CHAPTER 368x*
AIDS TESTING AND MEDICAL INFORMATION

      *See Sec. 19a-32a re AIDS research education account.

      Cited. 232 C. 242. AIDS testing and medical information cited. Id. Cited. 236 C. 845. AIDS testing and medical information, Sec. 19a-581 et seq. cited. Id. Cited. 238 C. 692. HIV Confidentiality Statutes, Secs. 19a-581-19a-592 cited. Id.

      Secs. 19a-581-592 cited. 38 CA 360.


Table of Contents

Sec. 19a-581. Definitions.
Sec. 19a-582. General consent required for HIV-related testing. Counseling requirements. Exceptions.
Sec. 19a-583. Limitations on disclosure of HIV-related information.
Sec. 19a-584. Informing and warning of known partners of possible exposure to the HIV virus. Disclosure of HIV-related information to public health officers.
Sec. 19a-585. Requirements for disclosure of HIV-related information.
Sec. 19a-586. Testing for insurance purposes.
Sec. 19a-587. Disclosure by insurers.
Sec. 19a-588. Notification of procedures to certain municipal employees.
Sec. 19a-589. Regulations.
Sec. 19a-590. Liability for violations.
Sec. 19a-591. Definitions.
Sec. 19a-591a. Administration of AIDS vaccine.
Sec. 19a-591b. Immunity from liability for civil damages for personal injury to research subject. Exceptions.
Sec. 19a-591c. Research subjects.
Sec. 19a-592. Testing and treatment of minor for HIV or AIDS. Confidentiality. Liability for costs.
Sec. 19a-593. Testing of pregnant women and newborns. Notification and documentation requirements.
Sec. 19a-593a. Limitation on causes of action for HIV-related test.
Sec. 19a-594. Pregnant women and newborn testing public awareness programs and health care provider training.
Sec. 19a-594a. Referral of child to state agency based on test result.
Secs. 19a-595 to 19a-599.

      Sec. 19a-581. Definitions. As used in this chapter except where the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "Department" means the Department of Public Health;

      (2) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Public Health;

      (3) "AIDS" means acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control of the United States Public Health Service;

      (4) "HIV infection" means infection with the human immunodeficiency virus or any other related virus identified as a probable causative agent of AIDS;

      (5) "HIV-related illness" means any illness that may result from or may be associated with HIV infection;

      (6) "HIV-related test" means any laboratory test or series of tests for any virus, antibody, antigen or etiologic agent whatsoever thought to cause or indicate the presence of HIV infection;

      (7) "Protected individual" means a person who has been counseled regarding HIV infection, is the subject of an HIV-related test or who has been diagnosed as having HIV infection, AIDS or HIV-related illness;

      (8) "Confidential HIV-related information" means any information pertaining to the protected individual or obtained pursuant to a release of confidential HIV-related information, concerning whether a person has been counseled regarding HIV infection, has been the subject of an HIV-related test, or has HIV infection, HIV-related illness or AIDS, or information which identifies or reasonably could identify a person as having one or more of such conditions, including information pertaining to such individual's partners;

      (9) "Release of confidential HIV-related information" means a written authorization for disclosure of confidential HIV-related information which is signed by the protected individual or a person authorized to consent to health care for the individual and which is dated and specifies to whom disclosure is authorized, the purpose for such disclosure and the time period during which the release is to be effective. A general authorization for the release of medical or other information is not a release of confidential HIV-related information, unless such authorization specifically indicates its dual purpose as a general authorization and an authorization for the release of confidential HIV-related information and complies with the requirements of this subdivision;

      (10) "Partner" means an identified spouse or sex partner of the protected individual or a person identified as having shared hypodermic needles or syringes with the protected individual;

      (11) "Health facility" means an institution, as defined in section 19a-490, blood bank, blood center, sperm bank, organ or tissue bank, clinical laboratory or facility providing care or treatment to the mentally ill or persons with mental retardation or a facility for the treatment of substance abuse;

      (12) "Health care provider" means any physician, dentist, nurse, provider of services for the mentally ill or persons with mental retardation, or other person involved in providing medical, nursing, counseling, or other health care, substance abuse or mental health service, including such services associated with, or under contract to, a health maintenance organization or medical services plan;

      (13) "Significant risk of transmission" means sexual activity that involves the transfer of one person's semen, vaginal or cervical secretions to another person or sharing of needles during intravenous drug use. The department may further define significant risk of transmission in regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-589;

      (14) "Significant exposure" means a parenteral exposure such as a needlestick or cut, or mucous membrane exposure such as a splash to the eye or mouth, to blood or a cutaneous exposure involving large amounts of blood or prolonged contact with blood, especially when the exposed skin is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis. The department may further define significant exposure in regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-589;

      (15) "Exposure evaluation group" means at least three impartial health care providers, at least one of whom shall be a physician, designated by the chief administrator of a health facility, correctional facility or other institution to determine if a health care or other worker has been involved in a significant exposure. No member of the group shall be directly involved in the exposure. The department may further define exposure evaluation group in regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-589.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 1; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

      Subdiv. (8):

      Cited. 236 C. 845.

