CHAPTER 218a
ESTATE INCOME TAX

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-405a. Definitions.
Sec. 12-405b. Imposition of tax on income of estates at rate of ten per cent of taxable income over twenty thousand dollars.
Sec. 12-405c. Date on which taxpayer of an estate must file return with full amount of tax due. Extensions. Adjusted, corrected and amended returns.
Sec. 12-405d. Penalty for failure to pay tax when due. Rate of interest. Deficiency assessment. Examination of returns. Collection. Liens.
Secs. 12-405e to 12-405i. Declaration of estimated tax by fiduciary, when required. Amount of payment required on account of estimated tax. Estimated tax payment; interest applicable to amount by which payment is less than minimum required. Installment of estimated tax payable; manner of payment and recording thereof. Installment payment of estimated tax in excess of correct amount.
Sec. 12-405j. Tax credit under this chapter for tax imposed on a resident estate by another state.
Sec. 12-405k. Tax information or returns commissioner may require from taxpayer. Hearings. Appeals.
Sec. 12-405l. Commissioner to adopt regulations re this chapter.
Sec. 12-405m. Chapter not applicable to income earned on or after January 1, 1991.

      Sec. 12-405a. Definitions. Whenever used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (a) "Taxpayer" means the fiduciary of any resident estate or nonresident estate subject to tax under this chapter.

      (b) "Resident estate" means the estate of a decedent who at the time of death was domiciled in this state.

      (c) "Nonresident estate" means any estate which is not a resident estate in this state.

      (d) "Taxable income" means the taxable income of any estate for the taxable year, as determined for purposes of the federal income tax in accordance with Internal Revenue Form 1041, including in such determination the deduction from total income related to income distribution and each other deduction allowed in computing the federal income tax liability of such estate for the taxable year.

      (e) "Taxable income of a nonresident estate" means that portion of the taxable income of such estate for the taxable year which is derived from or connected with sources within this state. The source of items of income, gain, loss or deduction shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Revenue Services, which regulations shall be in conformity with subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection.

      (1) Items of income, gain or loss derived from or connected with sources within this state are those items attributable to (A) the ownership or disposition of any interest in real or tangible personal property in this state or (B) a business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in this state.

      (2) Income from intangible personal property, including annuities, dividends, interest or gains from the disposition of intangible personal property, shall constitute income derived from sources within this state only to the extent that such income is from property employed in a business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in this state.

      (f) "Taxable year" means the calendar year upon the basis of which the taxpayer's taxable income is computed under this chapter unless a fiscal year other than the calendar year has been established for purposes of the federal income tax, in which case it means the fiscal year so established.

      (g) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Revenue Services.

      (h) "Fiduciary" means the executor or administrator of a resident estate or a nonresident estate, whether or not such executor or administrator is a taxpayer.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 7, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-481, S. 1.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act but without affecting this section; P.A. 84-481 added Subdiv. (h) defining "fiduciary".

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      Sec. 12-405b. Imposition of tax on income of estates at rate of ten per cent of taxable income over twenty thousand dollars. (a) A tax is hereby imposed with respect to any resident estate or nonresident estate for each taxable year commencing on or after January 1, 1982, at the rate of ten per cent on the taxable income of such estate for such taxable year in excess of twenty thousand dollars.

      (b) Any taxable income with respect to which the fiduciary of any estate is liable for tax in accordance with this chapter shall not be subject to tax under chapter 224.

      (c) Any fiduciary of a nonresident estate, the taxable income of which fiduciary as reported on the federal fiduciary income tax return is in excess of twenty thousand dollars, shall be deemed a "taxpayer" for purposes of the filing of any return or other documents required by section 12-405c, 12-405d or 12-405k.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 8, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-481, S. 2.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act but without affecting this section; P.A. 84-481 added Subsec. (c) concerning the deeming of certain fiduciaries as taxpayers.

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      Sec. 12-405c. Date on which taxpayer of an estate must file return with full amount of tax due. Extensions. Adjusted, corrected and amended returns. (a) On or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of each taxable year, each taxpayer shall duly execute and file a tax return with the commissioner, in such form and containing such information as the commissioner may prescribe. Such return shall truly and accurately set forth the amount of income subject to tax and the taxpayer's liability therefor under this chapter. The full amount of the tax shall be due and payable to the commissioner on or before the date prescribed herein for the filing of the return.

      (b) The commissioner may for reasonable cause extend the time for the filing of any return due under this chapter and the payment of tax due thereon under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe. Said commissioner may require the filing of a tentative return and the payment of an estimated tax. Any additional tax which may be found to be due on the filing of a final return as allowed by such extension shall bear interest at the rate of one and one-fourth per cent per month or fraction thereof from the original due date of such tax to the date of actual payment.

