CHAPTER 507
CONNECTICUT CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE

Table of Contents

Sec. 27-141. Definitions.
Sec. 27-142. Applicability of chapter.
Sec. 27-143. Dismissal of commissioned officer.
Sec. 27-144. Applicability of code in and out of state.
Sec. 27-145. Judge advocates and legal officers.
Sec. 27-146. Apprehension of offenders. Quelling of disturbances.
Sec. 27-147. Apprehension of deserters by civil officers.
Sec. 27-148. Arrest or confinement of enlisted personnel and officers.
Sec. 27-149. Restraint of persons charged with offenses.
Sec. 27-150. Place of confinement.
Sec. 27-151. Duty of community correctional center, jail and prison officers.
Sec. 27-152. Punishment prohibited before trial.
Sec. 27-153. Trial by civil authority.
Sec. 27-154. Nonjudicial disciplinary punishments for minor offenses.
Sec. 27-155. Kinds of courts-martial.
Sec. 27-156. Jurisdiction of forces.
Sec. 27-157. Jurisdiction of general courts-martial.
Sec. 27-158. Jurisdiction of special courts-martial.
Sec. 27-159. Jurisdiction of summary courts-martial.
Sec. 27-160. Approval of Governor prerequisite to execution of dismissal or dishonorable discharge sentence.
Sec. 27-161. Court-martial to have complete record of procedures and testimony.
Sec. 27-162. Sentence of confinement in lieu of fine.
Sec. 27-163. Convening of general courts-martial by Governor.
Sec. 27-164. Commanding officer may convene special courts-martial.
Sec. 27-165. Commanding officer may convene summary courts-martial.
Sec. 27-166. Who may serve on courts-martial.
Sec. 27-167. Military judge of general or special court-martial.
Sec. 27-168. Trial and defense counsel.
Sec. 27-169. Court reporters. Interpreters.
Sec. 27-170. Absent and additional members.
Sec. 27-171. Preferring of charges.
Sec. 27-172. Protection against self-incrimination.
Sec. 27-173. Preliminary investigation. Rights of accused.
Sec. 27-174. Charges and investigation papers forwarded to Governor.
Sec. 27-175. Advice of staff judge advocate and reference for trial. Corrections in charges and specifications.
Sec. 27-176. Service of charges on accused. Time for trial.
Sec. 27-177. Mittimus for confinement on failure to appear for trial. Bail. Confinement pending trial.
Sec. 27-178. Procedure. Rules of evidence.
Sec. 27-179. Censure of court or member, coercion prohibited.
Sec. 27-180. Court-martial. Prosecution. Trial counsel. Defense counsel. Assistant counsel.
Sec. 27-181. Sessions.
Sec. 27-182. Continuance.
Sec. 27-183. Challenges.
Sec. 27-184. Oaths.
Sec. 27-185. Statute of limitations.
Sec. 27-186. Second trial for same offense prohibited.
Sec. 27-187. Pleading by accused.
Sec. 27-188. Obtaining of witnesses and evidence.
Sec. 27-189. Refusal of witness to appear. Witness fees.
Sec. 27-190. Contempt.
Sec. 27-191. Depositions.
Sec. 27-192. Sworn testimony in record of court of inquiry admissible, when.
Sec. 27-193. Voting by members of court-martial. Rulings on questions. Determinations by military judge.
Sec. 27-194. Two-thirds vote required for conviction and sentence. Majority vote for other questions. Tie vote.
Sec. 27-195. Announcement of findings and sentence.
Sec. 27-196. Record of proceedings. Authentication. Copy to accused.
Sec. 27-197. Cruel punishments prohibited.
Sec. 27-198. Governor to prescribe table of maximum punishments.
Sec. 27-199. Forfeiture of pay and allowances. Running of period of confinement.
Sec. 27-200. Place of confinement. Hard labor.
Sec. 27-201. Authority of convening authority over execution of sentence.
Sec. 27-202. Record forwarded to convening authority. Action thereon.
Sec. 27-203. Record of general court-martial referred to staff judge advocate.
Sec. 27-204. Return of record to court for reconsideration or correction of error.
Sec. 27-205. Convening authority may order rehearing.
Sec. 27-206. Approval by convening authority.
Sec. 27-207. Review by Governor or Judge Advocate.
Sec. 27-208. Effect of error of law. Approval of guilty finding may be limited to lesser offense.
Sec. 27-209. Rights of accused before reviewing authority.
Sec. 27-210. Vacation of suspension of sentence.
Sec. 27-211. Petition for new trial.
Sec. 27-212. Remission or suspension of unexecuted part of sentence. Substitution of administrative discharge for court-martial discharge.
Sec. 27-213. Restoration of rights and property after sentence set aside or disapproved. Different form of discharge after new trial. Reappointment of officer after new trial.
Sec. 27-214. Finality and binding effect of actions.
Sec. 27-215. No trial for offense not committed on duty.
Sec. 27-216. Principal defined.
Sec. 27-217. Accessory after the fact.
Sec. 27-218. Finding of guilty of offense included in charge or of attempt to commit offense charged or included in charge.
Sec. 27-219. Attempt to commit an offense.
Sec. 27-220. Conspiracy.
Sec. 27-221. Solicitation to desertion, mutiny, misbehavior or sedition.
Sec. 27-222. Procuring of enlistment or separation by false representations or concealment.
Sec. 27-223. Effecting of enlistment, appointment or separation of ineligible person.
Sec. 27-224. Desertion.
Sec. 27-225. Absence without leave.
Sec. 27-226. Missing movement.
Sec. 27-227. Contempt towards President or Governor.
Sec. 27-228. Disrespect towards superior officer.
Sec. 27-229. Assaulting or disobeying command of superior officer.
Sec. 27-230. Offenses against warrant officer, noncommissioned officer or petty officer.
Sec. 27-231. Failure to obey orders or regulations.
Sec. 27-232. Cruelty, oppression or maltreatment of subordinate.
Sec. 27-233. Mutiny. Sedition.
Sec. 27-234. Resisting or breaking arrest. Escape.
Sec. 27-235. Illegal release of prisoner. Aiding escape.
Sec. 27-236. Illegal arrest or confinement of another.
Sec. 27-237. Unnecessary delay in disposition of case. Failure to observe trial provisions.
Sec. 27-238. Misbehavior in presence of enemy.
Sec. 27-239. Compelling surrender or abandonment to enemy.
Sec. 27-240. Disclosure of parole or countersign.
Sec. 27-241. Forcing of safeguard.
Sec. 27-242. Illegal disposition of captured property. Looting.
Sec. 27-243. Aiding enemy.
Sec. 27-244. Improper acts as prisoner of war.
Sec. 27-245. False official statements.
Sec. 27-246. Misuse of military property.
Sec. 27-247. Misuse of government property other than military.
Sec. 27-248. Wrongful hazard of military vessel.
Sec. 27-249. Drunken or reckless operation of vehicle.
Sec. 27-250. Drinking or sleeping on duty; leaving post before relieved.
Sec. 27-251. Dueling.
Sec. 27-252. Malingering; intentional self-injury.
Sec. 27-253. Riot. Breach of peace.
Sec. 27-254. Use of provocative or reproachful words or gestures towards another.
Sec. 27-255. Attempt to harm another.
Sec. 27-256. Perjury.
Sec. 27-257. Fraudulent claims. False oath. Forgery. Fraud.
Sec. 27-258. Larceny; wrongful appropriation.
Sec. 27-259. Conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman.
Sec. 27-260. Crimes excepted from court-martial jurisdiction.
Sec. 27-261. Court of inquiry.
Sec. 27-262. Administration of oaths.
Sec. 27-263. Code to be explained to military personnel.
Sec. 27-264. Complaint against superior officers.
Sec. 27-265. Investigation of complaint of damage by military personnel. Assessment of damages.
Sec. 27-266. Execution of process and sentences by civil officers.
Sec. 27-267. Issuance and execution of process by military courts.
Sec. 27-268. Payment of fines.
Sec. 27-269. Immunity for action of military court.
Sec. 27-270. Presumption of jurisdiction of military courts and boards.
Sec. 27-271. Governor may delegate certain authority.
Sec. 27-272. Payment of court expenses.
Sec. 27-273. Uniform construction.
Sec. 27-274. Short title: Connecticut Code of Military Justice.

      Sec. 27-141. Definitions. In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "State military forces" means the National Guard of the state, as defined in Section 101(3) of Title 32, United States Code, the organized naval militia of the state, and any other military force organized under the laws of the state and shall include the organized militia as defined in section 27-2;

      (2) "Officer" means commissioned or warrant officer;

      (3) "Commissioned officer" includes a commissioned warrant officer;

      (4) "Commanding officer" includes only commissioned officers;

      (5) "Superior commissioned officer" means a commissioned officer superior in rank and command;

      (6) "Enlisted member" means a person in an enlisted grade;

      (7) "Grade" means a step or degree, in a graduated scale of office or military rank, that is established and designated as a grade by law or regulation;

      (8) "Rank" means the order of precedence among members of the state military forces;

      (9) "Active state duty" means full-time duty in the active military service of the state under an order of the Governor issued under authority vested in him by law, and includes travel to and from such duty;

      (10) "Duty status" means any one of the types of required duty wherein the person is performing military service under competent authority other than set forth in subdivision (9) of this section and includes travel to and from such duty;

      (11) "Military court" means a court-martial, a court inquiry, or a provost court;

      (12) "Military judge" means an official of a general or special court-martial appointed in accordance with section 27-167;

      (13) "Law specialist" means a commissioned officer of the organized naval militia of the state designated for special law duty;

      (14) "Legal officer" means any commissioned officer of the organized militia of the state designated to perform legal duties for a command;

      (15) "State Judge Advocate" means the commissioned officer responsible for supervising the administration of the military justice in the state military forces;

      (16) "Accuser" means a person who signs and swears to charges, any person who directs that charges nominally be signed and sworn to by another, and any person who has an interest other than an official interest in the prosecution of the accused;

      (17) "Military" refers to any or all of the armed forces;

      (18) "Convening authority" includes, in addition to the person who convened the court, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, or a successor in command;

      (19) "Code" means this chapter.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 1; P.A. 77-295, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted in Subdiv. (12) "military judge" for "law officer" and "appointed" for "detailed" and added application to special court-martial.

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      Sec. 27-142. Applicability of chapter. This code applies to all members of the state military forces who are not in federal service.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 27-143. Dismissal of commissioned officer. (a) If any commissioned officer, dismissed by order of the Governor, makes a written application for trial by court-martial, setting forth, under oath, that he has been wrongfully dismissed, the Governor, as soon as practicable, shall convene a general court-martial to try that officer on the charges on which he was dismissed. A court-martial so convened has jurisdiction to try the dismissed officer on those charges, and he shall be considered to have waived the right to plead any statute of limitations applicable to any offense with which he is charged. The court-martial may, as part of its sentence, adjudge the affirmance of the dismissal, but if the court-martial acquits the accused or if the sentence adjudged, as finally approved or affirmed, does not include dismissal, the Adjutant General shall substitute for the dismissal ordered by the Governor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issue.

      (b) If the Governor fails to convene a general court-martial within six months from the presentation of an application for trial under this code, the Adjutant General shall substitute for the dismissal ordered by the Governor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issue.

      (c) If a discharge is substituted for a dismissal under this code, the Governor alone may reappoint the officer to such commissioned grade and with such rank as, in the opinion of the Governor, that former officer would have attained had he not been dismissed. The reappointment of such a former officer may be made only if a vacancy is available under applicable tables of organization. All time between the dismissal and the reappointment shall be considered as actual service for all purposes, including the right to pay and allowances.

      (d) If an officer is discharged from the organized militia by administrative action or by board proceedings under law, or is dropped from the rolls by order of the Governor, he has no right to trial under this section.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 3; P.A. 89-221, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (c) to add "including the right to pay and allowances".

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      Sec. 27-144. Applicability of code in and out of state. (a) This code applies throughout the state. It also applies to all persons otherwise subject to this code while they are serving outside the state, and while they are going to and returning from such service outside the state, in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were serving inside the state.

      (b) Courts-martial and courts of inquiry may be convened and held in units of the state military forces while those units are serving outside the state with the same jurisdiction and powers as to persons subject to this code as if the proceedings were held inside the state, and offenses committed outside the state may be tried and punished either inside or outside the state.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 4.)