      Subdiv. (12):

      Cited. 242 C. 1.

      Subdiv. (14):

      Cited. 232 C. 242.


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      Sec. 19a-582. General consent required for HIV-related testing. Counseling requirements. Exceptions. (a) Except as required pursuant to section 19a-586, a person who has provided general consent as described in this section for the performance of medical procedures and tests is not required to also sign or be presented with a specific informed consent form relating to medical procedures or tests to determine human immunodeficiency virus infection or antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus. General consent shall include instruction to the patient that: (1) As part of the medical procedures or tests, the patient may be tested for human immunodeficiency virus, and (2) such testing is voluntary and that the patient can choose not to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus or antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus. General consent that includes HIV-related testing shall be obtained without undue inducement or any element of compulsion, fraud, deceit, duress or other form of constraint or coercion. If a patient declines an HIV-related test, such decision by the patient shall be documented in the medical record. The consent of a parent or guardian shall not be a prerequisite to testing of a minor. The laboratory shall report the test result to the person who orders the performance of the test.

      (b) A person ordering the performance of an HIV-related test shall not be held liable for ordering a test without specific informed consent if a good faith effort is made to convey the instruction required pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) At the time of communicating the test result to the subject of the test, a person ordering the performance of an HIV-related test shall provide the subject of the test or the person authorized to consent to health care for the subject with counseling or referrals for counseling, as needed: (1) For coping with the emotional consequences of learning the result; (2) regarding the discrimination problems that disclosure of the result could cause; (3) for behavior change to prevent transmission or contraction of HIV infection; (4) to inform such person of available medical treatments and medical services; (5) regarding local or community-based HIV/AIDS support services agencies; (6) to work towards the goal of involving a minor's parents or legal guardian in the decision to seek and in the ongoing provision of medical treatment; and (7) regarding the need of the test subject to notify his partners and, as appropriate, provide assistance or referrals for assistance in notifying partners; except that if the subject of the test is a minor who was tested without the consent of his parents or guardian, such counseling shall be provided to such minor at the time of communicating such test result to such minor. A health care provider or health facility shall not withhold test results from the protected individual. The protected individual may refuse to receive his test result but the person ordering the performance of the test shall encourage him to receive the result and to adopt behavior changes that will allow him to protect himself and others from infection.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to the performance of an HIV-related test:

      (1) By licensed medical personnel when the subject is unable to grant or withhold consent and no other person is available who is authorized to consent to health care for the individual and the test results are needed for diagnostic purposes to provide appropriate urgent care, except that in such cases the counseling, referrals and notification of test results described in subsection (c) of this section shall be provided as soon as practical;

      (2) By a health care provider or health facility in relation to the procuring, processing, distributing or use of a human body or a human body part, including organs, tissues, eyes, bones, arteries, blood, semen, or other body fluids, for use in medical research or therapy, or for transplantation to individuals, provided if the test results are communicated to the subject, the counseling, referrals and notification of test results described in subsection (c) of this section shall be provided;

      (3) For the purpose of research if the testing is performed in a manner by which the identity of the test subject is not known and is unable to be retrieved by the researcher;

      (4) On a deceased person when such test is conducted to determine the cause or circumstances of death or for epidemiological purposes;