      (c) Any taxpayer whose taxable income for federal income tax purposes is adjusted or corrected for any taxable year or portion thereof by any official of the United States government, or any agency thereof, in any respect affecting the tax imposed under this chapter shall, within ninety days after having received written notification of such adjustment or correction, submit to the Commissioner of Revenue Services an affidavit disclosing such changes or adjustments and thereafter shall promptly furnish to the commissioner any information, schedules, records, documents or papers related to such change, adjustment or correction as he may require. Any taxpayer whose return to the Director of Internal Revenue has been amended in any respect affecting the tax imposed under this chapter shall, within ninety days after having filed such amended return, make an amended return to the commissioner. The time for filing such affidavit or amended return may be extended by the commissioner upon due cause shown. Notwithstanding the limitation of time in subsection (d) of section 12-405d, if, upon examination, the commissioner finds that such taxpayer is liable for the payment of an additional tax, he shall, within a reasonable time from the receipt of an amended return or affidavit, notify such taxpayer of the amount of such additional tax, together with interest thereon computed at the rate of one and one-fourth per cent per month or any fraction thereof from the date when the original tax became due and payable. Within thirty days of the mailing of such notice, the taxpayer shall pay to the commissioner the amount of such additional tax and interest. If, upon examination of such amended return or affidavit and related information, the commissioner finds that the taxpayer has overpaid the tax due the state, the commissioner shall certify the amount of such overpayment to the Comptroller, and such amount shall be paid to the taxpayer by the State Treasurer upon order of the Comptroller.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 9, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-481, S. 3.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act but without affecting this section; P.A. 84-481 made certain technical changes to Subsec. (a) and added Subsecs. (b) and (c) re extension of time for filing return and re filing of affidavits and amended returns.

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      Sec. 12-405d. Penalty for failure to pay tax when due. Rate of interest. Deficiency assessment. Examination of returns. Collection. Liens. (a) If any taxpayer fails to pay the amount of tax reported to be due on his return or affidavit within the time specified under the provisions of section 12-405c, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to ten per cent of such amount due and unpaid, or fifty dollars, whichever is greater. Such amount shall bear interest at the rate of one and one-fourth per cent per month or fraction thereof, from the due date of such tax until the date of payment.

      (b) If any taxpayer has not made his return within three months after the time specified under the provisions of section 12-405c, the commissioner may make such return at any time thereafter, according to the best information obtainable and according to the form prescribed. To the tax imposed upon the basis of such return, there shall be added an amount equal to ten per cent of such tax, or fifty dollars, whichever is greater. No taxpayer shall be subject to a penalty under both subsections (a) and (b) of this section in relation to the same tax period. The tax shall bear interest at the rate of one per cent per month or fraction thereof, from the due date of such tax until the date of payment.

      (c) Subject to the provisions of section 12-3a, the commissioner may waive all or part of the penalties provided under this section when it is proven to his satisfaction that the failure to pay such tax was due to reasonable cause and was not intentional or due to neglect.

      (d) The commissioner shall, within three years after the due date for the filing of such return or, in the case of a completed return filed after such due date, within three years after the date on which such return was received by him, examine such return and, in case any error is disclosed by such examination, shall within thirty days after such disclosure, notify the taxpayer thereof. When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to negligence or intentional disregard of the provisions of this chapter or regulations promulgated thereunder, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to ten per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment, or fifty dollars, whichever is greater. When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to fraud or intent to evade the provisions of this chapter or regulations promulgated thereunder, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to twenty-five per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment. No taxpayer shall be subject to more than one penalty under this subsection in relation to the same tax period. Any decision rendered by any federal court holding that a taxpayer has filed a fraudulent return with the Director of Internal Revenue shall subject the taxpayer to the penalty imposed by this section without the necessity of further proof thereof, except when it can be shown that the return to the state so differed from the return to the federal government as to afford a reasonable presumption that the attempt to defraud did not extend to the return filed with the state. The amount of such deficiency assessment shall bear interest at the rate of one and one-fourth per cent per month or fraction thereof which elapses from the date when the original tax became due and payable. Within thirty days of the mailing of such notice, the taxpayer shall pay to the commissioner, in cash or by check, draft or money order drawn to the order of the Commissioner of Revenue Services, any additional amount of tax shown to be due by the corrected return, or the taxpayer shall be paid by the State Treasurer, upon order of the Comptroller, any amount shown to be due him by such corrected return. The failure of the taxpayer to receive any timely mailed notice required by this subsection shall not relieve him of the obligation to pay the tax or any interest or penalties thereon. When, before the expiration of the time prescribed in this section for the examination of the return or the assessment of the tax, both the commissioner and the taxpayer have consented in writing to such examination or assessment after such time, the return may be examined and the tax may be assessed at any time prior to the expiration of the period agreed upon. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon. The commissioner may also in such a case waive the statute of limitations against a claim for refund by such taxpayer.

      (e) The amount of any tax, penalty or interest due and unpaid under the provisions of this chapter may be collected under the provisions of section 12-35. The warrant therein provided for shall be signed by the commissioner or his authorized agent. The amount of any such tax, penalty and interest shall be a lien, from the last day of the taxable year until discharged by payment, against all real estate of the taxpayer within the state and a certificate of such lien signed by the commissioner may be filed for record in the office of the clerk of any town in which such real estate is situated, provided no such lien shall be effective as against any bona fide purchaser or qualified encumbrancer of any interest in any such property. When any tax with respect to which a lien has been recorded under the provisions of this section has been satisfied, the commissioner, upon request of any interested party, shall issue a certificate discharging such lien, which certificate shall be recorded in the same office in which the lien was recorded. Any action for the foreclosure of such lien shall be brought by the Attorney General in the name of the state in the superior court for the judicial district in which the property subject to such lien is situated, or, if such property is located in two or more judicial districts, in the superior court for any one such judicial district, and the court may limit the time for redemption or order the sale of such property or issue such other or further decree as it judges equitable.

      (f) Any person required under this chapter to pay any tax, or required under this chapter to make a return or affidavit, keep any records or supply any information, who wilfully fails to pay such tax, make such return or affidavit, keep such records, or supply such information, at the time required by law or regulations, shall, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or both. As used in this subsection and subsection (g), "person" includes any officer or employee of a corporation or a member or employee of a partnership under a duty to perform, pay such tax, make such return or affidavit, keep such records or supply such information.

      (g) Any person who wilfully delivers or discloses to the commissioner or his authorized agent any list, return, affidavit, account, statement, or other document, known by him to be fraudulent or false in any material matter, shall, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than five years nor less than one year or both. No person shall be charged with an offense under both subsections (f) and (g) of this section in relation to the same tax period but such person may be charged and prosecuted for both such offenses upon the same information.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 10, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-481, S. 4; P.A. 85-501, S. 4; P.A. 88-314, S. 21, 54; P.A. 94-175, S. 6, 32; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 57, 80, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act but without affecting this section; P.A. 84-481 subdivided section and added language designated as Subsecs. (b) and (d); P.A. 85-501 added Subsec. (e) re collections and liens; P.A. 88-314 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that a taxpayer shall not be subject to penalty under both Subsec. (a) and Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (f) and (g) re penalties for any person who wilfully fails to pay the tax or make a return at the time required and for any person who wilfully delivers a return or other document known to be false in any material matter, effective July 1, 1988, and applicable to any tax which first becomes due and payable on or after said date, to any return or report due on or after said date, or in the case of any ongoing obligation imposed in accordance with said act, to the tax period next beginning on or after said date; P.A. 94-175 eliminated obsolete reference in Subsec. (f) to compliance with regulations, effective June 2, 1994; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 in Subsec. (b) reduced interest rate from 1.25% to 1% and provided that such interest may only be applied on the tax rather than on the tax and any penalty, effective July 1, 1995, and applicable to taxes due and owing on or after said date and also revised effective date of P.A. 94-175 but without affecting this section; P.A. 95-160 revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section.

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      Secs. 12-405e to 12-405i. Declaration of estimated tax by fiduciary, when required. Amount of payment required on account of estimated tax. Estimated tax payment; interest applicable to amount by which payment is less than minimum required. Installment of estimated tax payable; manner of payment and recording thereof. Installment payment of estimated tax in excess of correct amount. Sections 12-405e to 12-405i, inclusive, are repealed.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 11-15, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-503, S. 1, 2.)

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      Sec. 12-405j. Tax credit under this chapter for tax imposed on a resident estate by another state. Any taxpayer with respect to a resident estate shall be allowed a credit against the tax otherwise due under this chapter for the amount of any income tax imposed on such estate for the taxable year by another state of the United States or a political subdivision thereof or the District of Columbia on income derived from sources therein and which is also subject to tax under this chapter. The credit provided under this section shall not exceed the proportion of the tax otherwise due under this chapter that the taxable income of such estate, derived from sources in the other taxing jurisdiction, bears to the taxable income of such estate derived from all sources.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 16, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act without affecting this section.

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      Sec. 12-405k. Tax information or returns commissioner may require from taxpayer. Hearings. