (b) of this section.

      (2) The opinion of the third health care provider concerning the information certified under subsection (b) of this section shall be considered to be final and shall be binding on the employer and the employee.

      (e) The employer may require that the eligible employee obtain subsequent recertifications on a reasonable basis, provided the standards for determining what constitutes a reasonable basis for recertification may be governed by a collective bargaining agreement between such employer and a labor organization which is the collective bargaining representative of the unit of which the worker is a part if such a collective bargaining agreement is in effect. Unless otherwise required by the employee's health care provider, the employer may not require recertification more than once during a thirty-day period and, in any case, may not unreasonably require recertification. The employer shall pay for any recertification that is not covered by the employee's health insurance.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 3, 10; P.A. 04-95, S. 3; 04-257, S. 50; P.A. 09-70, S. 2; P.A. 10-88, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 04-95, effective October 1, 2004, and P.A. 04-257, effective June 14, 2004, both made identical technical changes in Subsecs. (a) to (c); P.A. 09-70 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) by adding reference to Sec. 31-51ll(i), amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by adding "or next of kin", and amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (8) re requirements for certification of intermittent leave for an eligible employee to receive additional leave to provide care under Sec. 31-51ll, effective May 27, 2009; P.A. 10-88 amended Subsec. (b)(4)(A) by deleting "or next of kin" and making technical changes, effective May 26, 2010.

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      Sec. 31-51nn. Family and medical leave: Employment and benefits protection. (a) Any eligible employee who takes leave under section 31-51ll for the intended purpose of the leave shall be entitled on return from such leave (1) to be restored by the employer to the position of employment held by the employee when the leave commenced; (2) if the original position of employment is not available, to be restored to an equivalent position with equivalent employment benefits, pay and other terms and conditions of employment; or (3) in the case of a medical leave, if the employee is medically unable to perform the employee's original job upon the expiration of such leave, to be transferred to work suitable to such employee's physical condition if such work is available.

      (b) The taking of leave under section 31-51ll shall not result in the loss of any employment benefit accrued prior to the date on which the leave commenced.

      (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to entitle any restored employee to (1) the accrual of any seniority or employment benefits during any period of leave; or (2) any right, benefit or position of employment other than any right, benefit or position to which the employee would have been entitled had the employee not taken the leave.

      (d) As a condition of restoration under subsection (a) of this section for an employee who has taken leave under subparagraph (D) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 31-51ll, the employer may have a uniformly applied practice or policy that requires each such employee to receive certification from the health care provider of the employee that the employee is able to resume work, except that nothing in this subsection shall supersede a valid law of this state or a collective bargaining agreement that governs the return to work of such employees.

      (e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit an employer from requiring an employee on leave under section 31-51ll to report periodically to the employer on the status and intention of the employee to return to work.

      (f) Employees may have additional rights under other state and federal law, including rights under the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Nothing in sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, shall limit any such additional rights.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 4, 10; P.A. 04-95, S. 4; 04-257, S. 51.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 04-95, effective October 1, 2004, and P.A. 04-257, effective June 14, 2004, both made identical technical changes in Subsec. (d).

      Section does not expressly obligate employer to accommodate employee's work-at-home requests or to refrain from taking adverse action against employee who persists in efforts to secure such arrangement. 249 C. 766.

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      Sec. 31-51oo. Family and medical leave: Confidentiality of medical records and documents. Records and documents relating to medical certifications, recertifications or medical histories of employees or employees' family members, created for purposes of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, shall be maintained as medical records pursuant to chapter 563a, except that: (1) Supervisors and managers may be informed regarding necessary restrictions on the work or duties of an employee and necessary accommodations; (2) first aid and safety personnel may be informed, when appropriate, if the employee's physical or medical condition might require emergency treatment; and (3) government officials investigating compliance with sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, or other pertinent law shall be provided relevant information upon request.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 5, 10.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 31-51pp. Family and medical leave: Prohibited acts, complaints, rights and remedies. (a)(1) It shall be a violation of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, for any employer to interfere with, restrain or deny the exercise of, or the attempt to exercise, any right provided under said sections.

      (2) It shall be a violation of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, for any employer to discharge or cause to be discharged, or in any other manner discriminate, against any individual for opposing any practice made unlawful by said sections or because such employee has exercised the rights afforded to such employee under said sections.

      (b) It shall be a violation of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, for any person to discharge or cause to be discharged, or in any other manner discriminate, against any individual because such individual:

      (1) Has filed any charge, or has instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding, under or related to sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive;

      (2) Has given, or is about to give, any information in connection with any inquiry or proceeding relating to any right provided under said sections; or

      (3) Has testified, or is about to testify, in any inquiry or proceeding relating to any right provided under said sections.

      (c) (1) It shall be a violation of sections 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, for any employer to deny an employee the right to use up to two weeks of accumulated sick leave or to discharge, threaten to discharge, demote, suspend or in any manner discriminate against an employee for using, or attempting to exercise the right to use, up to two weeks of accumulated sick leave to attend to a serious health condition of a son or daughter, spouse or parent of the employee, or for the birth or adoption of a son or daughter of the employee. For purposes of this subsection, "sick leave" means an absence from work for which compensation is provided through an employer's bona fide written policy providing compensation for loss of wages occasioned by illness, but does not include absences from work for which compensation is provided through an employer's plan, including, but not limited to, a short or long-term disability plan, whether or not such plan is self-insured.

      (2) Any employee aggrieved by a violation of this subsection may file a complaint with the Labor Commissioner alleging violation of the provisions of this subsection. Upon receipt of any such complaint, the commissioner shall hold a hearing. After the hearing, the commissioner shall send each party a written copy of the commissioner's decision. The commissioner may award the employee all appropriate relief, including rehiring or reinstatement to the employee's previous job, payment of back wages and reestablishment of employee benefits to which the employee otherwise would have been eligible if a violation of this subsection had not occurred. Any party aggrieved by the decision of the commissioner may appeal the decision to the Superior Court in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (3) The rights and remedies specified in this subsection are cumulative and nonexclusive and are in addition to any other rights or remedies afforded by contract or under other provisions of law.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 6, 10; P.A. 03-213, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 03-213 added new Subsec. (c) re rights relative to use of sick leave during family and medical leave and complaint and remedial procedures for violation of such rights.

      Subsec. (c):

      "Accumulated sick leave" refers to paid sick leave that has been earned by an employee but not yet used. 283 C. 644.


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      Sec. 31-51qq. Family and medical leave: Regulations, report. On or before January 1, 1997, the Labor Commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to establish procedures and guidelines necessary to implement the provisions of sections 5-248a and 31-51kk to 31-51qq, inclusive, including, but not limited to, procedures for hearings and redress, including restoration and restitution, for an employee who believes that there is a violation by the employer of such employee of any provision of said sections, and procedures for the periodic reporting by employers to the commissioner of their current experience with leaves of absence taken pursuant to said sections. In adopting such regulations, the commissioner shall make reasonable efforts to ensure compatibility of state regulatory provisions with similar provisions of the federal Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 and the regulations promulgated pursuant to said act.

      (P.A. 96-140, S. 7, 10.)

      History: P.A. 96-140 effective January 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 31-51rr. Family and medical leave benefits for employees of political subdivisions. (a) Each political subdivision of the state shall grant any employee of such political subdivision who is a party to a civil union, as defined in section 46b-38aa*, and who has been employed for at least twelve months by such employer and for at least one thousand two hundred fifty hours of service with such employer during the previous twelve-month period the same family and medical leave benefits under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, Public Law 103-3, and 29 CFR 825.112, as are provided to an employee who is a party to a marriage.

      (b) Any employee of a political subdivision of the state who has worked at least twelve months and one thousand two hundred fifty hours for such employer during the previous twelve-month period may request leave in order to serve as an organ or bone marrow donor, provided such employee may be required, prior to the inception of such leave, to provide sufficient written certification from the physician of such employee of the proposed organ or bone marrow donation and the probable duration of the employee's recovery from such donation.

      (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing leave in addition to the total of twelve workweeks of leave during any twelve-month period provided under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, Public Law 103-3.

      (d) The Labor Department shall enforce compliance with the provisions of this section.

      (P.A. 07-245, S. 1.)

      *Note: Section 46b-38aa was repealed effective October 1, 2010, by section 21 of public act 09-13.


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      Sec. 31-51ss. Leave from employment for victims of family violence. Action for damages and reinstatement. (a) For the purposes of this section:

      (1) "Employer" means a person engaged in business who has three or more employees, including the state and any political subdivision of the state;

      (2) "Employee" means any person engaged in service to an employer in the business of the employer;

      (3) "Family violence" means family violence, as defined in section 46b-38a; and

      (4) "Leave" includes paid or unpaid leave which may include, but is not limited to, compensatory time, vacation time, personal days off or other time off.

      (b) If an employee is a victim of family violence, an employer shall permit the employee to take paid or unpaid leave during any calendar year in which such leave is reasonably necessary (1) to seek medical care or psychological or other counseling for physical or psychological injury or disability for the victim, (2) to obtain services from a victim services organization on behalf of the victim, (3) to relocate due to such family violence, or (4) to participate in any civil or criminal proceeding related to or resulting from such family violence. An employer may limit unpaid leave under this section to twelve days during any calendar year. Leave under this section shall not affect any other leave provided under state or federal law.

      (c) If an employee's need to use leave under this section is foreseeable, an employer may require advance notice, not to exceed seven days prior to the date such leave is to begin, of the intention to use such leave. If an employee's need for such leave is not foreseeable, an employer may require an employee to give notice of such intention as soon as practicable.

      (d) Upon an employer's request, an employee who takes leave pursuant to this section shall provide the employer a signed written statement certifying that the leave is for a purpose authorized under this section. The employer may also, but need not, request that the employee provide a police or court record related to the family violence or a signed written statement that the employee is a victim of family violence, provided such statement is from an employee or agent of a victim services organization, an attorney, an employee of the Judicial Branch's Office of Victim Services or the Office of the Victim Advocate, or a licensed medical professional or other licensed professional from whom the employee has sought assistance with respect to the family violence.

      (e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to (1) prevent employers from providing more leave than is required under this section, (2) diminish any rights provided to any employee under the terms of the employee's employment or a collective bargaining agreement, or (3) preempt or override the terms of any collective bargaining agreement effective prior to October 1, 2010.

      (f) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require an employer to provide paid leave under this section if (1) the employee is not entitled to paid leave pursuant to the terms and conditions of the employee's employment, or (2) such paid leave exceeds the maximum amount of leave due the employee during any calendar year, provided the employee shall be entitled to unpaid leave under this section if paid leave is exhausted or not provided.

      (g) Any written statement or police or court record provided to an employer pursuant to subsection (d) of this section shall be maintained as confidential by the employer and shall not be further disclosed by the employer except as required by federal or state law or as necessary to protect the employee's safety in the workplace, provided the employee is given notice prior to the disclosure.

      (h) If an employer discharges, penalizes or threatens or otherwise coerces an employee in violation of this section, the employee, not later than one hundred eighty days from the occurrence of such action, may bring a civil action for damages and for an order requiring the employee's reinstatement or otherwise rescinding such action. If the employee prevails, the employee shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee to be fixed by the court.

      (P.A. 10-144, S. 15.)

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      Sec. 31-51tt. Reserved for future use.