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      Sec. 27-145. Judge advocates and legal officers. (a) The Governor, on the recommendation of the Adjutant General, shall appoint an officer of the state military forces as State Judge Advocate. To be eligible for appointment, an officer must be a member of the bar of the highest court of the state and must have been a member of the bar of the state for at least five years.

      (b) The Adjutant General may appoint as many assistant state judge advocates as he considers necessary. To be eligible for appointment, assistant state judge advocates must be officers of the state military forces and members of the bar of the highest court of the state.

      (c) The State Judge Advocate or his assistants shall make frequent inspections in the field in supervision of the administration of military justice.

      (d) Convening authorities shall at all times communicate directly with their staff judge advocates or legal officer in matters relating to the administration of military justice; and the staff judge advocate or legal officer of any command is entitled to communicate directly with the staff judge advocate or legal officer of a superior or subordinate command, or with the State Judge Advocate.

      (e) No person who has acted as member, military judge, trial counsel, assistant trial counsel, defense counsel, assistant defense counsel, or investigating officer, or who has been a witness for either the prosecution or defense, in any case may later act as staff judge advocate or legal officer to any reviewing authority upon the same case.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 5; P.A. 89-221, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (d) to require convening authorities to communicate "directly" with their staff judge advocates or legal officer and amended Subsec. (e) to replace "law officer" with "military judge".

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      Sec. 27-146. Apprehension of offenders. Quelling of disturbances. (a) As used in this section, "apprehend" means take into custody.

      (b) Any person authorized by this code, or by regulation issued under it, to apprehend persons subject to this code, any marshal of a court-martial appointed pursuant to the provisions of this code, and any peace officer authorized to do so by law, may do so upon reasonable belief that an offense has been committed and the person apprehended committed it.

      (c) Commissioned officers, warrant officers, petty officers and noncommissioned officers have authority to quell quarrels, frays and disorders among persons subject to this code and to apprehend persons subject to this code who take part therein.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 6.)

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      Sec. 27-147. Apprehension of deserters by civil officers. Any civil officer having authority to apprehend offenders under the laws of the United States or of a state, territory, commonwealth, or possession, or the District of Columbia may summarily apprehend a deserter from the state military forces and deliver him into the custody of the state military forces. If an offender is apprehended outside the state, his return to the area must be in accordance with normal extradition procedures or reciprocal agreement.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 7.)

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      Sec. 27-148. Arrest or confinement of enlisted personnel and officers. (a) As used in this section, "arrest" means the restraint of a person by an order, not imposed as a punishment for an offense, directing him to remain within certain specified limits, and "confinement" means the physical restraint of a person.

      (b) An enlisted member may be ordered into arrest or confinement by any commissioned officer by an order, oral or written, delivered in person or through other persons subject to this code or through any person authorized by this code to apprehend persons. A commanding officer may authorize warrant officers, petty officers, or noncommissioned officers to order enlisted members of his command or subject to his authority into arrest or confinement.

      (c) A commissioned officer or a warrant officer may be ordered apprehended or into arrest or confinement only by a commanding officer to whose authority he is subject, by an order, oral or written, delivered in person or by another commissioned officer. The authority to order such persons apprehended or into arrest or confinement may not be delegated.

      (d) No person may be ordered apprehended or into arrest or confinement except for probable cause.

      (e) This section does not limit the authority of persons authorized to apprehend offenders to secure the custody of an alleged offender until proper authority may be notified.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 8.)

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      Sec. 27-149. Restraint of persons charged with offenses. Any person subject to this code charged with an offense under this code shall be ordered into arrest or confinement, as circumstances may require. When any person subject to this code is placed in arrest or confinement prior to trial, immediate steps shall be taken to inform him of the specific wrong of which he is accused and to try him or to dismiss the charges and release him. The accused may be admitted to bail by posting bond in the amount ordered by the convening authority, but not to exceed twice the authorized fine for such offense.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 27-150. Place of confinement. Persons confined other than in a guard house, whether before, during or after trial by a military court, shall be confined in civil jails, penitentiaries, or prisons designated by the Governor or by such person as he may authorize to act.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 10.)

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      Sec. 27-151. Duty of community correctional center, jail and prison officers. (a) No provost marshal, commander of a guard, master at arms, warden, keeper, or officer of a community correctional center or any other jail, penitentiary, or prison designated under section 27-150, shall refuse to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge, when the committing commissioned officer furnishes a statement, signed by him, of the offense charged against the prisoner.

      (b) Every commander of a guard, master at arms, warden, keeper, or officer of a community correctional center or of any other jail, penitentiary, or prison designated under section 27-150, to whose charge a prisoner is committed shall, within twenty-four hours after that commitment or as soon as he is relieved from guard, report to the commanding officer of the prisoner the name of the prisoner, the offense charged against him, and the name of the person who ordered or authorized the commitment.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 11; 1969, P.A. 297; P.A. 89-221, S. 3.)

      History: 1969 act replaced jails with community correctional centers; P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "committing person" with "committing commissioned officer".

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      Sec. 27-152. Punishment prohibited before trial. Subject to section 27-199, no person, while being held for trial or the result of trial, shall be subjected to punishment or penalty other than arrest or confinement upon the charges pending against him, nor shall the arrest or confinement imposed upon him be any more rigorous than the circumstances require to insure his presence, but he may be subjected to minor punishment during that period for infractions of discipline, and may be required to perform such labor as may be necessary for the policing and sanitation of his living quarters and mess facilities and the area immediately adjacent thereto.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 27-153. Trial by civil authority. (a) Under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Governor, a person subject to this code who is accused of an offense against civil authority may be delivered, upon request of such authority, to the civil authority for trial.

      (b) When delivery under subsection (a) of this section is made to any civil authority of a person undergoing sentence of a court-martial, the delivery, if followed by conviction in a civil tribunal, interrupts the execution of the sentence of the court-martial, and the offender after having answered to the civil authorities for his offense shall, upon the request of competent military authority, be returned to military custody for the completion of his sentence.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 13.)

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      Sec. 27-154. Nonjudicial disciplinary punishments for minor offenses. (a) Under rules prescribed by the Military Department, limitations may be placed upon the kind and amount of punishment authorized by this section and upon categories of commanding officers and warrant officers exercising command authorized to impose that punishment. Rules may also be prescribed with respect to suspension of punishments authorized under this section and to procedures for the implementation of the provisions of this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing, punishment may not be imposed upon any member of the state military forces under subsections (b) and (c) of this section, if the member has, before imposition of this punishment, requested that the matter be disposed of by a nonjudicial punishment panel pursuant to subsection (i) of this section. In no case may punishment be imposed if the member has demanded a trial by court-martial.

      (b) Subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, a commanding officer may, in addition to or in lieu of admonition or reprimand, impose one or more of the following disciplinary punishments for minor offenses without the intervention of a court-martial:

      (1) Upon officers of his command:

      (A) Restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than ten consecutive days; or

      (B) If imposed by a general officer, arrest in quarters for not more than fourteen consecutive days; forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month's base pay entitlement per month for two months; a fine in an amount not greater than that which could be forfeited; restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than fourteen consecutive days; or detention of not more than one-half of one month's base pay entitlement per month for two months; and

      (2) Upon other personnel of his command:

      (A) Correctional custody for not more than seven consecutive days;

      (B) Forfeiture of not more than one-half month's base pay entitlement for one month or a fine in an amount not greater than that which could be forfeited;

      (C) Reduction to the next inferior grade, if the grade from which the demotion is made is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction;

      (D) Extra duties, including fatigue or other duties, for not more than ten consecutive days;

      (E) Restriction to certain specified limits without suspension from duty for not more than ten consecutive days;

      (F) Detention of not more than one-half of one month's pay entitlement for one month; or

      (G) If imposed by an officer of the grade of major or above, correctional custody for not more than fourteen consecutive days; forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month's base pay entitlement for two months; a fine in an amount not greater than that which could be forfeited; reduction to the lowest or any intermediate pay grade, if the grade from which the demotion is made is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any other officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction, but an enlisted member in a pay grade above E-4 may not be reduced more than two pay grades; extra duties, including fatigue or other duties, for not more than fourteen consecutive days; restrictions to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than fourteen consecutive days; or detention of not more than one-half of one month's base pay entitlement per month for two months.

      (c) An officer in charge may impose upon enlisted members assigned to the unit of which he is in charge such of the punishments, authorized under subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section, as may be set forth by regulation.

      (d) The officer who imposes punishment authorized in subsection (b) of this section, or a successor in command, may at any time:

      (1) Suspend probationally any part or amount of the unexecuted punishment;

      (2) Remit all or part of any punishment, whether or not executed, and restore all rights, privileges and property;

      (3) Mitigate any part or amount of the unexecuted punishment or any reduction in grade to forfeiture or detention of pay.

      (e) An appeal shall be to the next higher authority. The appeal shall be promptly acted upon. The appeal must be referred to a judge advocate when punishment is arrest in quarters for more than seven days, correctional custody for more than seven days, forfeiture of seven days pay, reduction of one or more pay grades of an E-4 or higher ranking individual, extra duties for more than ten days, restriction for more than ten days or detention of more than fourteen days pay.

      (f) The imposition and enforcement of disciplinary punishment under this section is not a bar to trial by court-martial for a serious crime or offense growing out of the same act or omission, and not properly punishable under this section. The fact that a disciplinary punishment has been enforced may be shown by the accused at trial, and shall be considered in determining the measure of punishment to be adjudged in the event of a guilty verdict.

      (g) Any punishment authorized by this section which is measured in terms of days shall, when served in a status other than annual field training, be construed to mean consecutive active service days for pay purposes.

      (h) A fine imposed pursuant to this section may be enforced as a money judgment in accordance with chapter 906.

      (i) (1) In the event that a member of the state military forces demands that nonjudicial punishment proceedings against or with respect to him be disposed of by a hearing before a nonjudicial punishment panel in lieu of his commanding officer, this subsection shall apply.

      (2) The commanding officer shall notify the individual, verbally and in writing, of the following: (A) The nature of the alleged wrongdoing, (B) his intent to dispose of the matter, if further action after investigation is warranted, by nonjudicial punishment, and (C) his advice to the individual of his right to counsel and other nonjudicial punishment procedural rights as set forth by regulation. The individual shall make an election for hearing and disposition by the panel following receipt of such written notice. He shall be provided opportunity to consult with a judge advocate prior to making his election.

      (3) The panel shall consist of three members, appointed by the commander's next higher authority, with the same qualifications as provided with respect to membership on a court-martial. The senior member shall be the chairman. The most junior member shall be the recorder and shall record summaries of the proceedings.

      (4) The panel acting by majority vote has the same authority and responsibility in conducting the proceeding and disposing of the matter, including imposing nonjudicial punishment, as has a field grade officer pursuant to this section. The panel shall forward its recommendation for disposition and imposition of punishment, if any, to the appointing authority. The appointing authority shall approve the recommended punishment or any part or amount as he sees fit and may suspend, mitigate or remit as he deems appropriate. The appointing authority may not approve any punishment in excess of that approved by the panel.

      (5) Procedural requirements for a nonjudicial hearing, and disposition thereof, by the panel under this subsection shall in all respects be the same as would otherwise be applicable for disposition by the commanding officer, including, without limitation, the individual's right to counsel, to submit matters in extenuation, mitigation or defense and to call and examine witnesses, to the extent witnesses are reasonably available.

      (6) Appeals from the decision of the appointing authority, if adverse to the individual, may be taken directly to the next higher authority to act upon appeal as set forth in this section with respect to nonjudicial punishment appeals generally.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 14; P.A. 89-223.)

