CHAPTER 420b*
DEPENDENCY-PRODUCING DRUGS

      *Annotations to former chapter 359 and present chapter:

      Cited. 180 C. 557. Former sections 19-443 through 19-504 cited. 189 C. 42. Cited. 207 C. 698.

      Cited. 7 CA 403.

      Cited. 28 CS 465. Cited. 31 CS 130. Persons convicted hereunder to be sentenced in accord with chapter 952 when not inconsistent with this chapter. Id., 350.


Table of Contents

Sec. 21a-240. (Formerly Sec. 19-443). Definitions.
Sec. 21a-241. (Formerly Sec. 19-449). Prior regulations continued.
Sec. 21a-242. (Formerly Sec. 19-450a). Schedules of controlled substances. Exceptions.
Sec. 21a-243. (Formerly Sec. 19-451). Regulations re schedules of controlled substances.
Sec. 21a-244. (Formerly Sec. 19-451a). Regulations re storage and retrieval of prescription information.
Sec. 21a-244a. Drug records maintained on electronic data processing systems or media systems. Electronic identifiers. Regulations.
Sec. 21a-245. (Formerly Sec. 19-452). Manufacture, sale, administering of restricted substances regulated.
Sec. 21a-246. (Formerly Sec. 19-453). License to manufacture, wholesale, supply, compound, etc. Exception. License fees. License to possess and supply marijuana.
Sec. 21a-247. (Formerly Sec. 19-454). Qualifications of applicant for license.
Sec. 21a-248. (Formerly Sec. 19-456). Sale or dispensing of controlled drugs by licensed manufacturer or wholesaler. Records; orders. Scope of uses limited.
Sec. 21a-249. (Formerly Sec. 19-457). Prescription requirements.
Sec. 21a-250. (Formerly Sec. 19-458). Rights and duties of pharmacist.
Sec. 21a-250a.
Sec. 21a-251. (Formerly Sec. 19-459). Dispensing of controlled substances by hospitals, infirmaries or clinics.
Sec. 21a-252. (Formerly Sec. 19-460). Prescription and dispensing of controlled substances by certain practitioners. Surrender of unused substances by patients.
Sec. 21a-253. Possession of marijuana pursuant to a prescription by a physician.
Sec. 21a-254. (Formerly Sec. 19-461). Designation of restricted drugs or substances by regulations. Records required by chapter. Establishment of electronic prescription drug monitoring program. Pharmacy and outpatient pharmacy controlled substance prescription reporting. Vendor collection of information. Confidentiality. Disclosure of information. Regulations.
Sec. 21a-254a. Appointment of prescription drug monitoring working group. Membership.
Sec. 21a-255. (Formerly Sec. 19-462). Penalty for failure to make, furnish or keep records, statements or information. General penalty.
Sec. 21a-256. (Formerly Sec. 19-463). Labeling of package or container of controlled substances.
Sec. 21a-257. (Formerly Sec. 19-464). Person receiving narcotic drug to keep it in original container.
Sec. 21a-258. (Formerly Sec. 19-465). Exceptions concerning possession and control.
Sec. 21a-259. (Formerly Sec. 19-466). Common nuisances. Receivership of rental housing property development.
Sec. 21a-260. (Formerly Sec. 19-467a). Narcotics control section in Department of Consumer Protection.
Sec. 21a-261. (Formerly Sec. 19-468). Inspection of records. Entry on premises. Warrants and arrests.
Sec. 21a-262. (Formerly Sec. 19-469). Commissioner's authority and duties re controlled substances. When seizing authority may destroy. Disposal by long-term care facilities and outpatient surgical facilities.
Sec. 21a-263. (Formerly Sec. 19-469a). Power of commissioner to receive and destroy drug paraphernalia. Records.
Sec. 21a-264. (Formerly Sec. 19-470). Notice to licensing boards of violations by licensees.
Sec. 21a-265. (Formerly Sec. 19-471). Inspection of prescriptions, orders, records and stocks restricted to government officers and third-party payors. Confidentiality.
Sec. 21a-266. (Formerly Sec. 19-472). Prohibited acts.
Sec. 21a-267. (Formerly Sec. 19-472a). Prohibited acts re drug paraphernalia.
Sec. 21a-268. (Formerly Sec. 19-473). Misrepresentation of substance as controlled substance. Exemption.
Sec. 21a-269. (Formerly Sec. 19-474). Burden of proof of exception, excuse, proviso or exemption.
Sec. 21a-270. (Formerly Sec. 19-474a). Drug paraphernalia: Factors to be considered by court or other authority in determination.
Sec. 21a-271. (Formerly Sec. 19-474b). Severability of provisions concerning drug paraphernalia.
Sec. 21a-272. (Formerly Sec. 19-475). Preparations which may be sold and dispensed. Exceptions.
Sec. 21a-273. (Formerly Sec. 19-476). Substances exempt under federal law.
Sec. 21a-274. (Formerly Sec. 19-477). Cooperation in enforcement of law.
Sec. 21a-274a. Drug enforcement grant program. Safe neighborhoods grant program. Community mobilization antidrug grant program.
Sec. 21a-275. (Formerly Sec. 19-478). Revocation or suspension of licenses by commissioner.
Sec. 21a-276. (Formerly Sec. 19-479). Discretion of commissioner to issue warning.
Sec. 21a-277. (Formerly Sec. 19-480). Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription, dispensing.
Sec. 21a-278. (Formerly Sec. 19-480a). Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription or administration by non-drug-dependent person.
Sec. 21a-278a. Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription or administration.
Sec. 21a-279. (Formerly Sec. 19-481). Penalty for illegal possession. Alternative sentences.
Sec. 21a-280. (Formerly Sec. 19-481a). Breathing of anesthesia not violation.
Sec. 21a-281. (Formerly Sec. 19-481b). Presumption of psychological dependence on volatile substances.
Sec. 21a-282. (Formerly Sec. 19-482). No prosecution where federal action has been taken.
Sec. 21a-283. (Formerly Sec. 19-483). Analytical tests for presence of controlled drugs or alcohol. Standards and procedures. Convictions constituting prior offense. Imposition of cost when analysis performed.
Sec. 21a-283a. Court authorized to depart from imposing mandatory minimum sentence.
Secs. 21a-284 and 21a-285. (Formerly Secs. 19-484 and 19-485). Suspension of prosecution for treatment for drug dependence; dismissal of charges. Order for treatment in addition to penalties on conviction; penalty for unauthorized departure from hospital.
Secs. 21a-286 to 21a-300.
Secs. 21a-301 to 21a-305. (Formerly Secs. 19-504a, 19-504c to 19-504e, 19-504g). Definitions. Regulations. Inspections of: Institutional pharmacies, pharmacist's drug rooms and dispensing outpatient facilities; correctional and juvenile training institutions and care-giving institutions. Reports by care-giving, correctional and juvenile training institutions.
Sec. 21a-306.
Sec. 21a-307. (Formerly Sec. 19-504i). Definitions re dispensing of drugs.
Sec. 21a-308.
Secs. 21a-309 to 21a-315.

PART I*
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      *Secs. 21a-240-21a-285 cited. 19 CA 668. Secs. 21a-240-21a-283 cited. 41 CA 604.

      Sec. 21a-240. (Formerly Sec. 19-443). Definitions. The following words and phrases, as used in this chapter, shall have the following meanings, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "Abuse of drugs" means the use of controlled substances solely for their stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system and not as a therapeutic agent prescribed in the course of medical treatment or in a program of research operated under the direction of a physician or pharmacologist;

      (2) "Administer" means the direct application of a controlled substance, whether by injection, inhalation, ingestion or any other means, to the body of a patient or research subject by: (A) A practitioner, or, in his presence, by his authorized agent, or (B) the patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner, or (C) a nurse or intern under the direction and supervision of a practitioner;

      (3) "Agent" means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor or dispenser. It does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseman, or employee of the carrier or warehouseman;

      (4) "Amphetamine-type substances" include amphetamine, optical isomers thereof, salts of amphetamine and its isomers, and chemical compounds which are similar thereto in chemical structure or which are similar thereto in physiological effect, and which show a like potential for abuse, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified;

      (5) "Barbiturate-type drugs" include barbituric acid and its salts, derivatives thereof and chemical compounds which are similar thereto in chemical structure or which are similar thereto in physiological effect, and which show a like potential for abuse, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified;

      (6) "Bureau" means the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, United States Department of Justice, or its successor agency;

      (7) "Cannabis-type substances" include all parts of any plant, or species of the genus cannabis or any infra specific taxon thereof whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such a plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin; but shall not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such mature stalks, except the resin extracted therefrom, fiber, oil or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination. Included are cannabinon, cannabinol, cannabidiol and chemical compounds which are similar to cannabinon, cannabinol or cannabidiol in chemical structure or which are similar thereto in physiological effect, and which show a like potential for abuse, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified;

      (8) "Controlled drugs" are those drugs which contain any quantity of a substance which has been designated as subject to the federal Controlled Substances Act, or which has been designated as a depressant or stimulant drug pursuant to federal food and drug laws, or which has been designated by the Commissioner of Consumer Protection pursuant to section 21a-243, as having a stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system and as having a tendency to promote abuse or psychological or physiological dependence, or both. Such controlled drugs are classifiable as amphetamine-type, barbiturate-type, cannabis-type, cocaine-type, hallucinogenic, morphine-type and other stimulant and depressant drugs. Specifically excluded from controlled drugs and controlled substances are alcohol, nicotine and caffeine;

      (9) "Controlled substance" means a drug, substance, or immediate precursor in schedules I to V, inclusive, of the Connecticut controlled substance scheduling regulations adopted pursuant to section 21a-243;

      (10) "Counterfeit substance" means a controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name or other identifying mark, imprint, number or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor or dispenser other than the person who in fact manufactured, distributed or dispensed the substance;

      (11) "Deliver or delivery" means the actual, constructive or attempted transfer from one person to another of a controlled substance, whether or not there is an agency relationship;

      (12) "Dentist" means a person authorized by law to practice dentistry in this state;

      (13) "Dispense" means to deliver a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the prescribing, administering, packaging, labeling or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for the delivery;

      (14) "Dispenser" means a practitioner who dispenses;

      (15) "Distribute" means to deliver other than by administering or dispensing a controlled substance;

      (16) "Distributor" means a person who distributes and includes a wholesaler who is a person supplying or distributing controlled drugs which he himself has not produced or prepared to hospitals, clinics, practitioners, pharmacies, other wholesalers, manufacturers and federal, state and municipal agencies;

      (17) "Drug" means (A) substances recognized as drugs in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; (B) substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man or animals; (C) substances, other than food, intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or animals; and (D) substances intended for use as a component of any article specified in subparagraph (A), (B) or (C) of this subdivision. It does not include devices or their components, parts or accessories;

      (18) "Drug dependence" means a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" of the American Psychiatric Association;

      (19) "Drug-dependent person" means a person who has a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" of the American Psychiatric Association;

      (20) (A) "Drug paraphernalia" refers to equipment, products and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing or concealing, or ingesting, inhaling or otherwise introducing into the human body, any controlled substance contrary to the provisions of this chapter including, but not limited to: (i) Kits intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing or harvesting of any species of plant which is a controlled substance or from which a controlled substance can be derived; (ii) kits used, intended for use or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing or preparing controlled substances; (iii) isomerization devices used, intended for use in increasing the potency of any species of plant which is a controlled substance; (iv) testing equipment used, intended for use or designed for use in identifying or analyzing the strength, effectiveness or purity of controlled substances; (v) dilutents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, mannite, dextrose and lactose used, intended for use or designed for use in cutting controlled substances; (vi) separation gins and sifters used, intended for use or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or in otherwise cleaning or refining, marijuana; (vii) capsules and other containers used, intended for use or designed for use in packaging small quantities of controlled substances; (viii) containers and other objects used, intended for use or designed for use in storing or concealing controlled substances; (ix) objects used, intended for use or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, cocaine, hashish, or hashish oil into the human body, such as: Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic or ceramic pipes with screens, permanent screens, hashish heads or punctured metal bowls; water pipes; carburetion tubes and devices; smoking and carburetion masks; roach clips: Meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand; miniature cocaine spoons, and cocaine vials; chamber pipes; carburetor pipes; electric pipes; air-driven pipes; chillums; bongs or ice pipes or chillers;

      (B) "Factory" means any place used for the manufacturing, mixing, compounding, refining, processing, packaging, distributing, storing, keeping, holding, administering or assembling illegal substances contrary to the provisions of this chapter, or any building, rooms or location which contains equipment or paraphernalia used for this purpose;

      (21) "Federal Controlled Substances Act, 21 USC 801 et seq." means Public Law 91-513, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970;

      (22) "Federal food and drug laws" means the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended, Title 21 USC 301 et seq.;

      (23) "Hallucinogenic substances" are psychodysleptic substances which assert a confusional or disorganizing effect upon mental processes or behavior and mimic acute psychotic disturbances. Exemplary of such drugs are mescaline, peyote, psilocyn and d-lysergic acid diethylamide, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified;

      (24) "Hospital", as used in sections 21a-243 to 21a-283, inclusive, means an institution for the care and treatment of the sick and injured, approved by the Department of Public Health or the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services as proper to be entrusted with the custody of controlled drugs and substances and professional use of controlled drugs and substances under the direction of a licensed practitioner;

      (25) "Intern" means a person who holds a degree of doctor of medicine or doctor of dental surgery or medicine and whose period of service has been recorded with the Department of Public Health and who has been accepted and is participating in training by a hospital or institution in this state. Doctors meeting the foregoing requirements and commonly designated as "residents" and "fellows" shall be regarded as interns for purposes of this chapter;

      (26) "Immediate precursor" means a substance which the Commissioner of Consumer Protection has found to be, and by regulation designates as being, the principal compound commonly used or produced primarily for use, and which is an immediate chemical intermediary used or likely to be used, in the manufacture of a controlled substance, the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail or limit manufacture;

      (27) "Laboratory" means a laboratory approved by the Department of Consumer Protection as proper to be entrusted with the custody of controlled substances and the use of controlled substances for scientific and medical purposes and for purposes of instruction, research or analysis;

      (28) "Manufacture" means the production, preparation, cultivation, growing, propagation, compounding, conversion or processing of a controlled substance, either directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, and includes any packaging or repackaging of the substance or labeling or relabeling of its container, except that this term does not include the preparation or compounding of a controlled substance by an individual for his own use or the preparation, compounding, packaging or labeling of a controlled substance: (A) By a practitioner as an incident to his administering or dispensing of a controlled substance in the course of his professional practice, or (B) by a practitioner, or by his authorized agent under his supervision, for the purpose of, or as an incident to, research, teaching or chemical analysis and not for sale;

      (29) "Marijuana" means all parts of any plant, or species of the genus cannabis or any infra specific taxon thereof, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of the plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. It does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such mature stalks, except the resin extracted therefrom, fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination. Included are cannabinon, cannabinol or cannabidiol and chemical compounds which are similar to cannabinon, cannabinol or cannabidiol in chemical structure or which are similar thereto in physiological effect, and which show a like potential for abuse, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified;

      (30) "Narcotic substance" means any of the following, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis: (A) Morphine-type: (i) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate which are similar thereto in chemical structure or which are similar thereto in physiological effect and which show a like potential for abuse, which are controlled substances under this chapter unless modified; (ii) any salt, compound, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause (i), but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium; (iii) opium poppy and poppy straw; (B) cocaine-type, coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves, and any salt, compound, isomer, derivatives or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances or which are similar thereto in physiological effect and which show a like potential for abuse, but not including decocainized coca leaves or extractions of coca leaves which do not contain cocaine or ecgonine;

      (31) "Nurse" means a person performing nursing as defined in section 20-87a;

      (32) "Official written order" means an order for controlled substances written on a form provided by the bureau for that purpose under the federal Controlled Substances Act;

      (33) "Opiate" means any substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability; it does not include, unless specifically designated as controlled under this chapter, the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methylmorthinan and its salts (dextro-methorphan) but shall include its racemic and levorotatory forms;

      (34) "Opium poppy" means the plant of the species papaver somniferum l., except its seed;

      (35) Repealed by P.A. 99-102, S. 51;

      (36) "Other stimulant and depressant drugs" means controlled substances other than amphetamine-type, barbiturate-type, cannabis-type, cocaine-type, hallucinogenics and morphine-type which are found to exert a stimulant and depressant effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system and which are found to have a potential for abuse and are controlled substances under this chapter;

      (37) "Person" includes any corporation, limited liability company, association or partnership, or one or more individuals, government or governmental subdivisions or agency, business trust, estate, trust, or any other legal entity. Words importing the plural number may include the singular; words importing the masculine gender may be applied to females;

      (38) "Pharmacist" means a person authorized by law to practice pharmacy pursuant to section 20-590, 20-591, 20-592 or 20-593;

      (39) "Pharmacy" means an establishment licensed pursuant to section 20-594;

      (40) "Physician" means a person authorized by law to practice medicine in this state pursuant to section 20-9;

      (41) "Podiatrist" means a person authorized by law to practice podiatry in this state;

      (42) "Poppy straw" means all parts, except the seeds, of the opium poppy, after mowing;

      (43) "Practitioner" means: (A) A physician, dentist, veterinarian, podiatrist, scientific investigator or other person licensed, registered or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research in this state; (B) a pharmacy, hospital or other institution licensed, registered or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research in this state;

      (44) "Prescribe" means order or designate a remedy or any preparation containing controlled substances;

      (45) "Prescription" means a written, oral or electronic order for any controlled substance or preparation from a licensed practitioner to a pharmacist for a patient;

      (46) "Production" includes the manufacture, planting, cultivation, growing or harvesting of a controlled substance;

      (47) "Registrant" means any person licensed by this state and assigned a current federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drug Registry Number as provided under the federal Controlled Substances Act;

      (48) "Registry number" means the alphabetical or numerical designation of identification assigned to a person by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration, or other federal agency, which is commonly known as the federal registry number;

      (49) "Restricted drugs or substances" are the following substances without limitation and for all purposes: Datura stramonium; hyoscyamus niger; atropa belladonna, or the alkaloids atropine; hyoscyamine; belladonnine; apatropine; or any mixture of these alkaloids such as daturine, or the synthetic homatropine or any salts of these alkaloids, except that any drug or preparation containing any of the above-mentioned substances which is permitted by federal food and drug laws to be sold or dispensed without a prescription or written order shall not be a controlled substance; amyl nitrite; the following volatile substances to the extent that said chemical substances or compounds containing said chemical substances are sold, prescribed, dispensed, compounded, possessed or controlled or delivered or administered to another person with the purpose that said chemical substances shall be breathed, inhaled, sniffed or drunk to induce a stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system: Acetone; benzene; butyl alcohol; butyl nitrate and its salts, isomers, esters, ethers or their salts; cyclohexanone; dichlorodifluoromethane; ether; ethyl acetate; formaldehyde; hexane; isopropanol; methanol; methyl cellosolve acetate; methyl ethyl ketone; methyl isobutyl ketone; nitrous oxide; pentochlorophenol; toluene; toluol; trichloroethane; trichloroethylene; 1,4 butanediol;

      (50) "Sale" is any form of delivery which includes barter, exchange or gift, or offer therefor, and each such transaction made by any person whether as principal, proprietor, agent, servant or employee;

      (51) "State", when applied to a part of the United States, includes any state, district, commonwealth, territory or insular possession thereof, and any area subject to the legal authority of the United States of America;

      (52) "State food, drug and cosmetic laws" means the Uniform Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 21a-91 et seq.;

      (53) "Ultimate user" means a person who lawfully possesses a controlled substance for his own use or for the use of a member of his household or for administering to an animal owned by him or by a member of his household;

      (54) "Veterinarian" means a person authorized by law to practice veterinary medicine in this state;

      (55) "Wholesaler" means a distributor or a person who supplies controlled substances that he himself has not produced or prepared to registrants as defined in subdivision (47) of this section;

      (56) "Reasonable times" means the time or times any office, care-giving institution, pharmacy, clinic, wholesaler, manufacturer, laboratory, warehouse, establishment, store or place of business, vehicle or other place is open for the normal affairs or business or the practice activities usually conducted by the registrant;

      (57) "Unit dose drug distribution system" means a drug distribution system used in a hospital or chronic and convalescent nursing home in which drugs are supplied in individually labeled unit of use packages, each patient's supply of drugs is exchanged between the hospital pharmacy and the drug administration area or, in the case of a chronic and convalescent nursing home between a pharmacy and the drug administration area, at least once each twenty-four hours and each patient's medication supply for this period is stored within a patient-specific container, all of which is conducted under the direction of a pharmacist licensed in Connecticut and, in the case of a hospital, directly involved in the provision and supervision of pharmaceutical services at such hospital at least thirty-five hours each week;

      (58) "Cocaine in a free-base form" means any substance which contains cocaine, or any compound, isomer, derivative or preparation thereof, in a nonsalt form.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 391, S. 1; 578, S. 1; 753, S. 1, 2, 38; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 1; 294, S. 42; P.A. 73-137, S. 11-14; 73-291, S. 3; 73-616, S. 61; 73-681, S. 1, 29; P.A. 74-332, S. 4-6; 74-338, S. 36, 94; P.A. 75-176, S. 1; P.A. 77-101, S. 1; 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 80-224, S. 1; P.A. 81-363, S. 1; 81-472, S. 53, 159; P.A. 82-355, S. 1; P.A. 85-613, S. 81, 154; P.A. 87-129, S. 2; 87-373, S. 1; P.A. 90-209, S. 26; P.A. 92-185, S. 2, 6; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 66, 70; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-72, S. 2; 95-79, S. 79, 189; 95-257, S. 11, 12, 21, 58; 95-264, S. 57; P.A. 97-248, S. 5, 12; P.A. 99-102, S. 32, 51; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 5, 72; P.A. 00-182, S. 1; P.A. 03-278, S. 78, 79; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c), (d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 06-195, S. 15; P.A. 09-22, S. 3; P.A. 10-32, S. 80.)