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      Sec. 31-51uu. Optional exclusion of employee health insurance premiums from gross income. Any employer that provides health insurance benefits to its employees for which any portion of the premiums are deducted from the employees' pay shall offer such employees the opportunity to have such portion excluded from their gross income for state or federal income tax purposes, except as required under Section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended.

      (P.A. 07-185, S. 23.)

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      Sec. 31-51vv. Employment of person coerced to engage in such employment prohibited. (a) No employer shall employ any person knowing that such person is being coerced by another person to engage in such employment in violation of section 53a-192a.

      (b) The Attorney General, upon the request of the Labor Commissioner, may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to recover a civil penalty of not more than ten thousand dollars for each violation of subsection (a) of this section and such injunctive or other equitable relief as the court may, in its discretion, order.

      (P.A. 06-43, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 06-43 effective July 1, 2006.

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PART IIa
INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT ACCOUNT PROGRAMS

      Sec. 31-51ww. Individual development account programs: Definitions. As used in this section and sections 31-51xx to 31-51eee, inclusive:

      (1) "Account holder" means a participant in a certified state IDA program;

      (2) "Department" means the Labor Department;

      (3) "Approved plan" means a plan prepared jointly by the account holder and the community-based organization that defines savings goals, program requirements and permissible uses of the individual development account and its matching funds pursuant to sections 31-51xx to 31-51aaa, inclusive, and regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd. The approved plan shall be a contract between the account holder and the community-based organization;

      (4) "Area median income" means area median household income as determined from time to time by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development;

      (5) "Certified state IDA program" means a program of matched savings accounts that has been certified by the department in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd;

      (6) "Clearinghouse" means a service to provide organizations interested in establishing, or which have established, individual development account programs with literature on federal, state and other sources of funding, guidelines for best practices and program standards, and information regarding the establishment and maintenance of certified state IDA programs;

      (7) "Community-based organization" means an organization exempt from taxation pursuant to section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, which meets the requirements set forth in regulations pursuant to section 31-51ddd;

      (8) "Education" means (A) a postsecondary program of instruction provided by a college, university, community college, area vocational-technical school, professional institution or specialized college or school legally authorized to grant degrees, or (B) any related educational program approved by the community-based organization and the department;

      (9) "Entrepreneurial activity" means the purchase of or investment in a small business, as defined in subsection (a) of section 4-168a, in Connecticut in which, upon such purchase or investment, the account holder will be a principal;

      (10) "Federal poverty level" means the most recent poverty income guidelines published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services;

      (11) "Financial institution" means a "financial institution", as defined in section 36a-330;

      (12) "Household" means a household, as defined in the federal Assets for Independence Act, P.L. 105-235;

      (13) "Individual development account" means a savings account, maintained in a program that is established pursuant to section 31-51xx that is held in a financial institution, for the sole purpose of holding the funds of the account holder for one of the purposes described in subsection (a) of section 31-51xx;

      (14) "Individual Development Account Reserve Fund" means a nonlapsing fund administered by the department for the purposes of providing matching funds for individual development accounts in certified state IDA programs, and for funding costs incurred by community-based organizations in the operation and administration of such programs and department's administrative costs for the Connecticut IDA Initiative;

      (15) "Connecticut IDA Initiative" means the state-wide individual development account initiative established in section 31-51xx;

      (16) "Job training" means a program for job entrance or skill development approved by the community-based organization and the department; and

      (17) "Qualified disabled individual" means a disabled individual eligible for assistance to the disabled pursuant to chapter 319mm.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 1, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 31-51xx. Connecticut IDA Initiative established. Implementation. (a) There is established the "Connecticut IDA Initiative". The initiative shall be administered by the Labor Department. The initiative shall provide an eligible individual as provided in section 31-51yy with an opportunity, through a certified state IDA program, to establish an individual development account from which funds may be used by the account holder for one of the following purposes as specified in the approved plan: (1) The costs of education or job training; (2) the purchase of a home as a primary residence; (3) the participation in or development of a new or existing entrepreneurial activity; (4) the purchase of an automobile for the purpose of obtaining or maintaining employment; (5) the making of a lease deposit on a primary residence; or (6) the costs of education or job training for a dependent child of the account holder.

      (b) To implement the Connecticut IDA Initiative, the department shall, in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd: (1) Establish an Individual Development Account Reserve Fund in accordance with section 31-51aaa; (2) establish and operate, directly or by contract with another entity, the clearinghouse; (3) solicit, review, accept or reject proposals from community-based organizations seeking to operate certified state IDA programs on a not-for-profit basis; and (4) perform such monitoring, evaluation and oversight functions as are appropriate for the administration of the Connecticut IDA Initiative.

      (c) The department shall determine the maximum per cent of all funds received from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund that may be used by a community-based organization operating a certified state IDA program in providing training, counseling, case management and for administrative purposes.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 2, 102; P.A. 08-23, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001; P.A. 08-23 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (6) re education or job training for dependent child as purpose for which fund may be used and to make technical changes.

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      Sec. 31-51yy. Eligibility. Duties of community-based organizations and financial institutions. (a) An individual who has earned income, and who is a member of a household whose adjusted gross income is not in excess of eighty per cent of the area median household income for the area where such individual resides, is eligible to participate in a certified state IDA program for the purpose of accumulating and withdrawing moneys for purposes specified in subsection (a) of section 31-51xx; except that, if an individual does not have earned income solely due to a qualified disability, the earned income requirement shall not apply to such individual.

      (b) Each community-based organization operating a certified state IDA program shall establish, through written governing instruments with a qualified financial institution: (1) A trust or custodial account on behalf of each account holder in its program into which the account holder shall deposit savings, which accounts shall conform to the requirements of the federal Assets for Independence Act, P.A. 105-285; and (2) a separate local reserve fund into which the department shall deposit funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund and into which the community-based organization shall deposit funds received from the certified state IDA program from any other source. The community-based organization shall certify to the department, on forms prescribed by the department and accompanied by any documentation required by the department, that such accounts have been established pursuant to the provisions of sections 31-51ww to 31-51eee, inclusive, and that deposits have been made to an account by or on behalf of the account holder.

      (c) A financial institution establishing a trust or custodial account on behalf of an account holder shall: (1) Permit deposits to be made in the account by the account holder; and (2) pay a market rate of interest on the account.

      (d) The community-based organization shall determine and monitor the earned income levels of all account holders in its certified state IDA program and shall use its best efforts to ensure that at least thirty per cent of such account holders have earned income at or below two hundred per cent of the federal poverty level.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 3, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 31-51zz. Individual Development Account Reserve Fund: Funds deposited in. All amounts appropriated by the state for the Connecticut IDA Initiative shall be deposited in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund, which shall be administered by the department. In addition to all amounts appropriated by the state, the department shall deposit in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund grants, donations, contributions and any other sources of revenue received for this purpose.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 4, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective May 26, 2000.

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      Sec. 31-51aaa. Individual Development Account Reserve Fund: Use and administration. (a) Funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund shall be used to provide grants to community-based organizations that are operating certified state IDA programs for the purpose of providing matching funds for the individual development accounts in their programs, to assist the organizations to provide training, counseling and case management for program participants and for program administration purposes. Funds may also be used to pay for the evaluation required pursuant to section 31-51ccc, the operation of the clearinghouse, and the department's administrative expenses for the Connecticut IDA Initiative. The department shall determine what proportion of the funds in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund shall be used for each of these purposes.

      (b) The Individual Development Account Reserve Fund shall be administered as follows:

      (1) No new grant shall be approved by the department unless there is sufficient funding in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund, as determined by the department, to meet all existing funding obligations including the maximum amount of state matching funds that would be required if each account holder in these certified programs met the savings goal in such account holder's approved plan.

      (2) Any funds remaining in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund at the end of each fiscal year, and the interest thereon, shall be retained in said fund and used in the next succeeding fiscal year for expenditures set forth in subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) Grants received by the community-based organization from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund for matching funds shall be held in the organization's local reserve fund. This fund shall be an account separate from account holders' individual development accounts, and its funds shall be disbursed in accordance with subsections (e) and (f) of this section pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd. Grants from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund for matching funds to certified state IDA programs shall be made on behalf of each individual account holder in the maximum amount of two dollars for every one dollar deposited in the individual development account by the account holder, not to exceed one thousand dollars of such matching funds per account holder for any calendar year and three thousand dollars per account holder for the duration of the account holder's participation in the program.

      (d) The department and the community-based organizations, separately or cooperatively, may solicit grants and private contributions for the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund and for the local reserve funds of community-based organizations operating certified state IDA programs.

      (e) If moneys are withdrawn from an individual development account by an account holder due to the account holder's decision to leave the certified state IDA program, all matching funds designated for said moneys shall be forfeited by the account holder and not later than December thirty-first of each year, the matching funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund shall be returned by the community-based organization to the department for redeposit into the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund; except that, if the withdrawal is an emergency withdrawal, as defined in regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd, or is a withdrawal due to circumstances other than an account holder's decision to leave the certified state IDA program, the community-based organization may retain the matching funds for the account holder in its local reserve fund until such account holder redeposits the withdrawn funds or leaves the certified state IDA program, in accordance with such regulations.

      (f) When the account holder has made sufficient deposits to such account holder's individual development account to achieve the savings goal set forth in such account holder's approved plan, the community-based organization shall pay such sum together with the matching funds from the organization's local reserve account that are attributed to this individual development account, directly to the person or entity providing the goods or services. Where matching funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund have not been paid out by the community-based organization for an eligible purpose within five years after the opening of an individual development account due to an account holder not making contributions as provided in the approved plan, the matching funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund shall be returned to the department for deposit in the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund, except that the community-based organization may grant a leave of absence or extension of time to an account holder for a period not to exceed two years, within such five-year period in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to section 31-51ddd.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 5, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 31-51bbb. Account funds excluded in determination of eligibility for or benefit level of certain programs. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, funds deposited into, held in, credited to, or withdrawn from an individual development account for a purpose consistent with the approved plan, including accrued interest, shall be excluded in the determination of eligibility for, or the benefit level of, any needs-based program using state or joint federal and state funding, consistent with applicable state and federal law.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 7, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 31-51ccc. Program evaluation. Report. The department shall evaluate the Connecticut IDA Initiative for each fiscal year ending June thirtieth. Based on such evaluation, the department shall provide a comprehensive report on the initiative to the speaker of the House of Representatives and the president pro tempore of the Senate no later than February first of the year following the end of each fiscal year, beginning for the fiscal year ending June 30, 2001.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 8, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective January 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 31-51ddd. Regulations. (a) The Labor Commissioner, in consultation with the State Treasurer shall, in accordance with chapter 54, adopt regulations to implement the provisions of sections 31-51ww to 31-51eee, inclusive, and to administer the Connecticut IDA Initiative. Such regulations shall establish standards and guidelines, consistent with the provisions of sections 31-51ww to 31-51eee, inclusive, for certified state IDA programs, including, but not limited to: (1) Income eligibility requirements for account holders; (2) permissible savings goals for certified state IDA programs; (3) the services that each certified state IDA program shall provide to assist its account holders in meeting their savings goals including credit history assessments, assistance in credit repair and ongoing credit stability, general financial education and asset-specific training, ongoing case management and other support services; (4) procedures and timelines for establishment of savings accounts within financial institutions and for the deposit of funds into individual savings accounts, the department's Individual Development Account Reserve Fund, and local reserve funds maintained by certified community-based organizations; (5) allowable uses of matching funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund and procedures for the making of grants from such fund; (6) procedures and permissible reasons for emergency withdrawals of funds from individual accounts and leaves of absence from the program; (7) accounting and financial reporting procedures required of all certified community-based organizations; (8) required content of and deadlines for all program and evaluation reports by community-based organizations to the department; (9) required components of the approved plan between the account holder and the community-based organization, including but not limited to, savings goals, matching rates, required participation in education and training, contingency plans if the account holder fails to meet projected savings goals or schedules, savings withdrawal procedures and limitations, procedures for withdrawing from the program, provision for the disposition of funds in the event of the account holder's death, and provision for amendment of the plan with the concurrence of the account holder and the community-based organization; (10) the process of approval, certification, suspension and decertification of an individual development account program; and (11) the application and implementation of any restrictions on or requirements of funding expenditures as required under state or federal law.