      History: P.A. 89-223 completely replaced former provisions with comparable provisions and made certain changes including revising the number and types of disciplinary punishments a commanding officer may impose upon officers of his command and upon other personnel of his command, transferring authority to issue regulations limiting the kind and amount of punishment and categories of officers authorized to impose that punishment from the governor to the military department, prohibiting punishment being imposed by an officer if the individual has requested that the matter be disposed of by a nonjudicial punishment panel or if the member has demanded a trial by court-martial, authorizing the officer who imposes punishment or a successor to mitigate the unexecuted punishment or any reduction in grade to forfeiture or detention of pay, deleting a provision specifying that a pay and allowance forfeiture applies to pay and allowances accruing before the date of punishment as well as after, specifying when an appeal must be referred to a judge advocate, deleting a provision that specified that a person who appeals a punishment may in the meantime be required to undergo the punishment adjudged, adding provision requiring punishment which is measured in terms of days to be construed to mean consecutive active service days for pay purposes, adding provision authorizing a fine to be enforced as a money judgment, and adding provisions authorizing an individual to elect a hearing and disposition by a nonjudicial punishment panel in lieu of his commanding officer and specifying the composition and procedure of the panel.

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      Sec. 27-155. Kinds of courts-martial. (a) In the state military forces not in federal service, there shall be general, special and summary courts-martial constituted like similar courts of the armed forces of the United States. They shall have the jurisdiction and powers, except as to punishments, and shall follow the forms and procedures provided for those courts.

      (b) There shall be three kinds of courts-martial: (1) General courts-martial, consisting of (A) a military judge and not less than five members; or (B) only a military judge, if, before the court is assembled, the accused, knowing the identity of the military judge and after consultation with defense counsel, requests in writing a court composed only of a military judge and the military judge approves; (2) special courts-martial, consisting of (A) not less than three members; or (B) a military judge and not less than three members; or (C) only a military judge, if, before the court is assembled, the accused, knowing the identity of the military judge and after consultation with defense counsel, requests in writing a court composed only of a military judge and the military judge approves; and (3) summary courts-martial, consisting of one commissioned officer.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 15; P.A. 77-295, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 provided in Subsec. (b) an election for accused to be tried by a military judge alone with the approval of the military judge in general and special courts-martial, substituted "military judge" for "law officer" where appearing and also provided for a military judge and three members as well as a court of three members only as constituents of a special court-martial.

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      Sec. 27-156. Jurisdiction of forces. Each force of the state military forces shall have court-martial jurisdiction over all persons subject to this code. The exercise of jurisdiction by one force over personnel of another force shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Governor.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 16.)

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      Sec. 27-157. Jurisdiction of general courts-martial. Subject to section 27-156, general courts-martial shall have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this code for any offense made punishable by this code and may, under such limitations as the Governor may prescribe, adjudge any of the following punishments: (1) A fine of not more than two hundred dollars; (2) forfeiture of pay and allowances of not more than two hundred dollars; (3) a reprimand; (4) dismissal or dishonorable discharge; (5) reduction of enlisted persons to a lower grade, or (6) any combination of these punishments.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 17.)

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      Sec. 27-158. Jurisdiction of special courts-martial. Subject to section 27-156, special courts-martial shall have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this code for any offense for which they may be punished under this code. A special court-martial shall have the same powers of punishment as a general court-martial, except that no fine or forfeiture of pay and allowances imposed by a special court-martial shall be more than one hundred dollars for a single offense.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 18.)

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      Sec. 27-159. Jurisdiction of summary courts-martial. (a) Subject to section 27-156, summary courts-martial shall have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this code, except officers, for any offense made punishable by this code.

      (b) No person with respect to whom summary courts-martial have jurisdiction shall be brought to trial before a summary court-martial if he objects thereto, unless under section 27-154 he has been permitted and has elected to refuse punishment under that section. If objection to trial by summary court-martial is made by an accused who has not been permitted to refuse punishment under said section, trial shall be ordered by special or general court-martial, as may be appropriate.

      (c) A summary court-martial may sentence to a fine of not more than twenty-five dollars for a single offense, to forfeiture of pay and allowances of not more than twenty-five dollars, and to reduction of enlisted persons to a lower grade.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 19.)

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      Sec. 27-160. Approval of Governor prerequisite to execution of dismissal or dishonorable discharge sentence. In the state military forces not in federal service, no sentence of dismissal or dishonorable discharge shall be executed until it is approved by the Governor.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 20.)

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      Sec. 27-161. Court-martial to have complete record of procedures and testimony. No dishonorable discharge, bad conduct discharge or dismissal shall be adjudged by any court-martial unless a complete record of the procedures and testimony before the court has been made.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 21.)

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      Sec. 27-162. Sentence of confinement in lieu of fine. In the state military forces not in federal service, a court-martial may, instead of imposing a fine, sentence to confinement for not more than one day for each dollar of the authorized fine.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 22.)

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      Sec. 27-163. Convening of general courts-martial by Governor. In the state military forces not in federal service, general courts-martial may be convened by the Governor.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 23.)

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      Sec. 27-164. Commanding officer may convene special courts-martial. (a) In the state military forces not in federal service, the commanding officer of a garrison, fort, post, camp, air base, auxiliary air base, or other place where troops are on duty, or of a brigade, regiment, wing, group, detached battalion, separate squadron, or other detached command, may convene special courts-martial. Special courts-martial may also be convened by superior authority. If any such officer is an accuser, the court shall be convened by superior competent authority.

      (b) No special court-martial shall try a commissioned officer.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 24.)

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      Sec. 27-165. Commanding officer may convene summary courts-martial. (a) In the state military forces not in federal service, the commanding officer of a garrison, fort, post, camp, air base, auxiliary air base, or other place where troops are on duty, or of a regiment, wing, group, detached battalion, detached squadron, detached company, or other detachment, may convene a summary court-martial consisting of one commissioned officer. The proceedings shall be informal.

      (b) When only one commissioned officer is present with a command or detachment he shall be the summary court-martial of that command or detachment and shall hear and determine all summary court-martial cases brought before him. Summary courts-martial may, however, be convened in any case by superior competent authority, when considered desirable by him.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 25.)

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      Sec. 27-166. Who may serve on courts-martial. (a) Any commissioned officer of or on duty with the state military forces is eligible to serve on all courts-martial for the trial of any person who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial.

      (b) Any warrant officer of or on duty with the state military forces is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any person, other than a commissioned officer, who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial.

      (c) (1) Any enlisted member of the state military forces who is not a member of the same unit as the accused is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any enlisted member who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial, but he shall serve as a member of a court only if, before the convening of the court, the accused personally has requested in writing that enlisted members serve on it. No accused who has made such a request shall be tried by a general or special court-martial the membership of which does not include enlisted members in a number comprising at least one-third of the total membership of the court, unless eligible members cannot be obtained on account of physical conditions or military exigencies. If such members cannot be obtained, the court may be convened and the trial held without them, provided the convening authority shall make a detailed written statement, to be appended to the record, stating why they could not be obtained. (2) In this section, "unit" means any regularly organized body of the state military forces not larger than a company, a squadron, a division of the naval militia, or a body corresponding to one of them.

      (d) (1) When it can be avoided, no person subject to this code shall be tried by a court-martial any member of which is junior to him in rank or grade. (2) When convening a court-martial, the convening authority shall detail as members thereof such members as, in his opinion, are best qualified for the duty by reason of age, education, training, experience, length of service, and judicial temperament. No person shall serve as a member of a general or special court-martial if he is the accuser or a witness for the prosecution or has acted as investigating officer or as counsel in the same case. If within the command of the convening authority there is present and not otherwise disqualified a commissioned officer who is a member of the bar of the highest court of the state and of appropriate rank and grade, the convening authority shall appoint him as president of a special court-martial, provided failure to meet this requirement shall, in no case, divest a military court of jurisdiction.

      (e) Before a court-martial is assembled for the trial of a case, the convening authority may excuse a member of the court from participating in the case. Under such regulations as the adjutant general may prescribe, the convening authority may delegate his authority under this subsection to his staff judge advocate, a legal officer, or any other principal assistant.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 26; P.A. 89-221, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 added Subsec. (e) authorizing the convening authority to excuse a member of the court from participating in the case and to delegate his authority to excuse a member to his staff judge advocate, a legal officer or any other principal assistant.

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      Sec. 27-167. Military judge of general or special court-martial. (a) The Adjutant General or his designee shall appoint each military judge. A military judge shall be detailed to each general court-martial. Subject to regulations of the Adjutant General, a military judge may be detailed to any special court-martial. The Adjutant General shall prescribe regulations providing for the manner in which military judges are detailed for such courts-martial and for the persons who are authorized to detail military judges for such courts-martial. The military judge shall preside over each open session of the court-martial to which he has been detailed.

      (b) Unless the court-martial was convened by the Governor or the Adjutant General, neither the convening authority nor any member of his staff shall prepare or review any report concerning the effectiveness, fitness, or efficiency of the military judge so detailed, which relates to his performance of duty as a military judge.

      (c) No person shall act as military judge in a case if he is the accuser or a witness for the prosecution or has acted as investigating officer or as counsel in the same case.

      (d) The military judge shall not consult with the members of the court, other than on the form of the findings as provided in section 27-181, except in the presence of the accused, trial counsel, and defense counsel, nor shall he vote with the members of the court.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 27; P.A. 77-295, S. 2; P.A. 89-221, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted "appoint" for "detail" and "military judge" for "law officer" where appearing; P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to replace provision requiring the authority convening a general court martial to appoint as military judge thereof a commissioned officer and specifying the qualifications of such officer with provisions re the appointment of military judges, the detailing of military judges to general and special courts-martial and the presiding of military judges over open sessions of courts-martial, added a new Subsec. (b) re the preparation and review of a report re the effectiveness, fitness or efficiency of the military judge, designated the last sentence of Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (c) and replaced "law officer" with "military judge", and redesignated Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (d).

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      Sec. 27-168. Trial and defense counsel. (a) For each general and special court-martial the authority convening the court shall detail trial counsel and defense counsel, and such assistants as he considers appropriate. No person who has acted as investigating officer, law officer, or court member in any case shall act later as trial counsel, assistant trial counsel, or, unless expressly requested by the accused, as defense counsel or assistant defense counsel in the same case. No person who has acted for the prosecution shall act later in the same case for the defense, nor shall any person who has acted for the defense act later in the same case for the prosecution.

      (b) Trial counsel or defense counsel detailed for a general or special court-martial shall be a member of the bar of the highest court of the state, or a member of the bar of a federal court.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 28.)

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      Sec. 27-169. Court reporters. Interpreters. The convening authority of a general or special court-martial or court of inquiry shall detail or employ qualified court reporters, who shall record the proceedings of and testimony taken before that court. Under like regulations the convening authority of a military court may detail or employ interpreters who shall interpret for the court.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 29.)

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      Sec. 27-170. Absent and additional members. (a) No member of a general or special court-martial shall be absent or excused after the court has been assembled for the trial of the accused unless excused as a result of a challenge, excused by the military judge for physical disability or other good cause, or excused by order of the convening authority for good cause.

      (b) Whenever a general court-martial other than a general court-martial composed of a military judge only is reduced below five members, the trial shall not proceed unless the convening authority details new members sufficient in number to provide not less than five members. When the new members have been sworn, the trial shall proceed as if no evidence had previously been introduced, unless the accused stipulates to the reading of the recorded testimony of each witness previously examined to the court in the presence of the military judge, the accused and counsel.

      (c) Whenever a special court-martial other than a special court-martial composed of a military judge only is reduced below three members, the trial shall not proceed unless the convening authority details new members sufficient in number to provide not less than three members. When the new members have been sworn, the trial shall proceed as if no evidence has previously been introduced, unless the accused stipulates to the reading of the verbatim record of the testimony of previously examined witnesses or a stipulation thereof to the court in the presence of the accused and counsel.

      (d) If the military judge of a court-martial composed of a military judge only is unable to proceed with the trial because of physical disability, or as a result of a challenge, or for other good cause, the trial shall proceed, subject to any applicable provision of this chapter, after the appointment of a new military judge as if no other evidence had previously been introduced, unless a verbatim record of the evidence previously introduced or a stipulation thereof is read in court in the presence of the new military judge, the accused and counsel for both sides.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 30; P.A. 77-295, S. 3; P.A. 89-221, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 excepted general or special court-martial consisting of single military judge from application of Subsecs. (b) and (c), provided in new Subsec. (d) for procedure to be followed where the single military judge court is unable to proceed because of disability or challenge or other good cause; P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to prohibit a member being absent or excused "after the court has been assembled for the trial of the accused" rather than "after the accused has been arraigned" and to specify that a member may be excused "by the military judge" for physical disability "or other good cause".