      (5) In cases where a health care provider or other person, including volunteer emergency medical services, fire and public safety personnel, in the course of his occupational duties has had a significant exposure, provided the following criteria are met: (A) The worker is able to document significant exposure during performance of his occupation, (B) the worker completes an incident report within forty-eight hours of exposure identifying the parties to the exposure, witnesses, time, place and nature of the event, (C) the worker submits to a baseline HIV test within seventy-two hours of the exposure and is negative on that test, (D) the patient's or person's physician or, if the patient or person does not have a personal physician or if the patient's or person's physician is unavailable, another physician or health care provider has approached the patient or person and sought voluntary consent and the patient or person has refused to consent to testing, except in an exposure where the patient or person is deceased, (E) an exposure evaluation group determines that the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D) and (F) of this subdivision are met and that the worker has a significant exposure to the blood of a patient or person and the patient or person, or the patient's or person's legal guardian, refuses to grant informed consent for an HIV test. If the patient or person is under the care or custody of the health facility, correctional facility or other institution and a sample of the patient's blood is available, said blood shall be tested. If no sample of blood is available, and the patient is under the care or custody of a health facility, correctional facility or other institution, the patient shall have a blood sample drawn at the health facility, correctional facility or other institution and tested. No member of the exposure evaluation group who determines that a worker has sustained a significant exposure and authorized the HIV testing of a patient or other person, nor the health facility, correctional facility or other institution, nor any person in a health facility or other institution who relies in good faith on the group's determination and performs that test shall have any liability as a result of his action carried out pursuant to this section, unless such person acted in bad faith. If the patient or person is not under the care or custody of a health facility, correctional facility or other institution and a physician not directly involved in the exposure certifies in writing that the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D) and (F) of this subdivision are met and that a significant exposure has occurred, the worker may seek a court order for testing pursuant to subdivision (8) of this subsection, (F) the worker would be able to take meaningful immediate action, if results are known, which could not otherwise be taken, as defined in regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-589, (G) the fact that an HIV test was given as a result of an accidental exposure and the results of that test shall not appear in a patient's or person's medical record unless such test result is relevant to the medical care the person is receiving at that time in a health facility or correctional facility or other institution, (H) the counseling described in subsection (c) of this section shall be provided but the patient or person may choose not to be informed about the result of the test, and (I) the cost of the HIV test shall be borne by the employer of the potentially exposed worker;

      (6) In facilities operated by the Department of Correction if the facility physician determines that testing is needed for diagnostic purposes, to determine the need for treatment or medical care specific to an HIV-related illness, including prophylactic treatment of HIV infection to prevent further progression of disease, provided no reasonable alternative exists that will achieve the same goal;

      (7) In facilities operated by the Department of Correction if the facility physician and chief administrator of the facility determine that the behavior of the inmate poses a significant risk of transmission to another inmate or has resulted in a significant exposure of another inmate of the facility and no reasonable alternative exists that will achieve the same goal. No involuntary testing shall take place pursuant to subdivisions (6) and (7) of this subsection until reasonable effort has been made to secure informed consent. When testing without consent takes place pursuant to subdivisions (6) and (7) of this subsection, the counseling referrals and notification of test results described in subsection (c) of this section shall, nonetheless be provided;

      (8) Under a court order which is issued in compliance with the following provisions: (A) No court of this state shall issue such order unless the court finds a clear and imminent danger to the public health or the health of a person and that the person has demonstrated a compelling need for the HIV-related test result which cannot be accommodated by other means. In assessing compelling need, the court shall weigh the need for a test result against the privacy interests of the test subject and the public interest which may be disserved by involuntary testing, (B) pleadings pertaining to the request for an involuntary test shall substitute a pseudonym for the true name of the subject to be tested. The disclosure to the parties of the subject's true name shall be communicated confidentially, in documents not filed with the court, (C) before granting any such order, the court shall provide the individual on whom a test result is being sought with notice and a reasonable opportunity to participate in the proceeding if he is not already a party, (D) court proceedings as to involuntary testing shall be conducted in camera unless the subject of the test agrees to a hearing in open court or unless the court determines that a public hearing is necessary to the public interest and the proper administration of justice;

      (9) When the test is conducted by any life or health insurer or health care center for purposes of assessing a person's fitness for insurance coverage offered by such insurer or health care center; or

      (10) When the test is subsequent to a prior confirmed test and the subsequent test is part of a series of repeated testing for the purposes of medical monitoring and treatment, provided (A) the patient has previously given general consent that includes HIV-related tests, (B) the patient, after consultation with the health care provider, has declined reiteration of the general consent, counseling and education requirements of this section, and (C) a notation to that effect has been entered into the patient's medical record.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 2; P.A. 92-119, S. 2, 3; P.A. 93-291, S. 3; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 97-111; P.A. 09-133, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 92-119 amended Subsec. (a) to clarify that consent of a parent is not a prerequisite to testing of a minor, and added Subsec. (d)(5) concerning involving a minor's parent or guardian in decisions and provision of medical treatment and to require counseling for a minor at the time of communicating test results; P.A. 93-291 amended Subsec. (e)(5) to include volunteer emergency medical services, fire and public safety personnel in occupational exposure provisions, to allow for action by another physician or health care provider in the event a person has no personal physician or if the personal physician is not available and in Subpara. (D) to make technical changes; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-111 added Subsec. (e)(10) re exemption for repeat tests; P.A. 09-133 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing provisions re specific informed consent for HIV-related testing with provisions re general consent for such testing and by deleting provisions re obtaining written consent, redesignated provision of Subsec. (a) re liability for ordering HIV-related test as Subsec. (b) and added provision therein re specific informed consent, deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated existing Subsecs. (d) and (e) as Subsecs. (c) and (d), amended redesignated Subsec. (c) by inserting "as needed" re counseling or referrals for counseling, adding "and medical services" in Subdiv. (4), adding new Subdiv. (5) re local or community-based HIV/AIDS support service agencies and redesignating existing Subdivs. (5) and (6) as Subdivs. (6) and (7), amended redesignated Subsec. (d)(10) by replacing provisions re informed consent with provisions re general consent, deleted former Subsec. (f) and made conforming and technical changes, effective July 1, 2009.