      (b) Such regulations shall specify the process by which the department shall solicit proposals from community-based organizations to operate certified state IDA programs, and the criteria and process that shall be used by the department in granting state certification and determining the number of individual development accounts eligible for matching funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund. Criteria that shall be used in granting state certification and in allocating funds from the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund to certified state IDA programs shall include, but not be limited to, the community-based organization's level of competence in meeting all financial and programmatic requirements of a certified state IDA program and the fiscal capacity of the organization to meet all financial obligations of the program and, to the extent possible, the geographic location of the organization.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 9, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective May 26, 2000 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a), "with" was inserted editorially by the Revisors before "chapter 54", for proper form).

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      Sec. 31-51eee. Receipt of funds authorized. Nothing in sections 31-51ww to 31-51ddd, inclusive, shall preclude a community-based organization or other entity from establishing an individual development account program and receiving matching funds from sources other than the Individual Development Account Reserve Fund.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 10, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective May 26, 2000.

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      Sec. 31-51fff. Restrictions on funding expenditures to apply. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 31-51ww to 31-51eee, inclusive, any restrictions on funding expenditures required under any state or federal law shall apply.

      (P.A. 00-192, S. 12, 102.)

      History: P.A. 00-192 effective May 26, 2000.

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PART III
STATE CONTRACTS

      Sec. 31-52. Preference to state citizens in construction of public buildings. Enforcement of violations. (a) In the employment of mechanics, laborers and workmen in the construction, remodeling or repairing of any public building, by the state or any of its agents or by persons contracting therewith, preference shall be given to citizens of the state, and, if they cannot be obtained in sufficient numbers, then to citizens of the United States. Any contractor who knowingly and wilfully employs any person in violation of any provision of this subsection shall be fined two hundred dollars for each week or fraction of a week each such person is so employed.

      (b) Each contract for the construction or repair of any building under the supervision of the state or any of its agents shall contain the following provisions: "In the employment of labor to perform the work specified herein, preference shall be given to citizens of the United States, who are, and continuously for at least three months prior to the date hereof have been, residents of the labor market area, as established by the Labor Commissioner, in which such work is to be done, and if no such qualified person is available, then to citizens who have continuously resided in the county in which the work is to be performed for at least three months prior to the date hereof, and then to citizens of the state who have continuously resided in the state at least three months prior to the date hereof." In no event shall said provisions be deemed to abrogate or supersede, in any manner, any provision regarding residence requirements contained in a collective bargaining agreement to which the contractor is a party.

      (c) No person who receives an award or contract for public works projects from the state, or who receives an order or contract for which a portion of funds is derived from the state, shall knowingly employ nonresidents of the state while residents who may qualify for such work are reasonably available for employment. In the employment of nonresidents, the construction supervisor or construction inspector assigned to the public works project shall verify that the contracting employer, by reasonable efforts, sought to obtain construction job applicants from existing employment sources in Connecticut.

      (d) The agent contracting on behalf of the state or any political subdivision thereof shall investigate promptly any alleged violation of this section or section 31-52a. If said agent finds evidence of such a violation, he shall immediately notify the alleged violator of such evidence and allegations. If the alleged violator fails to take corrective action within one week, or to produce evidence which satisfies said agent that no violation has occurred, said agent shall (1) institute a civil action to recover as liquidated damages for the violation of the contract an amount equal to the wages paid to any employees employed in violation of this section or section 31-52a and cost of suit, including reasonable attorney's fees and (2) notify the office of the state's attorney in the judicial district for the area in which such work was performed so that appropriate criminal action may be instituted against the alleged violator.

      (e) In contracts so financed preference in employment shall be given to citizens of the United States or any possession thereof.

      (f) Nothing in this section shall abrogate or supersede any provision regarding residence requirements in a collective bargaining agreement to which the contractor is a party.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7371; 1967, P.A. 757, S. 1; P.A. 78-280, S. 68, 127; P.A. 83-530, S. 2, 3; 83-552, S. 2; P.A. 97-263, S. 13.)

      History: 1967 act clarified provisions and specified that $100 fine applies for each week or fraction of a week during which a person is employed in violation of Subsec. (a) where previously $100 fine was the maximum fine for each offense, substituted labor market areas for towns under Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (c) to (e) re employment of state residents in preference to nonresidents, hiring preference to U.S. citizens and procedure to be followed in investigation of and action on violations; P.A. 78-280 required notification of state's attorney in the appropriate judicial district rather than notification of prosecuting attorney in the appropriate circuit, circuit courts having been abolished pursuant to P.A. 76-436, under Subsec. (d)(2); P.A. 83-530 added a new Subsec. (f) prohibiting this section from abrogating or superseding any residence requirement in a collective bargaining agreement to which the contractor is a party; P.A. 83-552 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that collective bargaining agreement is not superseded by preference provisions of contract; P.A. 97-263 amended Subsec. (a) to increase amount of fine from $100 to $200.

      See Sec. 7-112 re applicability of this section to construction, remodeling, etc. of public buildings by political subdivisions of state.

      Commissioner's duty under statute is carried out when he has caused proper preference clause to be inserted in contract. 26 CS 384.

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      Sec. 31-52a. Residents' preference in work on other public facilities. (a) In the employment of mechanics, laborers or workmen in connection with any public works project, including, but not limited to, construction, remodeling or repairing of any public facility, structure, except public buildings covered by section 31-52, site preparation or site improvement, appurtenances or highways or in preparation or improvement of any land or waterway on or in which a structure is situated or to be constructed by the state or any of its agents or by persons contracting therewith, preference shall be given to persons who are residents of the state, and, if they cannot be obtained in sufficient numbers, then to residents of other states. Nothing herein shall abrogate or supersede any provision regarding residence requirements in a collective bargaining agreement to which the contractor is a party. Any contractor who knowingly and wilfully employs any person in violation of any provision of this section shall be fined two hundred dollars for each week or a fraction of a week each such person is employed.

      (b) Each contract for any such project covered by this section under the supervision of the state or any of its agents shall contain the following provision: "In the employment of mechanics, laborers or workmen to perform the work specified herein, preference shall be given to residents of the state who are, and continuously for at least six months prior to the date hereof have been, residents of this state, and if no such person is available then to residents of other states."

      (1967, P.A. 757, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 31-52b. Exceptions. The provisions of sections 31-52 and 31-52a shall not apply where the state or any subdivision thereof may suffer the loss of revenue granted or to be granted from any agency or department of the federal government as a result of said sections or regulative procedures pursuant thereto.

      (1967, P.A. 757, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 31-53. Construction, alteration or repair of public works project by state or political subdivision; wage rates; certified payroll. Penalties. Civil action. Exceptions. (a) Each contract for the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project by the state or any of its agents, or by any political subdivision of the state or any of its agents, shall contain the following provision: "The wages paid on an hourly basis to any person performing the work of any mechanic, laborer or worker on the work herein contracted to be done and the amount of payment or contribution paid or payable on behalf of each such person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, shall be at a rate equal to the rate customary or prevailing for the same work in the same trade or occupation in the town in which such public works project is being constructed. Any contractor who is not obligated by agreement to make payment or contribution on behalf of such persons to any such employee welfare fund shall pay to each mechanic, laborer or worker as part of such person's wages the amount of payment or contribution for such person's classification on each pay day."

      (b) Any contractor or subcontractor who knowingly or wilfully employs any mechanic, laborer or worker in the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project for or on behalf of the state or any of its agents, or any political subdivision of the state or any of its agents, at a rate of wage on an hourly basis that is less than the rate customary or prevailing for the same work in the same trade or occupation in the town in which such public works project is being constructed, remodeled, refinished, refurbished, rehabilitated, altered or repaired, or who fails to pay the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each such person to any employee welfare fund, or in lieu thereof to the person, as provided by subsection (a) of this section, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars but not more than five thousand dollars for each offense and (1) for the first violation, shall be disqualified from bidding on contracts with the state or any political subdivision until the contractor or subcontractor has made full restitution of the back wages owed to such persons and for an additional six months thereafter, and (2) for subsequent violations, shall be disqualified from bidding on contracts with the state or any political subdivision until the contractor or subcontractor has made full restitution of the back wages owed to such persons and for not less than an additional two years thereafter. In addition, if it is found by the contracting officer representing the state or political subdivision of the state that any mechanic, laborer or worker employed by the contractor or any subcontractor directly on the site for the work covered by the contract has been or is being paid a rate of wages less than the rate of wages required by the contract to be paid as required by this section, the state or contracting political subdivision of the state may (A) by written notice to the contractor, terminate such contractor's right to proceed with the work or such part of the work as to which there has been a failure to pay said required wages and to prosecute the work to completion by contract or otherwise, and the contractor and the contractor's sureties shall be liable to the state or the contracting political subdivision for any excess costs occasioned the state or the contracting political subdivision thereby, or (B) withhold payment of money to the contractor or subcontractor. The contracting department of the state or the political subdivision of the state shall, not later than two days after taking such action, notify the Labor Commissioner, in writing, of the name of the contractor or subcontractor, the project involved, the location of the work, the violations involved, the date the contract was terminated, and steps taken to collect the required wages.

      (c) The Labor Commissioner may make complaint to the proper prosecuting authorities for the violation of any provision of subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) For the purpose of predetermining the prevailing rate of wage on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, in each town where such contract is to be performed, the Labor Commissioner shall (1) hold a hearing at any required time to determine the prevailing rate of wages on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, upon any public work within any specified area, and shall establish classifications of skilled, semiskilled and ordinary labor, or (2) adopt and use such appropriate and applicable prevailing wage rate determinations as have been made by the Secretary of Labor of the United States under the provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act, as amended.

      (e) The Labor Commissioner shall determine the prevailing rate of wages on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of such person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, in each locality where any such public work is to be constructed, and the agent empowered to let such contract shall contact the Labor Commissioner, at least ten but not more than twenty days prior to the date such contracts will be advertised for bid, to ascertain the proper rate of wages and amount of employee welfare fund payments or contributions and shall include such rate of wage on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, or in lieu thereof the amount to be paid directly to each person for such payment or contributions as provided in subsection (a) of this section for all classifications of labor in the proposal for the contract. The rate of wage on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, or cash in lieu thereof, as provided in subsection (a) of this section, shall, at all times, be considered as the minimum rate for the classification for which it was established. Prior to the award of any contract subject to the provisions of this section, such agent shall certify in writing to the Labor Commissioner the total dollar amount of work to be done in connection with such public works project, regardless of whether such project consists of one or more contracts. Upon the award of any contract subject to the provisions of this section, the contractor to whom such contract is awarded shall certify, under oath, to the Labor Commissioner the pay scale to be used by such contractor and any of the contractor's subcontractors for work to be performed under such contract.