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      Sec. 27-171. Preferring of charges. (a) Charges and specifications shall be signed by a person subject to this code under oath before a person authorized by this code to administer oaths and shall state: (1) That the signer has personal knowledge of, or has investigated, the matters set forth herein; and (2) that they are true in fact to the best of his knowledge and belief.

      (b) Upon the preferring of charges, the proper authority shall take immediate steps to determine what disposition should be made thereof in the interest of justice and discipline, and the person accused shall be informed of the charges against him as soon as practicable.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 31.)

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      Sec. 27-172. Protection against self-incrimination. (a) No person subject to this code shall compel any person to incriminate himself or to answer any question the answer to which may tend to incriminate him.

      (b) No person subject to this code shall interrogate, or request any statement from, an accused or a person suspected of an offense without first informing him of the nature of the accusation and advising him that he does not have to make any statement regarding the offense of which he is accused or suspected and that any statement made by him may be used as evidence against him in a trial by court-martial, and that he has a right to consult and have with him during the interrogation, an attorney provided by him or appointed for him.

      (c) No person subject to this code shall compel any person to make a statement or produce evidence before any military tribunal if the statement or evidence is not material to the issue and may tend to degrade him.

      (d) No statement obtained from any person in violation of this section, or through the use of coercion, unlawful influence, or unlawful inducement, shall be received in evidence against him in a trial by court-martial.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 32.)

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      Sec. 27-173. Preliminary investigation. Rights of accused. (a) No charge or specification shall be referred to a general court-martial for trial until a thorough and impartial investigation of all the matters set forth therein has been made. This investigation shall include inquiry as to the truth of the matter set forth in the charges, consideration of the form of charges, and a recommendation as to the disposition which should be made of the case in the interest of justice and discipline.

      (b) The accused shall be advised of the charges against him and of his right to be represented at that investigation by counsel. Upon his own request he shall be represented by civilian counsel if provided by him, or military counsel of his own selection if such counsel is reasonably available, or by counsel detailed by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command. At that investigation full opportunity shall be given to the accused to cross-examine witnesses against him if they are available and to present anything he may desire in his own behalf, either in defense or mitigation, and the investigating officer shall examine available witnesses requested by the accused. If the charges are forwarded after the investigation, they shall be accompanied by a statement of the substance of the testimony taken on both sides and a copy thereof shall be given to the accused.

      (c) If an investigation of the subject matter of an offense has been conducted before the accused is charged with the offense, and if the accused was present at the investigation and afforded the opportunities for representation, cross-examination, and presentation prescribed in subsection (b) of this section, no further investigation of that charge is necessary under this section unless it is demanded by the accused after he is informed of the charge. A demand for further investigation entitles the accused to recall witnesses for further cross-examination and to offer any new evidence in his own behalf.

      (d) Failure to meet any requirement prescribed in this section shall not divest a military court of jurisdiction.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 33.)

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      Sec. 27-174. Charges and investigation papers forwarded to Governor. When a person is held for trial by general court-martial the commanding officer shall, within eight days after the accused is ordered into arrest or confinement, if practicable, forward the charges, together with the investigation and allied papers, to the Governor. If that is not practicable, he shall report in writing to the Governor the reasons for delay.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 34.)

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      Sec. 27-175. Advice of staff judge advocate and reference for trial. Corrections in charges and specifications. (a) Before directing the trial of any charge by general court-martial, the convening authority shall refer it to the State Judge Advocate for consideration and advice. The convening authority may not refer a charge to a general court-martial for trial unless he has been advised in writing by the staff judge advocate that: (1) The specification alleges an offense under this chapter; (2) the specification is warranted by the evidence indicated in the report of investigation under section 27-173, if there is such a report; and (3) a court-martial would have jurisdiction over the accused and the offense.

      (b) The advice of the staff judge advocate under subsection (a) of this section with respect to a specification under a charge shall include a written and signed statement by the staff judge advocate (1) expressing his conclusions with respect to each matter set forth in subsection (a) of this section; and (2) recommending action that the convening authority take regarding the specification. If the specification is referred for trial, the recommendation of the staff judge advocate shall accompany the specification.

      (c) If the charges or specifications are not formally correct or do not conform to the substance of the evidence contained in the report of the investigating officer, formal corrections, and such changes in the charges and specifications as are needed to make them conform to the evidence, may be made.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 35; P.A. 89-221, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to replace as a precondition of referring a charge to a general court-martial the requirement that the convening authority "has found that the charge alleges an offense under this code and is warranted by evidence indicated in the report of the investigation" with requirement that the convening authority "has been advised in writing by the staff judge advocate that the specification alleges an offense under this chapter, that the specification is warranted by the evidence indicated in the report of investigation under Sec. 27-173, if there is such a report, and that a court-martial would have jurisdiction over the accused and the offense", added a new Subsec. (b) requiring the advice of the staff judge advocate to include a written and signed statement re his conclusions and recommendations and requiring the recommendation of the staff judge advocate to accompany the specification if the specification is referred for trial, and redesignated former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c).

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      Sec. 27-176. Service of charges on accused. Time for trial. The trial counsel to whom court-martial charges are referred for trial shall cause to be served upon the accused a copy of the charges upon which trial is to be had. In time of peace no person shall, against his objection, be brought to trial before a general court-martial within a period of five days after the service of the charges upon him, or before a special court-martial within a period of three days after the service of the charges upon him.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 36.)

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      Sec. 27-177. Mittimus for confinement on failure to appear for trial. Bail. Confinement pending trial. When an accused person has been arrested for failure to appear before a court-martial for trial, the military judge, president of the court-martial, if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed, or summary court officer to whom the charges have been referred for trial may issue a mittimus for the confinement of such person pending trial. In such cases the accused shall be admitted to bail, the amount of the bail fixed, but not to exceed twice the authorized fine for the offense charged, and the surety or sureties thereon approved by the military judge, president of the court-martial, if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed, or the summary court officer issuing the mittimus. In default of bail such person shall be confined pending trial. No person shall be kept in confinement pending trial for more than five days.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 37; P.A. 89-221, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 authorized the "military judge" and the president of the court-martial, "if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed", to issue the mittimus and to approve the surety or sureties.

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      Sec. 27-178. Procedure. Rules of evidence. The procedure, including modes of proof, in cases before military courts and other military tribunals may be prescribed by the Governor by regulations, which shall, so far as he considers practicable, apply the principles of law and the rules of evidence generally recognized in the trial of criminal cases in the courts of the state, but which shall not be contrary to or inconsistent with this code.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 38.)

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      Sec. 27-179. Censure of court or member, coercion prohibited. (a) No authority convening a general, special or summary court-martial nor any other commanding officer, or officer serving on the staff thereof, shall censure, reprimand, or admonish the court or any member, military judge, or counsel thereof, with respect to the findings or sentence adjudged by the court, or with respect to any other exercise of its or his functions in the conduct of the proceeding. No person subject to this code shall attempt to coerce or, by any unauthorized means, influence the action of the court-martial or any other military tribunal or any member thereof, in reaching the findings or sentence in any case, or the action of any convening, approving, or reviewing authority with respect to his judicial acts. The foregoing provisions of this subsection shall not apply with respect to (1) general instructional or informational courses in military justice if such courses are designed solely for the purpose of instructing members of a command in the substantive and procedural aspects of courts-martial, or (2) statements and instructions given in open court by the military judge, president of a special court-martial, or counsel.

      (b) In the preparation of an effectiveness, fitness, or efficiency report or any other report or document used in whole or in part for the purpose of determining whether a member of the state military forces is qualified to be advanced in grade, or in determining the assignment or transfer of a member of the state military forces, or in determining whether a member of the state military forces should be retained on duty, no person subject to this chapter may, in preparing any such report (1) consider or evaluate the performance of duty of any such member of a court-martial; or (2) give a less favorable rating or evaluation of any member of the state military forces because of the zeal with which such member as defense counsel represented any accused before a court-martial.

      (c) Any person who violates this section shall be punished as a court-martial directs.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 39; P.A. 77-295, S. 11; P.A. 89-221, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted "military judge" for "law officer"; P.A. 89-221 added provision exempting from prohibitions of Subsec. (a) certain general instructional or informational courses in military justice and statements and instructions given in open court, added Subsec. (b) re the prohibition when preparing certain reports on considering or evaluating the performance of duty of a member of a court-martial or giving a less favorable rating or evaluation because of the zeal in representing an accused, and designated the last sentence of Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (c).

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      Sec. 27-180. Court-martial. Prosecution. Trial counsel. Defense counsel. Assistant counsel. (a) The trial counsel of a general or special court-martial shall prosecute in the name of the state, and shall, under the direction of the court, prepare the record of the proceedings.

      (b) The accused has the right to be represented in his defense before a general or special court-martial by civilian counsel if provided by him, or by military counsel of his own selection if reasonably available, or by the defense counsel detailed under section 27-168. Should the accused have counsel of his own selection, the defense counsel, and assistant defense counsel, if any, who were detailed, shall, if the accused so desires, act as his associate counsel; otherwise they shall be excused at the request of the accused.

      (c) In every court-martial proceeding, the defense counsel may, in the event of conviction, forward for attachment to the record of proceedings a brief of such matters as such defense counsel feels should be considered on behalf of the accused on review, including any objection to the contents of the record which such defense counsel considers appropriate.

      (d) An assistant trial counsel of a general court-martial may, under the direction of the trial counsel or when he is qualified to be a trial counsel as required by section 27-168, perform any duty imposed by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon the trial counsel of the court. An assistant trial counsel of a special court-martial may perform any duty of the trial counsel.

      (e) An assistant defense counsel of a general or special court-martial may, under the direction of the defense counsel or when he is qualified to be the defense counsel as required by section 27-168, perform any duty imposed by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon counsel for the accused.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 40; P.A. 89-221, S. 10; P.A. 10-32, S. 97.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that detailed defense counsel and assistant defense counsel shall be excused "at the request of the accused" rather than "by the president of the court"; P.A. 10-32 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective May 10, 2010.

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      Sec. 27-181. Sessions. (a) At any time after the service of charges which have been referred for trial to a court-martial composed of a military judge and members, the military judge may call the court into session without the presence of the members for the purpose of (1) hearing and determining motions raising defenses or objections which are capable of determination without trial of the issues raised by a plea of not guilty, (2) hearing and ruling upon any matter which may be ruled upon by the military judge under this section, whether or not the matter is appropriate for later consideration or decision by the members of the court, (3) holding the arraignment and receiving the pleas of the accused, and (4) performing any other procedural function which may be performed by the military judge under this section, subsection (b) of section 27-155, subsection (a) of section 27-184, subsection (a) of section 27-196 and sections 27-141, 27-167, 27-170, 27-179, 27-181, 27-182, 27-183 and 27-193 and which does not require the presence of the members of the court. Such proceedings shall be conducted in the presence of the accused, the defense counsel and the trial counsel and shall be made a part of the record.

      (b) When the members of a court-martial deliberate or vote, only the members may be present. All other proceedings, including any other consultation of the court with counsel or the military judge, shall be made a part of the record and shall be in the presence of the accused, the defense counsel, the trial counsel and, in cases in which a military judge has been appointed to the court, the military judge.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 41; P.A. 77-295, S. 7; P.A. 89-221, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted "military judge" for "law officer" where appearing; P.A. 89-221 inserted a new Subsec. (a) specifying when and the purposes for which the military judge may call the court into session without the presence of the members and the conduct of such proceedings, formerly Sec. 27-187(b), and revised former provisions of section and made them identical to former Sec. 27-187(c) by deleting a provision which authorized the court to request the military judge and the reporter to appear before the court to put the findings in proper form and required those proceedings to be on the record, by replacing "Whenever a general or special court-martial deliberates or votes" with "When the members of a court-martial deliberate or vote", by requiring all other proceedings to be in the presence of the military judge "in cases in which a military judge has been appointed to the court" rather than "in general court-martial cases", and by designating such revised former provisions as Subsec. (b).

      See Sec. 27-193 re secret ballot voting by members of court-martial and re powers and duties of military judge.

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      Sec. 27-182. Continuance. A military judge or a court-martial may, for reasonable cause, grant a continuance to any party for such time, and as often, as may appear to be just.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 42; P.A. 77-295, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 added "A military judge or a" before "court-martial".