      Cited. 232 C. 242.

      Subsec. (b):

      Subdiv. (4) cited. 236 C. 845.

      Subsec. (e):

      Subdiv. (6) cited. 238 C. 692. Subdiv. (7) cited. Id.


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      Sec. 19a-583. Limitations on disclosure of HIV-related information. (a) No person who obtains confidential HIV-related information may disclose or be compelled to disclose such information, except to the following:

      (1) The protected individual, his legal guardian or a person authorized to consent to health care for such individual;

      (2) Any person who secures a release of confidential HIV-related information;

      (3) A federal, state or local health officer when such disclosure is mandated or authorized by federal or state law;

      (4) A health care provider or health facility when knowledge of the HIV-related information is necessary to provide appropriate care or treatment to the protected individual or a child of the individual or when confidential HIV-related information is already recorded in a medical chart or record and a health care provider has access to such record for the purpose of providing medical care to the protected individual;

      (5) A medical examiner to assist in determining the cause or circumstances of death;

      (6) Health facility staff committees or accreditation or oversight review organizations which are conducting program monitoring, program evaluation or service reviews;

      (7) A health care provider or other person in cases where such provider or person in the course of his occupational duties has had a significant exposure to HIV infection, provided the following criteria are met: (A) The worker is able to document significant exposure during performance of his occupation, (B) the worker completes an incident report within forty-eight hours of exposure, identifying the parties to the exposure, witnesses, time, place and nature of the event, (C) the worker submits to a baseline HIV test within seventy-two hours of the exposure and is negative on that test for the presence of the AIDS virus, (D) the patient's or person's physician or, if the patient or person does not have a personal physician or if the patient's or person's physician is unavailable, another physician or health care provider has approached the patient or person and sought voluntary consent to disclosure and the patient or person refuses to consent to disclosure, except in an exposure where the patient or person is deceased, (E) the worker would be able to take meaningful immediate action as defined in regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-589 which could not otherwise be taken, (F) an exposure evaluation group determines that the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) of this subdivision are met and that a worker has a significant exposure to the blood of a patient or person and the patient or person or the patient's or person's legal guardian refuses to consent to release of the information. No member of the exposure evaluation group who determines that a worker has sustained a significant exposure and authorizes the disclosure of confidential HIV-related information nor the health facility, correctional facility or other institution nor any person in a health facility, correctional facility or other institution who relies in good faith on the group's determination and discloses the result shall have any liability as a result of his action carried out under this section, unless such persons acted in bad faith. If the information is not held by a health facility, correctional facility or other institution, a physician not directly involved in the exposure has certified in writing that the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) of this subdivision are met and that a significant exposure has occurred;

      (8) Employees of hospitals for mental illness operated by the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services if the infection control committee of the hospital determines that the behavior of the patient poses a significant risk of transmission to another patient of the hospital. Disclosure shall only be allowed if it is likely to prevent or reduce the risk of transmission and no reasonable alternatives exist that will achieve the same goal and also preserve the confidentiality of the information. Such "reasonable alternatives" include counseling the patient concerning behaviors that pose a risk of transmission and other efforts to prevent or address the behaviors that pose a significant risk of transmission without disclosing the patient's HIV status or other confidential HIV-related information. Disclosure shall be limited to as few employees as possible and only to those employees with a direct need to receive the information to achieve the purpose authorized by this subdivision;

      (9) Employees of facilities operated by the Department of Correction to provide services related to HIV infection or if the medical director and chief administrator of the facility determine that the behavior of an inmate poses significant risk of transmission to another inmate or has resulted in a significant exposure of another inmate of the facility. Such a disclosure shall only be made if it is specifically required to enable the inmate to receive such services or is likely to prevent or reduce the risk of transmission and no reasonable alternatives exist that will achieve the same goal and also preserve the confidentiality of the information. Such "reasonable alternatives" include counseling the inmate concerning behaviors that pose a risk of transmission or other efforts to prevent or address the behaviors that pose a significant risk of transmission without disclosing the patient's HIV status or other confidential HIV-related information. Disclosure shall be limited to as few employees as possible and only to those employees with a direct need to receive the information to achieve a purpose authorized by this subdivision;