      (f) Each employer subject to the provisions of this section or section 31-54 shall (1) keep, maintain and preserve such records relating to the wages and hours worked by each person performing the work of any mechanic, laborer and worker and a schedule of the occupation or work classification at which each person performing the work of any mechanic, laborer or worker on the project is employed during each work day and week in such manner and form as the Labor Commissioner establishes to assure the proper payments due to such persons or employee welfare funds under this section or section 31-54, regardless of any contractual relationship alleged to exist between the contractor and such person, and (2) submit monthly to the contracting agency by mail, first class postage prepaid, a certified payroll that shall consist of a complete copy of such records accompanied by a statement signed by the employer that indicates (A) such records are correct; (B) the rate of wages paid to each person performing the work of any mechanic, laborer or worker and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each such person to any employee welfare fund, as defined in subsection (i) of this section, are not less than the prevailing rate of wages and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each such person to any employee welfare fund, as determined by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, and not less than those required by the contract to be paid; (C) the employer has complied with the provisions of this section and section 31-54; (D) each such person is covered by a workers' compensation insurance policy for the duration of such person's employment, which shall be demonstrated by submitting to the contracting agency the name of the workers' compensation insurance carrier covering each such person, the effective and expiration dates of each policy and each policy number; (E) the employer does not receive kickbacks, as defined in 41 USC 52, from any employee or employee welfare fund; and (F) pursuant to the provisions of section 53a-157a, the employer is aware that filing a certified payroll which the employer knows to be false is a class D felony for which the employer may be fined up to five thousand dollars, imprisoned for up to five years, or both. This subsection shall not be construed to prohibit a general contractor from relying on the certification of a lower tier subcontractor, provided the general contractor shall not be exempted from the provisions of section 53a-157a if the general contractor knowingly relies upon a subcontractor's false certification. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1-210, the certified payroll shall be considered a public record and every person shall have the right to inspect and copy such records in accordance with the provisions of section 1-212. The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of section 31-59 and sections 31-66 and 31-69 that are not inconsistent with the provisions of this section or section 31-54 apply to this section. Failing to file a certified payroll pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection is a class D felony for which the employer may be fined up to five thousand dollars, imprisoned for up to five years, or both.

      (g) Any contractor who is required by the Labor Department to make any payment as a result of a subcontractor's failure to pay wages or benefits, or any subcontractor who is required by the Labor Department to make any payment as a result of a lower tier subcontractor's failure to pay wages or benefits, may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to recover no more than the damages sustained by reason of making such payment, together with costs and a reasonable attorney's fee.

      (h) The provisions of this section do not apply where the total cost of all work to be performed by all contractors and subcontractors in connection with new construction of any public works project is less than four hundred thousand dollars or where the total cost of all work to be performed by all contractors and subcontractors in connection with any remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project is less than one hundred thousand dollars.

      (i) As used in this section, section 31-54 and section 31-89a, "employee welfare fund" means any trust fund established by one or more employers and one or more labor organizations or one or more other third parties not affiliated with the employers to provide from moneys in the fund, whether through the purchase of insurance or annuity contracts or otherwise, benefits under an employee welfare plan; provided such term shall not include any such fund where the trustee, or all of the trustees, are subject to supervision by the Banking Commissioner of this state or any other state or the Comptroller of the Currency of the United States or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and "benefits under an employee welfare plan" means one or more benefits or services under any plan established or maintained for persons performing the work of any mechanics, laborers or workers or their families or dependents, or for both, including, but not limited to, medical, surgical or hospital care benefits; benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability or death; benefits in the event of unemployment, or retirement benefits.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7372; March, 1950, S. 3018d, 3019d; 1961, P.A. 486, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 240, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 494, S. 1; P.A. 73-566, S. 1; P.A. 75-90, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-442; 77-614, S. 161, 610; P.A. 79-325; P.A. 80-482, S. 200, 348; P.A. 83-537, S. 2; P.A. 85-355, S. 1-3; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-74, S. 1; 91-407, S. 40, 42; P.A. 93-392, S. 1; 93-435, S. 65, 95; P.A. 97-263, S. 14; P.A. 03-84, S. 17; P.A. 05-50, S. 1; P.A. 06-196, S. 161; P.A. 09-25, S. 1; P.A. 10-47, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 68.)

      History: 1961 act added provisions re political subdivision and employee welfare funds and added Subsecs. (f) and (g) re records and schedules which must be kept and re inapplicability of provisions where total cost of work is less than $5,000; 1963 act substituted "alteration" for "remodeling" and "public works project" for references to public buildings; 1967 act added Subsec. (h) defining "employee welfare fund" and "benefits under an employee welfare plan" and substituted references to Subsec. (h) for references to Sec. 31-78; P.A. 73-566 amended Subsec. (b) to add provisions re termination of contract when discovery is made that employees are being paid less than the amount required under contract; P.A. 75-90 added references to remodeling, refurnishing, refurbishing and rehabilitation of projects in Subsecs. (a), (b) and (g); P.A. 77-442 added Subsec. (d)(2) requiring commissioner to adopt and use appropriate and applicable prevailing wage rate determinations made by U.S. Secretary of Labor; P.A. 77-614 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner within the department of business regulation and made banking department the division of banking within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-325 replaced former provisions of Subsec. (g) which had rendered section inapplicable where total cost of project is less than $50,000 with provision rendering provisions inapplicable to new construction projects where total cost is less than $50,000 and to remodeling, refinishing etc. projects where total cost is less than $10,000; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as independent department with commissioner as its head following abolition of business regulation department; P.A. 83-537 amended Subsec. (e) to require the local agent to contact the labor commissioner, to ascertain proper wage rates and payment levels, at least ten but not more than 20 days prior to putting the contract out to bid; P.A. 85-355 amended Subsec. (e) to require the agent to certify the total cost of work to be done on the public works project, and to require the contractor to certify the pay scale to be used on the project after having been awarded the contract and amended Subsec. (g) to make the prevailing wage requirements inapplicable to projects costing less than $200,000 if new construction, or to projects costing less than $50,000 if remodeling; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 91-74 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (b) to increase fines from $100 to not less than $2,500 but not more than $5,000 and amended Subsec. (g) by changing the cost thresholds from $200,000 to $400,000 and from $50,000 to $100,000; P.A. 91-407 changed effective date of P.A. 91-74 from October 1, 1991, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 93-392 deleted reference to Sec. 51-53 in Subsec. (a) and added (f)(2) requiring employers subject to the state prevailing wage laws to file weekly certified payrolls with the contracting public agency and designating such certified payrolls as public records; P.A. 93-435 made technical change in Subsec. (a) to reinstate language in existence prior to amendment made by P.A. 93-392, effective June 28, 1993; P.A. 97-263 added Subsec. (b)(1) and (2) disqualifying bidders from bidding on contracts with the state until certain requirements are met and adding provision permitting the withholding of payment of money to the contractor or subcontractor, amended Subsec. (d) to change "employee" to "person", amended Subsec. (f) to require monthly submission of certified payroll and to make failure to file a certified payroll a class D felony, and amended Subsec. (h) by redefining "employee welfare fund" to include one or more other third parties not affiliated with the employers; P.A. 03-84 changed "Commissioner of Banking" to "Banking Commissioner" in Subsec. (h), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 05-50 substituted "person" for "employee" and made technical changes throughout, amended Subsec. (a) to require payment of prevailing wage to persons performing the work of any mechanic, laborer or worker and to require contractor not obligated to contribute to employee welfare fund to pay to each mechanic, laborer or worker the amount of contribution for such person's classification, amended Subsec. (b) to impose penalties on any contractor or subcontractor who fails to pay prevailing wage or make required contributions to employee welfare fund, amended Subsec. (f) to require employer to keep, maintain and preserve records and schedule of occupation or work classification for each person performing the work of any mechanic, laborer and worker, adding "regardless of any contractual relationship alleged to exist between the contractor and such person" and amended Subsec. (h) to redefine "benefits under an employee welfare plan"; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 09-25 amended Subsec. (f)(2) to require employer to submit certified payroll to contracting agency by mail, first class postage prepaid; P.A. 10-47 added new Subsec. (g) re civil action for contractor or subcontractor required by Labor Department to make payment on behalf of subcontractor or lower-tiered subcontractor to recover damages, costs and fees, redesignated existing Subsecs. (g) and (h) as Subsecs. (h) and (i) and made technical changes in Subsecs. (a), (b), (d) and (e); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (f).

      See Sec. 7-112 re applicability of section to construction, remodeling or repair of public buildings by state agencies and political subdivisions of the state.

      Where an employee is working under a contract which violates the statute or fails to provide for pay at least equal to the prevailing wages as fixed by the board, the state is in no position to claim that, if he is injured, compensation should not be based on the prevailing wage as so determined. 135 C. 498. Cited. 223 C. 573.

      Cited. 36 CA 29.

      Subsec. (f):

      Jurisdiction conferred on Labor Department over prevailing wages and certified payroll records by this Subsec. does not preempt exercise of jurisdiction by state electrical work examining board to sanction a licensee for misconduct in misclassifying employees and permitting employees to perform work that they were not licensed to perform. 104 CA 655.

      Subsec. (h):

      Cited. 44 CA 397.


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      Sec. 31-53a. Distribution of accrued payments. Debarment list. Limitation on awarding contracts. Sworn affidavits required of subcontractors. Civil penalty. Right of action. (a) The State Comptroller or the contracting authority acting pursuant to section 31-53 is hereby authorized and directed to pay to mechanics, laborers and workers from any accrued payments withheld under the terms of a contract terminated pursuant to subsection (b) of said section 31-53 any wages found to be due such mechanics, laborers and workers pursuant to said section 31-53. The Labor Commissioner is further authorized and directed to distribute a list to all departments of the state and political subdivisions of the state giving the names of persons or firms whom the Labor Commissioner has found to have disregarded their obligations under said section 31-53 and section 31-76c to employees and subcontractors on public works projects or to have been barred from federal government contracts in accordance with the provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act, 49 Stat. 1011 (1931), 40 USC 276a-2.

      (b) (1) No contract shall be awarded by the state or any of its political subdivisions to the persons or firms appearing on the list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or to any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such persons or firms have an interest until a period of up to three years, as determined by the Labor Commissioner, has elapsed from the date of publication of the list containing the names of such persons or firms.

      (2) No general contractor that enters into a contract with the state or any of its agents, or with any political subdivision of the state or any of its agents, for the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project subject to the provisions of section 31-53 or for any state highway project that falls under the provisions of section 31-54, shall award any work under such contract to the persons or firms appearing on the list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or to any firm, corporation, partnership or association in which such persons or firms have an interest until a period of up to three years, as determined by the Labor Commissioner, has elapsed from the date of publication of the list containing the names of such persons or firms.