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      Sec. 27-183. Challenges. (a) The military judge and members of a general or special court-martial may be challenged by the accused or the trial counsel for cause stated to the court. The military judge, or if none, the court, shall determine the relevancy and validity of challenges for cause, and shall not receive a challenge to more than one person at a time. Challenges by the trial counsel shall ordinarily be presented and decided before those by the accused are offered.

      (b) Each accused and the trial counsel is entitled to one peremptory challenge, but the military judge shall not be challenged except for cause.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 43; P.A. 77-295, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 provided for challenges of the military judge and members of a general or special court-martial, further provided for the military judge or, if none, the court to make the determinations on challenges and substituted "military judge" for "law officer".

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      Sec. 27-184. Oaths. (a) Before performing their respective duties, military judges, members of general and special courts-martial, trial counsel, assistant trial counsel, defense counsel, assistant or associate defense counsel, reporters, and interpreters shall take an oath to perform their duties faithfully. The form of the oath shall be as set forth in section 1-25. The Adjutant General shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 prescribing the time and place of the taking of the oath, the manner of recording the same, and whether the oath shall be taken for all cases in which those duties are to be performed or for a particular case. These regulations may provide that an oath to perform faithfully duties as a military judge, trial counsel, assistant trial counsel, defense counsel, or assistant or associate defense counsel may be taken at any time by any judge advocate or other person certified to be qualified or competent for the duty, and if such an oath is taken it need not be taken again at the time the judge advocate, or other person is detailed to that duty.

      (b) Each witness before a military court shall be examined on oath or affirmation.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 44; P.A. 77-295, S. 6; P.A. 89-221, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted in Subsec. (a) "military judge" for "law officer"; P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to delete reference to an "affirmation" and requirement that the oath be taken "in the presence of the accused" and to add provisions requiring the specified personnel to take an oath "before performing their respective duties", requiring an associate defense counsel to take an oath, specifying the form of the oath, requiring the adjutant general to adopt regulations and authorizing the regulations to contain a provision that once an oath is taken by certain personnel it need not be taken again.

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      Sec. 27-185. Statute of limitations. (a) A person charged with desertion or absence without leave in time of war, or with aiding the enemy or with mutiny may be tried and punished at any time without limitation.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person charged with desertion in time of peace or with the offense punishable under section 27-256 is not liable to be tried by court-martial if the offense was committed more than three years before the receipt of sworn charges and specifications by an officer exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction over the command.

      (c) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person charged with any offense is not liable to be tried by court-martial or punished under section 27-154 if the offense was committed more than two years before the receipt of sworn charges and specifications by an officer exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction over the command or before the imposition of punishment under said section.

      (d) Periods in which the accused was absent from territory in which the state has the authority to apprehend him, or in the custody of civil authorities, or in the hands of the enemy, shall be excluded in computing the period of limitation prescribed in this section.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 45.)

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      Sec. 27-186. Second trial for same offense prohibited. (a) No person shall, without his consent, be tried a second time in any military court of the state for the same offense.

      (b) No proceeding in which an accused has been found guilty by a court-martial upon any charge or specification is a trial in the sense of this section until the finding of guilty has become final after review of the case has been fully completed.

      (c) A proceeding which, after the introduction of evidence but before a finding, is dismissed or terminated by the convening authority or on motion of the prosecution for failure of available evidence or witnesses without any fault of the accused is a trial in the sense of this section.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 46.)

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      Sec. 27-187. Pleading by accused. If an accused arraigned before a court-martial makes an irregular pleading, or after a plea of guilty sets up matter inconsistent with the plea, or if it appears that he has entered the plea of guilty improvidently or through lack of understanding of its meaning and effect, or if he fails or refuses to plead, a plea of not guilty shall be entered in the record, and the court shall proceed as though he had pleaded not guilty.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 47; P.A. 77-295, S. 8; P.A. 89-221, S. 13.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 added new Subsecs. (b) and (c) providing for the military judge to hear and dispose of preliminary matters without the presence of the court but in presence of accused, defense and trial counsel and for deliberations and vote of court to be with only members present with all other proceedings recorded and in the presence of the counsels, accused and military judge; P.A. 89-221 deleted Subsecs. (b) and (c) and reenacted them as Subsecs. (a) and (b), respectively, of Sec. 27-181.

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      Sec. 27-188. Obtaining of witnesses and evidence. (a) The trial counsel, the defense counsel and the court-martial shall have equal opportunity to obtain witnesses and other evidence in accordance with such regulations as the Governor may prescribe.

      (b) The military judge, president of a court-martial, if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed, or a summary court officer may: (1) Issue a warrant for the arrest of any accused person who, having been served with a warrant and a copy of the charges, disobeys a written order by the convening authority to appear before the court; (2) issue subpoenas duces tecum and other subpoenas; (3) enforce by attachment the attendance of witnesses and the production of books and papers; and (4) sentence for refusal to be sworn or to answer, as provided in actions before civil courts of the state.

      (c) Process issued in court-martial cases to compel witnesses to appear and testify and to compel the production of other evidence shall run to any part of the state and shall be executed by civil officers as prescribed by the laws of the state.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 48; P.A. 89-221, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the "military judge" and the president of a court-martial "if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed" to take the enumerated actions.

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      Sec. 27-189. Refusal of witness to appear. Witness fees. (a) Any person not subject to this code who: (1) Has been duly subpoenaed to appear as a witness or to produce books and records before a military court or before any military or civil officer designated to take a deposition to be read in evidence before such a court; (2) has been duly paid or tendered the fees and mileage of a witness at the rates allowed to witnesses attending the civil courts of the state; and (3) refuses to appear and testify or refuses to produce any evidence which that person has been duly subpoenaed to produce, may be, by warrant signed by the military judge, by the president of the court-martial, if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed, or by the summary court officer and directed to a state marshal or any constable of the town in which such witness resides, committed to a community correctional center, there to be held at his own expense until discharged by due course of law.

      (b) The fees of all witnesses so summoned and of the state marshals, constables or indifferent persons serving such subpoenas shall be the same as provided for in civil actions in the state, and shall be taxed by the president of the court-martial or by the summary court officer.

      (c) Such fee when so taxed shall be paid by the State Comptroller to those entitled thereto, upon vouchers prepared by the trial officer or summary court officer and approved by the military judge, by the president of such court-martial, if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed, or, in the case of such summary court officer, by his next higher commander.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 49; 1969, P.A. 297; P.A. 89-221, S. 15; P.A. 90-230, S. 38, 101; P.A. 00-99, S. 71, 154; P.A. 04-257, S. 96.)

      History: 1969 act replaced jails with community correctional centers; P.A. 89-221 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the "military judge" and the president of the court-martial "if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed" to sign a warrant committing a person to a community correctional center and amended Subsec. (c) to authorize the "military judge" and the president of the court-martial "if a special court-martial to which no military judge has been detailed" to approve vouchers; P.A. 90-230 made technical corrections in Subsecs. (a) and (c); P.A. 00-99 replaced reference to sheriff of the county and deputy sheriff with state marshal in Subsec. (a), effective December 1, 2000; P.A. 04-257 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective June 14, 2004.

      See Sec. 52-260 re witness fees.

      See Sec. 52-261 re fees and expenses of officers and persons serving process.


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      Sec. 27-190. Contempt. A military court may punish for contempt any person who uses any menacing word, sign or gesture in its presence, or who disturbs its proceedings by any riot or disorder. The punishment may not exceed confinement for thirty days or a fine of one hundred dollars, or both.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 50.)

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      Sec. 27-191. Depositions. (a) At any time after charges have been signed, as provided in section 27-171, any party may take oral or written depositions unless an authority competent to convene a court-martial for the trial of those charges forbids it for good cause. If a deposition is to be taken before charges are referred for trial, such authority may designate commissioned officers to represent the prosecution and the defense and may authorize those officers to take the deposition of any witness.

      (b) A party at whose instance a deposition is to be taken shall give to every other party reasonable written notice of the time and place for taking the deposition.

      (c) Depositions may be taken before and authenticated by any military or civil officer authorized by the laws of the state or by the laws of the place where the deposition is taken to administer oaths.

      (d) A duly authenticated deposition taken upon reasonable notice to the other parties, so far as otherwise admissible under the rules of evidence, may be read in evidence before any court-martial or in any proceeding before a court of inquiry, if it appears: (1) That the witness resides or is beyond the state in which the courts-martial or court of inquiry is ordered to sit, or beyond the distance of one hundred miles from the place of trial or hearing; (2) that the witness by reason of death, age, sickness, bodily infirmity, imprisonment, military necessity, nonamenability to process, or other reasonable cause, is unable to or refuses to appear and testify in person at the place of trial or hearing; or (3) that the present whereabouts of the witness is unknown.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 51.)

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      Sec. 27-192. Sworn testimony in record of court of inquiry admissible, when. (a) In any case not extending to the dismissal of a commissioned officer the sworn testimony, contained in the duly authenticated record of proceedings of a court of inquiry, of a person whose oral testimony cannot be obtained, may, if otherwise admissible under the rules of evidence, be read in evidence by any party before a court-martial if the accused was a party before the court of inquiry and if the same issue was involved or if the accused consents to the introduction of such evidence, and if the accused was physically present when the testimony was taken.

      (b) Such testimony may be read in evidence only by the defense in cases extending to the dismissal of a commissioned officer.

      (c) Such testimony may also be read in evidence before a court of inquiry or a military board.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 52.)

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      Sec. 27-193. Voting by members of court-martial. Rulings on questions. Determinations by military judge. (a) Voting by members of a general or special court-martial upon questions of challenge, on the findings, and on the sentence shall be by secret written ballot. The junior member of the court shall in each case count the votes. The count shall be checked by the president, who shall forthwith announce the result of the ballot to the members of the court.

      (b) The military judge and, except for questions of challenge, the president of a court-martial without a military judge shall rule upon all questions of law and all interlocutory questions arising during the proceedings. Any such ruling by the military judge upon any question of law or any interlocutory question other than the factual issue of mental responsibility of the accused, or by the president of a court-martial without a military judge upon any question of law other than a motion for a finding of not guilty, is final and constitutes the ruling of the court; provided the military judge or the president of a court-martial without a military judge may change any such ruling at any time during the trial. Unless such ruling is final, if any member objects thereto, the court shall be cleared and closed and the question decided by a voice vote as provided in section 27-194 beginning with the junior in rank.

      (c) Before a vote is taken on the findings, the military judge or the president of a court-martial without a military judge shall, in the presence of the accused and counsel, instruct the court as to the elements of the offense and charge the court: (1) That the accused must be presumed to be innocent until his guilt is established by legal and competent evidence beyond reasonable doubt; (2) that in the case being considered, if there is a reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused, the doubt must be resolved in favor of the accused and he must be acquitted; (3) that, if there is a reasonable doubt as to the degree of guilt, the finding must be in a lower degree as to which there is no reasonable doubt, and (4) that the burden of proof of establishing the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt is upon the state.

      (d) Subsections (a), (b) and (c) of this section shall not apply to a court-martial composed of a military judge only. The military judge of such a court-martial shall determine all questions of law and fact arising during the procedures and, if the accused is convicted, adjudge an appropriate sentence. The military judge of such a court-martial shall make a general finding and shall, in addition to such finding, on request, find the facts specially. If an opinion or memorandum of decision is filed, it shall be sufficient if the findings of fact appear therein.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 53; P.A. 77-295, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 changed Subsec. (b) as follows: Deleted the exception for challenges as it applied to the "military judge", substituted for "law officer", provided for the military judge and the president of a court-martial without a military judge to rule on all questions of law as well as interlocutory questions, provided that the rulings of the military judge on questions of law and interlocutory questions (except for the factual issue of mental responsibility of the accused) are final, provided that the rulings of a president of a court-martial without a military judge on questions of law (other than a motion for a finding of not guilty) are final, substituted in Subsec. (c) "military judge or the president of a court-martial without a military judge" for "law officer of a general court-martial and the president of a special court-martial" and added new Subsec. (d) providing that Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c) do not apply to court-martial composed of military judge only (Prior to the amendment the section provided for the rulings by both the military judge and president of a court-martial without a military judge to be final only with respect to interlocutory questions other than on the motion for a finding of not guilty or the question of the accused's sanity).