      (10) Any person allowed access to such information by a court order which is issued in compliance with the following provisions: (A) No court of this state shall issue such order unless the court finds a clear and imminent danger to the public health or the health of a person and that the person has demonstrated a compelling need for the test results which cannot be accommodated by other means. In assessing compelling need, the court shall weigh the need for disclosure against the privacy interest of the test subject and the public interest which may be disserved by disclosure which deters future testing or which may lead to discrimination. (B) Pleadings pertaining to disclosure of confidential HIV-related information shall substitute a pseudonym for the true name of the subject of the test. The disclosure to the parties of the subject's true name shall be communicated confidentially, in documents not filed with the court. (C) Before granting any such order, the court shall provide the individual whose test result is in question with notice and a reasonable opportunity to participate in the proceedings if he is not already a party. (D) Court proceedings as to disclosure of confidential HIV-related information shall be conducted in camera unless the subject of the test agrees to a hearing in open court or unless the court determines that a public hearing is necessary to the public interest and the proper administration of justice. (E) Upon the issuance of an order to disclose test results, the court shall impose appropriate safeguards against unauthorized disclosure, which shall specify the persons who may have access to the information, the purposes for which the information shall be used, and appropriate prohibitions on future disclosure;

      (11) Life and health insurers, government payers and health care centers and their affiliates, reinsurers, and contractors, except agents and brokers, in connection with underwriting and claim activity for life, health, and disability benefits;

      (12) Any health care provider specifically designated by the protected individual to receive such information received by a life or health insurer or health care center pursuant to an application for life, health or disability insurance; and

      (13) A procurement organization, for the purposes of assessing donor suitability pursuant to subsection (c) of section 19a-289m.

      (b) No person, except the protected individual, his legal guardian or a person authorized to consent to health care for such individual, to whom confidential HIV-related information is disclosed may further disclose such information, except as provided in this section and sections 19a-584 and 19a-585.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 3; P.A. 93-291, S. 4; P.A. 95-257, S. 11, 58; P.A. 04-122, S. 7; P.A. 10-123, S. 29.)

      History: P.A. 93-291 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to permit disclosure of information to a person authorized to consent to health care for an individual and (a)(7) to allow another physician, if the person has no personal physician or if the personal physician is unavailable, to seek voluntary consent to disclosure, and amended Subsec. (b) to add a person authorized to consent to health care to persons who may further disclose and made technical changes; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Mental Health with Commissioner and Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 04-122 added Subsec. (a)(13) re disclosure to procurement organization; P.A. 10-123 amended Subsec. (a)(13) by replacing reference to Sec. 19a-279j with reference to Sec. 19a-289m(c).

      Cited. 236 C. 845. Sec. 19a-583 (a)(1)-(12) cited. Id. Cited. 238 C. 692.

      Cited. 38 CA 360. Trial court's order permitting the defendant pharmacy to redact information relating to a person's physical or medical condition adequately protected statutorily mandated confidentiality of AIDS and HIV positive patients. 53 CA 129.


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      Sec. 19a-584. Informing and warning of known partners of possible exposure to the HIV virus. Disclosure of HIV-related information to public health officers. (a) A public health officer may inform or warn partners of an individual that they may have been exposed to HIV under the following conditions: (1) The public health officer reasonably believes there is a significant risk of transmission to the partner; (2) the public health officer has counseled the protected individual regarding the need to notify the partner and the public health officer reasonably believes the protected individual will not inform the partner; (3) the public health officer has informed the protected individual of such officer's intent to make such disclosure. The public health officer may also warn or inform a partner at the request of a protected individual. When making such disclosure to the partner the public health officer shall provide or make referrals for the provision of the appropriate medical advice and counseling for coping with the emotional consequences of learning the information and for changing behavior to prevent transmission or contraction of HIV infection. The public health officer shall not disclose the identity of the protected individual or the identity of any other partner. The public health officer, making a notification, shall make such disclosure in person, except where circumstances reasonably prevent doing so. The public health officer shall make a good faith effort to notify the partner of the risk of HIV infection. The public health officer shall have no obligation to warn or inform, identify or locate any partner.