      (3) Prior to performing any work under a contract for the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project subject to the provisions of section 31-53 or for any state highway project that falls under the provisions of section 31-54, each person, firm, corporation, partnership or association engaged by a general contractor to perform such work shall submit a sworn affidavit to the general contractor attesting that such person, firm, corporation, partnership or association does not hold an interest of ten per cent or greater in a firm appearing on the list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. The receipt and retention by a general contractor of such sworn affidavit shall fulfill the general contractor's obligation under subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (4) Any person or firm that appears on the list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, for a period of up to three years from the date of publication of such list, shall be liable to the Labor Department for a civil penalty of one thousand dollars for each day or part of a day in which such person or firm performs any work under any contract with the state or any of its agents, or with any political subdivision of the state or any of its agents, for the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project subject to the provisions of section 31-53 or any state highway project that falls under the provisions of section 31-54. The Attorney General, upon complaint of the Labor Commissioner, shall institute a civil action to recover such civil penalty. Any amount recovered shall be deposited in the General Fund and credited to a separate nonlapsing appropriation to the Labor Department, for other current expenses, and may be used by the Labor Department to enforce the provisions of this part. As used in this subdivision, "person or firm" includes any firm, corporation, partnership or association in which a person or firm appearing on the list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section holds an interest of ten per cent or greater.

      (c) If the accrued payments withheld under the terms of a contract terminated pursuant to subsection (b) of section 31-53 are insufficient to reimburse all the mechanics, laborers and workers with respect to whom there has been a failure to pay the wages required pursuant to said section 31-53, such mechanics, laborers and workers shall have the right of action and of intervention against the contractor and the contractor's sureties conferred by law upon persons furnishing labor or materials, and in such proceedings it shall be no defense that such mechanics, laborers and workers accepted or agreed to accept less than the required wages or that such persons voluntarily made refunds.

      (P.A. 73-566, S. 2; P.A. 78-362, S. 1, 3; P.A. 91-74, S. 2; 91-407, S. 40, 42; P.A. 93-392, S. 2; P.A. 97-263, S. 15; P.A. 04-102, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 78-362 required that list distributed by commissioner to departments of the state and to its political subdivisions contain names of those who have been barred from federal government contracts in accordance with provisions of Davis-Bacon Act in Subsec. (a); P.A. 91-74 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the period of ineligibility from three years to five years; P.A. 91-407 changed effective date of P.A. 91-74 from October 1, 1991, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 93-392 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 31-76c, to require that list distributed by labor commissioner to departments of the state and to its political subdivisions contain names of those who have violated overtime laws of the state on public works projects and to decrease the period of ineligibility from five to a maximum of three years, as determined by the commissioner; P.A. 97-263 incorporated changes to Sec. 31-53 by reference; P.A. 04-102 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), designated portion of said Subsec. as new Subsec. (b) and amended same by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1), providing that list referred to in said Subdiv. is debarment list distributed by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to Subsec. (a), and adding Subdivs. (2), (3) and (4) re general contractors' and subcontractors' obligations and potential liability for civil penalties relative to service on public works or state highway projects, and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c), making technical changes therein.

      Cited. 223 C. 573.

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      Sec. 31-53b. Construction safety and health course. New miner training program. Proof of completion required for mechanics, laborers and workers on public works projects. Enforcement. Regulations. Exceptions. (a) Each contract for a public works project entered into on or after July 1, 2009, by the state or any of its agents, or by any political subdivision of the state or any of its agents, described in subsection (h) of section 31-53, shall contain a provision requiring that each contractor furnish proof with the weekly certified payroll form for the first week each employee begins work on such project that any person performing the work of a mechanic, laborer or worker pursuant to the classifications of labor under section 31-53 on such public works project, pursuant to such contract, has completed a course of at least ten hours in duration in construction safety and health approved by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration or, has completed a new miner training program approved by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration in accordance with 30 CFR 48 or, in the case of telecommunications employees, has completed at least ten hours of training in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.268.

      (b) Any person required to complete a course or program under subsection (a) of this section who has not completed the course or program shall be subject to removal from the worksite if the person does not provide documentation of having completed such course or program by the fifteenth day after the date the person is found to be in noncompliance. The Labor Commissioner or said commissioner's designee shall enforce this section.

      (c) Not later than January 1, 2009, the Labor Commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section. Such regulations shall require that the ten-hour construction safety and health courses required under subsection (a) of this section be conducted in accordance with federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration Training Institute standards, or in accordance with Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration Standards or in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.268, as appropriate. The Labor Commissioner shall accept as sufficient proof of compliance with the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section a student course completion card issued by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration Training Institute, or such other proof of compliance said commissioner deems appropriate, dated no earlier than five years before the commencement date of such public works project.

      (d) This section shall not apply to employees of public service companies, as defined in section 16-1, or drivers of commercial motor vehicles driving the vehicle on the public works project and delivering or picking up cargo from public works projects provided they perform no labor relating to the project other than the loading and unloading of their cargo.

      (P.A. 06-175, S. 1; P.A. 08-83, S. 1; P.A. 10-47, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 08-83 amended Subsec. (a) by making provisions applicable to public works project contracts entered into on or after July 1, 2009, replacing provision re total cost of work with reference to Sec. 31-53(g), requiring proof in certified payroll form that new mechanic, laborer or worker has completed a 10-hour or more construction safety course and adding provision re new miner training program, amended Subsec. (b) by substituting "person" for "employee" and adding "or program", amended Subsec. (c) by adding "or in accordance with Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration Standards" and setting new deadline of January 1, 2009, deleted former Subsec. (d) re "public building", added new Subsec. (d) re exemptions for public service company employees and delivery drivers who perform no labor other than delivery and made conforming and technical changes, effective January 1, 2009; P.A. 10-47 made a technical change in Subsec. (a).

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      Sec. 31-54. Rate of wages for work on state highways. The Labor Commissioner shall hold a hearing at any required time to determine the prevailing rate of wages upon any highway contract within any specified area on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each employee to any employee welfare fund, as defined in section 31-53, upon any classifications of skilled, semiskilled and ordinary labor. Said commissioner shall determine the prevailing rate of wages on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each employee to any employee welfare fund, as defined in section 31-53, in each locality where any highway or bridge is to be constructed, and the Commissioner of Transportation shall include such rate of wage on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each employee to any employee welfare fund, as defined in section 31-53, or in lieu thereof, in cash as part of wages each pay day, for each classification of labor in the proposal for the contract and in the contract. The rate and the amount so established shall, at all times, be considered as the minimum rate of wage on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions to an employee welfare fund, or cash in lieu thereof, for the classification for which it was established. Any contractor who pays any person at a lower rate of wage on an hourly basis or the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each employee to any employee welfare fund, as defined in section 31-53, or where he is not obligated by any agreement to make payment or contributions to the employee welfare funds, as defined in section 31-53, and fails to pay the amount of such payment or contributions directly to the employee as a part of his wages each pay day, than that so established for the classifications of work specified in any such contract shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars for each offense. The provisions of this section shall apply only to state highways and bridges on state highways.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2206; March, 1950, S. 1194d; 1961, P.A. 486, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 494, S. 2; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 260; P.A. 97-263, S. 17.)

      History: 1961 act added establishment of rate on hourly basis and provisions re employee welfare funds; 1967 act replaced references to Sec. 31-78 with references to Sec. 31-53; 1969 act replaced highway commissioner with commissioner of transportation; P.A. 97-263 increased amount of fine from $100 to $200.

      See Sec. 7-112 re applicability of this section to construction, remodeling, etc. of public buildings by political subdivisions of state.

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      Sec. 31-55. Posting of wage rates by contractors doing state work. Every contractor or subcontractor performing work for the state subject to the provisions of section 31-53 or 31-54 shall post the prevailing wages as determined by the Labor Commissioner in prominent and easily accessible places at the site of work or at such place or places as are used to pay its employees their wages.

      (1955, S. 3020d; P.A. 97-263, S. 16.)

      History: P.A. 97-263 incorporated changes to Secs. 31-53 and 31-54 by reference.

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      Sec. 31-55a. Annual adjustments to wage rates by contractors doing state work. Each contractor that is awarded a contract on or after October 1, 2002, for (1) the construction of a state highway or bridge that falls under the provisions of section 31-54, or (2) the construction, remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing, rehabilitation, alteration or repair of any public works project that falls under the provisions of section 31-53 shall contact the Labor Commissioner on or before July first of each year, for the duration of such contract, to ascertain the prevailing rate of wages on an hourly basis and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each mechanic, laborer or worker employed upon the work contracted to be done, and shall make any necessary adjustments to such prevailing rate of wages and such payment or contributions paid or payable on behalf of each such employee, effective each July first.

      (P.A. 02-69, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 31-56. Hours of labor on state bridges. Section 31-56 is repealed, effective October 1, 2008.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2208; 1963, P.A. 240, S. 2; 1969, P.A. 768, S. 261; P.A. 08-101, S. 31.)

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      Sec. 31-57. Hours of labor on construction, alteration or repair of public works project. Each contract entered into by the Commissioner of Public Works for the construction, alteration or repair of any public works project shall contain a provision to the effect that no person shall be employed to work or be permitted to work more than eight hours in any day or more than forty hours in any week on any work provided for in such contract. The operation of such limitation of hours of work may be suspended during an emergency, upon the approval of the Commissioner of Public Works.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7373; 1963, P.A. 240, S. 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 73, 610; P.A. 87-496, S. 98, 110.)

      History: 1963 act substituted "public works project" for "public building" and added reference to alterations; P.A. 77-614 replaced public works commissioner with commissioner of administrative services; P.A. 87-496 replaced administrative services commissioner with public works commissioner.

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      Sec. 31-57a. Awarding of contracts to National Labor Relations Act violators prohibited. The Labor Commissioner shall, not later than June thirtieth of each year, distribute a list to all departments of the state giving the names of persons or firms that have been found in violation of the National Labor Relations Act, 49 Stat. 449 (1935), 29 USC 151 et seq., by the National Labor Relations Board and by a final decision rendered by a federal court or that have been found in contempt of court by a final decision of a federal court for failure to correct a violation of said National Labor Relations Act, on three or more occasions involving different violations during the five preceding calendar years. Such list shall be compiled from the records of the National Labor Relations Board. No state contract shall be awarded to the persons or firms appearing on such list until three years have elapsed from the first day of July following publication of such list and, during such three-year period no state contract shall be awarded, to any subcontractor or supplier, for merchandise produced or services provided by such persons or firms. This section shall not prohibit any award of a state contract where such award is determined by the Labor Commissioner to be in the best interest of the state or where the Commissioner of Administrative Services certifies to the Labor Commissioner that there is only one source for the merchandise or services for which such contract is to be awarded.

      (P.A. 79-390, S. 1, 2.)

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      Sec. 31-57b. Awarding of contracts to occupational safety and health law violators prohibited. No contract shall be awarded by the state or any of its political subdivisions to any person or firm or any firm, corporation, partnership or association in which such persons or firms have an interest (1) which has been cited for three or more wilful or serious violations of any occupational safety and health act or of any standard, order or regulation promulgated pursuant to such act, during the three-year period preceding the bid, provided such violations were cited in accordance with the provisions of any state occupational safety and health act or the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and not abated within the time fixed by the citation and such citation has not been set aside following appeal to the appropriate agency or court having jurisdiction or (2) which has received one or more criminal convictions related to the injury or death of any employee in the three-year period preceding the bid. Any person who knowingly provides false information concerning the information required pursuant to this section shall be assessed a civil penalty of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars and shall be disqualified from bidding on or participating in a contract with the state or any of its political subdivisions for five years from the date of the final determination that the information is false. Any political subdivision or any state agency receiving false information pursuant to this section shall notify the Commissioner of Administrative Services and, upon receipt of such notice, the commissioner shall conduct a hearing in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. Upon a determination that false information was provided, the commissioner shall impose a civil penalty in accordance with the provisions of this section. Such civil penalty shall be paid to the Treasurer or to an official of the political subdivision, as the case may be. Any civil penalty imposed pursuant to this section may be collected in a civil proceeding by any official of a political subdivision authorized to institute civil actions or, in the case of the state, by the attorney general, upon complaint of the Commissioner of Administrative Services.