      History: 1969 acts divided former Subdiv. (6) into Subparas. (a) and (e), inserting new Subparas. (b) to (d), included doctors designated as residents or fellows as interns in Subdiv. (14), redefined "narcotic drugs" to specifically exclude cannabis-type drugs which had previously been included in Subdiv. (18), included cannabis-type drugs as "restricted drugs" in Subdiv. (32) and added Subdiv. (37) defining "podiatrist"; 1972 acts substituted "substances" or "controlled substances" for "drugs" throughout section and specific Federal Controlled Substances Act for federal narcotics laws, redefined "controlled drugs" to delete drugs specifically named in former Subparas. (b) to (d), redefined "dispense", "narcotic drugs", "official written order", "person", "practitioner", "registrant", "registry number", "restricted drugs or substances" and "sale" for greater clarity and detail, deleted definitions of "federal narcotics laws", "manufacturer", and "wholesaler" and defined "administer", "agent", "bureau", "controlled substance", "counterfeit substance", "deliver or delivery", "dispenser", "distribute", "distributor", "drug", "drug paraphernalia", "Federal Controlled Substances Act", "hospital", "immediate precursor", "manufacture", "marijuana", "opiate", "opium poppy", "poppy straw", "production", "state" and "ultimate user", rearranging and renumbering Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 73-137 replaced "drugs" with "substances" in terms defined in Subdivs. (4), (7), (23) and (30); P.A. 73-291 deleted repealed Sec. 17-155a as section for which definitions apply; P.A. 73-616 deleted reference to osteopaths' practice of medicine which initially came into being in 1972 but was removed by later 1972 act before enacted; P.A. 73-681 deleted reference to public health council in Subdivs. (8) and (26) and to commissioner of health in Subdiv. (26), replaced department of health with department of consumer protection in Subdiv. (27), defined "factory", "wholesaler" and "reasonable times" and redefined "opiate" to exclude certain drugs; P.A. 74-332 redefined "cannabis-type drugs" and "marijuana" to include any plant of the genus or infraspecific taxon rather than the single plant Cannabis sativa L. and included "cannabidiol" in Subdiv. (7) and "cannabinon, cannabinol or cannabidiol" in Subdiv. (29) plus other compounds similar in structure or effect; P.A. 74-338 made technical changes; P.A. 75-176 redefined "registry number"; P.A. 77-101 defined "unit dose drug distribution system"; P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services in Subdivs. (24) and (25), effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-224 redefined "drug paraphernalia"; P.A. 81-363 amended Subsec. (57) to authorize chronic and convalescent nursing homes to utilize a unit dose drug distribution system; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 82-355 amended Subdiv. (49) by revising the list of volatile substances included; Sec. 19-443 transferred to Sec. 21a-240 in 1983; P.A. 85-613 made technical change; P.A. 87-129 redefined "controlled substance" and substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act; P.A. 87-373 added Subdiv. (58) defining "cocaine in a free-base form"; P.A. 90-209 deleted references to Secs. 17-176, 17-179, 17-183, 17-190, 17-198, 17-199 and 17-201 as sections in which the definitions apply; P.A. 92-185 amended Subdiv. (20) (A) to make technical changes in the numbering and to provide in (ix) that only hypodermic needles, syringes and other objects used to inject controlled substances, "in a quantity greater than eight", are included in the definition of "drug paraphernalia"; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 amended Subdiv. (20)(A)(ix) to increase the quantity of syringes, needles or other objects used to inject controlled substances that constitute "drug paraphernalia" from "greater than eight" to "greater than ten"; (Revisor's note: In 1993 an obsolete reference in Subdiv. (24) to Sec. 21a-285 was replaced editorially by the Revisors with Sec. 21a-283 to reflect the repeal of Secs. 21a-284 and 21a-285); P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-72 amended Subdiv. (49) to include formaldehyde in the list of restricted substances; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health and replaced Commissioner and Department of Mental Health with Commissioner and Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-264 amended Subdiv. (38) to make technical change; P.A. 97-248 redefined "drug dependence" in Subdiv. (18) and "drug-dependent person" in Subdiv. (19), effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 99-102 repealed Subdiv. (35) which had defined "osteopath" and amended Subdivs. (40) and (43) by deleting obsolete reference to osteopathy and to Sec. 20-21; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2 amended Subdiv. (20)(A)(ix) by replacing "ten" with "thirty" hypodermic syringes; P.A. 00-182 redefined "restricted drugs or substances" in Subdiv. (49) to include 1,4 butanediol; P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subdivs. (24) and (27), effective July 9, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Commissioner and Department of Consumer Protection with Commissioner and Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 06-195 redefined "drug paraphernalia" in Subdiv. (20)(A) to exclude equipment, products and material used, intended for use or designed for use in injecting controlled substances into the human body, deleted former Subdiv. (20)(A)(ix) re number of hypodermic syringes, needles and other injecting objects considered drug paraphernalia and redesignated existing Subdiv. (20)(A)(x) as Subdiv. (20)(A)(ix), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 09-22 redefined "prescription" in Subdiv. (45), effective July 1, 2009; P.A. 10-32 made a technical change in Subdiv. (55), effective May 10, 2010.

      Annotations to former section 19-443:

      Cited. 163 C. 62.

      Cited. 30 CS 267. Cited. 31 CS 130. Cited. 32 CS 324. Cited. 33 CS 186.

      Marijuana is a cannabis-type drug within the prohibition of this (act) chapter; Marijuana is within the definition of controlled drugs in this section; "Narcotics" as used in state and federal legislation is a legal not scientific term. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 134.

      Subdiv. (3):

      Cited. 178 C. 704. Cited. 197 C. 67.

      Subdiv. (6):

      Cited. 169 C. 416.

      Subdiv. (13):

      Cited. 172 C. 593.

      Subdiv. (29):

      Cited. 181 C. 562.

      Subdiv. (50):

      Applied to prosecution under subsection (a) of section 19-480. 166 C. 569. Cited. 172 C. 593. Cited. 178 C. 704. Cited. 197 C. 67.

      Cited. 3 CA 339.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 203 C. 641.

      Subdiv. (2):

      Subpara. (A) cited. 226 C. 514.

      Subdiv. (3):

      Cited. 38 CA 815.

      Subdiv. (9):

      Cited. 43 CA 339.

      Subdiv. (11):

      Cited. 233 C. 174.

      Cited. 38 CA 815.

      Subdiv. (13):

      Cited. 13 CA 288.

      Subdiv. (18):

      Cited. 221 C. 595.

      Subdiv. (19):

      Cited. 221 C. 595.

      Legislature, in redefining "drug-dependent person", did not intend to classify all individuals who are medically dependent on prescribed narcotics as drug dependent persons. 77 CA 393.

      Subdiv. (20):

      Subpara. (A) cited. 212 C. 223. Cited. 227 C. 456. Cited. 228 C. 281.

      Cited. 28 CA 575. Language in Subpara. (A) clearly not intended as an exhaustive or exclusive list. 51 CA 126.

      Subdiv. (29):

      Cited. 12 CA 274. Cited. 28 CA 575.

      Subdiv. (30):

      Cited. 197 C. 644. Cited. 198 C. 111.

      Cited. 12 CA 225. Cited. 43 CA 339.

      Subdiv. (43):

      Cited. 13 CA 299.

      Subdiv. (50):

      Cited. 233 C. 174.

      Cited. 3 CA 339. Cited. 8 CA 469. Cited. 13 CA 288. Cited. 23 CA 667. Cited. 24 CA 543; Id., 642. Cited. 37 CA 156. Cited. 38 CA 621; Id., 815. Cited. 39 CA 110. Although statutory definition of "sale" is substantially broader than common dictionary definition, court concluded that term was being used, in specific instance in the case, in its ordinary meaning. 87 CA 24.


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      Sec. 21a-241. (Formerly Sec. 19-449). Prior regulations continued. Regulations promulgated under chapter 344 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, as amended, and chapters 344a and 344b of the 1965 supplement thereto, in effect on October 1, 1967, shall, unless clearly in conflict with the provisions of this chapter, continue in effect until superseded by regulations hereunder.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 79.)

      History: Sec. 19-449 transferred to Sec. 21a-241 in 1983.

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      Sec. 21a-242. (Formerly Sec. 19-450a). Schedules of controlled substances. Exceptions. Section 21a-242 is repealed.

      (1972, P.A. 278, S. 30; P.A. 73-221, S. 1, 2; 73-616, S. 17, 67; 73-681, S. 2, 29; P.A. 74-338, S. 32, 94; P.A. 75-318; P.A. 77-142; 77-604, S. 48-50, 84; P.A. 78-35, S. 1-7; P.A. 79-12, S. 1-4, 6; P.A. 81-148, S. 1, 4; P.A. 82-355, S. 2; P.A. 83-171, S. 1-3; P.A. 84-498, S. 1-3; P.A. 85-107, S. 1-5; 85-613, S. 126, 154.; P.A. 86-96, S. 1-5, 7; P.A. 87-129, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 21a-243. (Formerly Sec. 19-451). Regulations re schedules of controlled substances. (a) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall adopt regulations for the efficient enforcement and operation of sections 21a-244 to 21a-282, inclusive.

      (b) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may, so far as may be consistent with said sections 21a-244 to 21a-282, inclusive, adopt the regulations existing under the federal Controlled Substances Act and pertinent regulations existing under the federal food and drug laws and conform regulations adopted hereunder with those existing under the federal Controlled Substances Act and federal food and drug laws.

      (c) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection acting upon the advice of the Commission of Pharmacy, may by regulation designate, after investigation, as a controlled substance, a substance or chemical composition containing any quantity of a substance which has been found to have a stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system and having a tendency to promote abuse or physiological or psychological dependence or both. Such substances are classifiable as amphetamine-type, barbiturate-type, cannabis-type, cocaine-type, hallucinogenic, morphine-type and other stimulant and depressant substances, and specifically exclude alcohol, caffeine and nicotine. Substances which are designated as controlled substances shall be classified in schedules I to V by regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

      (d) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may by regulation change the schedule in which a substance classified as a controlled substance in schedules I to V of the controlled substance scheduling regulations is placed. On or before December 15, 1986, and annually thereafter, the commissioner shall submit a list of all such schedule changes to the chairmen and ranking members of the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to public health.

      (e) A new or amended regulation under this chapter shall be adopted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (f) In the event of any inconsistency between the contents of schedules I, II, III, IV and V of the controlled substance scheduling regulations and schedules I, II, III, IV and V of the federal Controlled Substances Act, as amended, the provisions of the federal act shall prevail, except when the provisions of the Connecticut controlled substance scheduling regulations place a controlled substance in a schedule with a higher numerical designation, schedule I being the highest designation.

      (g) When a drug that is not a controlled substance in schedule I, II, III, IV or V, as designated in the Connecticut controlled substance scheduling regulations, is designated to be a controlled substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act, such drug shall be considered to be controlled at the state level in the same numerical schedule for a period of two hundred forty days from the effective date of the federal classification.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 7; 737; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 4; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 2; P.A. 73-681, S. 3, 29; P.A. 86-96, S. 6, 7; P.A. 87-129, S. 3; P.A. 99-175, S. 49; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act placed regulation of cannabis-type drugs under consumer protection commissioner's and public health council's joint jurisdiction in Subsec. (a); 1972 act substituted "substance(s)" for "drug(s)" and "Federal Controlled Substances Act" for "federal narcotic laws" and replaced detailed provisions re adoption of regulations with statement that adoption shall be pursuant to Secs. 4-166 to 4-185; P.A. 73-681 placed all regulations under jurisdiction of consumer protection commissioner, deleting reference to public health council; Sec. 19-451 transferred to Sec. 21a-243 in 1983; P.A. 86-96 made numerous technical changes, inserted new Subsec. (d) which allows the commissioner to make schedule changes by regulations, and relettered former Subsec. (d) as (e); P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-244 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act, provided that controlled substances shall be classified in schedules by regulations, and added Subsecs. (f) and (g); P.A. 99-175 made a technical change and increased number of days noncontrolled substances are considered controlled at state level from 120 to 240 days from effective date of federal classification; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Annotations to former section 19-451:

      Robinson v. California (370 US 660) does not mean that states may not control use of drugs by suitable penal provisions. 28 CS 153. Cited. 30 CS 367.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 567.

      Annotation to present section:

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 43 CA 339.


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      Sec. 21a-244. (Formerly Sec. 19-451a). Regulations re storage and retrieval of prescription information. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall, on or before January 1, 1978, adopt regulations governing the storage and retrieval of prescription information for controlled substances, including refills, by pharmacists through the use of electronic data processing systems or other systems for the efficient storage and retrieval of information.

      (P.A. 77-277, S. 1; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: Sec. 19-451a transferred to Sec. 21a-244 in 1983; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      See Sec. 20-577 re regulations concerning storage and retrieval of prescription information.

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      Sec. 21a-244a. Drug records maintained on electronic data processing systems or media systems. Electronic identifiers. Regulations. (a) The following terms shall have the following meanings when used in this section:

      (1) "Drug" means (A) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; (B) articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man or other animals; (C) articles, other than food, intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or any other animal; and (D) articles intended for use as a component of any articles specified in this subdivision; but shall not include devices or their components, parts or accessories;

      (2) "Licensed practitioner" means a person licensed by the state of Connecticut, any other state, the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and authorized to prescribe medication within the scope of his practice; and

      (3) "Drug record" means a record maintained pursuant to this chapter or chapter 400j, 417, 418 or 420c of drug ordering, drug distribution, receipt of drugs, storage of drugs, disposition of drugs, and orders of drugs issued by a licensed practitioner for a patient.

      (b) In lieu of maintaining written drug records required by state or federal law to be kept in the state, such records may be created and maintained on electronic data processing systems or other electronic media systems. If a conflict exists between maintaining a written drug record and maintaining an electronic drug record, the written drug record shall be maintained.

      (c) Electronic identifiers, including, but not limited to, electronic codes or signatures, voice prints, retinal prints or handprints may be substituted in lieu of required written signatures or initials.

      (d) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, establishing the use of electronic data processing systems or other electronic media systems for maintaining drug records. No such electronic data processing system shall be implemented prior to the adoption of these regulations.

      (P.A. 93-98; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 09-22, S. 4.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 09-22 redefined "drug record" and made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2009.

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      Sec. 21a-245. (Formerly Sec. 19-452). Manufacture, sale, administering of restricted substances regulated. No person shall manufacture, possess, have under his control, sell, prescribe, dispense, compound, process, deliver or administer to another person any restricted substance, except as authorized in this chapter and section 10-212a, except that no vendor of the volatile substances enumerated in subdivision (49) of section 21a-240 shall be deemed to have violated the provisions of this chapter insofar as sale, dispensing or delivering of one or more of said volatile substances or compounds containing said chemical substances is concerned, unless he knew or should have known of the improper purpose to which such substance was to be put. Insofar as substances containing said substances are possessed, sold, dispensed, compounded or delivered for licit purposes, i.e., other than to produce a stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic effect upon the higher functions of the central nervous system by breathing, inhaling, sniffing or drinking, such substances are expressly not restricted and neither the regulatory provisions, including but not limited to record keeping, licensing and the writing of prescriptions nor the criminal sanctions and proscriptions of this chapter shall apply.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 8; 1969, P.A. 391, S. 2; 723, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 3.)

      History: 1969 acts added exception re vendors of volatile substances and added reference to Sec. 10-212a; 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs" and "restricted" substances for "controlled" drugs; Sec. 19-452 transferred to Sec. 21a-245 in 1983.

      Annotations to former section 19-452:

      Cited. 165 C. 83. Cited. 166 C. 439. Cited. 169 C. 416. Cited. 171 C. 293. Cited. 172 C. 16; Id., 223; Id., 385. Cited. 176 C. 170.

      Cited. 25 CA 472.

      Cited. 29 CS 134.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 192 C. 383.

      Cited. 25 CA 472.


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      Sec. 21a-246. (Formerly Sec. 19-453). License to manufacture, wholesale, supply, compound, etc. Exception. License fees. License to possess and supply marijuana. (a) No person within this state shall manufacture, wholesale, repackage, supply, compound, mix, cultivate or grow, or by other process produce or prepare, controlled substances without first obtaining a license to do so from the Commissioner of Consumer Protection and no person within this state shall operate a laboratory for the purpose of research or analysis using controlled substances without first obtaining a license to do so from the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, except that such activities by pharmacists or pharmacies in the filling and dispensing of prescriptions or activities incident thereto, or the dispensing or administering of controlled substances by dentists, podiatrists, physicians or veterinarians, or other persons acting under their supervision, in the treatment of patients shall not be subject to the provisions of this section, and provided laboratories for instruction in dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, pharmacology and pharmacognosy in institutions duly licensed for such purposes in this state shall not be subject to the provisions of this section except with respect to narcotic drugs and schedule I and II controlled substances. Upon application of any physician licensed pursuant to chapter 370, the Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall without unnecessary delay, license such physician to possess and supply marijuana for the treatment of glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy. No person outside this state shall sell or supply controlled substances within this state without first obtaining a license to do so from the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, provided no such license shall be required of a manufacturer whose principal place of business is located outside this state and who is registered with the federal Drug Enforcement Administration or other federal agency, and who files a copy of such registration with the appropriate licensing authority under this chapter.

      (b) Such licenses shall expire annually, and may be renewed by application to the licensing authority. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection following a hearing as prescribed in section 21a-275, may revoke or suspend any license granted by him pursuant to this section for violation of the provisions of any statute relative to controlled substances or of any regulation made hereunder. The licensing authority, upon application of any person whose license has been suspended or revoked, may reinstate such license upon a showing of good cause.

      (c) The fee for licenses provided pursuant to this section shall be according to the following schedule: For any wholesaler, one hundred ninety dollars per annum; for manufacturers employing not more than five licensed pharmacists or qualified chemists or both, two hundred eighty-five dollars per annum; for manufacturers employing six to ten licensed pharmacists or qualified chemists or both, three hundred seventy-five dollars per annum; for manufacturers employing more than ten licensed pharmacists or qualified chemists or both, nine hundred forty dollars per annum; for laboratories, eighty dollars per annum. A separate fee is required for each place of business or professional practice where the licensee uses, manufactures, stores, distributes, analyzes or dispenses controlled drugs.

      (d) Controlled substances which are possessed, kept or stored at an address or location other than the address or location indicated on the registration required by chapter 420c or by federal laws and regulations shall be deemed to be possessed, kept or stored illegally and shall be subject to seizure and forfeited to the state. The following are subject to forfeitures: (1) All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed or acquired in violation of this chapter; (2) all raw materials, products and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled substance in violation of this chapter; (3) all property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in paragraph (1) or (2); (4) all conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles or vessels, which are used, or intended for use, to transport or in any manner to facilitate the transportation, for the purpose of sale or receipt of property described in paragraph (1) or (2), but (i) no conveyance used by any person as a common carrier is subject to forfeiture under this chapter unless it appears that the owner or other person in charge of the conveyance is a consenting party or privy to a violation of this chapter; (ii) no conveyance is subject to forfeiture under this chapter by reason of any act or omission established by the owner thereof to have been committed or omitted without his knowledge or consent.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 9; 1969, P.A. 411; 753, S. 5, 6; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 4; P.A. 73-681, S. 4, 29; P.A. 76-355, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-604, S. 15, 84; P.A. 79-631, S. 9, 111; P.A. 81-148, S. 2, 4; 81-440, S. 4, 7; P.A. 89-251, S. 156, 203; P.A. 94-36, S. 36, 42; P.A. 99-102, S. 33; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 06-196, S. 215; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 289.)

      History: 1969 acts provided exemption from licensing provisions for manufacturers whose principal place of business is outside the state under stated conditions and added provisions re cannabis-type drugs in Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (c) re fee schedule; 1972 act replaced "drugs" with "substances", exempted podiatrists from provisions of section and clarified exemption for health practitioners by specifying it to be inapplicable with respect to narcotic drugs and Schedules I and II controlled substances rather than with respect to restricted drugs, deleted provision re consultation between consumer protection commissioner and public health council re licensing, and required registration with Justice Department, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs rather than with secretary of Department of Health, Education and Welfare in out-of-state manufacturer's exemption; P.A. 73-681 gave exclusive licensing authority to consumer protection commissioner, deleting previous provisions under which health commissioner was responsible for licenses re narcotic or cannabis-type substances, imposed licensing fee for laboratories and required separate fee for each place of business or practice in Subsec. (c) and added Subsec. (d) re seizure and forfeiture; P.A. 76-355 replaced "Justice Department, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs" with "federal drug enforcement agency or other federal agency" in Subsec. (a), set February expiration date for laboratory licenses in Subsec. (b) and increased fees for wholesalers from $50 to $75, for manufacturers from $75 to $112.50, from $100 to $150 or from $250 to $375, depending on number of pharmacists and or chemists employed, and for laboratories from $10 to $20 in Subsec. (c); P.A. 77-604 and P.A. 79-631 made technical corrections in Subsec. (d); P.A. 81-148 clarified exemption from licensing requirement to include "dispensing" of prescriptions and both "dispensing" and "administering" controlled substances in Subsec. (a); P.A. 81-440 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the commissioner of consumer protection to license a physician who is licensed in this state to possess and supply marijuana for the treatment of glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy; Sec. 19-453 transferred to Sec. 21a-246 in 1983; P.A. 89-251 amended Subsec. (c) to increase the fee for a wholesaler from $75 to $150, for manufacturers employing not more than five pharmacists or chemists from $112.50 to $225; for manufacturers employing six to ten pharmacists or chemists from $150 to $300, for manufacturer's employing more than ten pharmacists or chemists from $300 to $750 and for laboratories from $20 to $40; P.A. 94-36 deleted the references to the "July first" and "February first" license expiration dates in Subsec. (b), effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 99-102 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting obsolete reference to osteopathy and making a technical change; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 7, 2006; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (c) to increase fees.

      See chapter 420c re controlled substance registration.

      See Sec. 21a-10(b) re staggered schedule for license renewals.

      See Sec. 21a-253 re possession of marijuana pursuant to physician's prescription.


      Annotation to former section 19-453:

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 188 C. 183.