      (b) A physician may warn or inform a known partner of a protected individual if both the partner and the protected individual are under the physician's care or the physician may disclose confidential HIV-related information to a public health officer for the purpose of informing or warning partners of the protected individual that they may have been exposed to HIV , under the following conditions: (1) The physician reasonably believes there is a significant risk of transmission to the partner; (2) the physician has counseled the protected individual regarding the need to notify the partner and the physician reasonably believes the protected individual will not inform the partner; (3) the physician has informed the protected individual of such physician's intent to make such disclosure to the partner or public health officer. The physician may also warn or inform a partner at the request of a protected individual. When making such disclosure to the partner the physician shall provide or make referrals for the provision of the appropriate medical advice and counseling for coping with the emotional consequences of learning the information and for changing behavior to prevent transmission or contraction of HIV infection. The physician or public health officer shall not disclose the identity of the protected individual or the identity of any other partner. The public health officer or physician making a notification shall make such disclosure in person, except where circumstances reasonably prevent doing so. Upon receiving such a request for assistance, the public health officer shall make a good faith effort to notify said partner of the risk of HIV infection. The physician or public health officer shall have no obligation to warn or inform, identify or locate any partner. The physician shall have no obligation to disclose information to a public health officer for the purpose of warning or informing a partner.

      (c) For purposes of this section, "public health officer" means an employee of the Department of Public Health designated by the commissioner or if authorized by the commissioner, a local health director, or such director's designee.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 4; P.A. 93-291, S. 5; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 00-196, S. 17.)

      History: P.A. 93-291 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that a physician may warn or inform a known partner and may disclose confidential HIV-related information to a public health officer; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes.

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      Sec. 19a-585. Requirements for disclosure of HIV-related information. (a) Whenever confidential HIV-related information is disclosed it shall be accompanied by a statement in writing, whenever possible, which includes the following or substantially similar language: "This information has been disclosed to you from records whose confidentiality is protected by state law. State law prohibits you from making any further disclosure of it without the specific written consent of the person to whom it pertains, or as otherwise permitted by said law. A general authorization for the release of medical or other information is NOT sufficient for this purpose." An oral disclosure shall be accompanied or followed by such a notice within ten days.

      (b) Except for disclosures made to a federal, state, or local health officer when such disclosure is mandated or authorized by federal or state law or to persons reviewing information or records in the ordinary course of ensuring that a health facility is in compliance with applicable quality of care standards or any other authorized program evaluation, program monitoring or service review, a notation of all such disclosures shall be placed in the medical record or with any record of an HIV-related test result of a protected individual, who shall be informed of such disclosures upon request; provided for disclosures made to governmental agents requiring information necessary for payments to be made on behalf of patients or clients pursuant to contract or law, such notation need only be entered at the time the disclosure is first made.

      (c) Nothing in this chapter shall limit a person's or agency's responsibility to report, investigate or disclose child protective services information pursuant to sections 17a-101, 17a-101a to 17a-101k, inclusive, 17a-103 and 46b-129a and regulations adopted pursuant to said sections.

      (d) The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not be applicable to disclosures made pursuant to subdivision (11) of subsection (a) of section 19a-583.

      (e) Except as provided in subparagraph (G) of subdivision (5) of subsection (d) of section 19a-582, nothing in this chapter shall prohibit the recording of HIV and AIDS-related information in the medical chart or medical records of a protected individual or the listing of AIDS, HIV-related illness or HIV infection in a certificate of death or autopsy report. This chapter shall not be construed to modify regulations relating to access to death certificates or autopsy reports. This chapter shall not be construed to modify the provisions of section 19a-25 or 19a-221.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 5; P.A. 93-291, S. 6; P.A. 96-246, S. 30; P.A. 09-133, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 93-291 made technical changes in Subsecs. (c) and (e); P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (c) by adding references to Secs. 17a-101a to 17a-101k, inclusive, and 46b-129a; P.A. 09-133 amended Subsec. (e) by making a technical change, effective July 1, 2009.

      Cited. 236 C. 845.

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      Sec. 19a-586. Testing for insurance purposes. (a) Any insurer that requests an applicant for insurance coverage to take an HIV-related test shall obtain the applicant's written informed consent for such test prior to conducting it.

      (b) The Insurance Commissioner shall adopt regulations, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health and in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, which establish all necessary requirements for the provision of informed consent pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. Such regulations shall include, but not be limited to, requirements regarding (1) sufficient notice at the time of application that the insured will be tested for HIV infection and (2) an explanation of AIDS and HIV infection.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 6; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: P.A. 93-381 replaced commissioner of health services with commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

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      Sec. 19a-587. Disclosure by insurers. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit the disclosure by a life or health insurer or health care center of a positive HIV-related test result to an organization that assembles or collects information about insurance applicants for the purposes of detecting fraud, misrepresentation, or nondisclosure in connection with insurance underwriting, provided such result is provided as a nonspecific blood test result, within a general code category, which code is not designated solely for HIV-related test results and provided the majority of results included in the general code are not HIV-related and the code does not otherwise allow members of the organization to reasonably identify an applicant's test result as an HIV-related test.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 7.)