      (P.A. 89-367, S. 6.)

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      Sec. 31-57c. Disqualification of certain contractors from bidding on, applying for or participating in public works contracts with the state: Disqualification by Commissioner of Public Works; procedure; causes. Exception permitting disqualified contractor to participate in contract or subcontract. (a) As used in this section, the term "contractor" shall mean any person, firm or corporation which has contracted or seeks to contract with the state, or to participate in such a contract, in connection with any public works of the state or a political subdivision of the state.

      (b) Disqualification of a contractor is a serious action that shall be used only in the public interest and for the state government's protection and not for purposes of punishment or in lieu of other applicable enforcement or compliance procedures. The causes for and consequences of disqualification under this section shall be separate from and in addition to causes for and consequences of disqualification under sections 4b-95, 31-53a, 31-57a and 31-57b.

      (c) The Commissioner of Public Works may disqualify any contractor, for up to two years, from bidding on, applying for, or participating as a subcontractor under, contracts with the state, acting through any of its departments, commissions or other agencies, except the Department of Administrative Services, the Department of Transportation and the constituent units of the state system of higher education, for one or more causes set forth under subsection (d) of this section. The commissioner may initiate a disqualification proceeding only after consulting with the contract awarding agency, if any, and the Attorney General and shall provide notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the contractor who is the subject of the proceeding. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the contested case procedures set forth in chapter 54. The commissioner shall issue a written decision within ninety days of the last date of such hearing and state in the decision the reasons for the action taken and, if the contractor is being disqualified, the period of such disqualification. The existence of a cause for disqualification shall not be the sole factor to be considered in determining whether the contractor shall be disqualified. In determining whether to disqualify a contractor, the commissioner shall consider the seriousness of the contractor's acts or omissions and any mitigating factors. The commissioner shall send the decision to the contractor by certified mail, return receipt requested. The written decision shall be a final decision for the purposes of sections 4-180 and 4-183.

      (d) Causes for disqualification from bidding on, or participating in, contracts shall include the following:

      (1) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere for or admission to commission of a criminal offense as an incident to obtaining or attempting to obtain a public or private contract or subcontract, or in the performance of such contract or subcontract;

      (2) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or admission to the violation of any state or federal law for embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, receiving stolen property or any other offense indicating a lack of business integrity or business honesty which affects responsibility as a state contractor;

      (3) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or admission to a violation of any state or federal antitrust, collusion or conspiracy law arising out of the submission of bids or proposals on a public or private contract or subcontract;

      (4) A wilful failure to perform in accordance with the terms of one or more public contracts, agreements or transactions;

      (5) A history of failure to perform or of unsatisfactory performance of one or more public contracts, agreements or transactions; or

      (6) A wilful violation of a statutory or regulatory provision or requirement applicable to a public contract, agreement or transaction.

      (e) For purposes of a disqualification proceeding under this section, conduct may be imputed as follows:

      (1) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of any officer, director, shareholder, partner, employee or other individual associated with a contractor may be imputed to the contractor when the conduct occurred in connection with the individual's performance of duties for or on behalf of the contractor and the contractor knew of or had reason to know of such conduct. The term "other seriously improper conduct" shall not include advice from an attorney, accountant or other paid consultant if it was reasonable for the contractor to rely on such advice.

      (2) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of a contractor may be imputed to any officer, director, shareholder, partner, employee or other individual associated with the contractor who participated in, knew of or had reason to know of the contractor's conduct.

      (3) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of one contractor participating in a joint venture or similar arrangement may be imputed to other participating contractors if the conduct occurred for or on behalf of the joint venture or similar arrangement and these contractors knew of or had reason to know of such conduct.

      (f) The commissioner may reduce the period or extent of disqualification, upon the contractor's request, supported by documentation, for the following reasons:

      (1) Newly discovered material evidence;

      (2) Reversal of the conviction upon which the disqualification was based;

      (3) Bona fide change in ownership or management;

      (4) Elimination of other causes for which the disqualification was imposed; or

      (5) Other reasons the commissioner deems appropriate.

      (g) The commissioner may grant an exception permitting a disqualified contractor to participate in a particular contract or subcontract upon a written determination by the head of the contract awarding agency that there is good cause, in the interest of the public, for such action.

      (P.A. 93-220, S. 1, 3.)

      History: P.A. 93-220 effective July 2, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 1997 references in Subsec. (e) and Subsec. (e)(2) to "inputed" were changed editorially by the Revisors to "imputed").

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      Sec. 31-57d. Disqualification of certain contractors from bidding on, applying for or participating in public works contracts with the state: Disqualification by Commissioner of Transportation; procedure; causes. Exception permitting disqualified contractor to participate in contract or subcontract. (a) As used in this section, the term "contractor" shall mean any person, firm or corporation which has contracted or seeks to contract with the state, or to participate in such a contract, in connection with any public works of the state or a political subdivision of the state.

      (b) Disqualification of a contractor is a serious action that shall be used only in the public interest and for the state government's protection and not for purposes of punishment or in lieu of other applicable enforcement or compliance procedures. The causes for and consequences of disqualification under this section shall be separate from and in addition to causes for and consequences of disqualification under sections 4b-95, 31-53a, 31-57a and 31-57b.

      (c) The Commissioner of Transportation may disqualify any contractor, for up to two years, from bidding on, applying for, or participating as a subcontractor under, contracts with the state, acting through the Department of Transportation, for one or more causes set forth under subsection (d) of this section. The commissioner may initiate a disqualification proceeding only after consulting with the Attorney General and shall provide notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the contractor who is the subject of the proceeding. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the contested case procedures set forth in chapter 54. The commissioner shall issue a written decision within ninety days of the last date of such hearing and state in the decision the reasons for the action taken and, if the contractor is being disqualified, the period of such disqualification. The existence of a cause for disqualification does not require that the contractor be disqualified. In determining whether to disqualify a contractor, the commissioner shall consider the seriousness of the contractor's acts or omissions and any mitigating factors. The commissioner shall send the decision to the contractor by certified mail, return receipt requested. The written decision shall be a final decision for the purposes of sections 4-180 and 4-183.

      (d) Causes for disqualification from bidding on, or participating in, contracts shall include the following:

      (1) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere for or admission to commission of a criminal offense as an incident to obtaining or attempting to obtain a public or private contract or subcontract, or in the performance of such contract or subcontract;

      (2) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or admission to the violation of any state or federal law for embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, receiving stolen property or any other offense indicating a lack of business integrity or business honesty which affects responsibility as a state contractor;

      (3) Conviction or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or admission to a violation of any state or federal antitrust, collusion or conspiracy law arising out of the submission of bids or proposals on a public or private contract or subcontract;

      (4) A wilful failure to perform in accordance with the terms of one or more public contracts, agreements or transactions;

      (5) A history of failure to perform or of unsatisfactory performance of one or more public contracts, agreements or transactions; or

      (6) A wilful violation of a statutory or regulatory provision or requirement applicable to a public contract, agreement or transaction.

      (e) For purposes of a disqualification proceeding under this section, conduct may be imputed as follows:

      (1) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of any officer, director, shareholder, partner, employee or other individual associated with a contractor may be imputed to the contractor when the conduct occurred in connection with the individual's performance of duties for or on behalf of the contractor and the contractor knew of or had reason to know of such conduct. The term "other seriously improper conduct" shall not include advice from an attorney, accountant or other paid consultant if it was reasonable for the contractor to rely on such advice.

      (2) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of a contractor may be imputed to any officer, director, shareholder, partner, employee or other individual associated with the contractor who participated in, knew of or had reason to know of the contractor's conduct.

      (3) The fraudulent, criminal or other seriously improper conduct of one contractor participating in a joint venture or similar arrangement may be imputed to other participating contractors if the conduct occurred for or on behalf of the joint venture or similar arrangement and these contractors knew of or had reason to know of such conduct.

      (f) The commissioner may reduce the period or extent of disqualification, upon the contractor's request, supported by documentation, for the following reasons:

      (1) Newly discovered material evidence;

      (2) Reversal of the conviction upon which the disqualification was based;

      (3) Bona fide change in ownership or management;

      (4) Elimination of other causes for which the disqualification was imposed; or

      (5) Other reasons the commissioner deems appropriate.

      (g) The commissioner may grant an exception permitting a disqualified contractor to participate in a particular contract or subcontract upon a written determination that there is good cause, in the interest of the public, for such action.

      (P.A. 93-220, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 93-220 effective July 2, 1993.

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      Sec. 31-57e. Contracts between the state and federally recognized Indian tribes. Employment Rights Code; protection of persons employed by a tribe. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Commercial enterprise" means any form of commercial conduct or a particular commercial transaction or act, including the operation of a casino, which relates to or is connected with any profit-making pursuit;

      (2) "Labor organization" means any organization which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection in connection with employment;

      (3) "Tribe" means any federally recognized Indian tribe which is subject to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, P.L. 100-497, 25 USC 2701 et seq.

      (b) The state shall not provide any funds or services which directly or indirectly assist any tribe engaged in a commercial enterprise until the tribe adopts an Employment Rights Code established pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, unless such funds or services are (1) required by federal or state law, (2) were agreed to in writing prior to July 1, 1993, or (3) are provided to a project which is covered by federal or state employment regulations or employment rights laws. This subsection shall not be construed to prohibit the state from enforcing any civil or criminal law, or any gaming regulation at a commercial enterprise owned or operated by a tribe, or to require the state to enforce a violation of any criminal law which would not be a violation if it occurred outside tribal land. The Governor, upon consulting with the leaders of the General Assembly, may waive the restrictions set forth in this subsection in the event of a declared emergency.

      (c) The state shall oppose any application by a tribe, pursuant to 25 CFR chapter 151, to convert any parcel of fee interest land to federal trust status. The conversion shall be deemed contrary to the interest of the state and its residents.

      (d) The Governor shall include in each future proposal by the state in negotiations conducted pursuant to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, a provision requiring the adoption of an Employment Rights Code established pursuant to subsection (e) of this section. The Governor shall employ his best efforts to ensure that any final agreement, compact or contract established under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act includes an Employment Rights Code in accordance with subsection (e) of this section.

      (e) The Employment Rights Code referred to under this section shall include the following provisions:

      (1) A commercial enterprise subject to tribal jurisdiction shall not, except in the case of a bona fide occupational qualification or need, refuse to hire or employ or bar or discharge from employment any individual or discriminate against him in compensation or in terms, conditions or privileges of employment because of the individual's race, color, religious creed, sex, marital status, national origin, ancestry, age, present or past history of mental disorder, mental retardation, sexual orientation, learning or physical disability, political activity, union activity or the exercise of rights protected by the United States Constitution. This subdivision shall not be construed to restrict the right of a tribe to give preference in hiring to members of the tribe.