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      Sec. 21a-247. (Formerly Sec. 19-454). Qualifications of applicant for license. No license shall be issued under section 21a-246 until the applicant therefor has furnished proof satisfactory to the licensing authority (1) that the applicant is of good moral character or, if the applicant is an association or corporation, that the managing officers are of good moral character and (2) that the applicant is equipped as to facilities and apparatus properly to carry on the business described in his application and (3) that the applicant conforms to regulations adopted and promulgated pursuant to section 21a-243. No license shall be granted to any person who has, within five years of the date of application, been convicted of a violation of any law of the United States, or of any state, relating to a controlled drug.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 10.)

      History: Sec. 19-454 transferred to Sec. 21a-247 in 1983.

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      Sec. 21a-248. (Formerly Sec. 19-456). Sale or dispensing of controlled drugs by licensed manufacturer or wholesaler. Records; orders. Scope of uses limited. (a) A licensed manufacturer or wholesaler may sell and dispense controlled drugs to any of the following-named persons, but in the case of schedule II drugs only on official written order: (1) To a manufacturer, wholesaler or pharmacist; (2) to a physician, dentist or veterinarian; (3) to a person in charge of a hospital, incorporated college or scientific institution, but only for use by or in that hospital, incorporated college or scientific institution for medical or scientific purposes; (4) to a person in charge of a laboratory, but only for use in that laboratory for scientific and medical purposes; (5) to any registrant as defined in subdivision (47) of section 21a-240.

      (b) A licensed manufacturer or wholesaler may sell controlled drugs only to registrants when permitted under federal and state laws and regulations.

      (c) An official written order for any schedule I or II drug shall be signed in triplicate by the person giving such order or by his authorized agent and the original shall be presented to the person who sells or dispenses the drug or drugs named therein as provided by federal laws. If such order is accepted by such person, each party to the transaction shall preserve his copy of such order for a period of three years in such a way as to be readily accessible for inspection by any public officer or employee engaged in the enforcement of this chapter.

      (d) The manufacturer or wholesaler shall keep records of all sales and dispensing of controlled drugs and shall comply fully with applicable provisions of the federal controlled drug laws and the federal food and drug laws, and the state food, drug and cosmetic laws in such sale or dispensing of controlled drugs.

      (e) Possession or control of controlled drugs obtained as authorized by this section shall be lawful only if obtained in the regular course of the business, occupation, profession, employment or duty of the possessor.

      (f) A person in charge of a hospital, incorporated college or scientific institution, or of a laboratory, or in the employ of this state or of any other state, or of any political subdivision thereof, and a master or other proper officer of a ship or aircraft, who obtains controlled drugs under the provisions of this section or otherwise, shall not administer, or dispense, or otherwise use such drugs within this state, except within the scope of his employment or official duty, and then only for scientific or medicinal purposes or for the purposes of research or analysis and subject to the provisions of this chapter.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 12; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 8, 9; P.A. 73-681, S. 5, 29; P.A. 85-613, S. 59, 154.)

      History: 1969 act required official order for sale of cannabis-type drugs in Subsecs. (a) and (c) and changed required period of preservation for order copies from two to three years in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-681 replaced narcotic and cannabis-type drugs with "Schedule II" drugs and added Subsec. (a)(5), replaced detailed provisions for sale of drugs to government personnel, ship masters, persons in charge of aircraft or persons in foreign countries with statement that sale may be made "only to registrants when permitted under federal and state laws and regulations", replaced "narcotic or cannabis-type" drugs with "Schedule I or II" drugs in Subsec. (c) and referred to "federal laws" or "federal controlled drug laws" in Subsecs. (c) and (d) rather than to "federal narcotic laws"; Sec. 19-456 transferred to Sec. 21a-248 in 1983; P.A. 85-613 made technical change.

      Cited. 207 C. 698.

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      Sec. 21a-249. (Formerly Sec. 19-457). Prescription requirements. (a) All prescriptions for controlled drugs shall include (1) the name and address of the patient, or the name and address of the owner of an animal and the species of the animal, (2) whether the patient is an adult or a child, or his specific age, (3) the compound or preparation prescribed and the amount thereof, (4) directions for use of the medication, (5) the name and address of the prescribing practitioner, (6) the date of issuance, and (7) the Federal Registry number of the practitioner. No prescription blank containing a prescription for a schedule II substance shall contain more than one prescription.

      (b) Written prescriptions shall be written in ink or in indelible pencil or by typewriter. No duplicate, carbon or photographic copies and no printed or rubber-stamped orders shall be considered valid prescriptions within the meaning of this chapter. No prescription or order for any controlled substance issued by a practitioner to an inanimate object or thing shall be considered a valid prescription within the meaning of this chapter.

      (c) Prescriptions for schedule II substances, if in writing, shall be signed by the prescribing practitioner at the time of issuance and previously signed orders for such schedule II substances shall not be considered valid prescriptions within the meaning of this chapter. No practitioner shall prescribe, dispense or administer schedule II sympathomimetic amines as anorectics, except as may be authorized by regulations adopted by the Departments of Public Health and Consumer Protection acting jointly. The Department of Public Health and the Department of Consumer Protection, acting jointly, may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, allowing practitioners to prescribe, dispense or administer schedule II sympathomimetic amines as anorectics under certain specific circumstances. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require a licensed pharmacist to determine the diagnosis of a patient prior to dispensing a prescription for such substances to a patient.

      (d) To the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, 21 USC 801, as from time to time amended, a prescribing practitioner may issue an oral order or an electronically transmitted prescription order and, except as otherwise provided by regulations adopted pursuant to sections 21a-243, 21a-244 and 21a-244a, such oral order or electronically transmitted prescription order shall be promptly reduced to writing on a prescription blank or a hardcopy printout or created as an electronic record and filed by the pharmacist filling it. For the purposes of subsections (d) and (h) of this section the term "electronically transmitted" means transmitted by facsimile machine, computer modem or other similar electronic device.

      (e) To the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, in an emergency the dispensing of schedule II substances may be made upon the oral order of a prescribing registrant known to or confirmed by the filling pharmacist who shall promptly reduce the oral order to writing on a prescription blank, provided, in such cases such oral order shall be confirmed by the proper completion and mailing or delivery of a prescription prepared by the prescribing registrant to the pharmacist filling such oral order within seventy-two hours after the oral order has been given. Such prescription of the registrant shall be affixed to the temporary prescription prepared by the pharmacist and both prescriptions shall be maintained on file as required in this chapter.

      (f) All prescriptions for controlled substances shall comply fully with any additional requirements of the federal food and drug laws, the federal Controlled Substances Act, and state laws and regulations adopted under this chapter.

      (g) Repealed by P.A. 82-419, S. 46, 47.

      (h) Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacy, to an ultimate user, a controlled substance included in schedule III or IV, which is a prescription drug as determined under federal food and drug laws, shall not be dispensed without a written, electronically transmitted or oral prescription of a practitioner. The prescription shall not be filled or refilled more than six months after the date thereof or be refilled more than five times, unless renewed by the practitioner.

      (i) A controlled substance included in schedule V shall not be distributed or dispensed other than for a medical purpose.

      (j) A pharmacy may sell and dispense controlled substances upon the prescription of a prescribing practitioner, as defined in subdivision (22) of section 20-571.

      (k) Pharmacies shall file filled prescriptions for controlled substances separately from other prescriptions. All schedule II prescriptions shall be filed in a separate file or in an electronic file. All schedule III, IV and V prescriptions shall be filed in another separate file or in an electronic file, except as otherwise provided for in regulations adopted pursuant to section 21a-243, 21a-244 or 21a-244a. All written controlled substance prescriptions shall, immediately upon filling, be filed chronologically and consecutively.

      (l) Any pharmacy may transfer prescriptions for controlled substances included in schedules III, IV and V to any other pharmacy in accordance with the requirements set forth in the federal Controlled Substances Act 21 USC 801 et seq. and the regulations promulgated thereunder, as from time to time amended.

      (m) A practitioner authorized to prescribe controlled substances shall not prescribe anabolic steroids for the sole purpose of enhancing a patient's athletic ability or performance.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 13; 1969, P.A. 161, S. 1, 2; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 5; P.A. 73-681, S. 6, 29; P.A. 77-165, S. 1; 77-277, S. 3; P.A. 78-310, S. 2, 4; P.A. 82-419, S. 37, 46, 47; P.A. 83-156; P.A. 85-613, S. 60, 154; P.A. 91-224, S. 1; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-72, S. 1; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-264, S. 58; P.A. 97-64, S. 2; P.A. 00-182, S. 4; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 05-73, S. 2; P.A. 09-22, S. 5.)

      History: 1969 act deleted limiting phrase "to the extent permitted by the federal narcotic laws" in Subsec. (e) and deleted reference to compliance with "any additional requirements of federal narcotic laws" in Subsec. (f); 1972 act referred to "substances" rather than "drugs" and to "Schedule II" substances rather than to "Class A" narcotics, limited provisions of Subsec. (e) by adding "to the extent permitted by the Federal Controlled Substances Act", restated Subsec. (f) to specify compliance with "any additional requirements" of food and drug laws and to specify federal drug law and added Subsecs. (g) to (i); P.A. 73-681 added Subsec. (a)(7) and prohibited issuance of prescription to "inanimate object or thing" in Subsec. (b); P.A. 77-165 referred to "federal registry" number rather than "BNDD" number in Subsec. (a)(7) and required one prescription per prescription blank; P.A. 77-277 added exception re Sec. 19-451a in Subsecs. (d) and (g); P.A. 78-310 added Subsec. (j); P.A. 82-419 amended section to allow more than one prescription on a blank except in case of schedule II substance, repealing Subsec. (g) which had required that filled prescriptions for controlled substances be filed separately, chronologically and consecutively; Sec. 19-457 transferred to Sec. 21a-249 in 1983; P.A. 83-156 added Subsec. (k) requiring filing of filled prescriptions for controlled substances separately, chronologically and consecutively; P.A. 85-613 made technical changes, deleting provision in Subsec. (j) which had required controlled substance prescriptions to be filed chronologically and consecutively; P.A. 91-224 amended Subsec. (c) to prohibit the prescription of Schedule II sympathomimetic amines as anorectics except as authorized by regulation; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-72 amended Subsecs. (d) and (h) to permit the use of electronically transmitted prescriptions; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-264 amended Subsec. (j) to change "licensed" practitioner to "prescribing" practitioner (Revisor's note: The reference in Subsec. (j) to "prescribing practitioner, as defined in subdivision (21) of ..." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "prescribing practitioner, as defined in subdivision (22) of ..."); P.A. 97-64 added new Subsec. (1) re transfer of prescriptions; P.A. 00-182 amended Subsec. (l) by replacing reference to 21 CFR 1306.26 with reference to 21 USC 801 et seq. and regulations promulgated thereunder; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Department of Consumer Protection with Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 05-73 added Subsec. (m) re the prescribing of anabolic steroids for the sole purpose of enhancing a patient's athletic ability or performance, effective May 31, 2005; P.A. 09-22 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b), added reference re schedule II prescriptions in writing in Subsec. (c), added references to Sec. 21a-244a and electronic record in Subsec. (d), replaced reference to federal laws and regulations with reference to the federal Controlled Substances Act in Subsec. (f) and added electronic file requirements and references to Secs. 21a-243 and 21a-244a in Subsec. (k), effective July 1, 2009.

      See Sec. 17a-714a re legal protections for licensed health care professionals who prescribe opioid antagonists to drug users.

      See Sec. 20-14a re use of generic drug names in prescriptions.


      Annotations to former section 19-457:

      Cited. 33 CS 66.

      Annotation to present section:

      Cited. 207 C. 698.


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      Sec. 21a-250. (Formerly Sec. 19-458). Rights and duties of pharmacist. (a) A pharmacist, in good faith, may sell and dispense controlled substances to any person upon a prescription of a physician or dentist, podiatrist, optometrist, veterinarian, physician assistant licensed pursuant to section 20-12b, advanced practice registered nurse, or nurse-midwife to the extent that they are authorized to prescribe such controlled substances. Except as otherwise provided by regulations adopted pursuant to section 21a-244, the person filling or refilling the prescription shall include the date of filling and the person's signature or initials on any prescription for controlled substances, and the prescription shall be retained on file by the proprietor of the pharmacy in which it is filled for a period of three years, so as to be readily accessible for inspection by any public officer or employee engaged in the enforcement of this chapter. The prescription shall not be filled or refilled unless permitted by federal food and drug laws, the federal Controlled Substances Act and regulations adopted under this chapter.

      (b) The legal owner of any stock of controlled substances in a pharmacy, upon discontinuance of dealing in such substances, may sell such stock to a manufacturer, distributor, practitioner, wholesaler or pharmacy, but schedule II substances may only be sold on such written order as is required by the federal Controlled Substances Act.

      (c) A pharmacist, only upon an official written order, may sell to a registrant the kinds and quantities of aqueous or oleaginous schedule II substances which he has prepared and which are permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act.

      (d) (1) A retail pharmacy or pharmacy within a licensed hospital may distribute small quantities of schedule III, IV or V controlled substances to another pharmacy to provide for the immediate needs of a patient pursuant to a prescription or medication order of a practitioner. As used in this subsection "small quantities" means not more than one ounce of a powder or ointment, not more than sixteen ounces of a liquid and not more than one hundred dosage units of tablets, capsules, suppositories or injectables. (2) A retail pharmacy may distribute, in accordance with state and federal statutes and regulations, a schedule II, III, IV or V controlled substance to a practitioner who has a current federal and state registry number authorizing such practitioner to purchase such controlled substances, and who is the medical director of a chronic and convalescent nursing home, of a rest home with nursing supervision or of a state correctional institution, for use as emergency stock within such facility. Such drugs shall be supplied in containers which bear labels specifying the name of the drug and its strength, expiration date, lot number and manufacturer. Drugs supplied pursuant to this subsection shall be limited in type and quantity to those specifically documented and authorized by such medical director for use as emergency stock in such facility. (3) Pharmacies distributing controlled substances in accordance with the provisions of subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection shall keep a written record of such transactions containing the name of the receiving pharmacy, or the name and federal registry number of a medical director, date distributed and name, form, strength and quantity of such controlled substances distributed. Such records shall be kept on file separately, in accordance with subsection (h) of section 21a-254. Receiving pharmacies or medical directors, shall keep, in a separate file, a written record in accordance with subsections (f) and (h) of section 21a-254.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 14; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 6; P.A. 73-681, S. 7, 29; P.A. 77-277, S. 4; P.A. 78-53, S. 1; P.A. 82-419, S. 38, 47; P.A. 84-194, S. 3; P.A. 90-211, S. 13, 23; P.A. 96-203, S. 2; P.A. 99-102, S. 34; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 26, 131.)

      History: 1972 act replaced "drugs" and "drugs other than narcotic drugs" with "substances" and "federal narcotic laws" with "Federal Controlled Substances Act", allowed sales to podiatrists in Subsec. (a), allowed sales to distributors, practitioners and pharmacies (rather than pharmacists) in Subsec. (b), specified written order required only for sales of Schedule II substances (previously required for all sales) and deleted reference to orders required by commissioner of health or consumer protection and replaced "narcotic drugs" with "Schedule II substances" in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-681 specified "aqueous or oleaginous" substances prepared by pharmacist in Subsec. (c); P.A. 77-277 added exception re Sec. 19-451a in Subsec. (a); P.A. 78-53 added Subsec. (d) re interpharmacy sales of small quantities of controlled substances; P.A. 82-419 deleted requirement that pharmacist hand "write" date of filling and initials on prescriptions; Sec. 19-458 transferred to Sec. 21a-250 in 1983; P.A. 84-194 added Subsec. (d)(2) allowing retail pharmacies to distribute certain controlled drugs to convalescent nursing facilities or rest homes under certain circumstances; P.A. 90-211 added references to physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse and nurse midwife; P.A. 96-203 added optometrists in Subsec. (a) to those providers whose prescriptions can be filled; P.A. 99-102 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting obsolete reference to osteopathy and making a technical change; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re state correctional institution and to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001.

      Subsec. (a):

      Central purpose is to ensure prescriptions will be accessible for inspection by law enforcement officials responsible for enforcing criminal drug laws. 259 C. 436.


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      Sec. 21a-250a. Transferred to Chapter 417, Sec. 21a-70a.

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      Sec. 21a-251. (Formerly Sec. 19-459). Dispensing of controlled substances by hospitals, infirmaries or clinics. (a) No controlled substances shall be dispensed or administered by hospitals, infirmaries or clinics except upon written order signed or initialed by the prescribing practitioner or upon an oral order of a prescribing practitioner which shall be confirmed by a written order which shall be signed or initialed by such prescribing practitioner within twenty-four hours after the giving of such oral order for schedule II controlled substances and within seventy-two hours after the giving of such oral order for other controlled substances.

      (b) Original and continuing orders for schedule II controlled substances shall be limited to a period not exceeding seven days from the time the order is entered, but may be extended for additional periods of seven days each by the signing or initialing of the order by a prescribing practitioner.

      (c) Original and continuing orders for schedule III, IV or V controlled substances shall be limited in duration as designated in the written order of the prescribing practitioner, but in no case shall such order be effective for more than thirty days.

      (d) An original or continuing medication order for a controlled substance in a hospital, as defined in subsection (b) of section 19a-490, or a hospice licensed by the Department of Public Health or certified pursuant to 42 USC Section 1395x, may include a range of doses that may be administered by a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 370, a licensed nurse or an advanced practice registered nurse licensed pursuant to chapter 378 or a nurse-midwife licensed pursuant to chapter 377. Each such hospital or hospice shall establish a written protocol that identifies the specific drugs that may be prescribed in ranges and that lists critical assessment parameters and guidelines to be considered in implementing such orders. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection, with the advice and assistance of the commissioner of any other state health care licensing authority having primary jurisdiction over such hospital or hospice, may require the modification of any protocol to meet the requirements of this subsection. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to restrict the use of patient administered analgesia through the use of pumps or similar devices.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 15; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 10; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 7; P.A. 79-52; P.A. 96-203, S. 1; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8, S. 30, 88; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act made seventy-two-hour deadline applicable to controlled nonnarcotic drugs and imposed twenty-four-hour deadline for narcotic drugs in Subsec. (a); 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs" and made provisions applicable to infirmaries and clinics; P.A. 79-52 substituted "Schedule II controlled substances" for "narcotic drugs", made Subsec. (b) applicable to original orders in addition to continuing orders and added exception re nonnarcotic drugs and added Subsec. (c); Sec. 19-459 transferred to Sec. 21a-251 in 1983; P.A. 96-203 added Subsec. (d) allowing administration of range of doses of a controlled substance in a hospital or hospice by physician assistant, licensed nurse, advance practice registered nurse or nurse-midwife; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-8 deleted seventy-two-hour restriction on continuing orders for nonnarcotic controlled substances in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1997; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-252. (Formerly Sec. 19-460). Prescription and dispensing of controlled substances by certain practitioners. Surrender of unused substances by patients. (a) A physician, in good faith and in the course of the physician's professional practice only, may prescribe, administer and dispense controlled substances, or may cause the same to be administered by a physician assistant, nurse or intern under the physician's direction and supervision, for demonstrable physical or mental disorders but not for drug dependence except in accordance with state and federal laws and regulations adopted thereunder. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection the Department of Consumer Protection may approve protocols allowing the dispensing of take-home doses of methadone, by a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse, to outpatients in duly licensed substance abuse treatment facilities. Such dispensing shall be done pursuant to the order of a licensed prescribing practitioner and using computerized dispensing equipment into which bulk supplies of methadone are dispensed by a pharmacist. The quantity of methadone dispensed by such nurse shall not exceed at any one time that amount allowed under federal or state statutes or regulations governing the treatment of drug dependent patients. The Department of Consumer Protection shall conduct inspections of such treatment facilities to ensure that the computerized dispensing equipment and related dispensing procedures documented in the approved protocols are adhered to.

      (b) A dentist, in good faith and in the course of the dentist's professional practice only, may prescribe, administer or dispense controlled substances, or may cause the same to be administered by a nurse under the dentist's direction and supervision, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to dentistry.

      (c) A podiatrist, in good faith and in the course of the podiatrist's professional practice only, may prescribe, administer and dispense controlled substances in schedules II, III, IV or V, or may cause the same to be administered by a nurse under the podiatrist's direction and supervision, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to podiatry.

      (d) A veterinarian, in good faith in the course of the veterinarian's professional practice only, and not for use by a human being, may prescribe, administer and dispense controlled substances, and may cause them to be administered by an assistant or orderly under the veterinarian's direction and supervision, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to veterinary medicine.

      (e) An advanced practice registered nurse licensed pursuant to section 20-94a, in good faith and in the course of such nurse's professional practice only, may prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV or V, or may cause the same to be administered by a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse under the advanced practice registered nurse's direction and supervision, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to advanced nursing practice.

      (f) A nurse-midwife licensed under chapter 377, in good faith and in the course of the nurse-midwife's professional practice only, may prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances in schedules II, III, IV and V, or may cause the same to be administered by a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse under the nurse-midwife's direction and supervision, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws.

      (g) A physician assistant licensed pursuant to section 20-12b, in good faith and in the course of the physician assistant's professional practice only, may prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV or V, or may cause the same to be administered by an advanced practice registered nurse, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse who is acting under a physician's direction, to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to physician assistant practice.

      (h) An optometrist authorized to practice advanced optometrical care, in good faith and in the course of the optometrist's professional practice only and who is duly authorized by section 20-127, may prescribe, administer or dispense controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV or V to the extent permitted by the federal Controlled Substances Act, the federal food and drug laws and state laws and regulations relating to optometry.