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      Sec. 27-194. Two-thirds vote required for conviction and sentence. Majority vote for other questions. Tie vote. (a) No person may be convicted of an offense, except by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present at the time the vote is taken.

      (b) All sentences shall be determined by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present at the time that the vote is taken.

      (c) All other questions to be decided by the members of a general or special court-martial shall be determined by a majority vote. A tie vote on a motion for a finding of not guilty or a motion relating to the question of the accused's sanity is a determination against the accused. A tie vote on any other question is a determination in favor of the accused.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 54.)

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      Sec. 27-195. Announcement of findings and sentence. A court-martial shall announce its findings and sentence to the parties as soon as determined.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 55.)

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      Sec. 27-196. Record of proceedings. Authentication. Copy to accused. (a) Each court-martial shall keep a separate record of the proceedings of the trial of each case brought before it and the record shall be authenticated by the signature of the president and the military judge. If the record cannot be authenticated by either the president or the military judge, by reason of his death, disability, or absence, it shall be signed by a member in lieu of him. If both the president and the military judge are unavailable, the record shall be authenticated by two members. A record of the proceedings of a trial in which the sentence adjudged includes a bad-conduct discharge or is more than that which could be adjudged by a special court-martial shall contain a verbatim account of the proceedings and testimony before the court. All other records of trial shall contain such matter and be authenticated in such manner as the Governor may by regulation prescribe.

      (b) A copy of the record of the proceedings of each general and special court-martial shall be given to the accused as soon as it is authenticated. If a verbatim record of trial by general court-martial is not required by subsection (a) of this section, but has been made, the accused may buy such record under such regulations as the Governor may prescribe.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 56; P.A. 77-295, S. 9; P.A. 07-217, S. 127.)

      History: P.A. 77-295 substituted "military judge" for "law officer" where appearing; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 27-197. Cruel punishments prohibited. Punishment by flogging, or by branding, marking or tattooing on the body, or any other cruel or unusual punishment, shall not be adjudged by any court-martial or inflicted upon any person subject to this code. The use of irons, single or double, except for the purpose of safe custody, is prohibited.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 57.)

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      Sec. 27-198. Governor to prescribe table of maximum punishments. The punishment which a court-martial may direct for an offense may not exceed limits prescribed by such regulations as the Governor shall prescribe in a table of maximum punishments.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 58.)

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      Sec. 27-199. Forfeiture of pay and allowances. Running of period of confinement. (a) Whenever a sentence of a court-martial as lawfully adjudged and approved includes a forfeiture of pay or allowances in addition to confinement not suspended, the forfeiture may apply to pay or allowances becoming due on or after the date the sentence is approved by the convening authority. No forfeiture shall extend to any pay or allowances accrued before that date.

      (b) Any period of confinement included in a sentence of a court-martial shall begin to run from the date the sentence is adjudged by the court-martial but periods during which the sentence to confinement is suspended shall be excluded in computing the service of the term of confinement. Regulations prescribed by the Governor may provide that sentences of confinement shall not be executed until approved by designated officers.

      (c) All other sentences of courts-martial are effective on the date ordered executed.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 59.)

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      Sec. 27-200. Place of confinement. Hard labor. (a) A sentence of confinement adjudged by a military court, whether or not the sentence includes discharge or dismissal, and whether or not the discharge or dismissal has been executed, may be carried into execution by confinement in any place of confinement under the control of any of the forces of the state military forces or in any jail, penitentiary, or prison designated for that purpose. Persons so confined in a jail, penitentiary, or prison are subject to the same discipline and treatment as persons confined or committed to the jail, penitentiary, or prison by the courts of the state.

      (b) The omission of the words "hard labor" from any sentence or punishment of a court-martial adjudging confinement does not deprive the authority executing that sentence or punishment of the power to require hard labor as a part of the punishment.

      (c) The keepers, officers, and wardens of community correctional centers and of other jails, penitentiaries, or prisons designated by the Governor, or by such person as he may authorize to act under section 27-150, shall receive persons ordered into confinement before trial and persons committed to confinement by a military court and shall confine them according to law. No such keeper, officer, or warden may require payment of any fee or charge for so receiving or confining a person.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 60; 1969, P.A. 297.)

      History: 1969 act replaced jails with community correctional centers.

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      Sec. 27-201. Authority of convening authority over execution of sentence. Except as provided in sections 27-161 and 27-207, a court-martial sentence, unless suspended, may be ordered executed by the convening authority when approved by him. He shall approve the sentence or such part, amount, or commuted form of the sentence as he sees fit, and may suspend the execution of the sentence as approved by him.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 61.)

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      Sec. 27-202. Record forwarded to convening authority. Action thereon. After a trial by court-martial the record shall be forwarded to the convening authority, as reviewing authority, and action thereon may be taken by the person who convened the court, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, a successor in command or the Governor.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 62.)

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      Sec. 27-203. Record of general court-martial referred to staff judge advocate. The convening authority shall refer the record of each general court-martial to the staff judge advocate, who shall submit his written opinion thereon to the convening authority. If the final action of the court has resulted in an acquittal of all charges and specifications, the opinion shall be limited to questions of jurisdiction.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 63.)

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      Sec. 27-204. Return of record to court for reconsideration or correction of error. (a) If a specification before a court-martial has been dismissed on motion and the ruling does not amount to a finding of not guilty, the convening authority may return the record to the court for reconsideration of the ruling and any further appropriate action.

      (b) Where there is an apparent error or omission in the record or where the record shows improper or inconsistent action by a court-martial with respect to a finding or sentence which can be rectified without material prejudice to the substantial rights of the accused, the convening authority may return the record to the court for appropriate action. In no case, however, shall the record be returned: (1) For reconsideration of a finding of not guilty, or a ruling which amounts to a finding of not guilty; (2) for reconsideration of a finding of not guilty of any charge, unless the record shows a finding of guilty under a specification laid under that charge, which sufficiently alleges a violation of some section of this code, or (3) for increasing the severity of the sentence unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 64.)

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      Sec. 27-205. Convening authority may order rehearing. (a) If the convening authority disapproves the findings and sentence of a court-martial he may, except where there is lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing. In such a case he shall state the reasons for disapproval. If he disapproves the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, he shall dismiss the charges.

      (b) Each rehearing shall take place before a court-martial composed of members not members of the court-martial which first heard the case. Upon a rehearing the accused may not be tried for any offense of which he was found not guilty by the first court-martial, and no sentence in excess or more severe than the original sentence shall be imposed, unless the sentence is based upon a finding of guilty of an offense not considered upon the merits in the original proceedings, or unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 65.)

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      Sec. 27-206. Approval by convening authority. In acting on the findings and sentence of a court-martial, the convening authority may approve only such findings of guilty, and the sentence or such part or amount of the sentence, as he finds correct in law and fact and as he in his discretion determines should be approved. Unless he indicates otherwise, approval of the sentence is approval of the findings and sentence.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 66.)

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      Sec. 27-207. Review by Governor or Judge Advocate. (a) If the convening authority is the Governor, his action on the review of any record of trial is final.

      (b) In all other cases not covered by subsection (a) of this section, if the sentence of a special court-martial as approved by the convening authority includes a bad-conduct discharge, whether or not suspended, the entire record shall be sent to the appropriate staff judge advocate or legal officer of the state force concerned to be reviewed in the same manner as a record of trial by general court-martial. The record and the opinion of the staff judge advocate or legal officer shall then be sent to the State Judge Advocate for review.

      (c) All other special and summary court-martial records shall be sent to the law specialist or legal officer of the appropriate force of the state military forces and shall be acted upon, transmitted and disposed of as may be prescribed by regulation of the Governor.

      (d) The State Judge Advocate shall review the record of trial in each case sent to him or her for review as provided under subsection (b) of this section. If the final action of the court-martial has resulted in an acquittal of all charges and specifications, the opinion of the State Judge Advocate is limited to questions of jurisdiction.

      (e) The State Judge Advocate shall take final action in any case reviewable by him.

      (f) In a case reviewable by the State Judge Advocate under this section, the State Judge Advocate may act only with respect to the findings and sentence as approved by the convening authority. He may affirm only such findings of guilty, and the sentence or such part or amount of the sentence, as he finds correct in law and fact and determines, on the basis of the entire record, should be approved. In considering the record, he may weigh the evidence, judge the credibility of witnesses, and determine controverted questions of fact, recognizing that the trial court saw and heard the witnesses. If the State Judge Advocate sets aside the findings and sentence, he may, except where the setting aside is based on lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing. If he sets aside the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, he shall order that the charges be dismissed.

      (g) In a case reviewable by the State Judge Advocate under this section, he shall instruct the convening authority to act in accordance with his decision on the review. If he has ordered a rehearing but the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he may dismiss the charges.

      (h) The State Judge Advocate may order one or more boards of review each composed of not less than three commissioned officers of the state military forces, each of whom must be a member of the bar of the highest court of the state. Each board of review shall review the record of any trial by special court-martial, including a sentence to bad-conduct discharge, referred to it by the State Judge Advocate. Boards of review have the same authority on review as the State Judge Advocate has under this section.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 67; P.A. 07-217, S. 128, 129.)

      History: P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (d), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 27-208. Effect of error of law. Approval of guilty finding may be limited to lesser offense. (a) A finding or sentence of a court-martial may not be held incorrect on the ground of an error of law unless the error materially prejudices the substantial rights of the accused.

      (b) Any reviewing authority with the power to approve or affirm a finding of guilty may approve or affirm so much of the finding as includes a lesser included offense.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 68.)

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      Sec. 27-209. Rights of accused before reviewing authority. (a) Upon the final review of a sentence of a general court-martial or a sentence to a bad-conduct discharge, the accused has the right to be represented by counsel before the reviewing authority, before the staff judge advocate or legal officer, as the case may be, and before the State Judge Advocate.

      (b) Upon the request of an accused entitled to be so represented, the State Judge Advocate shall appoint a lawyer who is a member of the state military forces and who has the qualifications prescribed in section 27-168, if available, to represent the accused before the reviewing authority, before the staff judge advocate or legal officer, as the case may be, and before the State Judge Advocate, in the review of cases specified in subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) If provided by him, an accused entitled to be so represented may be represented by civilian counsel before the reviewing authority, before the staff judge advocate or legal officer, as the case may be, and before the State Judge Advocate.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 69.)

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      Sec. 27-210. Vacation of suspension of sentence. (a) Before the vacation of the suspension of a special court-martial sentence which as approved includes a bad-conduct discharge or of any general court-martial sentence, the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer shall hold a hearing on the alleged violation of probation. The probationer shall be represented at the hearing by counsel if he so desires.

      (b) The record of the hearing and the recommendation of the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction shall be sent for action to the Governor in cases involving a general court-martial sentence and to the commanding officer of the force of the state military forces of which the probationer is a member in all other cases covered by subsection (a) of this section. If the Governor or commanding officer vacates the suspension, any unexecuted part of the sentence except a dismissal shall be executed.

      (c) The suspension of any other sentence may be vacated by any authority competent to convene, for the command in which the accused is serving or assigned, a court of the kind that imposed the sentence.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 70.)

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      Sec. 27-211. Petition for new trial. At any time within two years after approval by the convening authority of a court-martial sentence which extends to dismissal, dishonorable discharge or bad-conduct discharge, the accused may petition the Governor for a new trial on ground of newly discovered evidence or fraud on the court-martial.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 71.)

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      Sec. 27-212. Remission or suspension of unexecuted part of sentence. Substitution of administrative discharge for court-martial discharge. (a) A convening authority may remit or suspend any part or amount of the unexecuted part of any sentence, including all uncollected forfeitures.

      (b) The Governor may, for good cause, substitute an administrative form of discharge for a discharge or dismissal executed in accordance with the sentence of a court-martial.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 72.)

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      Sec. 27-213. Restoration of rights and property after sentence set aside or disapproved. Different form of discharge after new trial. Reappointment of officer after new trial. (a) Under such regulations as the Governor may prescribe, all rights, privileges, and property affected by an executed part of a court-martial sentence which has been set aside or disapproved, except an executed dismissal or discharge, shall be restored unless a new trial or rehearing is ordered and such executed part is included in a sentence imposed upon a new trial or rehearing.