      (2) A commercial enterprise subject to tribal jurisdiction shall not deny any individual, including a representative of a labor organization, seeking to ensure compliance with this section, access to employees of the tribe's commercial enterprise during nonwork time in nonwork areas. The tribe shall not permit any supervisor, manager or other agent of the tribe to restrict or otherwise interfere with such access.

      (3) When a labor organization claims that it has been designated or selected for the purposes of collective bargaining by the majority of the employees in a unit appropriate for such purposes, the labor organization may apply to an arbitrator to verify the claim pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection. If the arbitrator verifies that the labor organization has been designated or selected as the bargaining representative by a majority of the employees in an appropriate unit, the tribe shall, upon request, recognize the labor organization as the exclusive bargaining agent and bargain in good faith with the labor organization in an effort to reach a collective bargaining agreement. However, the arbitrator shall disallow any claim by a labor organization which is dominated or controlled by the tribe.

      (4) (A) Any individual or organization claiming to be injured by a violation of any provision of this subsection shall have the right to seek binding arbitration under the rules of the American Arbitration Association. Such individual or organization shall file a demand for arbitration with the tribe not later than one hundred eighty days after the employee or labor organization knows or should know of the tribe's violation of any provision of this subsection. The demand shall state, in plain language, the facts giving rise to the demand.

      (B) The demand for arbitration shall also be served upon the Connecticut office of the American Arbitration Association. Absent settlement, a hearing shall be held in accordance with the rules and procedures of the American Arbitration Association. The costs and fees of the arbitrator shall be shared equally by the tribe and the labor organization.

      (C) The decision of the arbitrator shall be final and binding on both parties and shall be subject to judicial review and enforcement against all parties in the manner prescribed by chapter 909.

      (5) A tribe shall not retaliate against any individual who exercises any right under the Employment Rights Code. Any individual or organization claiming to be injured by a violation of the provisions of this section shall have the right to seek binding arbitration pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection.

      (f) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the Governor may negotiate an agreement with a tribe which establishes rights for employees of commercial enterprises subject to tribal jurisdiction in addition to those provided under the Employment Rights Code established under subsection (e) of this section.

      (P.A. 93-365, S. 1-6.)

      History: P.A. 93-365 effective July 1, 1993.

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      Sec. 31-57f. Standard wage rate for certain service workers. Definitions. Standard rate required. Civil penalty. Complaints. Determination of standard rate by Labor Commissioner. Effect on employers bound by collective bargaining agreements. Recordkeeping requirement. Penalty for filing false certified payroll. Exemptions. Regulations. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Required employer" means any provider of food, building, property or equipment services or maintenance listed in this subdivision whose rate of reimbursement or compensation is determined by contract or agreement with the state or any state agent: (A) Building, property or equipment service companies; (B) management companies providing property management services; and (C) companies providing food preparation or service, or both; (2) "state agent" means any state official, state employee or other person authorized to enter into a contract or agreement on behalf of the state; (3) "person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, business trusts, legal representatives or organized groups of persons; (4) "building, property or equipment service" means any janitorial, cleaning, maintenance or related service; (5) "prevailing rate of wages" means the hourly wages paid for work performed within the city of Hartford under the collective bargaining agreement covering the largest number of hourly nonsupervisory employees employed within Hartford County in each classification established by the Labor Commissioner under subsection (e) of this section, provided the collective bargaining agreement covers no less than five hundred employees in the classification; (6) "prevailing rate of benefits" means the total cost to the employer on an hourly basis for work performed within the city of Hartford, under a collective bargaining agreement that establishes the prevailing rate of wages, of providing health, welfare and retirement benefits, including, but not limited to, (A) medical, surgical or hospital care benefits; (B) disability or death benefits; (C) benefits in the event of unemployment; (D) pension benefits; (E) vacation, holiday and personal leave; (F) training benefits; and (G) legal service benefits, and may include payment made directly to employees, payments to purchase insurance and the amount of payment or contributions paid or payable by the employer on behalf of each employee to any employee benefit fund; (7) "employee benefit fund" means any trust fund established by one or more employers and one or more labor organizations or one or more other third parties not affiliated with such employers to provide, whether through the purchase of insurance or annuity contracts or otherwise, benefits under an employee health, welfare or retirement plan, but does not include any such fund where the trustee or trustees are subject to supervision by the Banking Commissioner of this state or of any other state, or the Comptroller of the Currency of the United States or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and (8) "benefits under an employee health, welfare or retirement plan" means one or more benefits or services under any plan established or maintained for employees or their families or dependents, or for both, including, but not limited to, medical, surgical or hospital care benefits, benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability or death, benefits in the event of unemployment, retirement benefits, vacation and paid holiday benefits, legal service benefits or training benefits.

      (b) On and after July 1, 2000, the wages paid on an hourly basis to any employee of a required employer in the provision of food, building, property or equipment services provided to the state pursuant to a contract or agreement with the state or any state agent, shall be at a rate not less than the standard rate determined by the Labor Commissioner pursuant to subsection (g) of this section.

      (c) Any required employer or agent of such employer that violates subsection (b) of this section shall pay a civil penalty in an amount not less than two thousand five hundred dollars but not more than five thousand dollars for each offense. The contracting department of the state that has imposed such civil penalty on the required employer or agent of such employer shall, within two days after taking such action, notify the Labor Commissioner, in writing, of the name of the employer or agent involved, the violations involved and steps taken to collect the fine.

      (d) The Labor Commissioner may make complaint to the proper prosecuting authorities for the violation of any provision of subsection (b) of this section.

      (e) For the purpose of predetermining the standard rate of covered wages on an hourly basis, the Labor Commissioner shall establish classifications for all hourly nonsupervisory employees based on the applicable occupation codes and titles set forth in the federal Register of Wage Determinations under the Service Contract Act of 1965, 41 USC 351, et seq., provided the Labor Commissioner shall classify any individual employed on or before July 1, 2009, as a grounds maintenance laborer or laborer as a janitor, and shall classify any individual hired after July 1, 2009, performing the duty of grounds maintenance laborer, laborer or janitor as a light cleaner, heavy cleaner, furniture handler or window cleaner, as appropriate. The Labor Commissioner shall then determine the standard rate of wages for each classification of hourly nonsupervisory employees which shall be (1) the prevailing rate of wages paid to employees in each classification, or if there is no such prevailing rate of wages, the minimum hourly wages set forth in the federal Register of Wage Determinations under the Service Contract Act, plus (2) the prevailing rate of benefits paid to employees in each classification, or if there is no such prevailing rate of benefits, a thirty per cent surcharge on the amount determined in subdivision (1) of this subsection to cover the cost of any health, welfare and retirement benefits or, if no such benefits are provided to the employees, an amount equal to thirty per cent of the amount determined in subdivision (1) of this section, which shall be paid directly to the employees. The standard rate of wages for any employee entitled to receive such rate on or before July 1, 2009, shall not be less than the minimum hourly wage for the classification set forth in the federal Register of Wage Determinations under the Service Contract Act plus the prevailing rate of benefits for such classification for as long as that employee continues to work for a required employer.

      (f) Required employers with employees covered by collective bargaining agreements which call for wages and benefits that are reasonably related to the standard rate of wages shall not be economically disadvantaged in the bidding process, provided the collective bargaining agreement was arrived at through arms-length negotiations.

      (g) The Labor Commissioner shall, in accordance with subsection (e) of this section, determine the standard rate of wages for each classification on an hourly basis where any covered services are to be provided, and the state agent empowered to let such contract shall contact the Labor Commissioner at least ten days prior to the date such contract will be advertised for bid, to ascertain the standard rate of wages and shall include the standard rate of wages on an hourly basis for all classifications of employment in the proposal for the contract. The standard rate of wages on an hourly basis shall, at all times, be considered the minimum rate for the classification for which it was established.

      (h) Where a required employer is awarded a contract to perform services that are substantially the same as services that have been rendered under a predecessor contract, such required employer shall retain, for a period of ninety days, all employees who had been employed by the predecessor to perform services under such predecessor contract, except that the successor contract need not retain employees who worked less than fifteen hours per week or who had been employed at the site for less than sixty days. During such ninety-day period, the successor contract shall not discharge without just cause an employee retained pursuant to this subsection. If the performance of an employee retained pursuant to this subsection or section 4a-82 is satisfactory during the ninety-day period, the successor contractor shall offer the employee continued employment for the duration of the successor contract under the terms and conditions established by the successor contractor, or as required by law. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any contract covered by section 31-57g or subsections (o) and (p) of section 4a-82.

      (i) Each required employer subject to the provisions of this section shall (1) keep, maintain and preserve such records relating to the wages and hours worked by each employee and a schedule of the occupation or work classification at which each person is employed during each work day and week in such manner and form as the Labor Commissioner establishes to assure the proper payments due to such employees, and (2) annually or upon written request, submit to the contracting state agent a certified payroll which shall consist of a complete copy of such records accompanied by a statement signed by the employer which indicates that (A) such records are correct, (B) the rate of wages paid to each employee is not less than the standard rate of wages required by this section, (C) such employer has complied with the provisions of this section, and (D) such employer is aware that filing a certified payroll which it knows to be false is a class D felony for which such employer may be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1-210, the certified payroll shall be considered a public record and every person shall have the right to inspect and copy such record in accordance with the provisions of section 1-212. The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of section 31-59, section 31-66 and section 31-69 which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this section shall apply. Any person who files a false certified payroll in violation of subdivision (2) of this subsection shall be guilty of a class D felony for which such person may be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

      (j) This section shall not apply to contracts, agreements or grants which do not exceed forty-nine thousand nine hundred ninety-nine dollars per annum.

      (k) On receipt of a complaint for nonpayment of the standard rate of wages, the Labor Commissioner, the Director of Wage and Workplace Standards and wage enforcement agents of the Labor Department shall have power to enter, during usual business hours, the place of business or employment of any employer to determine compliance with this section, and for such purpose may examine payroll and other records and interview employees, call hearings, administer oaths, take testimony under oath and take depositions in the manner provided by sections 52-148a to 52-148e, inclusive. The commissioner or the director, for such purpose, may issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and the production of books and records. Any required employer, an officer or agent of such employer, or the officer or agent of any corporation, firm or partnership who wilfully fails to furnish time and wage records as required by law to the commissioner, the director or any wage enforcement agent upon request or who refuses to admit the commissioner, the director or such agent to a place of employment or who hinders or delays the commissioner, the director or such agent in the performance of any duties in the enforcement of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, and each day of such failure to furnish time and wage records to the commissioner, the director or such agent shall constitute a separate offense, and each day of refusal of admittance, of hindering or of delaying the commissioner, the director or such agent shall constitute a separate offense.

      (l) Notwithstanding subsection (j) of this section, any employer that pays the state for a franchise to provide food preparation or service, or both, for the state shall be required to certify that the wages and benefits paid to its employees are not less than the standard rate established pursuant to this section, provided, if no prevailing rate of wages or benefits was in effect at the time the state entered into a franchise agreement, then the employer shall not be required to pay the prevailing rate of wages or benefits during the life of the agreement, unless the agreement is amended, extended or renewed.

      (m) The Labor Commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to carry out the provisions of this section.

      (n) The provisions of this section and any regulation adopted pursuant to subsection (m) of this section shall not apply to any contract or agreement entered into before July 1, 2000.