      (i) Any person who has obtained directly from a physician, dentist, podiatrist, optometrist, veterinarian, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse or nurse-midwife any controlled substance for self-administration or administration to a patient during the absence of such physician, dentist, podiatrist, optometrist, veterinarian, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse or nurse-midwife shall return to such physician, dentist, podiatrist, optometrist, veterinarian, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse or nurse-midwife any unused portion of such controlled substance, when it is no longer required by the person or the patient, or may surrender such controlled substance to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection for proper disposition.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 16; 1969, P.A. 578, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 8; 294, S. 43; P.A. 73-616, S. 62, 67; 73-681, S. 8, 29; P.A. 85-120, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-389, S. 14, 22; P.A. 90-211, S. 14, 23; P.A. 91-224, S. 2; P.A. 95-332, S. 5; P.A. 96-70, S. 2; P.A. 99-102, S. 35; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c), (d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act inserted new Subsec. (d) re podiatrists and relettered former Subsecs. (d) and (e) accordingly, adding podiatrists in new Subsec. (f), formerly (d); 1972 acts replaced references to drugs, controlled drugs and narcotic drugs with "controlled substance(s)", amended Subsec. (a) to replace "part III" with "state and federal laws and regulations", amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to replace "federal narcotic laws" with "Federal Controlled Substances Act", amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) to replace reference to Sec. 20-250 with reference to Federal Controlled Substances Act and food and drug laws and state laws relating to podiatry and required surrender of drugs to health commissioner rather than department in Subsec. (f); P.A. 73-616 made technical changes; P.A. 73-681 specified schedule II, III, IV or V substances in Subsec. (d), replaced incorrect reference to podiatry in Subsec. (e) with "veterinary medicine" and replaced health commissioner with commissioner of consumer protection in Subsec. (f); Sec. 19-460 transferred to Sec. 21a-252 in 1983; P.A. 85-120 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize a physician assistant to administer controlled substances under the direction and supervision of a physician; P.A. 89-389 added Subsecs. (f) and (g), relettered the existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (h) and amended Subsec. (h) to add the references to advanced practice registered nurses and nurse-midwives; P.A. 90-211 amended Subsec. (f) to add language pertaining to the prescribing, dispensing and administering of controlled substances in schedules II and III and removed language pertaining to the prescribing and administering of controlled substances by nurse anesthetists and inserted new Subsec. (h) pertaining to physician assistants, relettering and amending former Subsec. (h) accordingly; P.A. 91-224 amended Subsec. (f) by deleting language requiring a physician to cosign a prescription for a Schedule II or III controlled substance; P.A. 95-332 amended Subsec. (a) to allow the Department of Consumer Protection to approve protocols that permit the dispensing of methadone by a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse; P.A. 96-70 inserted new Subsec. (i) concerning optometrists, relettering existing Subsec. as (j); P.A. 99-102 deleted Subsec. (b) re obsolete reference to osteopathy, relettered the remaining Subsecs., deleted obsolete references to osteopathy in redesignated Subsec. (i) and made technical changes reflecting gender neutrality; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Commissioner and Department of Consumer Protection with Commissioner and Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      See Sec. 17a-714a re legal protections for licensed health care professionals who prescribe opioid antagonists to drug users.

      Annotations to former section 19-460:

      Cited. 7 CA 403.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 204 C. 377.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 7 CA 403. Cited. 17 CA 257.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 204 C. 156; Id., 377. Cited. 240 C. 799.

      Use of "and" does not require that physician do all three acts, i.e. prescribe, administer and dispense, re controlled substances to come within exception provide by subsec. to avoid liability under Sec. 21a-277(b) or 21a-278(b). 82 CA 435.


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      Sec. 21a-253. Possession of marijuana pursuant to a prescription by a physician. Any person may possess or have under his control a quantity of marijuana less than or equal to that quantity supplied to him pursuant to a prescription made in accordance with the provisions of section 21a-249 by a physician licensed under the provisions of chapter 370 and further authorized by subsection (a) of section 21a-246 by the Commissioner of Consumer Protection to possess and supply marijuana for the treatment of glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy.

      (P.A. 81-440, S. 5, 7; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-254. (Formerly Sec. 19-461). Designation of restricted drugs or substances by regulations. Records required by chapter. Establishment of electronic prescription drug monitoring program. Pharmacy and outpatient pharmacy controlled substance prescription reporting. Vendor collection of information. Confidentiality. Disclosure of information. Regulations. (a) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection, after investigation and hearing, may by regulation designate certain substances as restricted drugs or substances by reason of their exceptional danger to health or exceptional potential for abuse so as to require written records of receipt, use and dispensation, and may, after investigation and hearing, remove the designation as restricted drugs or substances from any substance so previously designated.

      (b) Each physician, dentist, veterinarian or other person who is authorized to administer or professionally use schedule I substances shall keep a record of such schedule I substances received by him and a record of all such schedule I substances administered, dispensed or professionally used by him. The record of schedule I substances received shall in each case show the date of receipt, the name and address of the person from whom received and the kind and quantity of schedule I substances received. The record of all schedule I substances administered, dispensed or otherwise disposed of shall show the date of administering or dispensing, the name and address of the person to whom, or for whose use, or the owner and species of animal for which, the substances were administered or dispensed and the kind and quantity of substances.

      (c) Practitioners obtaining and dispensing controlled substances shall keep a record of all such controlled substances, received and dispensed by them in accordance with the provisions of subsections (f) and (h) of this section.

      (d) Manufacturers and wholesalers shall keep records of all controlled substances, compounded, mixed, cultivated or grown, or by any other process produced or prepared, and of all controlled substances received and disposed of by them in accordance with the provisions of subsections (f) and (h) of this section.

      (e) Pharmacies, hospitals, chronic and convalescent nursing homes, rest homes with nursing supervision, clinics, infirmaries, free-standing ambulatory surgical centers and laboratories shall keep records of all controlled substances, received and disposed of by them in accordance with the provisions of subsections (f) and (h) of this section, except that hospitals and chronic and convalescent nursing homes using a unit dose drug distribution system may instead keep such records in accordance with the provisions of subsections (g) and (h) of this section, and except that hospitals and free-standing ambulatory surgical centers shall not be required to maintain separate disposition records for schedule V controlled substances or records of administering of individual doses for ultra-short-acting depressants, including but not limited to, Methohexital, Thiamylal and Thiopental.

      (f) The form of record to be kept under subsection (c), (d) or (e) of this section shall in each case show the date of receipt, the name and address of the person from whom received, and the kind and quantity of controlled substances received, or, when applicable, the kind and quantity of controlled substances produced or removed from process of manufacture and the date of such production or removal from process of manufacture; and the record shall in each case show the proportion of controlled substances. The record of all controlled substances sold, administered, dispensed or otherwise disposed of shall show the date of selling, administering or dispensing, the name of the person to whom or for whose use, or the owner and species of animal for which, the substances were sold, administered or dispensed, the address of such person or owner in the instance of records of other than hospitals, chronic and convalescent nursing homes, rest homes with nursing supervision and infirmaries, and the kind and quantity of substances. In addition, hospital and infirmary records shall show the time of administering or dispensing, the prescribing physician and the nurse administering or dispensing the substance. Each such record of controlled substances shall be separately maintained apart from other drug records and kept for a period of three years from the date of the transaction recorded.

      (g) Hospitals using a unit dose drug distribution system shall maintain a record noting all dispositions of controlled substances from any area of the hospital to other hospital locations. Such record shall include, but need not be limited to, the name, form, strength and quantity of the drug dispensed, the date dispensed and the location within the hospital to which the drug was dispensed. Such dispensing record shall be separately maintained, apart from other drug or business records, for a period of three years. Such hospital shall, in addition, maintain for each patient a record which includes, but need not be limited to, the full name of the patient and a complete description of each dose of medication administered, including the name, form, strength and quantity of the drug administered, the date and time administered and identification of the nurse or practitioner administering each drug dose. Entries for controlled substances shall be specially marked in a manner which allows for ready identification. Such records shall be filed in chronological order and kept for a period of three years.

      (h) A complete and accurate record of all stocks of controlled substances on hand shall, on and after July 1, 1981, be prepared biennially within four days of the first day of May of the calendar year, except that a registrant may change this date provided the general physical inventory date of such registrant is not more than six months from the biennial inventory date, and kept on file for three years; and shall be made available to the commissioner or his authorized agents. The keeping of a record required by or under the federal Controlled Substances Act, or federal food and drug laws, containing substantially the same information as is specified above, shall constitute compliance with this section, provided each record shall in addition contain a detailed list of any controlled substances lost, destroyed or stolen, the kind and quantity of such substances and the date of the discovery of such loss, destruction or theft and provided such record shall be made available to the commissioner or his authorized agents. All records required by this chapter shall be kept on the premises of the registrant and maintained current and separate from other business records in such form as to be readily available for inspection by the authorized agent at reasonable times. The use of a foreign language, codes or symbols to designate controlled substances or persons in the keeping of any required record is not deemed to be a compliance with this chapter.

      (i) Whenever any record is removed by a person authorized to enforce the provisions of this chapter or the provisions of the state food, drug and cosmetic laws for the purpose of investigation or as evidence, such person shall tender a receipt in lieu thereof and the receipt shall be kept for a period of three years.

      (j) (1) The commissioner shall, within available appropriations, establish an electronic prescription drug monitoring program to collect, by electronic means, prescription information for schedules II, III, IV and V controlled substances, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 21a-240, that are dispensed by pharmacies and outpatient pharmacies in hospitals or institutions. The program shall be designed to provide information regarding the prescription of controlled substances in order to prevent the improper or illegal use of the controlled substances and shall not infringe on the legitimate prescribing of a controlled substance by a prescribing practitioner acting in good faith and in the course of professional practice.

      (2) Each pharmacy and each outpatient pharmacy in a hospital or institution shall report to the commissioner, at least twice monthly, by electronic means or, if a pharmacy or outpatient pharmacy does not maintain records electronically, in a format approved by the commissioner, the following information for all controlled substance prescriptions dispensed by such pharmacy or outpatient pharmacy: (A) Dispenser identification number; (B) the date the prescription for the controlled substance was filled; (C) the prescription number; (D) whether the prescription for the controlled substance is new or a refill; (E) the national drug code number for the drug dispensed; (F) the amount of the controlled substance dispensed and the number of days' supply of the controlled substance; (G) a patient identification number; (H) the patient's first name, last name and street address, including postal code; (I) the date of birth of the patient; (J) the date the prescription for the controlled substance was issued by the prescribing practitioner and the prescribing practitioner's Drug Enforcement Agency's identification number; and (K) the type of payment.

      (3) The commissioner may contract with a vendor for purposes of electronically collecting such controlled substance prescription information. The commissioner and any such vendor shall maintain the information in accordance with the provisions of chapter 400j.

      (4) The commissioner and any such vendor shall not disclose controlled substance prescription information reported pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection, except as authorized pursuant to the provisions of sections 21a-240 to 21a-283, inclusive. Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this subdivision or subdivision (3) of this subsection shall be guilty of a class D felony.

      (5) The commissioner shall provide, upon request, controlled substance prescription information obtained in accordance with subdivision (2) of this subsection to the following: (A) The prescribing practitioner who is treating or has treated a specific patient, provided the information is obtained for purposes related to the treatment of the patient, including the monitoring of controlled substances obtained by the patient; (B) the prescribing practitioner with whom a patient has made contact for the purpose of seeking medical treatment, provided the request is accompanied by a written consent, signed by the prospective patient, for the release of controlled substance prescription information; or (C) the pharmacist who is dispensing controlled substances for a patient, provided the information is obtained for purposes related to the scope of the pharmacist's practice and management of the patient's drug therapy, including the monitoring of controlled substances obtained by the patient. The prescribing practitioner or pharmacist shall submit a written and signed request to the commissioner for controlled substance prescription information. Such prescribing practitioner or pharmacist shall not disclose any such request except as authorized pursuant to sections 20-570 to 20-630, inclusive, or sections 21a-240 to 21a-283, inclusive.

      (6) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, concerning the reporting, evaluation, management and storage of electronic controlled substance prescription information.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 17; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 11-13; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 9; P.A. 73-681, S. 9, 29; P.A. 74-338, S. 17, 94; P.A. 77-51; 77-101, S. 2; P.A. 81-148, S. 3, 4; 81-363, S. 2; P.A. 88-357, S. 16; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 06-155, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act included cannabis-type drugs as restricted drugs and slightly changed wording in Subsec. (a), deleted phrase re applicability to practitioners "regularly engaged" in dispensing drugs and included applicability with respect to purchasing drugs in Subsec. (c) and deleted reference to charging drugs separately or in connection with other professional services, referred to "controlled" rather than "restricted" drugs in Subsec. (f) record-keeping provisions and required that records be "separately maintained"; 1972 act replaced "drugs" with "substances" throughout section, rephrased Subsec. (a) and added provision re removal of restricted drug designation, replaced "restricted drugs" with "Schedule I drugs" in Subsec. (b), included clinics and infirmaries in Subsec. (e) and made provisions re record-keeping applicable to hospitals applicable to infirmaries as well, required preparation of periodic records rather than preparation on October 1, 1967, and removed exception re records prepared in accordance with Sec. 511(d) of federal food and drug laws, required that records be available to authorized agents of inspecting commissioner and replaced "federal narcotic laws" with "Federal Controlled Substances Act" in Subsec. (f); P.A. 73-681 removed public health council as authority for designating restricted drugs in Subsec. (a), substituted "obtaining" for "purchasing" in Subsec. (c) and replaced provision re waiver of required record-keeping by public health council regulation with provisions re required manner in which records required to be kept on premises and use of foreign languages, codes, symbols in Subsec. (f); P.A. 74-338 deleted "inspecting" with reference to commissioner and referred to authorized "agent" rather than "agency" in Subsec. (f); P.A. 77-51 made Subsecs. (e) and (f) applicable to chronic and convalescent nursing homes and rest homes with nursing supervision; P.A. 77-101 added reference to Subsec. (h) in Subsecs. (c) to (e), added exceptions in Subsec. (e), inserted new Subsec. (g) re hospitals using unit dose drug distribution systems, designated part of Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (h) and relettered Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (i); P.A. 81-148 amended Subsec. (e) to specifically exclude from record-keeping requirement records re ultra-short-acting depressants and amended Subsec. (h) to clarify the requirements of federal law relating to the taking of inventory of controlled substances; P.A. 81-363 amended Subsec. (e) to authorize chronic and convalescent nursing homes using a unit dose drug distribution system to maintain their records in accordance with the provisions of Subsecs. (g) and (h); Sec. 19-461 transferred to Sec. 21a-254 in 1983; P.A. 88-357 amended Subsec. (e) by adding references to free-standing ambulatory surgical centers; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 06-155 added Subsec. (j) re establishment of electronic prescription drug monitoring program, reporting by pharmacies and outpatient pharmacies in hospitals or institutions, vendor collection of information, disclosure and confidentiality of information and adoption of regulations.

      Annotation to former section 19-461:

      Cited. 7 CA 403.

      Annotation to present section:

      Cited. 207 C. 698.


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      Sec. 21a-254a. Appointment of prescription drug monitoring working group. Membership. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall appoint a prescription drug monitoring working group for the purpose of advising the commissioner on the implementation of the electronic prescription drug monitoring program established pursuant to section 21a-254, including the adoption of regulations by the commissioner. Such advice shall include, but not be limited to, recommendations on how to effectively use the data collected pursuant to such program to detect fraud while protecting the legitimate use of controlled substances. The working group shall include, but not be limited to: (1) A physician, licensed pursuant to chapter 370, specializing in internal medicine; (2) a board certified oncologist; (3) a person licensed to perform advanced level nursing practice activities pursuant to subsection (b) of section 20-87a; (4) a representative from an acute care hospital licensed pursuant to chapter 368v; (5) a state police officer appointed in accordance with section 29-4; (6) a municipal police chief; (7) a representative from the Division of Criminal Justice; (8) a representative from a hospice licensed by the Department of Public Health or certified pursuant to 42 USC 1395x; (9) a pain management specialist, as defined in section 38a-492i; (10) a pharmacist licensed pursuant to section 20-590, 20-591 or 20-592; and (11) a representative from the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services.

      (P.A. 06-155, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 21a-255. (Formerly Sec. 19-462). Penalty for failure to make, furnish or keep records, statements or information. General penalty. (a) Any person who, either as principal or agent, refuses or fails to make, furnish or keep any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice or information required by sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, or regulations adopted pursuant to section 21a-244, for the first offense may be fined not more than five hundred dollars and for each subsequent offense may be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (b) Any person who fails to keep any record required by said sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, or said regulations, with an intent to defeat the purpose of this chapter or any person who violates any other provision of said sections, except as to such violations for which penalties are specifically provided in sections 21a-277 and 21a-279, may, for the first offense, be fined not more than one thousand dollars or be imprisoned for not more than two years or be both fined and imprisoned; and for the second and each subsequent offense may be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or be imprisoned not more than ten years or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 18; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 14; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 10; P.A. 77-277, S. 5; P.A. 87-129, S. 4.)

      History: 1969 act made imposition of fines and terms of imprisonment optional rather than mandatory and standardized wording and penalties so that penalty in all cases is fine and/or imprisonment; 1972 act replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451; P.A. 77-277 added reference to regulations under Sec. 19-451a; Sec. 19-462 transferred to Sec. 21a-255 in 1983; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act.

      Cited. 207 C. 698.

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      Sec. 21a-256. (Formerly Sec. 19-463). Labeling of package or container of controlled substances. (a) When a manufacturer sells or dispenses a controlled substance and when a wholesaler sells, dispenses or distributes a controlled substance in a package prepared by him, he shall securely affix to each package in which that substance is contained a label showing in legible English the name and address of the vendor and the quantity, kind and form of controlled substance contained therein and any additional information required under the federal food and drug laws and the state food, drug and cosmetic laws. No person, except a practitioner dispensing a controlled substance under this chapter, shall alter, deface or remove any label so affixed.

      (b) When a pharmacist sells or dispenses any controlled substance on prescription issued by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, physician assistant, podiatrist, dentist or veterinarian, the pharmacist shall affix, to the container in which such substance is sold or dispensed, a label showing the name and address of the pharmacy for which the pharmacist is lawfully acting, the full name of the patient, or, if the patient is an animal, the name of the owner of the animal and the species of the animal, the last name of the physician, advanced practice registered nurse, physician assistant, podiatrist, dentist or veterinarian by whom the prescription was written, such directions as may be stated on the prescription, the serial number of the prescription, the date of filling or refilling and any cautionary statement in such prescription as may be required by law.

      (c) When aqueous or oleaginous preparations are sold under subsection (c) of section 21a-250, a label shall be affixed to the container containing the preparation which bears the name, address and BNDD numbers of the vendor and vendee, the date of sale, the kind and quantity of substance sold and the serial number of the official written order. No person shall alter, deface or remove any label affixed pursuant to subsection (b) or this subsection.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 19; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 11; P.A. 73-681, S. 10, 29; P.A. 82-419, S. 39, 47; P.A. 96-19, S. 3; P.A. 99-102, S. 36.)

      History: 1972 act replaced "drug" with "substance" throughout section, made Subsec. (b) provisions applicable to podiatrists' prescriptions, required label to include prescription serial number, date of filing and necessary precautionary statements and deleted provision re label requirements for narcotic drugs, and replaced "registry" with "BNDD" numbers in Subsec. (c); P.A. 73-681 specified "aqueous or oleaginous" preparations in Subsec. (c); P.A. 82-419 amended Subsec. (b) to permit physician's last name only, rather than full name, on label and to change date of filing to date of filling or refilling; Sec. 19-463 transferred to Sec. 21a-256 in 1983; P.A. 96-19 expanded reference to prescriptions by physicians in Subsec. (b) to include advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants; P.A. 99-102 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting obsolete references to osteopathy and making technical changes.

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      Sec. 21a-257. (Formerly Sec. 19-464). Person receiving narcotic drug to keep it in original container. A person to whom or for whose use any narcotic drug has been prescribed, sold or dispensed by a physician, dentist, pharmacist or other person authorized under the provisions of section 21a-248, and the owner of any animal for which any such drug has been prescribed, sold or dispensed may lawfully possess it only in the container in which it was delivered to the recipient by the person selling or dispensing the same except as may be authorized by regulations adopted hereunder.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 20; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 15; P.A. 99-102, S. 37.)

      History: 1969 act referred to "narcotic" rather than "controlled" drugs; Sec. 19-464 transferred to Sec. 21a-257 in 1983; P.A. 99-102 deleted obsolete reference to osteopathy and made a technical change.

      Annotations to former section 19-464:

      Defendant held to have burden of proving he had drug in container in which it was delivered to him by person dispensing it. 148 C. 57.

      Cited. 7 CA 403.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 584.


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      Sec. 21a-258. (Formerly Sec. 19-465). Exceptions concerning possession and control. The provisions of this part restricting the possession and control of controlled substances shall not apply to common carriers or to warehousemen, while engaged in lawfully transporting or storing such substances, or to any employee of the same acting within the scope of his employment; or to public officers or employees in the performance of their official duties requiring possession or control of controlled substances; or to temporary incidental possession by employees or agents of persons lawfully entitled to possession or by persons whose possession is for the purpose of aiding public officers in performing their official duties.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 21; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 12.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs"; Sec. 19-465 transferred to Sec. 21a-258 in 1983.

      Annotation to former section 19-465:

      Cited. 7 CA 403.


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      Sec. 21a-259. (Formerly Sec. 19-466). Common nuisances. Receivership of rental housing property development. (a) As used in this section, "rental housing property development" means any privately owned multifamily dwelling consisting of not less than six units which are not owner-occupied and which has at least one unit available for rent. Any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling house, building, rental housing property development, vehicle, boat, aircraft or any place whatever, other than as authorized by law, which is frequently resorted to by drug-dependent persons for the purpose of using controlled substances or which is used for the illegal keeping or selling of the same, shall be deemed a common nuisance.