      (b) If a previously executed sentence of dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge is not imposed on a new trial, the Governor shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issuance unless the accused is to serve out the remainder of his enlistment.

      (c) If a previously executed sentence of dismissal is not imposed on a new trial, the Governor shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issue, and the commissioned officer dismissed by that sentence may be reappointed by the Governor alone to such commissioned grade and with such rank as in the opinion of the governor that former officer would have attained had he not been dismissed. The reappointment of such a former officer may be made if a position vacancy is available under applicable tables of organization. All time between the dismissal and reappointment shall be considered as service for all purposes.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 73.)

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      Sec. 27-214. Finality and binding effect of actions. The proceedings, findings and sentences of courts-martial as reviewed and approved, as required by this code, and all dismissal and discharges carried into execution under sentences by courts-martial following review and approval, as required by this code, are final and conclusive. Orders publishing the proceedings of courts-martial and all action taken pursuant to those proceedings are binding upon all departments, courts, agencies, and officers of the state, subject only to action upon a petition for a new trial as provided in section 27-201.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 74.)

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      Sec. 27-215. No trial for offense not committed on duty. No person may be tried or punished for any offense provided for in sections 27-216 to 27-260, inclusive, unless it was committed while he was in a duty status.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 75.)

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      Sec. 27-216. Principal defined. Any person subject to this code who: (1) Commits an offense punishable by this code, or aids, abets, counsels, commands, or procures its commission, or (2) causes an act to be done which if directly performed by him would be punishable by this code is a principal.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 76.)

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      Sec. 27-217. Accessory after the fact. Any person subject to this code who, knowing that an offense punishable by this code has been committed, receives, comforts, or assists the offender in order to hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial, or punishment shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 77.)

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      Sec. 27-218. Finding of guilty of offense included in charge or of attempt to commit offense charged or included in charge. An accused may be found guilty of an offense necessarily included in the offense charged or of an attempt to commit either the offense charged or an offense necessarily included therein.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 78.)

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      Sec. 27-219. Attempt to commit an offense. (a) An act, done with specific intent to commit an offense under this code, amounting to more than mere preparation and tending, even though failing to effect its commission, is an attempt to commit that offense.

      (b) Any person subject to this code who attempts to commit any offense punishable by this code shall be punished as a court-martial may direct, unless otherwise specifically prescribed.

      (c) Any person subject to this code may be convicted of an attempt to commit an offense although it appears on the trial that the offense was consummated.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 79.)

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      Sec. 27-220. Conspiracy. Any person subject to this code who conspires with any other person to commit an offense under this code shall, if one or more of the conspirators does an act to effect the object of the conspiracy, be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 80.)

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      Sec. 27-221. Solicitation to desertion, mutiny, misbehavior or sedition. (a) Any person subject to this code who solicits or advises another or others to desert in violation of section 27-224 or mutiny in violation of section 27-233 shall, if the offense solicited or advised is attempted or committed, be punished with the punishment provided for the commission of the offense, but, if the offense solicited or advised is not committed or attempted, he shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (b) Any person subject to this code who solicits or advises another or others to commit an act of misbehavior before the enemy in violation of section 27-238 or sedition in violation of section 27-233 shall, if the offense solicited or advised is committed, be punished with the punishment provided for the commission of the offense, but, if the offense solicited or advised is not committed, he shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 81.)

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      Sec. 27-222. Procuring of enlistment or separation by false representations or concealment. Any person who: (1) Procures his own enlistment or appointment in the state military forces by knowingly false representation or deliberate concealment as to his qualifications for that enlistment or appointment and receives pay or allowances thereunder, or (2) procures his own separation from the state military forces by knowingly false representation or deliberate concealment as to his eligibility for that separation shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 82.)

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      Sec. 27-223. Effecting of enlistment, appointment or separation of ineligible person. Any person subject to this code who effects an enlistment or appointment in or a separation from the state military forces of any person who is known to him to be ineligible for that enlistment, appointment, or separation because it is prohibited by law, regulation, or order shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 83.)

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      Sec. 27-224. Desertion. (a) Any member of the state military forces who: (1) Without authority goes or remains absent from his unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to remain away therefrom permanently; (2) quits his unit, organization or place of duty with intent to avoid hazardous duty or to shirk important service, or (3) without being regularly separated from one of the state military forces enlists or accepts an appointment in the same or another one of the state military forces, or in one of the armed forces of the United States, without fully disclosing the fact that he has not been regularly separated is guilty of desertion.

      (b) Any commissioned officer of the state military forces who, after tender of his resignation and before notice of its acceptance, quits his post or proper duties without leave and with intent to remain away therefrom permanently is guilty of desertion.

      (c) Any person found guilty of desertion or attempt to desert shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 84.)

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      Sec. 27-225. Absence without leave. Any person subject to this code who, without authority: (1) Fails to go to his appointed place of duty at the time prescribed; (2) goes from that place, or (3) absents himself or remains absent from his unit, organization, or place of duty at which he is required to be at the time prescribed shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 85.)

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      Sec. 27-226. Missing movement. Any person subject to this code who through neglect or design misses the movement of a ship, aircraft or unit with which he is required in the course of duty to move shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 86.)

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      Sec. 27-227. Contempt towards President or Governor. Any person subject to this code who uses contemptuous words against the President, the Governor, or the Governor of any other state, territory, commonwealth or possession in which that person may be serving, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 87.)

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      Sec. 27-228. Disrespect towards superior officer. Any person subject to this code who behaves with disrespect towards his superior commissioned officer shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 88.)

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      Sec. 27-229. Assaulting or disobeying command of superior officer. Any person subject to this code who: (1) Strikes his superior commissioned officer or draws or lifts up any weapon or offers any violence against him while he is in the execution of his office, or (2) wilfully disobeys a lawful command of his superior commissioned officer shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 89.)

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      Sec. 27-230. Offenses against warrant officer, noncommissioned officer or petty officer. Any warrant officer or enlisted member who: (1) Strikes or assaults a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer or petty officer, while that officer is in the execution of his office; (2) wilfully disobeys the lawful order of a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer, or (3) treats with contempt or is disrespectful in language or deportment toward a warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer, while that officer is in the execution of his office shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 90.)

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      Sec. 27-231. Failure to obey orders or regulations. Any person subject to this code who: (1) Violates or fails to obey any lawful general order or regulation; (2) having knowledge of any other lawful order issued by a member of the state military forces which it is his duty to obey, fails to obey the order, or (3) is derelict in the performance of his duties shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 91.)

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      Sec. 27-232. Cruelty, oppression or maltreatment of subordinate. Any person subject to this code who is guilty of cruelty toward, or oppression or maltreatment of, any person subject to his orders shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 92.)

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      Sec. 27-233. Mutiny. Sedition. (a) Any person subject to this code who: (1) With intent to usurp or override lawful military authority refuses in concert with any other person, to obey orders or otherwise do his duty or creates any violence or disturbance is guilty of mutiny; (2) with intent to cause the overthrow of lawful civil authority, creates, in concert with any other person, revolt, violence, or other disturbance against that authority is guilty of sedition; (3) fails to do his utmost to prevent and suppress a mutiny or sedition being committed in his presence, or fails to take all reasonable means to inform his superior commissioned officer or commanding officer of a mutiny or sedition which he knows or has reason to believe is taking place, is guilty of a failure to suppress or report a mutiny or sedition.

      (b) A person who is found guilty of attempted mutiny, mutiny, sedition or failure to suppress or report a mutiny or sedition shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 93.)

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      Sec. 27-234. Resisting or breaking arrest. Escape. Any person subject to this code who resists apprehension or breaks arrest or who escapes from physical restraint lawfully imposed shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 94.)

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      Sec. 27-235. Illegal release of prisoner. Aiding escape. Any person subject to this code who, without proper authority, releases any prisoner committed to his charge, or who through neglect or design suffers any such prisoner to escape, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct, whether or not the prisoner was committed in strict compliance with law.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 95.)

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      Sec. 27-236. Illegal arrest or confinement of another. Any person subject to this code who, except as provided by law or regulation, apprehends, arrests, or confines any person shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 96.)

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      Sec. 27-237. Unnecessary delay in disposition of case. Failure to observe trial provisions. Any person subject to this code who: (1) Is responsible for unnecessary delay in the disposition of any case of a person accused of an offense under this code, or (2) knowingly and intentionally fails to enforce or comply with any provision of this code regulating the proceedings before, during, or after trial of an accused shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 97.)

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      Sec. 27-238. Misbehavior in presence of enemy. Any person subject to this code who before or in the presence of the enemy: (1) Runs away; (2) shamefully abandons, surrenders or delivers up any command, unit, place or military property which it is his duty to defend; (3) through disobedience, neglect or intentional misconduct endangers the safety of any such command, unit, place or military property; (4) casts away his arms or ammunition; (5) is guilty of cowardly conduct; (6) quits his place of duty to plunder or pillage; (7) causes false alarms in any command, unit or place under control of the armed forces of the United States or the state military forces; (8) wilfully fails to do his utmost to encounter, engage, capture or destroy any enemy troops, combatants, vessels, aircraft or any other thing, which it is his duty so to encounter, engage, capture or destroy, or (9) does not afford all practicable relief and assistance to any troops, combatants, vessels or aircraft of the armed forces belonging to the United States or their allies, to the state, or to any other state, when engaged in battle shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 98.)

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      Sec. 27-239. Compelling surrender or abandonment to enemy. Any person subject to this code who compels or attempts to compel the commander of any of the state military forces of this state, or of any other state, to give it up to an enemy or to abandon it, or who strikes the colors or flag to an enemy without proper authority, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 99.)

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      Sec. 27-240. Disclosure of parole or countersign. Any person subject to this code who in time of war discloses the parole or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it, or who gives to another who is entitled to receive and use the parole or countersign a different parole or countersign from that which, to his knowledge, he was authorized and required to give, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 100.)

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      Sec. 27-241. Forcing of safeguard. Any person subject to this code who forces a safeguard shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 101.)

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      Sec. 27-242. Illegal disposition of captured property. Looting. (a) All persons subject to this code shall secure all public property taken from the enemy for the service of the United States, and shall give notice and turn over to the proper authority without delay all captured and abandoned property in their possession, custody or control.

      (b) Any person subject to this code who: (1) Fails to carry out the duties prescribed in subsection (a) of this section; (2) buys, sells, trades, or in any way deals in or disposes of captured or abandoned property, whereby the person receives or expects any profit, benefit, or advantage to the person or another directly or indirectly connected with the person; or (3) engages in looting or pillaging shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 102; P.A. 07-217, S. 130.)

      History: P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 27-243. Aiding enemy. Any person subject to this code who: (1) Aids, or attempts to aid, the enemy with arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things, or (2) without proper authority, knowingly harbors or protects or gives intelligence to, or communicates or corresponds with or holds any intercourse with the enemy, either directly or indirectly shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 103.)

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      Sec. 27-244. Improper acts as prisoner of war. Any person subject to this code who, while in the hands of the enemy, in time of war: (1) For the purpose of securing favorable treatment by his captors acts without proper authority in a manner contrary to law, custom or regulation, to the detriment of others of whatever nationality held by the enemy as civilian or military prisoners, or (2) while in a position of authority over such persons, maltreats them without justifiable cause shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 104.)

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      Sec. 27-245. False official statements. Any person subject to this code who, with intent to deceive, signs any false record, return, regulation, order, or other official document, knowing it to be false, or makes any other false official statement knowing it to be false, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 105.)

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      Sec. 27-246. Misuse of military property. Any person subject to this code who, without proper authority: (1) Sells, or otherwise disposes of; (2) wilfully or through neglect damages, destroys, or loses, or (3) wilfully or through neglect suffers to be damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of any military property of the United States or of the state shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 106.)

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      Sec. 27-247. Misuse of government property other than military. Any person subject to this code who wilfully or recklessly wastes, spoils, or otherwise wilfully and wrongfully destroys or damages any property other than military property of the United States or of the state shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 107.)