      (P.A. 99-142, S. 1, 2; P.A. 09-183, S. 1; 09-184, S. 4; P.A. 10-88, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 99-142 effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 09-183 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdivs. (5) to (8) defining "prevailing rate of wages", "prevailing rate of benefits", "employee benefit fund" and "benefits under an employee health, welfare or retirement plan", amended Subsec. (e) by requiring commissioner to classify certain employees hired on or before July 1, 2009, as janitors and certain employees hired after July 1 2009, as light cleaners, heavy cleaners, furniture handlers or window cleaners and altering formula used by commissioner to determine standard wage, added new Subsec. (h) re required employer's retention of employees from predecessor contract to successor contract, redesignated existing Subsecs. (h) to (m) as Subsecs. (i) to (n), amended redesignated Subsec. (i)(2) to provide for annual submission of certified payroll, amended redesignated Subsec. (l) to add provision re franchise agreement, and made conforming and technical changes throughout, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 09-184 amended Subsec. (h) to add exception for contracts covered by Sec. 31-57g, effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-88 made technical changes in Subsec. (a)(6), effective May 26, 2010.

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      Sec. 31-57g. Employment protection for displaced service contract workers at Bradley International Airport. Definitions. Obligations of awarding authority and contractors upon termination of service contract; ninety-day retention requirement; required offer of continued employment. Civil action for damages. Penalty for violations. (a)(1) "Awarding authority" means any person, including a contractor or subcontractor, that awards or otherwise enters into a contract to perform food and beverage services at Bradley International Airport.

      (2) "Contractor" means any person that enters into a service contract with the awarding authority and any subcontractors to such service contract at any tier who employs ten or more persons.

      (3) "Employee" means any person engaged to perform services pursuant to a service contract, but does not include a person who is (A) a managerial, supervisory or confidential employee, including any person who would be so defined under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, or (B) employed for less than fifteen hours per week.

      (4) "Person" means any individual, proprietorship, partnership, joint venture, corporation, limited liability company, trust association or other entity that may employ or enter into other contracts, including the state and its political subdivisions.

      (5) "Service contract" means a contract for the performance of food and beverage services at Bradley International Airport, let by the awarding authority (A) after July 1, 2001, and before July 1, 2002, provided the successor contractor had actual knowledge of the pendency in the General Assembly of proposed legislation with content similar to this section, or (B) on or after July 1, 2002.

      (6) "Successor service contract" means a service contract with the awarding authority under which substantially the same services to be performed have previously been rendered to the awarding authority as part of the same program or at the same facility under another service contract or have previously been rendered by the awarding authority's own employees.

      (7) "Terminated contractor" means a contractor whose service contract expires without renewal or whose contract is terminated, and includes the awarding authority itself when work previously rendered by the awarding authority's own employees is the subject of a successor service contract.

      (b) Each contractor and awarding authority that enters into a service contract to be performed at Bradley International Airport shall be subject to the following obligations:

      (1) The awarding authority shall give advance notice to a contractor and the exclusive bargaining representative of any of the contractor's employees, of the termination or nonrenewal of such service contract and shall provide the contractor and the exclusive bargaining representative with the name, telephone number and address of the successor contractor or contractors, if known. The terminated contractor shall, not later than three days after receipt of such notice, provide the successor contractor with the name, date of hire and employment occupation classification of each person employed by the terminated contractor at the site or sites covered by the service contract as of the date the terminated contractor receives the notice of termination or nonrenewal.

      (2) On the date the service contract terminates, the terminated contractor shall provide the successor contractor with updated information concerning the name, date of hire and employment occupation classification of each person employed by the terminated contractor at the site or sites covered by the service contract, to ensure that such information is current up to the actual date of service contract termination.

      (3) If the awarding authority fails to notify the terminated contractor of the identity of the successor contractor, as required by subdivision (1) of this subsection, the terminated contractor shall provide the information described in subdivision (2) of this subsection to the awarding authority not later than three days after receiving notice that the service contract will be terminated. The awarding authority shall be responsible for providing such information to the successor contractor as soon as the successor contractor has been selected.

      (4) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (D) of this subdivision, a successor contractor shall retain, for at least ninety days from the date of first performance of services under the successor service contract, all of the employees who were continuously employed by the terminated contractor at the site or sites covered by the service contract during the six-month period immediately preceding the termination or nonrenewal of such service contract, including any periods of layoff or leave with recall rights.

      (B) Except as provided in subparagraph (D) of this subdivision, if the successor service contract is terminated prior to the expiration of such ninety-day period, then any contractor awarded a subsequent successor service contract shall be bound by the requirements set forth in this subsection to retain, for a new ninety-day period commencing with the onset of the subsequent successor service contract, all of the employees who were previously employed by any one or more of the terminated contractors at the site or sites covered by the service contract continuously during the six-month period immediately preceding the date of the most recently terminated service contract, including any periods of layoff or leave with recall rights.

      (C) At least five days prior to the termination of a service contract, or at least fifteen days prior to the commencement of the first performance of service under a successor service contract, whichever is later, the successor contractor shall hand-deliver a written offer of employment in substantially the form set forth below to each such employee in such employee's native language or any other language in which such employee is fluent:

"IMPORTANT INFORMATION REGARDING YOUR EMPLOYMENT

To: ....(Name of employee)

      We have received information that you are employed by .... (name of predecessor contractor) and are currently performing work at .... (address of worksite) .... (name of predecessor contractor's) contract to perform .... (describe services under contract) at .... (address of worksite) will terminate as of .... (last day of predecessor contract) and it will no longer be providing those services as of that date.

      We are .... (name of successor contractor) and have been hired to provide services similar to those of .... (name of predecessor contractor) at .... (address of worksite). We are offering you a job with us for a ninety-day probationary period starting .... (first day of successor contract) to perform the same type of work that you have already been doing for .... (name of predecessor contractor) under the following terms:

Payrate (per hour): $....
Hours per shift: ....
Total hours per week: ....
Benefits: ....

      You must respond to this offer within the next ten days. If you want to continue working at .... (address of worksite) you must let us know by .... (no later than ten days after the date of this letter). If we do not receive your response by the end of business that day, we will not hire you and you will lose your job. We can be reached at .... (successor contractor telephone number).

      Connecticut state law gives you the following rights:

      1. You have the right with certain exceptions, to be hired by our company for the first ninety days that we begin to provide services at .... (address of worksite).

      2. During this ninety-day period, you cannot be fired without just cause.

      3. If you believe that you have been fired or laid off in violation of this law, you have the right to sue us and be awarded back pay, attorneys' fees and court costs.

      From: .... (Name of successor contractor)

.... (Address of successor contractor)

.... (Telephone number of successor contractor)"

Each offer of employment shall state the time within which such employee must accept such offer but in no case shall that time be less than ten days from the date of the offer of employment.

      (D) The provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this subdivision shall not be construed to require a successor contractor to retain any employee whose attendance and performance records, while working under the terminated service contract, would lead a reasonably prudent employer to terminate the employee.

      (5) If at any time a successor contractor determines that fewer employees are required to perform the successor service contract than were required by the terminated contractor, the successor contractor shall be required to retain such employees by seniority within each job classification, based upon the employees' total length of service at the affected site or sites.

      (6) During such ninety-day period, the successor contractor shall maintain a preferential hiring list of employees eligible for retention pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection, who were not initially retained by the successor contractor, from which the successor contractor shall hire additional employees, if necessary.

      (7) Except as provided under subdivision (5) of this subsection, during such ninety-day period, the successor contractor shall not discharge without just cause an employee retained pursuant to this section. For purposes of this subdivision, "just cause" shall be determined solely by the performance or conduct of the particular employee.

      (8) If the performance of an employee retained pursuant to this section is satisfactory during the ninety-day period, the successor contractor shall offer the employee continued employment under the terms and conditions established by the successor contractor, or as required by law.

      (c) (1) An employee displaced or terminated in violation of this section, or such employee's collective bargaining representative, may bring an action in Superior Court against the awarding authority, the terminated contractor or the successor contractor, jointly or severally, to recover damages for any violation of the obligations imposed under this section.

      (2) If the employee prevails in such action, the court may award the employee (A) back pay, including the value of benefits, for each day during which the violation continues, that shall be calculated at a rate of compensation not less than the higher of (i) the average regular rate of pay received by the employee during the last year of employment in the same job occupation classification, or, if the employee has been employed for less than one year, the average rate of pay for the employee's entire employment multiplied by the average number of hours worked per day over the last four months of employment preceding the date of the violation, or (ii) the final regular rate of pay received by the employee at the date of termination multiplied by the average number of hours worked per day over the last four months, and (B) reinstatement to the employee's former position at not less than the most recent rate of compensation received by the employee, including the value of any benefits.

      (3) If the employee prevails in such action, the court shall award the employee reasonable attorney fees and costs.

      (4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit an employee's right to bring a common law cause of action for wrongful termination against the awarding authority, the terminated contractor or the successor contractor.

      (d) Any awarding authority or contractor who knowingly violates the provisions of this section shall pay a penalty not to exceed one hundred dollars per employee for each day the violation continues.

      (P.A. 02-134, S. 1; P.A. 03-278, S. 90; P.A. 06-129, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 02-134 effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-278 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1) and (2), effective July 9, 2003; P.A. 06-129 amended Subsec. (c) to provide right of employee's collective bargaining representative to bring civil action for damages.

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      Sec. 31-57h. Joint enforcement commission on employee misclassification. Members. Duties. Report. (a) There is established a joint enforcement commission on employee misclassification. The commission shall consist of the Labor Commissioner, the Commissioner of Revenue Services, the chairperson of the Workers' Compensation Commission, the Attorney General and the Chief State's Attorney, or their designees.

      (b) The joint enforcement commission on employee misclassification shall meet not less than four times each year. The task force shall review the problem of employee misclassification by employers for the purposes of avoiding their obligations under state and federal labor, employment and tax laws. The commission shall coordinate the civil prosecution of violations of state and federal laws as a result of employee misclassification and shall report any suspected violation of state criminal statutes to the Chief State's Attorney or the State's Attorney serving the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred.

      (c) On or before February 1, 2010, and annually thereafter, the commission shall report, in accordance with section 11-4a, to the Governor and the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to labor. The report shall summarize the commission's actions for the preceding calendar year and include any recommendations for administrative or legislative action.

      (P.A. 08-105, S. 9; 08-156, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 08-105 and 08-156 effective July 1, 2008.

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      Sec. 31-57i. Employee Misclassification Advisory Board. Members. Duties. There is established the Employee Misclassification Advisory Board to advise the joint enforcement commission on employee misclassification established pursuant to section 31-57h on misclassification in the construction industry in this state. The advisory board shall consist of members representing management and labor in the construction industry and shall be appointed as follows: One member representing labor and one member representing management, appointed by the Governor; one member representing labor, appointed by the speaker of the House of Representatives; one member representing management, appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives; one member representing management, appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate and one member representing labor, appointed by the minority leader of the Senate. All appointments shall be made by August 1, 2008. The terms of members shall be coterminous with the terms of the appointing authority for each member and any vacancy shall be filled by the appointing authority. Members of the advisory board shall serve without compensation but shall, within available funds, be reimbursed for expenses necessarily incurred in the performance of their duties.

      (P.A. 08-156, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 08-156 effective July 1, 2008.

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