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      Sec. 19a-588. Notification of procedures to certain municipal employees. Each town shall notify its police, fire and emergency medical services personnel of the procedures under subdivision (5) of subsection (d) of section 19a-582 and subdivision (7) of subsection (a) of section 19a-583 pertaining to workers who have experienced a significant exposure.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 8; P.A. 09-133, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 09-133 made a technical change, effective July 1, 2009.

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      Sec. 19a-589. Regulations. The commissioner shall adopt such regulations, as he deems necessary, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to implement the provisions of sections 19a-581 to 19a-585, inclusive.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 19a-590. Liability for violations. Any person, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, who wilfully violates any provision of this chapter shall be liable in a private cause of action for injuries suffered as a result of such violation. Upon a finding that an individual has been injured as a result of such violation, damages shall be assessed in the amount sufficient to compensate said individual for such injury.

      (P.A. 89-246, S. 10.)

      Cited. 236 C. 845.

      Cited. 38 CA 360.


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      Sec. 19a-591. Definitions. As used in sections 19a-591 to 19a-591c, inclusive:

      (1) "AIDS vaccine" means a vaccine which has been developed by a manufacturer, is being tested and administered at a research institution for purposes of determining whether it provides immunity to acquired immune deficiency syndrome or is of therapeutic benefit to persons or fetuses infected with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus, and for which an investigational new drug application is on file with the federal Food and Drug Administration and is in effect.

      (2) "Manufacturer" means any person who is domiciled or has his principal place of business in this state and has developed an AIDS vaccine.

      (3) "Research institution" means a hospital which is accredited by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, or a recognized medical school which operates, or is affiliated with, or is operated by an accredited hospital.

      (4) "Research subject" means a person who is administered an AIDS vaccine, or a fetus of a person administered an AIDS vaccine, or a child born to a person administered an AIDS vaccine.

      (5) "Researcher" means a person employed by or affiliated with a manufacturer or a research institution, who participates in the development or testing or administration of an AIDS vaccine, or who is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of a research subject.

      (P.A. 91-349, S. 4, 8.)

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      Sec. 19a-591a. Administration of AIDS vaccine. A manufacturer, research institution or researcher shall, prior to the administration of an AIDS vaccine to a person, provide a written explanation of the immunity provisions of section 19a-591b to such person and obtain such person's informed consent. A parent or legal guardian of a child may give informed consent for such child. A copy of the informed consent shall be maintained with such person's medical records.

      (P.A. 91-349, S. 5, 8.)

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      Sec. 19a-591b. Immunity from liability for civil damages for personal injury to research subject. Exceptions. A manufacturer, research institution or researcher shall not be liable to a research subject for civil damages for personal injury resulting from the administration of any AIDS vaccine to such research subject, unless such injury was caused by the gross negligence or reckless, wilful or wanton misconduct of such manufacturer, research institution or researcher or such manufacturer, research institution or researcher has failed to comply with the provisions of section 19a-591a. The immunity provided by this section shall not apply to a manufacturer, research institution or researcher who intentionally provided false information in connection with an investigational new drug application.

      (P.A. 91-349, S. 6, 8.)

      Cited. 236 C. 845.

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      Sec. 19a-591c. Research subjects. No person shall be denied the opportunity to be a research subject because of the inability to pay for medical treatment.

      (P.A. 91-349, S. 7, 8.)

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      Sec. 19a-592. Testing and treatment of minor for HIV or AIDS. Confidentiality. Liability for costs. (a) Any licensed physician may examine and provide treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome for a minor, only with the consent of the parents or guardian of the minor unless the physician determines that notification of the parents or guardian of the minor will result in treatment being denied or the physician determines the minor will not seek, pursue or continue treatment if the parents or guardian are notified and the minor requests that his parents or guardian not be notified. The physician shall fully document the reasons for the determination to provide treatment without the consent or notification of the parents or guardian of the minor and shall include such documentation, signed by the minor, in the minor's clinical record. The fact of consultation, examination and treatment of a minor under the provisions of this section shall be confidential and shall not be divulged without the minor's consent, including the sending of a bill for the services to any person other than the minor until the physician consults with the minor regarding the sending of a bill.

      (b) A minor shall be personally liable for all costs and expenses for services afforded him at his request under this section.