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      Sec. 27-248. Wrongful hazard of military vessel. (a) Any person subject to this code who wilfully and wrongfully hazards or suffers to be hazarded any vessel of the armed forces of the United States or of the state military forces shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (b) Any person subject to this code who negligently hazards or suffers to be hazarded any vessel of the armed forces of the United States or of the state military forces shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 108.)

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      Sec. 27-249. Drunken or reckless operation of vehicle. Any person subject to this code who operates any vehicle while drunk, or in a reckless or wanton manner, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 109.)

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      Sec. 27-250. Drinking or sleeping on duty; leaving post before relieved. Any person subject to this code who is found drunk on duty or sleeping upon his post, or who leaves his post before he is regularly relieved, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 110.)

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      Sec. 27-251. Dueling. Any person subject to this code who fights or promotes, or is concerned in or connives at fighting a duel, or who, having knowledge of a challenge sent or about to be sent, fails to report the fact promptly to the proper authority, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 111.)

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      Sec. 27-252. Malingering; intentional self-injury. Any person subject to this code who for the purposes of avoiding work, duty or service in the state military forces: (1) Feigns illness, physical disablement, mental lapse, or derangement, or (2) intentionally inflicts self-injury shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 112.)

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      Sec. 27-253. Riot. Breach of peace. Any person subject to this code who causes or participates in any riot or breach of the peace shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 113.)

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      Sec. 27-254. Use of provocative or reproachful words or gestures towards another. Any person subject to this code who uses provoking or reproachful words or gestures towards any other person subject to this code shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 114.)

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      Sec. 27-255. Attempt to harm another. Any person subject to this code who attempts or offers with unlawful force or violence to do bodily harm to another person, whether or not the attempt is consummated, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 115.)

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      Sec. 27-256. Perjury. Any person subject to this code who in a judicial proceeding or in a course of justice conducted under this code wilfully and corruptly gives, upon a lawful oath or in any form allowed by law to be substituted for an oath, any false testimony material to the issue or matter of inquiry is guilty of perjury and shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 116.)

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      Sec. 27-257. Fraudulent claims. False oath. Forgery. Fraud. Any person subject to this code: (1) Who, knowing it to be false or fraudulent: (A) Makes any claim against the United States, the state, or any officer thereof, or (B) presents to any person in the civil or military service thereof, for approval or payment any claim against the United States, the state, or any officer thereof; (2) who, for the purpose of obtaining the approval, allowance or payment of any claim against the United States, the state, or any officer thereof: (A) Makes or uses any writing or other paper knowing it to contain any false or fraudulent statements; (B) makes any oath to any fact or to any writing or other paper knowing the oath to be false, or (C) forges or counterfeits any signature upon any writing or other paper, or uses any such signature knowing it to be forged or counterfeited; (3) who, having charge, possession, custody, or control of any money, or other property of the United States or the state, furnished or intended for the armed forces of the United States or the state military forces, knowingly delivers to any person having authority to receive it, any amount thereof which is less than that for which he receives a certificate or receipt, or (4) who, being authorized to make or deliver any paper certifying the receipt of any property of the United States or the state, furnished or intended for the armed forces of the United States or the state military forces, makes or delivers to any person such writing without having full knowledge of the truth of the statements therein contained and with intent to defraud the United States or the state shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 117.)

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      Sec. 27-258. Larceny; wrongful appropriation. (a) Any person subject to this code who wrongfully takes, obtains, or withholds, by any means, from the possession of the owner or of any other person any money, personal property, or article of value of any kind: (1) With intent permanently to deprive or defraud another person of the use and benefit of property or to appropriate it to his own use or the use of any person other than the owner, is guilty of larceny, or (2) with intent temporarily to deprive or defraud another person of the use and benefit of property or to appropriate it to his own use or the use of any person other than the owner, is guilty of wrongful appropriation.

      (b) Any person found guilty of larceny or wrongful appropriation shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 118.)

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      Sec. 27-259. Conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman. Any commissioned officer who is convicted of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 119.)

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      Sec. 27-260. Crimes excepted from court-martial jurisdiction. Though not specifically mentioned in this code, all disorders and neglects to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the state military forces, of which persons subject to this code may be guilty, shall be taken cognizance of by a general, special or summary court-martial, according to the nature and degree of the offense, and shall be punished at the discretion of that court. However, cognizance may not be taken of, and jurisdiction may not be extended to, the crimes of murder, manslaughter, sexual assault, sexual assault with a firearm, robbery, arson, coercion, assault in the first or second degree or burglary, jurisdiction of which is reserved to civil courts.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 120; P.A. 76-336, S. 18.)

      History: P.A. 76-336 changed the list of crimes for which jurisdiction of courts-martial may not be extended by deleting "rape, maiming, sodomy, extortion, aggravated assault or house breaking" and adding "sexual assault, sexual assault with a firearm, coercion, assault in the first or second degree".

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      Sec. 27-261. Court of inquiry. (a) Courts of inquiry to investigate any matter may be convened by the Governor or by any other person designated by the Governor for that purpose, whether or not the persons involved have requested such an inquiry.

      (b) A court of inquiry shall consist of three or more commissioned officers. For each court of inquiry the convening authority shall also appoint counsel for the court.

      (c) Any person subject to this code whose conduct is subject to inquiry shall be designated as a party. Any person subject to this code or employed in the division of military and naval affairs, who has a direct interest in the subject of inquiry has the right to be designated as a party upon request to the court. Any person designated as a party shall be given due notice and has the right to be present, to be represented by counsel, to cross-examine witnesses, and to introduce evidence.

      (d) Members of a court of inquiry may be challenged by a party, but only for cause stated to the court.

      (e) The members, counsel, the reporter, and interpreters of courts of inquiry shall take an oath or affirmation to faithfully perform their duties.

      (f) Witnesses may be summoned to appear and testify and be examined before courts of inquiry, as provided for courts-martial.

      (g) Courts of inquiry shall make findings of fact but may not express opinions or make recommendations unless required to do so by the convening authority.

      (h) Each court of inquiry shall keep a record of its proceedings, which shall be authenticated by the signatures of the president and counsel for the court and forwarded to the convening authority. If the record cannot be authenticated by the president, it shall be signed by a member in lieu of the president. If the record cannot be authenticated by the counsel for the court, it shall be signed by a member in lieu of the counsel.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 121.)

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      Sec. 27-262. Administration of oaths. (a) The following members of the state military forces may administer oaths for the purposes of military administration, including military justice, and affidavits may be taken for those purposes before persons having the general powers of a notary public: (1) The State Judge Advocate and all assistant state judge advocates; (2) all law specialists; (3) all summary courts-martial; (4) all adjutants, assistant adjutants, acting adjutants, and personnel adjutants; (5) all commanding officers of the naval militia; (6) all legal officers; (7) the president, law officer, trial counsel, and assistant trial counsel for all general and special courts-martial; (8) the president and the counsel for the court of any court of inquiry; (9) all officers designated to take a deposition; (10) all persons detailed to conduct an investigation, and (11) all other persons designated by regulations of the Governor.

      (b) Officers of the state military forces may not be authorized to administer oaths as provided in this section unless they are on active duty in or with those forces under orders of the Governor as prescribed in this code.

      (c) The signature without seal of any such person, together with the title of his office, is prima facie evidence of his authority.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 122.)

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      Sec. 27-263. Code to be explained to military personnel. Sections 27-142, 27-146 to 27-154, inclusive, 27-166, 27-168, 27-179, 27-197, 27-215 to 27-258, inclusive, and 27-263 to 27-265, inclusive, shall be carefully explained to every enlisted member at the time of his enlistment or transfer or induction into, or at the time of his order to duty in or with, any of the state military forces or within thirty days thereafter. They shall also be explained annually to each unit of the state military forces. A complete text of this code and of the regulations prescribed by the Governor thereunder shall be made available to any member of the state military forces, upon his request, for his personal examination.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 123.)

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      Sec. 27-264. Complaint against superior officers. Any member of the state military forces who believes himself wronged by his commanding officer, and who, upon due application to that commanding officer, is refused redress, may complain to any superior commissioned officer, who shall forward the complaint to the Governor or Adjutant General.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 124.)

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      Sec. 27-265. Investigation of complaint of damage by military personnel. Assessment of damages. (a) Whenever complaint is made to any commanding officer that wilful damage has been done to the property of any person or that his property has been wrongfully taken by members of the state military forces, he may, subject to such regulations as the Governor may prescribe, convene a board to investigate the complaint. The board shall consist of from one to three commissioned officers and, for the purpose of that investigation, it may summon witnesses and examine them upon oath or affirmation, receive depositions or other documentary evidence, and assess the damages sustained against the responsible parties. The assessment of damages made by the board shall be subject to the approval of the commanding officer, and in the amount approved by him shall be charged against the pay of the offenders. The order of the commanding officer directing charges herein authorized shall be conclusive, except as provided in subsection (c), on any disbursing officer for the payment by him to the injured parties of the damages so assessed and approved.

      (b) If the offenders cannot be ascertained, but the organization or detachment to which they belong is known, charges totaling the amount of damages assessed and approved may be paid to the injured parties from the military funds of the units of the state military forces to which the offenders belonged.

      (c) Any person subject to this code who is accused of causing wilful damage to property shall have the right to be represented by counsel, to summon witnesses in his behalf, and to cross-examine those appearing against him. He shall have the right of appeal to the next higher commander.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 125.)

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      Sec. 27-266. Execution of process and sentences by civil officers. In the state military forces not in federal service, the processes and sentences of its courts-martial shall be executed by the civil officers prescribed by the laws of the state.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 126.)

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      Sec. 27-267. Issuance and execution of process by military courts. (a) Military courts may issue any process or mandate necessary to carry into effect their powers. Such a court may issue subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum and enforce by attachment attendance of witnesses and production of books and records, when it is sitting within the state and the witnesses, books and records sought are also so located.

      (b) Process and mandates may be issued by summary courts-martial, provost courts, or the president of other military courts and may be directed to and may be executed by the marshals of the military court or any peace officer and shall be in such form as may be prescribed by regulations issued under this code.

      (c) All officers to whom process or mandates may be so directed shall execute them and make return of their acts thereunder according to the requirements of those documents. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this code, no such officer may demand or require payment of any fee or charge for receiving, executing, or returning such a process or mandate or for any service in connection therewith.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 127.)

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      Sec. 27-268. Payment of fines. Fines imposed by a military court may be paid to it or to an officer executing its process. The amount of such a fine may be noted upon any state roll or account for pay of the delinquent and deducted from any pay or allowance due or thereafter to become due such delinquent, until the fine is liquidated. Any sum so deducted shall be turned in to the military court which imposed the fine. Notwithstanding any other law, a fine or penalty imposed by a military court upon an officer or enlisted person shall be paid by the officer collecting it within thirty days to the treasury of the organization, unit or detachment to which the officer or enlisted person who paid the fine belonged, to be accounted for in the same manner as other appropriated funds.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 128; P.A. 74-321, S. 20.)

      History: P.A. 74-321 substituted "such delinquent" for "him" and "person" for "man".

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      Sec. 27-269. Immunity for action of military court. No accused may bring an action or proceeding against the convening authority or officer or person acting under its authority or reviewing its proceedings because of the approval, imposition, or execution of any sentence or the imposition or collection of a fine or penalty, or the execution of any process or mandate of a military court.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 129.)

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      Sec. 27-270. Presumption of jurisdiction of military courts and boards. The jurisdiction of the military courts and boards established by this code shall be presumed and the burden of proof rests on any person seeking to oust those courts or boards of jurisdiction in any action or proceeding.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 130.)

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      Sec. 27-271. Governor may delegate certain authority. The Governor may delegate any authority vested in him under this code, and may provide for the subdelegation of any such authority, except the power given him by sections 27-160 and 27-163.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 131.)

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      Sec. 27-272. Payment of court expenses. The expenses incident to and connected with the holding of military courts and courts of inquiry shall be paid by the state under orders, rules and regulations issued by the Governor.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 132.)

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      Sec. 27-273. Uniform construction. This chapter shall be so construed as to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law of those states which enact it and, so far as practical, to make that law uniform with the law of the United States.

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 133.)

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      Sec. 27-274. Short title: Connecticut Code of Military Justice. This chapter may be cited as the "Connecticut Code of Military Justice".

      (1967, P.A. 717, S. 134.)

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