      (b) Any such rental housing property development deemed a common nuisance under subsection (a) of this section may be subject to an action for private receivership by the Chief State's Attorney, a deputy chief state's attorney, a state's attorney or an assistant or deputy assistant state's attorney on behalf of all the tenants occupying such development by applying to the superior court for the judicial district where the property is situated for an order requiring the owner and any mortgagees or lienors of record to show cause why a receiver of rents, issues and profits should not be appointed and why said receiver should not remove or remedy such common nuisance and obtain a lien in favor of such tenants, having priority with respect to all existing mortgages or liens, to secure payment of the costs incurred by the receiver in removing or remedying such common nuisance. Such application shall contain (A) proof by affidavit that an order of the proper authority has been issued and served on the owner, mortgagees and lienors; and (B) a plan to manage and operate such property following the appointment of a receiver of rents, issues and profits.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 22; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 13; P.A. 97-161.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs"; Sec. 19-466 transferred to Sec. 21a-259 in 1983; P.A. 97-161 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and amended said Subsec. by defining "rental housing property development" and adding such entity to places deemed a common nuisance, and added new Subsec. (b) re procedure for the appointment of a receiver for a rental housing property development deemed a common nuisance.

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      Sec. 21a-260. (Formerly Sec. 19-467a). Narcotics control section in Department of Consumer Protection. The narcotics control section of the Department of Public Health shall be merged into the Department of Consumer Protection.

      (P.A. 73-681, S. 28, 29; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 80-306; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-306 deleted reference to "drugs division" of consumer protection department and deleted obsolete reference to transfer of personnel in same pay grade and classification; Sec. 19-467a transferred to Sec. 21a-260 in 1983; P.A 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Department of Consumer Protection with Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-261. (Formerly Sec. 19-468). Inspection of records. Entry on premises. Warrants and arrests. (a) Every person required by section 21a-254 to prepare or obtain and keep records of controlled substances, and any carrier maintaining records with respect to any shipment containing any controlled substance, and every person in charge, or having custody, of such records shall, upon request of the Commissioner of Consumer Protection and his authorized agents, permit said commissioner and his authorized agents at reasonable times to have access to and copy such records.

      (b) For the purposes of verification of such records and of the enforcement of this part, said commissioner and his agents, are authorized to enter, at reasonable times, any place, clinic, infirmary, correctional institution, care-giving institution, pharmacy, drug room, office, hospital, laboratory, factory, warehouse, establishment or vehicle in which any controlled substance is held, manufactured, compounded, processed, sold, delivered or otherwise disposed of and to inspect, within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, such place, clinic, infirmary, correctional institution, care-giving institution, pharmacy, drug room, office, hospital, laboratory, factory, warehouse, establishment or vehicle, and all pertinent equipment, finished and unfinished material, containers and labeling, and all things therein including records, files, papers, processes, controls and facilities, and to inventory any stock of any such controlled substance therein and obtain samples of any such substance, any labels or containers for such substance and of any finished and unfinished material.

      (c) No inspection authorized by subsection (b) shall extend to (1) financial data, (2) sales data other than shipment data, (3) pricing data, (4) personnel data or (5) research data and secret processes or apparatus.

      (d) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection and his authorized agents are authorized and empowered to obtain and serve search warrants and arrest warrants; to seize contraband controlled substances; and to make arrests without warrant for offenses under sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, if the offense is committed in their presence or, in the case of a felony, if they have probable cause to believe that the person so arrested has committed, or is committing, such offense. The commissioner and his authorized agents when executing the powers authorized pursuant to this subsection, except when using deadly physical force, shall be deemed to be acting in the capacity of a peace officer as defined in subsection (9) of section 53a-3.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 24; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 15; P.A. 73-681, S. 11, 29; P.A. 74-338, S. 18, 94; P.A. 84-190; P.A. 87-129, S. 5; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substance(s)" for "drug(s)", allowed inspection of any place, clinic, infirmary, correctional institution, care-giving institution, pharmacy or drug room in Subsec. (b) and replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451 in Subsec. (d); P.A. 73-681 removed equal powers formerly held by commissioner of health under section; P.A. 74-338 made technical correction; Sec. 19-468 transferred to Sec. 21a-261 in 1983; P.A. 84-190 amended Subsec. (d) by providing that the commissioner and his authorized agents when executing their authorized powers, except the use of deadly physical force, are deemed to be acting in the capacity of peace officers; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Cited. 207 C. 698.

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      Sec. 21a-262. (Formerly Sec. 19-469). Commissioner's authority and duties re controlled substances. When seizing authority may destroy. Disposal by long-term care facilities and outpatient surgical facilities. (a) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may receive, take into custody or destroy excess or undesired controlled substances and may in his discretion deliver, upon application, to any hospital, laboratory, incorporated college, scientific institution or any state or municipal agency or institution not operated for private gain, any controlled substances that have come into his custody by authority of this section. In the case of a care-giving or correctional or juvenile training institution having an institutional pharmacy, the Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall deliver such controlled substances only to the licensed pharmacist in charge of such pharmacy. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may receive and take into custody excess or undesired controlled substances from pharmacists, manufacturers and wholesalers or any other registrant. Said commissioner shall keep a full and complete record of all substances received and of all substances disposed of, showing the exact kinds, quantities and forms of such substances, the persons from whom received and to whom delivered, by whose authority received, delivered and destroyed, and the dates of the receipt, disposal or destruction. Controlled substances and preparations shall at all times be properly safeguarded and securely kept. Minimum security and safeguard standards for the storage, manufacture, sale or distribution of all controlled substances shall be established by regulations adopted hereunder. Controlled substances seized or held as contraband or controlled substances, the title to which cannot be resolved, which controlled substances are not held by law enforcement agencies or court officials as evidence in criminal proceedings, shall be, upon the order of the court, destroyed by the seizing authority or delivered to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection as soon as possible upon resolution of the case or upon ascertaining the status of the unclaimed substance. The agent of the Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall issue a receipt for all such substance obtained. Any loss, destruction or theft of controlled substances shall be reported by a registrant within seventy-two hours to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection as follows: (1) Where, through breakage of the container or other accident, otherwise than in transit, controlled substances are lost or destroyed, the person having title thereto shall make a signed statement as to the kinds and quantities of controlled substances lost or destroyed and the circumstances involved, and immediately forward the statement to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection. A copy of such statement shall be retained by the registrant; (2) where controlled substances are lost by theft, or otherwise lost or destroyed in transit, the consignee shall, immediately upon ascertainment of the occurrence, file with the Commissioner of Consumer Protection a signed statement of the facts, including a list of the controlled substances stolen, lost or destroyed and documentary evidence that the local authorities were notified. A copy of the statement shall be retained by the registrant. As used in this section, "care-giving institution", "correctional or juvenile training institution", "institutional pharmacy" and "pharmacist" shall have the same meaning as used in section 20-571.

      (b) For each long-term care facility, two or more of the following persons may jointly dispose of excess stock of controlled substances: A nursing home administrator, a pharmacist consultant, a director of nursing services or an assistant director of nursing services. Such facility shall maintain documentation of any such destruction and disposal for a period of three years and such documentation shall be maintained in a separate log and on a form prescribed by the department.

      (c) For each outpatient surgical facility, as defined in section 19a-493b, two or more of the following persons may jointly dispose of excess stock of controlled substances: An administrator, a clinical director or chief of staff, or a nursing supervisor. Such facility shall maintain documentation of any such destruction and disposal for a period of three years and such documentation shall be maintained in a separate log and on a form prescribed by the department.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 25; 1969, P.A. 593, S. 13; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 16; P.A. 73-681, S. 12, 29; P.A. 76-77, S. 6; P.A. 84-44, S. 2; P.A. 92-181, S. 1, 3; P.A. 95-264, S. 59; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 05-212, S. 4.)

      History: 1969 act required that controlled drugs be delivered only to licensed pharmacist where pharmacy is in care-giving, correctional or juvenile training institution; 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs"; P.A. 73-681 transferred powers of health commissioner to commissioner of consumer protection and added provisions re delivery of controlled substances held by law enforcement or court officials, etc. and re reports of loss, destruction or theft of controlled substances; P.A. 76-77 allowed destruction of controlled substances upon court order as alternative to delivery to commissioner of consumer protection; Sec. 19-469 transferred to Sec. 21a-262 in 1983; P.A. 84-44 deleted reference to controlled substances held by law enforcement agencies or court officials as evidence in criminal proceedings and added provision re controlled substances which are not held by law enforcement agencies or court officials as evidence in court proceedings; P.A. 92-181 provided that the commissioner could deliver controlled substances to any state or municipal agency not operated for private gain; P.A. 95-264 added definition of care-giving, correctional and juvenile training institutions, institutional pharmacy and pharmacist; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 05-212 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsecs. (b) and (c) re disposal by long-term care facilities and by outpatient surgical facilities, respectively, effective July 6, 2005.

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      Sec. 21a-263. (Formerly Sec. 19-469a). Power of commissioner to receive and destroy drug paraphernalia. Records. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may receive, take into custody or destroy any drug paraphernalia as defined in subdivision (20) of section 21a-240. Said commissioner shall keep a full and complete record of all drug paraphernalia received and disposed of, showing the exact kinds, quantities and forms of such drug paraphernalia, the persons from whom received, by whose authority received and destroyed, and the dates of the receipt or destruction. Drug paraphernalia held by law enforcement agencies or court officials as evidence in criminal proceedings, or drug paraphernalia seized or held as contraband shall be destroyed upon the order of the court by the seizing authority or delivered to the Commissioner of Consumer Protection as soon as possible upon termination of the proceedings or resolution of the case.

      (P.A. 80-224, S. 4; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: Sec. 19-469a transferred to Sec. 21a-263 in 1983; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-264. (Formerly Sec. 19-470). Notice to licensing boards of violations by licensees. On the conviction of any person of the violation of any provision of this part, a copy of the judgment and sentence and of the opinion of the court, if any opinion is filed, shall be sent by the clerk of the court, or by the judge, to the board or officer, if any, by whom such person has been licensed or registered to practice his profession or to carry on his business and the court may, in its discretion, recommend to the licensing or registering board or officer that the license or registration of such person to practice his profession or to carry on his business be suspended or revoked. On the application of any person whose license or registration has been so suspended or revoked, such board or officer may, for good cause shown, reinstate such license or registration.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 26.)

      History: Sec. 19-470 transferred to Sec. 21a-264 in 1983.

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      Sec. 21a-265. (Formerly Sec. 19-471). Inspection of prescriptions, orders, records and stocks restricted to government officers and third-party payors. Confidentiality. Prescriptions, orders and records required by sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, and stocks of controlled substances shall be open for inspection only to federal, state, county and municipal officers, whose duty it is to enforce the laws of this state or of the United States relating to controlled substances, and to third party payors having a formal agreement or contract to audit such prescriptions, orders and records in connection with claims submitted to such payors. No such officer or third party payor having knowledge by virtue of his office of any such prescription, order or record shall divulge such knowledge, except in connection with a civil action or criminal prosecution in court or before a licensing or registration board or officer, to which action, prosecution or proceeding the person to whom such prescriptions, orders or records relate is a party.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 27; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 17; P.A. 73-203; P.A. 87-129, S. 6.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs" and replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451; P.A. 73-203 required that prescriptions, orders, etc. be open to inspection by third party payors having formal agreement or contract to perform audit and specified that information is to be divulged in connection with civil actions or criminal prosecutions; Sec. 19-471 transferred to Sec. 21a-265 in 1983; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act.

      Cited. 207 C. 698. Law enforcement officials allowed access to prescription records for controlled substances upon consent of pharmacist in possession of those records, without the need for search warrant or defendant's prior consent. Absent search warrant, no requirement for pharmacist to comply with request by law enforcement officials to review prescription records in pharmacist's possession. 259 C. 436.

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      Sec. 21a-266. (Formerly Sec. 19-472). Prohibited acts. (a) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain a controlled substance or procure or attempt to procure the administration of a controlled substance (1) by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation or subterfuge, or (2) by the forgery or alteration of a prescription or of any written order, or (3) by the concealment of a material fact, or (4) by the use of a false name or the giving of a false address.

      (b) Information communicated to a practitioner in an effort unlawfully to procure a controlled substance, or unlawfully to procure the administration of any such substance, shall not be deemed a privileged communication.

      (c) No person shall wilfully make a false statement in any prescription, order, report or record required by this part.

      (d) No person shall, for the purpose of obtaining a controlled substance, falsely assume the title of, or claim to be, a manufacturer, wholesaler, pharmacist, physician, dentist, veterinarian, podiatrist or other authorized person.

      (e) No person shall make or utter any false or forged prescription or false or forged written order.

      (f) No person shall affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing controlled substances.

      (g) No person shall alter an otherwise valid written order or prescription except upon express authorization of the issuing practitioner.

      (h) No person who, in the course of treatment, is supplied with controlled substances or a prescription therefor by one practitioner shall, knowingly, without disclosing such fact, accept during such treatment controlled substances or a prescription therefor from another practitioner with intent to obtain a quantity of controlled substances for abuse of such substances.

      (i) The provisions of subsections (a), (d) and (e) shall not apply to manufacturers of controlled substances, or their agents or employees, when such manufacturers or their authorized agents or employees are actually engaged in investigative activities directed toward safeguarding of the manufacturer's trademark, provided prior written approval for such investigative activities is obtained from the Commissioner of Consumer Protection.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 28; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 18; P.A. 73-681, S. 13, 29; P.A. 99-102, S. 38; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substance(s)" for "drug(s)" and included "podiatrist" in Subsec. (d); P.A. 73-681 added proviso re prior written approval for investigative activities in Subsec. (i); Sec. 19-472 transferred to Sec. 21a-266 in 1983; P.A. 99-102 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting obsolete reference to osteopathy and making a technical change; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Annotation to former section 19-472:

      Defendant in obtaining prescription for narcotics from physician concealed fact he was a drug addict; held to be a violation of predecessor section 19-261. 148 C. 57.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 223 C. 618.

      Cited. 24 CA 662; judgment reversed, see 223 C. 618.


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      Sec. 21a-267. (Formerly Sec. 19-472a). Prohibited acts re drug paraphernalia. (a) No person shall use or possess with intent to use drug paraphernalia, as defined in subdivision (20) of section 21a-240, to plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain or conceal, or to ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body, any controlled substance as defined in subdivision (9) of section 21a-240. Any person who violates any provision of this subsection shall be guilty of a class C misdemeanor.

      (b) No person shall deliver, possess with intent to deliver or manufacture with intent to deliver drug paraphernalia knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that it will be used to plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain or conceal, or to ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body, any controlled substance. Any person who violates any provision of this subsection shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

      (c) Any person who violates subsection (a) or (b) of this section in or on, or within one thousand five hundred feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school and who is not enrolled as a student in such school shall be imprisoned for a term of one year which shall not be suspended and shall be in addition and consecutive to any term of imprisonment imposed for violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section.

      (P.A. 80-224, S. 3; P.A. 89-256, S. 3; P.A. 90-214, S. 2, 5; P.A. 92-185, S. 3, 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 3; P.A. 06-195, S. 16.)

      History: Sec. 19-472a transferred to Sec. 21a-267 in 1983; P.A. 89-256 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the penalty from a class C to a class A misdemeanor and added Subsec. (c) re an additional nonsuspendable term of imprisonment of one year for any person who violates Subsec. (a) or (b) near a school and is not enrolled as a student in such school; P.A. 90-214 added Subsec. (d) re needle and syringe exchange program; P.A. 92-185 deleted Subsec. (d) re applicability of Subsecs. (a) and (b) to the needle and syringe exchange program; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1 amended Subsec. (c) to increase the proximity distance to school property from 1,000 to 1,500 feet; P.A. 06-195 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by deleting "inject" in conformity with redefinition of "drug paraphernalia" in Sec. 21a-240, effective June 7, 2006.

      See Sec. 21a-270 re factors considered in considering materials to be drug paraphernalia.

      See Sec. 21a-283a re authority of court to depart from prescribed mandatory minimum sentence.


      Cited. 212 C. 223. Cited. 224 C. 494. Cited. 239 C. 235. Holdings in State v. Januszewski, 182 C. 142, and State v. Hart, 221 C. 595, that Sec. 21a-278(b) creates an exception for drug-dependent persons within meaning of section, upheld; holding in State v. Hart, 221 C. 595, that defendant must prove the exception of drug dependency by a preponderance of the evidence, upheld; requirement that defendant prove drug dependency by a preponderance of the evidence is not unconstitutional. 290 C. 24; judgment superseded, see Id., 602.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 207 C. 35. Cited. 216 C. 185. Cited. 219 C. 557. Cited. 230 C. 372.

      Cited. 9 CA 667. Cited. 10 CA 347. Cited. 11 CA 47. Cited. 12 CA 225. Cited. 13 CA 288. Cited. 14 CA 356. Cited. 17 CA 556; Id., 635. Cited. 20 CA 183; Id., 321. Cited. 22 CA 40; judgment reversed and case remanded to appellate court for consideration of defendant's remaining claims, see 219 C. 577; Id., 431. Cited. 23 CA 123. Cited. 26 CA 553. Cited. 28 CA 575. Cited. 29 CA 694. Cited. 31 CA 443. Cited. 32 CA 267. Cited. 39 CA 369. Cited. 43 CA 339.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 10 CA 532.

      Subsec. (c):

      Testimony that conduct occurred within 1500 feet of a "public school" was insufficient to support finding that conduct occurred within 1500 feet of "an elementary or secondary school" because there are public schools that are neither elementary nor secondary schools. 113 CA 731.


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      Sec. 21a-268. (Formerly Sec. 19-473). Misrepresentation of substance as controlled substance. Exemption. (a) Any person who knowingly delivers or attempts to deliver a noncontrolled substance (1) upon the express representation that such substance is a controlled substance or (2) under circumstances which would lead a reasonable person to believe that such substance is a controlled substance, shall be guilty of a class D felony.

      (b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any transaction in the ordinary course of business by any licensed practitioner or licensed pharmacist.

      (1967, P.A. 109, S. 2; 555, S. 29; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 19; P.A. 81-199; P.A. 82-472, S. 68, 183.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substance" for "drug" and "licensed practitioner" for "physician or dentist"; P.A. 81-199 replaced previous provisions re fraudulent sale, dispensing etc. of noncontrolled substances with more detailed provisions and imposed specific penalty where previously such conduct was stated to be "a violation of this chapter"; P.A. 82-472 made technical correction; Sec. 19-473 transferred to Sec. 21a-268 in 1983.

      Annotations to former section 19-473:

      Cited. 2 CA 513. Cited. 8 CA 248.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 2 CA 513. Cited. 8 CA 248.


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      Sec. 21a-269. (Formerly Sec. 19-474). Burden of proof of exception, excuse, proviso or exemption. In any complaint, information or indictment, and in any action or proceeding brought for the enforcement of any provision of this part, it shall not be necessary to negative any exception, excuse, proviso or exemption contained in said section, and the burden of proof of any such exception, excuse, proviso or exemption shall be upon the defendant.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 30.)

      History: Sec. 19-474 transferred to Sec. 21a-269 in 1983.

      Annotations to former section 19-474:

      Defendant held to have burden of proving that tablets found in his possession, which he had obtained by prescription, were in container in which he received them. 148 C. 57. Cited. 163 C. 62. Where defendant offered no evidence of a license to sell narcotics but requested a charge to jury, no charge need have been given, but charge stating exemption and its inapplicability was a correct statement of law and in no way prejudicial. 164 C. 224. Determination of defendant's status as a person who is not drug-dependent under Sec. 19-480a(b), now Sec. 21a-278(b), is an exemption under this statute and examination of language of both statutes leads to conclusion that burden of producing evidence of drug dependency initially rests on defendant. 182 C. 142.

      Cited. 7 CA 403. Cited. 17 CA 257. Cited. 19 CA 668. Cited. 20 CA 386. Cited. 27 CA 596; Id., 713.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 197 C. 67. Cited. 221 C. 595.

      Cited. 7 CA 403. Cited. 17 CA 257. Cited. 19 CA 668. Cited. 20 CA 386. Cited. 27 CA 596; Id., 713. Cited. 32 CA 724; Id., 842. Cited. 35 CA 360; Id., 609. Cited. 41 CA 604.


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      Sec. 21a-270. (Formerly Sec. 19-474a). Drug paraphernalia: Factors to be considered by court or other authority in determination. In determining whether any object or material listed in subdivision (20) of section 21a-240 shall be deemed "drug paraphernalia", a court or other authority shall, in addition to all other logically relevant factors, consider the following:

      (1) Statements by an owner or by anyone in control of the object concerning its use;

      (2) The proximity of the object to any controlled substances;

      (3) The existence of any residue of controlled substances on the object;

      (4) Evidence of the intent of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, to deliver it to persons whom he knows, or should reasonably know, intend to use the object to facilitate a violation of this section, subdivision (20) of section 21a-240, and sections 21a-263, 21a-267 and 21a-271;

      (5) Instructions, oral or written, provided with the object concerning its use with a controlled substance;

      (6) Descriptive materials accompanying the object which explain or depict its use with a controlled substance;

      (7) National and local advertising concerning its use;

      (8) The manner in which the object is displayed for sale;

      (9) Whether the owner, or anyone in control of the object, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;

      (10) Evidence of the ratio of sales of the object to the total sales of the business enterprise;

      (11) The existence and scope of legitimate uses for the object in the community;

      (12) Expert testimony concerning its use.

      (P.A. 80-224, S. 2; P.A. 84-233.)

      History: Sec. 19-474a transferred to Sec. 21a-270 in 1983; P.A. 84-233 replaced "Direct evidence" with "Evidence" in Subdivs. (4) and (10).

      See Sec. 21a-267 re prohibited acts with respect to drug paraphernalia.

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      Sec. 21a-271. (Formerly Sec. 19-474b). Severability of provisions concerning drug paraphernalia. If any section, part, clause or phrase in subdivision (20) of section 21a-240, section 21a-263, 21a-267, 21a-270 or this section, is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional, sections, parts, clauses and phrases in said sections not held to be invalid or unconstitutional shall not be affected and shall remain in full force and effect.

      (P.A. 80-224, S. 5.)

      History: Sec. 19-474b transferred to Sec. 21a-271 in 1983.