      (P.A. 92-119, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 19a-593. Testing of pregnant women and newborns. Notification and documentation requirements. (a) Each health care provider giving prenatal care to pregnant women in this state shall inform her, or ascertain from the woman's medical record that such information has already been provided to her, that HIV testing is a part of routine prenatal care and shall inform her of the health benefits to herself and her newborn of being tested for HIV infection. Such information shall be conveyed along with the counseling required by section 19a-582. The health care provider shall inform the patient that HIV-related information is confidential pursuant to section 19a-583. If the patient provides informed consent to an HIV-related test consistent with section 19a-582, the health care provider responsible for HIV counseling under this section shall perform or arrange to have performed an HIV-related test and document the test result in the medical record.

      (b) If, during the current pregnancy, an HIV-related test has not been documented in the patient's medical record at admission for delivery of the baby, then the health care provider responsible for the patient's care shall inform the pregnant woman as required under subsection (a) of this section and shall also inform her of the health benefits to herself and her newborn of being tested for HIV infection either before delivery or within twenty-four hours after delivery and, in the absence of specific written objection, shall cause such test to be administered.

      (P.A. 95-269, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 29.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2 deleted existing provisions requiring obstetrician-gynecologists to notify pregnant women of the availability of AIDS testing, added Subsec. (a) re information on HIV testing, performance of HIV testing and documentation of test results, and added Subsec. (b) re HIV information and testing at admission for delivery.

      See Sec. 19a-55 re newborn infant health screening.

      See Sec. 19a-90 re blood test of pregnant women.


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      Sec. 19a-593a. Limitation on causes of action for HIV-related test. No cause of action for civil assault, civil battery, invasion of privacy or failure to obtain informed consent shall arise against any acute care general hospital licensed under chapter 368v or any other health care provider or person responsible for administering an HIV-related test, or causing such test to be administered, as required by section 19a-55 or 19a-593, on the basis that such HIV-related test was administered without the consent of the patient or the patient's parent or guardian. Nothing in this section shall be construed to: (1) Relieve any person or entity from liability for (A) negligence in administering such HIV-related test, (B) negligence in the reporting or distribution of the results of such HIV-related test, (C) negligence related to the provision of any counseling about a patient's decision whether to obtain treatment as a result of such HIV-related test, or (D) negligence in the treatment of a patient; or (2) eliminate or limit any defense to any cause of action that is or may be alleged against such hospital, health care provider or person responsible for administering such HIV-related test or causing such test to be administered.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-4, S. 31, 58.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-4 effective July 1, 2001.

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      Sec. 19a-594. Pregnant women and newborn testing public awareness programs and health care provider training. (a) The Department of Public Health may develop and implement a comprehensive training program designed to reach all health care providers who are required by the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593 to provide counseling or testing for HIV of pregnant women or newborns. The training program may include instruction on but not be limited to: The requirements of the provisions of sections 19a-90 and 19a-555; the requirements of this chapter; the benefits of such HIV testing for pregnant women; the possible interventions to prevent HIV transmission from a pregnant woman and her fetus or newborn; the side effects of such interventions; appropriate protocols for the counseling, testing and treatment of adolescents and their newborns; the statutory confidentiality provisions that relate to adolescents; resources available for health care, case management, counseling and treatment for people with HIV and AIDS; and, the sanctions for violation of the provisions of sections 19a-90 and 19a-555 and of this chapter.

      (b) The Department of Public Health may develop educational materials for women subject to the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593 and distribute such materials to any health care provider subject to the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593. These materials shall be in plain language and shall be, whenever possible, in the first language of the recipient of the materials. The materials may include, but not be limited to: An explanation of the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593; a description of the provisions of this chapter; the appropriate confidentiality provisions of the statute that refer to minors; a list of health care and support services for people with HIV/AIDS; and a toll-free number to report any violations of the statutes by providers. Each health care provider subject to the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593 shall give each woman who they counsel or test for HIV or whose newborn they test for HIV a copy of such educational materials.

      (c) Any health care provider who performs an HIV test on a newborn under the provisions of sections 19a-90, 19a-555 and 19a-593 shall report the results of such test to the mother of such newborn before the mother leaves the hospital or within forty-eight hours of the birth of such newborn whichever is sooner. Such provider shall refer any women whose newborn tests positive for HIV to an HIV case manager and an appropriate health care provider. Such provider shall also give the woman a list of support services for people with HIV and AIDS.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 17.)

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      Sec. 19a-594a. Referral of child to state agency based on test result. No child shall be referred to the Department of Children and Families solely on the basis of a positive HIV test.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 18.)

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      Secs. 19a-595 to 19a-599. Reserved for future use.

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