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      Sec. 21a-272. (Formerly Sec. 19-475). Preparations which may be sold and dispensed. Exceptions. (a) The following preparations may be sold at retail in pharmacies and dispensed by hospitals, dentists, veterinarians and physicians without a prescription or written order, in quantities of not more than the amounts stated to any one person, or for the use of any one person or animal within forty-eight consecutive hours: (1) Four fluid ounces of Stokes expectorant, (2) four fluid ounces of Brown mixture, (3) eight fluid ounces of any preparation which contains camphorated tincture of opium or the opium equivalent not to exceed 16.2 mg. of opium in one fluid ounce and from which the camphorated tincture of opium or the opium equivalent cannot be easily extracted.

      (b) The exceptions authorized by this section shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) That the medicinal preparation administered, dispensed or sold shall contain, in addition to the morphine-type substance in it some drug or drugs conferring upon it medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the morphine-type substance alone; and (2) that such preparation shall be administered, dispensed and sold in good faith as a medicine and not for the purpose of evading the provisions of this part; and (3) that the purchaser of such preparations shall not purchase or attempt to obtain such preparations for the purpose of sustaining or satisfying a dependency upon controlled drugs; provided no vendor shall be deemed to have violated this subdivision unless he knew or should have known of such improper purpose; and (4) that the seller keep a schedule V record, as required by the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, of the full name and address of the person purchasing the medicinal preparation, in the handwriting of the purchaser, the name and quantity of the preparation sold and the time and date of sale; and (5) that whenever a pharmacist sells or dispenses any schedule V substance which, under the provisions of this section, is excepted from prescriptions or written orders, the pharmacist shall securely affix to each package in which such drug is contained a label showing the name and address of the pharmacy. No person shall alter, deface or remove any label so affixed and no person shall have under his control or in his possession any such drug if not so labeled; and (6) that no provisions of this section shall be construed to permit the purchase, within any forty-eight-hour period by any one person or for use of any one person or animal of more than one excepted schedule V preparation specified in subsection (a) or in more than the maximum amounts allowed under subsection (a) except as authorized by other provisions of this part.

      (c) (1) The Commissioner of Consumer Protection may, by regulation, exempt from the application of said sections to such extent as he determines to be consistent with the public welfare, pharmaceutical preparations containing schedule V substances found by said commissioner, after due notice and opportunity for hearing: (A) To possess no liability for drug abuse and dependency sufficient to warrant imposition of all of the requirements of said sections, and (B) not to permit recovery of a controlled substance having such liability for drug abuse and dependence with such relative technical simplicity and degree of yield as to create a risk of improper use. (2) In exercising the authority granted in subdivision (1) the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, by regulation pursuant to section 21a-243 and without special findings, may grant exempt status to such pharmaceutical preparations as are determined to be exempt under the federal Controlled Substances Act and regulations and permit the administering, dispensing or selling of such preparations under the same conditions as permitted by the federal regulations dealing therewith.

      (d) After due notice and hearing, the Commissioner of Consumer Protection may determine that a pharmaceutical preparation exempted from the oral or written prescription requirement under the provisions of this section does possess a potential for drug abuse and dependence and may, by regulation pursuant to section 21a-243, withdraw the prior exemption. Such determination shall be final, and, after the expiration of a period of six months from the date of issuance of the regulation, the exempt status shall cease to apply to the particular pharmaceutical preparation.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 31; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 20; P.A. 73-681, S. 14, 29; P.A. 79-12, S. 5, 6; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1972 act deleted permission to sell without prescription up to one-half ounce of camphorated tincture of opium (paregoric) and up to four fluid ounces of preparation containing not more than two grains of papaverine or its salts per fluid ounce and allowed such sales for up to eight fluid ounces of camphorated tincture of opium or its equivalent as specified in Subsec. (a)(3), substituted "substance(s)" for "drugs(s)", "Schedule V" substance for "morphine-type" drug and "Federal Controlled Substances Act" for "federal narcotic laws"; P.A. 73-681 replaced public health council with commissioner of consumer protection; P.A. 79-12 deleted permission to sell without prescription up to four fluid ounces of preparation containing not more than two grains of noscapine or its salts per fluid ounce; Sec. 19-475 transferred to Sec. 21a-272 in 1983; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 21 CA 403.


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      Sec. 21a-273. (Formerly Sec. 19-476). Substances exempt under federal law. (a) No prescription or written order shall be required for those controlled substances and preparations which are permitted by federal food and drug laws to be sold or dispensed without a prescription or written order to the extent that the person selling or dispensing such controlled substances and preparations is authorized by licensure of the state of Connecticut to so sell or dispense.

      (b) If, after due notice and hearing, the Commissioner of Consumer Protection determines that any pharmaceutical preparation exempted from the oral or written prescription requirement under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section does possess a degree of liability for drug abuse or dependence that, in his opinion is likely to result in abuse, he shall, by regulation pursuant to section 21a-243, so state. The determination shall be final and, after the expiration of a period of six months from the date of publication of the regulation, the exempt status shall cease to apply to the particular pharmaceutical preparation.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 32; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 21; P.A. 73-681, S. 15, 29; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs"; P.A. 73-681 replaced public health council with commissioner of consumer protection in Subsec. (b); Sec. 19-476 transferred to Sec. 21a-273 in 1983; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-274. (Formerly Sec. 19-477). Cooperation in enforcement of law. (a) The Commissioners of Public Health and Consumer Protection and their authorized agents, police officers within their respective jurisdictions and all state's attorneys and prosecuting attorneys shall cooperate with each other and with other agencies charged with the enforcement of the laws of the United States, of this state and all other jurisdictions relative to controlled substances.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 21a-265 and chapter 55 said commissioners and their authorized agents may, in carrying out their duties under subsection (a), (1) exchange information relating to the issuance, suspension or revocation of a license issued by their respective agencies, or (2) exchange investigative information relating to violations of this chapter with each other, with state's attorneys and with other agencies charged with the enforcement of the laws of the United States, and of this state and all other jurisdictions relative to controlled substances.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 33; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 29; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 79-117, S. 1, 2; P.A. 82-355, S. 3; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs"; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of health with commissioner of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-117 added Subsec. (b); P.A. 82-355 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize exchange of investigative information; Sec. 19-477 transferred to Sec. 21a-274 in 1983; P.A. 93-381 replaced commissioner of health services with commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

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      Sec. 21a-274a. Drug enforcement grant program. Safe neighborhoods grant program. Community mobilization antidrug grant program. (a) There is established a drug enforcement grant program which shall be administered by the Office of Policy and Management. Grants may be made to municipalities, the Department of Public Safety and the Division of Criminal Justice for the purpose of enforcing federal and state laws concerning controlled substances, undertaking crime prevention activities related to the enforcement of such laws, substance abuse prevention education or training related to such enforcement or education activities. The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 for the administration of this subsection, including the establishment of priorities, program categories, eligibility requirements, funding limitations and the application process. Such regulations shall provide that the costs of a community-based police program, as defined in the regulations, may be paid from a grant made under this section.

      (b) There is established a safe neighborhoods grant program which shall be administered by the Office of Policy and Management. Grants may be made, on a competitive basis, to the cities of Bridgeport, Danbury, Hartford, Meriden, Middletown, New Britain, New Haven, New London, Norwalk, Norwich, Stamford, Waterbury and Windham, and to the Police Officer Standards and Training Council for the purpose of (1) improving public safety in urban neighborhoods through programs which increase police presence by hiring additional police officers and establishing police substations for those neighborhoods, (2) involving residents in crime prevention activities, including security enhancements to neighborhood residences and business establishments and (3) improving public safety in urban neighborhoods through programs which increase police presence by increasing the hours worked by police officers during times when such increased presence is most needed to deter and control illegal use of firearms in those neighborhoods where there has been a high incidence of illegal use of firearms in the commission of crime. A grantee shall use the grant to increase police presence within the grantee's safe neighborhoods project area and, with the approval of the Office of Policy and Management, a grantee may use such grant to temporarily increase police presence in high crime areas outside such project area. The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 for the administration of this section. Such regulations shall include provisions for the establishment of programs, the allocation of funds and the application process. For purposes of this subsection, the term "safe neighborhoods project area" means a single neighborhood within a municipality selected by the municipality to be eligible for a safe neighborhoods grant.

      (c) There is established a community mobilization antidrug grant program which shall be administered by the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, in consultation with the Office of Policy and Management. Grants may be made to municipalities for the purpose of community mobilization activities intended to reduce the utilization of illegal drugs.

      (d) Funds appropriated for the purposes of this section shall be used only for grants to eligible municipalities and state agencies, and may not be used for administrative purposes by the Office of Policy and Management or the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services.

      (P.A. 90-261, S. 15, 19; P.A. 91-155; P.A. 92-157, S. 2; P.A. 93-264, S. 1, 2; 93-381, S. 9, 39; July 13 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 1, 9; P.A. 95-108, S. 13; 95-257, S. 5, 58; 95-330, S. 1; P.A. 09-2, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 91-155 added requirement that regulations authorize the costs of community-based police programs to be paid from a grant made under this section; P.A. 92-157 added Subsecs. (b) and (c) establishing the community mobilization antidrug grant program; P.A. 93-264 inserted new Subsec. (b) establishing the safe neighborhoods grant program and relettered the remaining Subsecs. accordingly, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced Connecticut alcohol and drug abuse commission with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; July 13 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (b) to add Windham as a city eligible for a grant and to add Subdiv. (3) re increase in number of hours worked by police officers when increased police presence is needed to deter illegal firearms use, effective July 15, 1994; P.A. 95-108 amended Subsec. (b) to rename Municipal Police Training Council as Police Officer Standards and Training Council; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-330 amended Subsec. (b) to specify that a grantee shall use the grant to increase police presence within the project area and, with the approval of the Office of Policy and Management, may use the grant to temporarily increase police presence in high crime areas outside the project area, and amended Subsec. (b) to define "safe neighborhood project area"; P.A. 09-2 eliminated reference to state-wide narcotics task force in Subsec. (a), effective April 1, 2009.

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      Sec. 21a-275. (Formerly Sec. 19-478). Revocation or suspension of licenses by commissioner. (a) If the Commissioner of Consumer Protection has reasonable cause to believe that a person licensed by him under section 21a-246, or any licensed practitioner, is violating or has violated any provision of sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, relative to controlled substances, he may hold a hearing as to such violation upon reasonable notice and give opportunity to be heard to such licensee or practitioner.

      (b) The commissioner may subpoena witnesses and papers on his own behalf and, if requested by the practitioner or licensee, may subpoena witnesses and papers in his behalf, may administer oaths, may compel the testimony of witnesses, may examine witnesses and may issue commissions to take testimony and testimony so taken and sworn to shall be admissible at such hearing. At such hearing the practitioner or licensee shall be entitled to representation by counsel.

      (c) If the commissioner after a hearing finds that a person is violating or has violated any provision of sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, he may revoke or suspend any license issued by him and forward his findings and the record upon which they are based to any other authority licensing such person with a recommendation that disciplinary action be taken.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 34; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 17; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 22; P.A. 73-681, S. 16, 29; P.A. 74-338, S. 19, 94; P.A. 87-129, S. 7; P.A. 88-364, S. 28, 123; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act added reference to cannabis-type drugs in Subsec. (a); 1972 act substituted "substances" for "drugs" and replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451; P.A. 73-681 substituted "any licensed practitioner" for "pharmacist", deleted exclusion for violations relative to narcotic or cannabis-type substances, deleted reference to hearings held by commissioner of health and removed obsolete provision re cooperation between consumer protection and health commissioners to avoid duplication of hearings; P.A. 74-338 made technical correction in Subsec. (c); Sec. 19-478 transferred to Sec. 21a-275 in 1983; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act; P.A. 88-364 made technical change in Subsec. (c); June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Cited. 207 C. 698.

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      Sec. 21a-276. (Formerly Sec. 19-479). Discretion of commissioner to issue warning. Nothing in sections 20-50, 20-576, 20-577, subdivision (3) of section 21a-92, subsection (e) of section 21a-115, sections 21a-240, 21a-243 to 21a-279, inclusive, and 21a-283, shall be construed as requiring the Commissioner of Consumer Protection to institute criminal or administrative action pursuant to said sections for violations thereof. In lieu of instituting criminal or administrative action pursuant to said sections, said commissioner may protect the public interest by serving suitable written notice or warning to the offending party or parties.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 35; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 23; P.A. 73-681, S. 17, 29; P.A. 79-379, S. 4; P.A. 86-403, S. 46, 132; P.A. 87-129, S. 8; P.A. 88-364, S. 29, 123; P.A. 95-264, S. 60; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1972 act replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451; P.A. 73-681 removed references to actions instituted by commissioner of health; P.A. 79-379 replaced "subsection (b)" with "subdivision (3)" of Sec. 19-212; Sec. 19-479 transferred to Sec. 21a-276 in 1983; P.A. 86-403 made technical change; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act; P.A. 88-364 made technical change in section; P.A. 95-264 made technical changes; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 21a-277. (Formerly Sec. 19-480). Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription, dispensing. (a) Any person who manufactures, distributes, sells, prescribes, dispenses, compounds, transports with the intent to sell or dispense, possesses with the intent to sell or dispense, offers, gives or administers to another person any controlled substance which is a hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana, or a narcotic substance, except as authorized in this chapter, for a first offense, shall be imprisoned not more than fifteen years and may be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars or be both fined and imprisoned; and for a second offense shall be imprisoned not more than thirty years and may be fined not more than one hundred thousand dollars, or be both fined and imprisoned; and for each subsequent offense, shall be imprisoned not more than thirty years and may be fined not more than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (b) Any person who manufactures, distributes, sells, prescribes, dispenses, compounds, transports with intent to sell or dispense, possesses with intent to sell or dispense, offers, gives or administers to another person any controlled substance, except a narcotic substance, or a hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana, except as authorized in this chapter, may, for the first offense, be fined not more than twenty-five thousand dollars or be imprisoned not more than seven years or be both fined and imprisoned; and, for each subsequent offense, may be fined not more than one hundred thousand dollars or be imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (c) No person shall knowingly possess drug paraphernalia in a drug factory situation as defined by subdivision (20) of section 21a-240 for the unlawful mixing, compounding or otherwise preparing any controlled substance for purposes of violation of this chapter.

      (d) As an alternative to the sentences specified in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the court may sentence the person to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction for an indeterminate term not to exceed three years or the maximum term specified for the offense, whichever is the lesser, and, at any time within such indeterminate term and without regard to any other provision of law regarding minimum term of confinement, the Commissioner of Correction may release the convicted person so sentenced subject to such conditions as he may impose including, but not limited to, supervision by suitable authority. At any time during such indeterminate term, the Commissioner of Correction may revoke any such conditional release in his discretion for violation of the conditions imposed and return the convicted person to a correctional institution.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 36; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 18; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 24; P.A. 73-681, S. 26, 29; P.A. 74-332, S. 2, 6; P.A. 75-567, S. 65, 80; P.A. 84-170; P.A. 85-613, S. 61, 154; P.A. 87-373, S. 4.)

      History: 1969 act made provision applicable to persons possessing drugs with intent to sell or dispense and included cannabis-type drugs, made penalty optional rather than mandatory and allowed fine and/or imprisonment for subsequent offenses, previously wording required imposition of both, and added Subsec. (c) re indeterminate sentence; 1972 act substituted "substance" for "drug", made provisions applicable to persons distributing controlled substances, made Subsec. (a) specifically applicable to hallucinogenic or amphetamine-type substances as well as to narcotic and cannabis-type substances, made Subsec. (b) applicable to controlled substances other than those in Subsec. (a) and allowed indeterminate sentencing for violations of Subsec. (a) as well as of Subsec. (b); P.A. 73-681 inserted new Subsec. (c) re possession of drug paraphernalia and relettered former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 74-332 specified hallucinogenic substances "other than marijuana" and deleted references to "amphetamine- and cannabis-type substances" in Subsecs. (a) and (b), deleted minimum imprisonment terms of 5 years for first offense and 10 years for subsequent offenses in Subsec. (a), increased maximum terms from 10 to 15 years for first offense and from 15 (second offense) or 25 (third or more offense) years to 30 years for all offenses beyond the first and allowed imposition of both fine and imprisonment and increased maximum terms in Subsec. (b) from 2 to 7 years for first offense and from 10 to 15 years for subsequent offenses; P.A. 75-567 made slight change to wording of Subsec. (b) for clarity, substituting "except" for "other than"; Sec. 19-480 transferred to Sec. 21a-277 in 1983; P.A. 84-170 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing fine for sale of controlled substance which is a hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana, or a narcotic substance from $3,000 to $50,000 for the first offense and $5,000 to $100,000 for each subsequent offense; and amended Subsec. (b) by increasing fine for sale of controlled substance except a narcotic substance or a hallucinogenic substance, other than marijuana from $1,000 to $25,000 for the first offense and from $5,000 to $100,000 for each subsequent offense; P.A. 85-613 made technical change; P.A. 87-373 amended Subsec. (a) by adding a penalty for a second offense and increased the fine for a subsequent offense from $100,000 to $250,000.

      Annotations to former section 19-480:

      Drug possession not lesser included offense, when. 163 C. 62. Cited. Id., 105, 242. Cited. 204 C. 585.

      Cited. 3 CA 339.

      Section's intention was to prohibit the sale of marijuana. 31 CS 130. Classification of marijuana with dangerous psychoactive drugs, amphetamines and barbiturates, is irrational, unreasonable and in violation of equal protection clauses of state and federal constitutions. 32 CS 324.

      Subsec. (a):

      Conclusions reached by trial court as to impartiality of jurors are tested by the findings. Defendant must raise a contention of bias from the realm of speculation to the realm of fact "to rebut the finding". 161 C. 526. Venireman who was former police officer properly not excused for cause. 164 C. 224. Cited. 165 C. 83; Id., 599. Cited. 166 C. 268; Id., 569. Cited. 168 C. 395; Id., 520. Cited. 169 C. 322. Cited. 172 C. 18; Id., 593. Cited. 169 C. 692. Cited. 170 C. 12; Id., 206; Id., 469. Cited. 171 C. 18; Id., 600. Cited. 172 C. 223; Id., 385. Cited. 173 C. 197; Id., 344; Id., 431. Cited. 174 C. 405. Cited. 176 C. 170. Cited. 177 C. 391. Cited. 178 C. 422; Id., 704. Cited. 179 C. 121; Id., 239. Cited. 182 C. 335. Cited. 186 C. 437. Cited. 187 C. 335; Id., 469. Cited. 192 C. 388; Id., 488. Cited. 194 C. 1; Id., 331. Cited. 195 C. 70. Cited. 197 C. 67. Cited. 199 C. 591. Cited. 200 C. 82; Id., 412. Cited. 201 C. 505. Cited. 202 C. 541.

      Cited. 3 CA 400. Cited. 5 CA 207. Cited. 6 CA 546. Cited. 7 CA 354; Id., 403. Cited. 8 CA 63; judgment reversed, see 204 C. 585; Id., 248.

      Cited. 29 CS 134; Id., 333. Cited. 30 CS 211. Narcotic substance includes cocaine. Id., 267.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 574.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 166 C. 126. Cross-examination of defendant on his knowledge of the drug he was charged with selling is proper when the matter was opened by questions on direct examination. 167 C. 379. Cited. 169 C. 416. Classification of marijuana, for penalty purposes, with substances generally considered more harmful is not so irrational and unreasonable as to violate equal protection clauses of U.S. and Connecticut constitutions. 171 C. 600. Cited. 179 C. 522. Factual basis for defendant's guilty plea insufficient since it did not reveal either the element of possession or the element of intent to sell or dispense. 180 C. 702. Cited. 181 C. 562. Cited. 186 C. 437. Cited. 194 C. 18. Cited. 202 C. 541.

      Cited. 5 CA 207. Cited. 6 CA 546.

      Evidence must show a relation between the amount of drugs and the prohibition of the statute. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 565, 571.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 7 CA 477.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 206 C. 90. Cited. 211 C. 258. Cited. 212 C. 195. Cited. 220 C. 6. Cited. 224 C. 253; Id., 322. Cited. 225 C. 650. Cited. 227 C. 32. Cited. 229 C. 385. Cited. 233 C. 174. Cited. 235 C. 477. Cited. 238 C. 692.

      Cited. 7 CA 660. Cited. 22 CA 567. Cited. 23 CA 571. Cited. 25 CA 21; Id., 318. Cited. 26 CA 779. Cited. 27 CA 596. Cited. 28 CA 34; Id., 126. Cited. 32 CA 724. Cited. 33 CA 432. Cited. 34 CA 166; Id., 595. Cited. 38 CA 815. Cited. 42 CA 640. Cited. 45 CA 282. Cited. 46 CA 321.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 197 C. 644. Cited. 199 C. 354. Cited. 204 C. 156. Cited. 206 C. 81. Cited. 207 C. 35. Cited. 209 C. 1; Id., 98; Id., 423. Cited. 210 C. 480. Cited. 212 C. 485. Cited. 216 C. 185; Id., 402. Cited. 218 C. 239. Cited. 220 C. 38. Cited. 221 C. 595. Cited. 224 C. 347; Id., 593; Id., 627. Cited. 227 C. 456. Cited. 228 C. 59; Id., 281. Cited. 235 C. 405; Id., 539. Cited. 236 C. 216. Cited. 237 C. 81. Cited. 238 C. 380. Cited. 240 C. 799. Violation of Sec. 21a-279(a) is a lesser included offense in section since no element in possession charge is not included in charge of possession with intent to sell, where information alleges crimes committed on same date, at same location and with same narcotic. 288 C. 345.

      Cited. 7 CA 265. Cited. 8 CA 317; Id., 330; Id., 361. Cited. 9 CA 667. Cited. 10 CA 7; Id., 532. Cited. 11 CA 11; Id., 47; Id., 540; judgment reversed, see 209 C. 1. Cited. 12 CA 225; Id., 274; Id., 313. Cited. 13 CA 288. Cited. 14 CA 134; Id., 356; Id., 536; Id., 574; Id., 605. Cited. 15 CA 328; Id., 589. Cited. 16 CA 89; Id., 142; Id., 148; Id., 245; Id., 272; Id., 518. Cited. 17 CA 108; Id., 142; Id., 257; Id., 273; Id., 677. Cited. 18 CA 32; Id., 820. Cited. 19 CA 640; Id., 668. Cited. 20 CA 137; Id., 190; Id., 395. Cited. 21 CA 48; Id., 162; Id., 519; Id., 622. Cited. 22 CA 458; Id., 557; Id., 601. Cited. 23 CA 495; Id., 532; Id., 592; Id., 602; Id., 667; Id., 746; judgment reversed, see 221 C. 595; Id., 823. Cited. 24 CA 543; Id., 811. Cited. 25 CA 3; Id., 99; Id., 354. Cited. 26 CA 94; Id., 103; Id., 259. Cited. 27 CA 128; Id., 248. Cited. 28 CA 508; Id., 638. Cited. 29 CA 359; Id., 584; Id., 843. Cited. 30 CA 9; Id., 783. Cited. 31 CA 548. Cited. 33 CA 253; Id., 409. Cited. 34 CA 236; Id., 411; Id., 717; see 37 CA 509. Cited. 35 CA 107; Id., 360. Cited. 36 CA 161; Id., 488; Id., 546. Cited. 37 CA 205; Id., 509; Id., 561; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 216. Cited. 38 CA 588; Id., 621. Cited. 39 CA 110; Id., 369; Id., 550. Cited. 40 CA 288. Cited. 41 CA 180; Id., 604. Cited. 43 CA 448; Id., 555. Cited. 45 CA 110. Cited. 46 CA 791. Time not an essential element of the crime but may become material if defendant raises an alibi defense. 49 CA 323. Conviction for both possession and sale of narcotics does not violate prohibition against double jeopardy. 53 CA 661. Section is a lesser included offense of Sec. 21a-278(b), and where two convictions arose out of same act or transaction and were substantially identical, multiple punishments were improper. 60 CA 534. Defendant's conviction for sale of narcotic substance vacated where there was no evidence presented to support finding that the substance transferred was crack cocaine. 64 CA 596. There was sufficient evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that defendant knowingly entered into conspiracy to possess a narcotic substance with intent to sell. 75 CA 223. Conviction of both possession of at least one-half gram of crack cocaine with intent to sell under Sec. 21a-278 and possession of powder cocaine with intent to sell under this section does not constitute double jeopardy. Id. The quantity of drugs is not sole dispositive factor in determining whether defendant had intent to sell; rather, intent is determined from the cumulative weight of circumstantial evidence and reasonable and logical inferences derived therefrom. 78 CA 659. Defendant was in constructive possession of cocaine when it was found in plain view on the floor of backseat of vehicle where defendant's feet had been when police officer first approached vehicle, and there was sufficient evidence of defendant's intent to sell narcotics where he had in his constructive possession forty-three individually packaged bags of various forms of cocaine, he was arrested in an area known for drug activity, he did not have any drug paraphernalia on his person to indicate personal use of drugs, and cash in small denominations and a cellular telephone were present in the vehicle. 110 CA 778. There was insufficient evidence that it was defendant who had hidden narcotics and insufficient evidence to buttress an inference of dominion and control by defendant; evidence was insufficient to show that defendant had requisite intent to sell narcotics. 123 CA 690.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 205 C. 560. Cited. 230 C. 372; Id., 385; see also 37 CA 801. Cited. 236 C. 561. Cited. 239 C. 427.

      Cited. 6 CA 505. Cited. 8 CA 158. Cited. 10 CA 7. Cited. 11 CA 251; Id., 632. Cited. 12 CA 274. Cited. 14 CA 388. Cited. 17 CA 257. Cited. 18 CA 406. Cited. 19 CA 195. Cited. 20 CA 386. Cited. 27 CA 171. Cited. 30 CA 340; Id., 550; Id., 783. Cited. 31 CA 278; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 385; see also 37 CA 801; Id., 443. Cited. 32 CA 267. Cited. 34 CA 411. Cited. 37 CA 156; Id., 801. Cited. 38 CA 29. Cited. 42 CA 17.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 214 C. 692. Cited. 227 C. 456. Cited. 228 C. 281.

      Cited. 8 CA 111. Cited. 10 CA 7; Id., 561. Cited. 20 CA 321. Cited. 21 CA 162. Cited. 22 CA 10. Cited. 33 CA 253.


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      Sec. 21a-278. (Formerly Sec. 19-480a). Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription or administration by non-drug-dependent person. (a) Any person who manufactures, distributes, sells, prescribes, dispenses, compounds, transports with the intent to sell or dispense, possesses with the intent to sell or dispense, offers, gives or administers to another person one or more preparations, compounds, mixtures or substances containing an aggregate weight of one ounce or more of heroin or methadone or an aggregate weight of one-half ounce or more of cocaine or one-half ounce or more of cocaine in a free-base form, or a substance containing five milligrams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide, except as authorized in this chapter, and who is not, at the time of such action, a drug-dependent person, shall be imprisoned for a minimum term of not less than five years or more than twenty years; and, a maximum term of life imprisonment. The execution of the mandatory minimum sentence imposed by the provisions of this subsection shall not be suspended, except the court may suspend the execution of such mandatory minimum sentence if at the time of the commission of the offense (1) such person was under the age of eighteen years, or (2) such person's mental capacity was significantly impaired, but not so impaired as to constitute a defense to prosecution.

      (b) Any person who manufactures, distributes, sells, prescribes, dispenses, compounds, transports with the intent to sell or dispense, possesses with the intent to sell or dispense, offers, gives or administers to another person any narcotic substance, hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana, amphetamine-type substance, or one kilogram or more of a cannabis-type substance, except as authorized in this chapter, and who is not, at the time of such action, a drug-dependent person, for a first offense shall be imprisoned not less than five years or more than twenty years; and for each subsequent offense shall be imprisoned not less than ten years or more than twenty-five years. The execution of the mandatory minimum sentence imposed by the provisions of this subsection shall not be suspended, except the court may suspend the execution of such mandatory minimum sentence if at the time of the commission of the offense (1) such person was under the age of eighteen years, or (2) such person's mental capacity was significantly impaired, but not so impaired as to constitute a defense to prosecution.

      (1971, P.A. 812, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 25; P.A. 73-137, S. 10; P.A. 74-332, S. 1, 6; P.A. 87-373, S. 2; P.A. 01-195, S. 92, 181; P.A. 05-248, S. 8; P.A. 06-196, S. 254; P.A. 07-217, S. 97.)

      History: 1972 act substituted "substance" for "drug" and made provisions applicable to distributors and to hallucinogenic or amphetamine-type drugs; P.A. 73-137 substituted "such action" for "his arrest" and added proviso re life imprisonment penalty; P.A. 74-332 applied Subsec. (a) to substances containing specified amounts of heroin, methadone, cocaine or LSD, imposing minimum term of 5 to 20 years and maximum term of life imprisonment and added provisions re suspension of minimum term and added Subsec. (b) applicable to hallucinogenic, narcotic, amphetamine- or cannabis-type substances formerly dealt with in Subsec. (a), reducing minimum term for first offense from 10 to 5 years, replacing 15-year minimum and 30-year maximum for second offense and 35-year sentence for third or more offenses with 10-year minimum and 25-year maximum sentence for all offenses beyond the first and added provisions re suspension of minimum sentence; Sec. 19-480a transferred to Sec. 21a-278 in 1983; P.A. 87-373 amended Subsec. (a) to make provisions applicable to an aggregate weight of one-half gram or more of cocaine in a free-base form; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b), effective July 11, 2001; P.A. 05-248 amended Subsec. (a) to decrease from one ounce to one-half ounce the minimum aggregate weight of cocaine and increase from one-half gram to one-half ounce the minimum aggregate weight of cocaine in a free-base form that subjects a person to the penalties of said Subsec.; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

      See Sec. 21a-283a re authority of court to depart from prescribed mandatory minimum sentence.

      Annotations to former section 19-480a:

      Cited. 166 C. 439; Id., 620. This statute on its face does not violate the constitutional prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. 167 C. 328. Cited. 172 C. 16. Cited. 182 C. 142. Cited. 186 C. 26. Cited. 191 C. 360. Cited. 192 C. 383. Cited. 194 C. 589. Cited. 199 C. 359. Cited. 201 C. 605. Cited. 204 C. 377.

      Subsec. (a):

      Order directing defendant to submit to drug dependency examination is interlocutory and not appealable until conviction and final judgment. 180 C. 290. Cited. 194 C. 612. Cited. 197 C. 67. Cited. 200 C. 412.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 179 C. 239; Id., 522. Question of burden of drug dependency is one of first impression; held: That proof of drug dependency constitutes an exemption under Sec. 19-474 and that burden of producing some substantial evidence of drug dependency rests initially on defendant. 182 C. 142. Cited. 187 C. 469. Cited. 188 C. 183. Cited. 197 C. 67.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 191 C. 360. Cited. 192 C. 383. Cited. 194 C. 589. Cited. 204 C. 377. Cited. 212 C. 195. Cited. 221 C. 595. Cited. 224 C. 322. Cited. 227 C. 32. Cited. 231 C. 514; Id., 941. Cited. 235 C. 477; Id., 487.

      Cited. 9 CA 686. Cited. 13 CA 69. Cited. 19 CA 195. Cited. 26 CA 779. Cited. 27 CA 713. Cited. 32 CA 724. Cited. 35 CA 609. Cited. 36 CA 488; Id., 631. Cited. 41 CA 604. Cited. 42 CA 640. Defendant could not be convicted on one set of facts of both possession of narcotics by a person who is not drug-dependent and simple possession of narcotics and court ordered one sentence vacated. 60 CA 436.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 200 C. 412. Cited. 211 C. 258. Institution of definite sentencing scheme for any felony under Sec. 53a-35a implicitly repealed indeterminate sentencing aspect of this section. 214 C. 378. Cited in error as Sec. 21-278(a). 227 C. 32. Cited. 237 C. 81. Cited. 239 C. 427.

      Cited. 10 CA 561. Cited. 11 CA 47. Cited. 15 CA 161. Cited. 16 CA 518. Cited. 18 CA 104. Cited. 30 CA 783. Cited. 45 CA 110. Design and effect of statute discussed, conviction for both possession and sale of narcotics does not violate prohibition against double jeopardy. 53 CA 661. Conviction of both possession of at least one-half gram of crack cocaine with intent to sell under this section and possession of powder cocaine with intent to sell under Sec. 21a-277 does not constitute double jeopardy. 75 CA 223. Evidence was sufficient to support conviction of possession with intent to sell. Id.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 205 C. 560. Cited. 211 C. 258. Cited. 214 C. 378; Id., 692. Cited. 215 C. 667. Cited. 216 C. 150, see also 26 CA 423, 27 CA 291, 223 C. 902, and 225 C. 10, reversing judgment. Cited. 217 C. 811. Cited. 218 C. 458. Cited. 219 C. 529; Id., 752. Cited. 220 C. 6; Id., 628. Cited. 221 C. 518. Defendant bears burden of proving by preponderance of evidence that she was drug-dependent. Id., 595. Cited. Id., 925. Cited. 223 C. 283; Id., 461; Id., 703. Cited. 224 C. 253. Cited. 225 C. 650. Cited. 226 C. 514. Cited. 229 C. 60. Cited. 236 C. 176. Cited. 238 C. 380. Cited. 239 C. 629. Cited. 241 C. 322; Id., 650. Holdings in State v. Januszewski, 182 C. 142, and State v. Hart, 221 C. 595, that Subsec. creates an exception for drug-dependent persons within meaning of Sec. 21a-269 and the absence of drug dependency is not an element of the offense, upheld; holding in State v. Hart, 221 C. 595, that defendant must prove the exception of drug dependency by a preponderance of the evidence, upheld; requirement that defendant prove drug dependency by a preponderance of the evidence is not unconstitutional. 290 C. 24; judgment superseded, see Id., 602. Jury could reasonably conclude that defendant, who was not in exclusive possession of a vehicle containing narcotics, knew about and had control over narcotics found in the vehicle's center console from evidence that defendant closed the center console as police approached the vehicle and that a plastic bag, later determined to contain cocaine, was observed protruding from the corner of the console, and evidence that defendant was a narcotics dealer further supported the inference that defendant possessed the narcotics. 296 C. 62.

      Cited. 7 CA 588. Cited. 8 CA 469. Cited. 10 CA 347. Cited. 11 CA 140. Cited. 13 CA 40. Cited. 14 CA 146; Id., 807. Cited. 15 CA 519, see also 27 CA 291, 223 C. 902, and 225 C. 10, reversing judgment. Cited. 16 CA 18. Cited. 17 CA 104; Id., 114; Id., 556; Id., 635. Cited. 18 CA 175; Id., 184; Id., 716. Cited. 19 CA 265; Id., 277; Id., 478; judgment reversed, see 216 C. 150, see also 27 CA 291 and 225 C. 10, reversing judgment, 223 C. 902, and 225; Id., 626; Id., 640; 668. Cited. 20 CA 168; judgment reversed, see 215 C. 667; Id., 183; Id., 290; Id., 386; Id., 824. Cited. 21 CA 235; Id., 474; Id., 506; Id., 519. Cited. 22 CA 1; Id., 62; judgment reversed, see 219 C. 529; Id., 303; Id., 567; Id., 665. Cited. 23 CA 358; Id., 392; Id., 426; Id., 543; Id., 559; Id., 571; Id., 592; Id., 667; Id., 746; judgment reversed, see 221 C. 595. Cited. 24 CA 158; Id., 347; Id., 642; Id., 670; Id., 678. Cited. 25 CA 3; Id., 318; Id., 575. Cited. 26 CA 86; Id., 94; Id., 259; Id., 423, see also 27 CA 291, 223 C. 902 and 225 C. 10 et seq., reversing judgment; Id., 472; Id., 667. Cited. 27 C. 171; Id., 307; Id., 558; Id., 596. Cited. 28 CA 126; Id., 575. Cited. 29 CA 304; Id., 359; Id., 584; Id., 675; Id., 694. Cited. 30 CA 9; Id., 470; Id., 654; Id., 712; Id., 783. Cited. 31 CA 548. Cited. 32 CA 84; Id., 505; Id., 811; Id., 831; Id., 842. Cited. 33 CA 253; Id., 409; Id., 509; Id., 647. Cited. 34 CA 141; Id., 191; Id., 492; Id., 501; Id., 629. Cited. 35 CA 360. Cited. 36 CA 672. Cited. 37 CA 355; Id., 360; Id., 456; judgment reversed, see 236 C. 176; Id., 491. Cited. 38 CA 29; Id., 536. Cited. 39 CA 526; Id., 550. Cited. 41 CA 47; Id., 772. Cited. 42 CA 1; Id., 264; Id., 500; Id., 537; judgment reversed, see 241 C. 650; Id., 687; Id., 751. Cited. 43 CA 339. Cited. 45 CA 207; Id., 679. Court declines to distinguish prior case on due process challenge to unitary adjudication of sale of narcotics and drug dependency. 47 CA 86. Cited re admission of, and sufficiency of, evidence re conviction. 51 CA 824. Defendant's claim of drug dependency discussed and rejected. 62 CA 102. Trial court improperly failed to provide definition of "drug dependency" in accordance with the term's statutory definition or otherwise in its instructions to jury. 69 CA 505. Circumstantial evidence at trial provided adequate evidentiary basis for jury to find that substance at issue was LSD, which evidence included court's definition and description of LSD, defendant's statement re substance and manner of ingestion and effect of substance on person who ingested it. 85 CA 575. Defendant failed to demonstrate that his two convictions under section, resulting from searches on the same day, constituted double jeopardy because defendant was found with one stash of cocaine in his pocket, and a later search of his home found another stash of different purity, reflecting different purposes related to the cocaine. Defendant did not demonstrate a due process violation regarding jury instruction on nonexclusive possession of premises where narcotics were found. 93 CA 548. Circumstantial evidence that defendant picked up package and was engaged in illicit activity was insufficient to support conviction of possession of marijuana and possession with the intent to sell marijuana when essential element of offense, knowledge of the character of the illegal substance, was lacking. 98 CA 458. Evidence sufficient to show defendant possessed requisite knowledge for conviction under the statute. 110 CA 245.


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      Sec. 21a-278a. Penalty for illegal manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription or administration. (a) Any person eighteen years of age or older who violates section 21a-277 or 21a-278, and who is not, at the time of such action, a drug-dependent person, by distributing, selling, prescribing, dispensing, offering, giving or administering any controlled substance to another person who is under eighteen years of age and is at least two years younger than such person who is in violation of section 21a-277 or 21a-278, shall be imprisoned for a term of two years, which shall not be suspended and shall be in addition and consecutive to any term of imprisonment imposed for violation of section 21a-277 or 21a-278.

      (b) Any person who violates section 21a-277 or 21a-278 by manufacturing, distributing, selling, prescribing, dispensing, compounding, transporting with the intent to sell or dispense, possessing with the intent to sell or dispense, offering, giving or administering to another person any controlled substance in or on, or within one thousand five hundred feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school, a public housing project or a licensed child day care center, as defined in section 19a-77, that is identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place shall be imprisoned for a term of three years, which shall not be suspended and shall be in addition and consecutive to any term of imprisonment imposed for violation of section 21a-277 or 21a-278. To constitute a violation of this subsection, an act of transporting or possessing a controlled substance shall be with intent to sell or dispense in or on, or within one thousand five hundred feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school, a public housing project or a licensed child day care center, as defined in section 19a-77, that is identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place. For the purposes of this subsection, "public housing project" means dwelling accommodations operated as a state or federally subsidized multifamily housing project by a housing authority, nonprofit corporation or municipal developer, as defined in section 8-39, pursuant to chapter 128 or by the Connecticut Housing Authority pursuant to chapter 129.

      (c) Any person who employs, hires, uses, persuades, induces, entices or coerces a person under eighteen years of age to violate section 21a-277 or 21a-278 shall be imprisoned for a term of three years, which shall not be suspended and shall be in addition and consecutive to any term of imprisonment imposed for violation of section 21a-277 or 21a-278.

      (P.A. 87-373, S. 3; P.A. 89-256, S. 1; P.A. 92-82; P.A. 94-233, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 89-256 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the additional, nonsuspendable term of imprisonment from 2 to 3 years for the illegal sale of controlled substances near school grounds and amended Subsec. (c) to increase the additional, nonsuspendable term of imprisonment from 2 to 3 years for using a minor to commit drug offenses; P.A. 92-82 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the proximity distance to school property from 1,000 to 1,500 feet, to make the enhanced penalty applicable to transactions in or near a public housing project and to define "public housing project"; P.A. 94-233 amended Subsec. (b) to remove the exception for drug-dependent persons and make the enhanced penalty applicable to transactions in or near a licensed child day care center that is identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place.

      See Sec. 21a-283a re authority of court to depart from prescribed mandatory minimum sentence.

      Cited. 32 CA 724. Cited. 35 CA 609. Evidence that was sufficient to prove violation of Sec. 21a-278 was, in this case, sufficient to prove violation of section. 85 CA 575.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 20 CA 694.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 231 C. 941. Cited. 235 C. 477. Cited. 239 C. 427. Cited. 241 C. 650. The state, through the testimony of police officers that the sale of narcotics took place within 1500 feet of a high school, satisfied its burden of proof that the school was an operating secondary school within the meaning of section. 289 C. 496. Evidence that included large quantity of drugs found in defendant's vehicle, money strewn on passenger seat and fact that officers stopped defendant within 1500 feet of a public housing project which is known for heavy drug trafficking was insufficient to establish defendant had requisite intent to sell drugs within 1500 feet of the public housing project. 297 C. 621.

      Cited. 38 CA 621. Cited. 42 CA 500; Id., 537; judgment reversed, see 241 C. 650; Id., 640. Cited. 43 CA 339. Is a separate substantive offense from Sec. 21a-278(b). 58 CA 592. Legislature intended possession with intent to sell within 1500 feet of school and sale within 1500 feet of school to be separate crimes. 66 CA 118. Evidence presented, i.e. testimony of expert witness that distance between school and boundary line of property on which the sale of narcotics took place was 1430 feet and a photograph of the property with the point of sale indicated, was sufficient to support jury's finding that sale of narcotics was within 1500 feet of property on which a public elementary school was located. 67 CA 643. Does not require use of certain language to meet requirement of being "identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place"; whether a posted sign satisfies statute is a question of fact. 70 CA 255. Conviction for conspiracy to sell a controlled substance to within 1500 feet of a public housing project reversed where trial court instructed that jury must find that conspiracy occurred within 1500 feet of public housing project. The law is not concerned with where the plan was hatched, but with where the conspirators proposed to carry out its unlawful purpose. 73 CA 386. Trial court properly determined that defendant possessed narcotics with intent to sell within 1500 feet of a school where defendant, upon being confronted by police, transferred drugs to a passenger in a motor vehicle. Defendant's actual transfer of drugs to the passenger was in and of itself evidence of intent to sell. 101 CA 167. Dissenting opinion: Intent to sell, without evidence of intent to sell at a location within a school zone, is not sufficient to find defendant guilty under statute. Handing a package of narcotics to a motor vehicle passenger with instructions that she "hold it" was not a sufficient act from which jury could infer that defendant intended to sell or dispense at that moment. Id. In enacting Subsec., the legislature intended to create a separate substantive offense and not merely a penalty enhancement provision. 112 CA 349. Testimony that conduct occurred within 1500 feet of a "public school" was insufficient to support finding that conduct occurred within 1500 feet of "an elementary or secondary school" because there are public schools that are neither elementary nor secondary schools. 113 CA 731. Section is not impermissibly vague because it provides adequate notice that the act of agreeing to distribute drugs while in the protected area, even though the drugs might be distributed outside the protected area, is enough for a conviction for either conspiring or attempting to distribute drugs under the section. 124 CA 9.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 25 CA 21. Cited. 32 CA 831.


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      Sec. 21a-279. (Formerly Sec. 19-481). Penalty for illegal possession. Alternative sentences. (a) Any person who possesses or has under his control any quantity of any narcotic substance, except as authorized in this chapter, for a first offense, may be imprisoned not more than seven years or be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars, or be both fined and imprisoned; and for a second offense, may be imprisoned not more than fifteen years or be fined not more than one hundred thousand dollars, or be both fined and imprisoned; and for any subsequent offense, may be imprisoned not more than twenty-five years or be fined not more than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (b) Any person who possesses or has under his control any quantity of a hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana or four ounces or more of a cannabis-type substance, except as authorized in this chapter, for a first offense, may be imprisoned not more than five years or be fined not more than two thousand dollars or be both fined and imprisoned, and for a subsequent offense may be imprisoned not more than ten years or be fined not more than five thousand dollars or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (c) Any person who possesses or has under his control any quantity of any controlled substance other than a narcotic substance, or a hallucinogenic substance other than marijuana or who possesses or has under his control less than four ounces of a cannabis-type substance, except as authorized in this chapter, for a first offense, may be fined not more than one thousand dollars or be imprisoned not more than one year, or be both fined and imprisoned; and for a subsequent offense, may be fined not more than three thousand dollars or be imprisoned not more than five years, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (d) Any person who violates subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section in or on, or within one thousand five hundred feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school and who is not enrolled as a student in such school or a licensed child day care center, as defined in section 19a-77, that is identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place shall be imprisoned for a term of two years, which shall not be suspended and shall be in addition and consecutive to any term of imprisonment imposed for violation of subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section.

      (e) As an alternative to the sentences specified in subsections (a) and (b) and specified for a subsequent offense under subsection (c) of this section, the court may sentence the person to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction for an indeterminate term not to exceed three years or the maximum term specified for the offense, whichever is the lesser, and at any time within such indeterminate term and without regard to any other provision of law regarding minimum term of confinement, the Commissioner of Correction may release the convicted person so sentenced subject to such conditions as he may impose including, but not limited to, supervision by suitable authority. At any time during such indeterminate term, the Commissioner of Correction may revoke any such conditional release in his discretion for violation of the conditions imposed and return the convicted person to a correctional institution.

      (f) To the extent that it is possible, medical treatment rather than criminal sanctions shall be afforded individuals who breathe, inhale, sniff or drink the volatile substances defined in subdivision (49) of section 21a-240.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 37; 1969, P.A. 391, S. 4; 753, S. 19; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 26; P.A. 74-332, S. 3, 6; P.A. 83-141; P.A. 85-613, S. 62, 154; P.A. 89-256, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 4; P.A. 94-233, S. 2.)

      History: 1969 acts made imposition of imprisonment optional rather than mandatory, added $10,000 fine for third or more offense thus allowing imposition of fine and/or imprisonment and added Subsecs. (c) and (d) re indeterminate terms and medical treatment; 1972 act substituted "substance" for "drug" and corrected reference to Sec. 19-443 in Subsec. (d); P.A. 74-332 increased maximum term for first offense in Subsec. (a) from five to seven years, inserted new Subsec. (b) re hallucinogenic substances other than marijuana and cannabis-type substances, relettering remaining Subsecs. and revising them to reflect new Subsec. provisions, and imposed fine and imprisonment for subsequent offenses in Subsec. (c), formerly (b); Sec. 19-481 transferred to Sec. 21a-279 in 1983; P.A. 83-141 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the maximum fine from $3,000 to $50,000 for a first offense, from $5,000 to $100,000 for a second offense and from $10,000 to $250,000 for a subsequent offense; P.A. 85-613 made technical change; P.A. 89-256 inserted a new Subsec. (d) re an additional, nonsuspendable term of imprisonment of two years for any person who violates Subsecs. (a), (b) or (c) near a school and is not enrolled as a student in such school, relettered the remaining Subsecs. accordingly and made technical changes to Subsecs. (c) and (e); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1 amended Subsec. (d) to increase the proximity distance to school property from 1,000 to 1,500 feet; P.A. 94-233 amended Subsec. (d) to add make enhanced penalty applicable to a person who possesses controlled substances in or near a licensed child day care center that is identified as a child day care center by a sign posted in a conspicuous place.

      See Sec. 21a-283a re authority of court to depart from prescribed mandatory minimum sentence.

      See Sec. 53a-39c re eligibility for community service labor program.


      Annotations to former section 19-481:

      Cited. 162 C. 216, 309. Cited. 163 C. 104. Cited. 165 C. 83. Cited. 166 C. 126. Cited. 168 C. 623. Cited. 169 C. 322.

      Cited. 28 CS 21; 29 CS 87. Narcotic substance includes cocaine. 30 CS 267.

      Motion to quash denied where bill of particulars and information sufficiently alleged crimes charged hereunder. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 134.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 170 C. 469. Cited. 171 C. 293. Cited. 172 C. 172; Id., 223; Id., 414. Possession requires that defendant had exercised dominion and control over substance and had knowledge of its presence and narcotic character; but since defendant made no request to charge and took no exception, no error found in instruction to jury that defendant must have "knowledge of the fact that these items were there." Id., 593. Cited. 173 C. 431. Cited. 174 C. 153. Cited. 178 C. 422; Id., 704. Cited. 179 C. 239. Cited. 182 C. 335. Cited. 185 C. 104. Cited. 186 C. 26. Cited. 187 C. 292. Cited. 189 C. 35. Cited. 194 C. 331; Id., 589; Id., 612. Cited. 195 C. 70; Id., 624. Cited. 196 C. 471. Cited. 197 C. 67; Id., 219; to the extent that State v. Kimbro stands for proposition that exercise of discretion by magistrate is reviewable only according to fixed analytical standards, overruled, see 219 C. 529. Court determined that legislature did not intend to authorize dual convictions for simultaneous possession of cocaine and heroin; multiple convictions under statute and double jeopardy clause discussed. 198 C. 111. Cited. 200 C. 82. Cited. 201 C. 505.

      Cited. 1 CA 275. Cited. 2 CA 605. Cited. 7 CA 367. Court declined to review claim that statute was unconstitutionally vague. 7 CA 403. Cited. Id., 477; Id., 588.

      Sentence under this subsection must be in accordance with chapter 952. 31 CS 350.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 167 C. 379. Cited. 179 C. 522. Cited. 182 C. 142; Id., 335. Cited. 185 C. 104.

      Cited. 5 CA 496. Cited. 7 CA 477; Id., 588.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 188 C. 183. Cited. 194 C. 612. Cited. 195 C. 624. Cited. 197 C. 50. Cited. 199 C. 591. Cited. 205 C. 437.

      Cited. 2 CA 605. Cited. 5 CA 552. Cited. 6 CA 247. Cited. 7 CA 477.

      Cited. 33 CS 129. Cited. 38 CS 374.

      Annotations to present section:

      Cited. 197 C. 644. Cited. 206 C. 90. Cited. 212 C. 223. Cited. 219 C. 529. Cited. 229 C. 285. Cited. 242 C. 296.

      Cited. 1 CA 275. Cited. 13 CA 69; Id., 175; Id., 708. Cited. 17 CA 102. Cited. 22 CA 118. Cited. 26 CA 779. Cited. 33 CA 409. Cited. 41 CA 694. Cited. 45 CA 207; Id., 282. Defendant could not be convicted on one set of facts of both possession of narcotics by a person who is not drug-dependent and simple possession of narcotics and court ordered one sentence vacated. 60 CA 436.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 197 C. 620. Court determined that legislature did not intend to authorize dual convictions for simultaneous possession of cocaine and heroin; multiple convictions under statute and double jeopardy clause discussed. 198 C. 111. Cited. 199 C. 354, 355. Cited. 204 C. 654. Cited. 207 C. 35. Cited. 209 C. 1; Id., 23. Cited. 212 C. 485. Cited. 219 C. 557. Cited. 220 C. 628. Cited. 224 C. 163; Id., 494. Cited. 226 C. 514. Cited. 236 C. 216. Cited. 237 C. 81. Violation of section is a lesser included offense in Sec. 21a-277(a) since no element in possession charge is not included in charge of possession with intent to sell, where information alleges crimes committed on same date, at same location and with same narcotic. 288 C. 345.

      Cited. 2 CA 605. Cited. 7 CA 588. Cited. 8 CA 111. Cited. 9 CA 185; Id., 667. Cited. 10 CA 7; Id., 532; Id., 561; Id., 667. Cited. 11 CA 11; Id., 47; Id., 540; judgment reversed, see 209 C. 1. Cited. 12 CA 225; Id., 274. Cited. 14 CA 536. Cited. 16 CA 245; Id., 518. Cited. 17 CA 556. Cited 18 CA 32; Id., 104. Cited. 20 CA 241; Id., 321; Id., 336. Cited. 21 CA 568. Cited. 22 CA 40; judgment reversed and case remanded to appellate court for consideration of defendant's remaining claims; Id., 303; Id., 431; Id., 601. Cited. 23 CA 50; Id., 123; Id. 602; Id., 667; Id., 746; judgment reversed, see 221 C. 595. Cited. 24 CA 158; Id., 543; Id., 697. Cited. 25 CA 354; Id., 472. Court declined to require any minimum amount or usability requirement before conviction may be had. Id., 624. Cited. 26 CA 553; Id., 667; Id., 698. Cited. 27 CA 741. Cited. 29 CA 675; Id., 694; Id., 801; judgment reversed, see 229 C. 285; Id., 843. Cited. 30 CA 712. Cited. 31 CA 178. Cited. 32 CA 811. Cited. 33 CA 432. Cited. 34 CA 191; Id., 629. Cited. 37 CA 355. Cited. 38 CA 85; Id., 536. Cited. 39 CA 110. Cited. 40 CA 762. Cited. 41 CA 604; Id., 746. Cited. 42 CA 687. Cited. 43 CA 801. Cited. 46 CA 791. Conviction for both possession and sale of narcotics does not violate prohibition against double jeopardy. 53 CA 661. Conviction of possession of narcotics and possession of narcotics with intent to sell violated defendant's right against double jeopardy. 78 CA 659. Conviction reversed because court failed to instruct jury on nonexclusive possession after jury explicitly requested instruction, and evidence was insufficient to prove element of control necessary for conviction. 116 CA 710.

      Cited. 41 CS 454.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 224 C. 593. Cited. 240 C. 365.

      Cited. 7 CA 588. Cited. 10 CA 7. Cited. 14 CA 445. Cited. 20 CA 808. Cited. 22 CA 62; judgment reversed and case remanded to appellate court with direction to reverse judgment of trial court and to remand case to trial court for further proceedings, see 219 C. 529. Cited. 38 CA 29.

      Subsec. (c):

      Cited. 207 C. 35. Cited. 216 C. 185. Cited. 220 C. 38. Cited. 221 C. 518. Cited. 230 C. 385; see also 37 CA 801. Cited. 236 C. 561. Cited. 240 C. 489.

      Cited. 2 CA 605. Cited. 5 CA 441. Cited. 6 CA 394. Cited. 8 CA 158. Cited. 9 CA 15; Id., 667. Cited. 10 CA 532; Id., 561. Cited. 12 CA 225; Id., 274. Cited. 14 CA 356; Id., 388. Cited. 15 CA 251. Cited. 17 CA 108; Id., 142; Id., 635. Cited. 18 CA 819. Cited. 19 CA 296. Cited. 20 CA 183; Id., 321. Cited. 22 CA 10. Cited. 24 CA 678. Cited. 26 CA 667. Cited. 28 CA 575. Cited. 29 CA 843. Cited. 30 CA 550. Cited. 31 CA 278; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 385.; see also 37 CA 801. Cited. 32 CA 811. Cited. 33 CA 432. Cited. 37 CA 801. Cited. 39 CA 175; Id., 526. Cited. 42 CA 640. Cited. 45 CA 679. Possession of illegal substance requires accused to have had knowledge of the character of the drug and its presence, and to have exercised dominion and control over it. 63 CA 284.

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 45 CA 679. Legislature intended for this Subsec. to impose cumulative punishment. 50 CA 1.


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      Sec. 21a-280. (Formerly Sec. 19-481a). Breathing of anesthesia not violation. The breathing, inhalation, sniffing or drinking of anesthesia for medical or dental purposes under the direction of a physician or dentist, acting in the course of his professional practice, is determined to be a licit purpose and not in contravention of the provisions of this chapter.

      (1969, P.A. 391, S. 3.)

      History: Sec. 19-481a transferred to Sec. 21a-280 in 1983.

      Annotations to former section 19-481a:

      It was proper for jury to have before it evidence indicating defendant's own use of narcotics since there is nothing in the statute to support claim that possession becomes legal when drug is for personal use. 159 C. 521. Cited. 160 C. 140.

      Cited. 30 CS 211.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 548.


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      Sec. 21a-281. (Formerly Sec. 19-481b). Presumption of psychological dependence on volatile substances. One who is found to have inhaled or to be under the influence of one or more of the volatile substances enumerated in subdivision (49) of section 21a-240 shall be presumed to be psychologically dependent upon such volatile substance or substances.

      (1969, P.A. 391, S. 5; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 27; P.A. 85-613, S. 63, 154.)

      History: 1972 act corrected reference to Sec. 19-443; Sec. 19-481b transferred to Sec. 21a-281 in 1983; P.A. 85-613 made technical change.

      Annotations to former section 19-481b:

      Cited. 30 CS 211.

      Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 548.


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      Sec. 21a-282. (Formerly Sec. 19-482). No prosecution where federal action has been taken. No person shall be prosecuted for a violation of any provision of sections 21a-243 to 21a-282, inclusive, if such person has been acquitted or convicted under the federal Controlled Substances Act or under the federal food and drug laws for the same act or omission which, it is alleged, constitutes a violation of said sections.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 39; 1972, P.A. 278, S. 28; P.A. 87-129, S. 9.)

      History: 1972 act replaced reference to repealed Sec. 19-450 with reference to Sec. 19-451 and replaced "federal narcotic laws" with "Federal Controlled Substances Act"; Sec. 19-482 transferred to Sec. 21a-282 in 1983; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act.

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      Sec. 21a-283. (Formerly Sec. 19-483). Analytical tests for presence of controlled drugs or alcohol. Standards and procedures. Convictions constituting prior offense. Imposition of cost when analysis performed. (a) The Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety shall have primary responsibility for analysis of materials believed to contain controlled drugs, or of blood or urine believed to contain alcohol, for purposes of criminal prosecutions pursuant to this chapter; provided nothing herein shall be construed to preclude the use for such analyses of the services of other qualified toxicologists, pathologists and chemists, whether employed by the state or a municipality or a private facility or engaged in private practice, if such toxicologists, pathologists and chemists are engaged in operation of or employed by laboratories licensed by the Commissioner of Public Health or the Commissioner of Consumer Protection pursuant to section 21a-246. A laboratory of the United States Bureau of Narcotics is not required to be licensed under this section if it is approved by the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety.

      (b) The Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety shall establish the standards for analytical tests to be conducted with respect to controlled drugs, or with respect to body fluids believed to contain alcohol, by qualified professional toxicologists and chemists operating under the division's direction and shall have the general responsibility for supervising such analytical personnel in the performance of such tests. The original report of an analysis made by such analytical personnel of the Division of Scientific Services or by a qualified toxicologist, pathologist or chemist of a laboratory of the United States Bureau of Narcotics shall be signed and dated by the analyst actually conducting the tests and shall state the nature of the analytical tests or procedures, the identification and number of samples tested and the results of the analytical tests. A copy of such report certified by the analyst shall be received in any court of this state as competent evidence of the matters and facts therein contained at any hearing in probable cause, pretrial hearing or trial. If such copy is to be offered in evidence at a trial, the attorney for the state shall send a copy thereof, by certified mail, to the attorney of the defendant who has filed an appearance of record or, if there is no such attorney, to the defendant if such defendant has filed an appearance pro se, and such attorney or defendant, as the case may be, shall, within five days of the receipt of such copy, notify the attorney for the state, in writing, if such attorney or defendant intends to contest the introduction of such certified copy. No such trial shall commence until the expiration of such five-day period and, if such intention to contest has been filed, the usual rules of evidence shall obtain at such trial.

      (c) In the case of any person charged with a violation of any provision of sections 21a-243 to 21a-279, inclusive, who has been previously convicted of a violation of the laws of the United States or of any other state, territory or the District of Columbia, relating to controlled drugs, such previous conviction shall, for the purpose of sections 21a-277 and 21a-279, be deemed a prior offense.

      (d) In addition to any fine, fee or cost that may be imposed pursuant to any provision of the general statutes, the court shall impose a cost of fifty dollars upon any person convicted of a violation of this chapter if an analysis of a controlled substance in relation to the conviction was performed by or at the direction of the chief toxicologist of the Department of Public Health or the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety. Any cost imposed under this subsection shall be credited to the appropriation for the Department of Public Safety and shall not be diverted for any other purpose than the provision of funds for the Division of Scientific Services.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 38; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 20; 1971, P.A. 164; P.A. 73-681, S. 18, 29; P.A. 74-186, S. 6, 12; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 87-129, S. 10; P.A. 90-261, S. 13; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 99-218, S. 8, 16; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act made previous provisions Subsec. (c) and added Subsecs. (a) and (b) re duties of chief toxicologist; 1971 act amended Subsec. (b) to replace "blood or urine" with "body fluids", to add reference to analyses made by qualified toxicologists, pathologists or chemists of U.S. Bureau of Narcotics laboratories, to allow use of report copies certified by analyst as evidence in any court proceeding, replacing provision re use of report in conjunction with testimony of health department toxicologist, and added provision detailing use of report copies and obtaining them; P.A. 73-681 added reference to laboratories licensed by commissioner of consumer protection in Subsec. (a); P.A. 74-186 specified that Bureau of Narcotics laboratories need not be licensed if approved by chief toxicologist in Subsec. (a); P.A. 77-614 replaced department and commissioner of health with department and commissioner of health services, effective January 1, 1979; Sec. 19-483 transferred to Sec. 21a-283 in 1983; P.A. 87-129 substituted reference to Sec. 21a-243 for Sec. 21a-242, repealed by the same act; P.A. 90-261 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and added Subsec. (d) re the imposition of a $50 cost upon certain convicted persons when an analysis of a controlled substance was performed and the crediting of such cost to the appropriation for the department of health services for the purpose of providing funds for the chief toxicologist; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 99-218 replaced the chief toxicologist of the Department of Public Health with the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Public Safety, and, in Subsec. (d), added the division as a source of an analysis of a controlled substance, effective July 1, 1999; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

      Annotations to former section 19-483:

      Cited. 169 C. 692. Testimony of chief toxicologist, based partly on personal observation and partly on test by chemist under his supervision, properly admitted. 172 C. 593.

      Subsec. (b):

      Objection must be raised in court. Effective date of 1971 amendment. 166 C. 439. The use in evidence of the report of the toxicologist in lieu of personal testimony is allowed unless the defendant, having been notified in accordance with the procedure under the statute, objects in writing to the use of the report. 168 C. 395. Cited. Id., 520. Written report is admissible in lieu of testimony of analyst when there has been compliance with requirements of this section. 169 C. 416. Failure of state to comply with mailing provision of this subsection did not require granting of a new trial. 172 C. 16. Cited. 181 C. 562.


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      Sec. 21a-283a. Court authorized to depart from imposing mandatory minimum sentence. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, when sentencing a person convicted of a violation of any provision of this chapter, except a violation of subsection (a) or (c) of section 21a-278a, for which there is a mandatory minimum sentence, which did not involve the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person or result in the physical injury or serious physical injury of another person, and in the commission of which such person neither was armed with nor threatened the use of or displayed or represented by word or conduct that such person possessed any firearm, deadly weapon or dangerous instrument, as those terms are defined in section 53a-3, the court may, upon a showing of good cause by the defendant, depart from the prescribed mandatory minimum sentence, provided the provisions of this section have not previously been invoked on the defendant's behalf and the court, at the time of sentencing, states in open court the reasons for imposing the particular sentence and the specific reason for imposing a sentence that departs from the prescribed mandatory minimum sentence.

      (P.A. 01-99, S. 1, 2; P.A. 04-234, S. 36; 04-257, S. 136.)

      History: P.A. 01-99 effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 04-234, Sec. 36 repealed section, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-257 subsequently preserved section by repealing Sec. 36 of P.A. 04-234, effective June 14, 2004.

      The words "have not previously been invoked" are plain and unambiguous and are temporally related to the time of sentencing. 291 C. 373.

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      Secs. 21a-284 and 21a-285. (Formerly Secs. 19-484 and 19-485). Suspension of prosecution for treatment for drug dependence; dismissal of charges. Order for treatment in addition to penalties on conviction; penalty for unauthorized departure from hospital. Sections 21a-284 and 21a-285 are repealed.

      (1967, P.A. 555, S. 40, 41; 1969, P.A. 753, S. 21-24; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 94; P.A. 79-585, S. 2, 3, 15; P.A. 86-371, S. 32, 33, 45; P.A. 89-390, S. 36, 37.)

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      Secs. 21a-286 to 21a-300. Reserved for future use.

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PART II
INSTITUTIONAL PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS' DRUG ROOMS

      Secs. 21a-301 to 21a-305. (Formerly Secs. 19-504a, 19-504c to 19-504e, 19-504g). Definitions. Regulations. Inspections of: Institutional pharmacies, pharmacist's drug rooms and dispensing outpatient facilities; correctional and juvenile training institutions and care-giving institutions. Reports by care-giving, correctional and juvenile training institutions. Sections 21a-301 to 21a-305, inclusive, are repealed.

      (1969, P.A. 593, S. 1, 3-5, 7; P.A. 73-681, S. 19-21, 29; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-379, S. 5; P.A. 86-403, S. 47, 132; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-264, S. 70.)

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      Sec. 21a-306. Transferred to Chapter 400j, Part I, Sec. 20-578.

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      Sec. 21a-307. (Formerly Sec. 19-504i). Definitions re dispensing of drugs. Section 21a-307 is repealed.

      (1969, P.A. 593, S. 17; P.A. 73-681, S. 22, 29; P.A. 75-176, S. 2; P.A. 81-200, S. 1; P.A. 82-472, S. 69, 183; P.A. 91-47, S. 1; P.A. 95-264, S. 70.)

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      Sec. 21a-308. Transferred to Chapter 400j, Part III, Sec. 20-613.

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      Secs. 21a-309 to 21a-315. Reserved for future use.

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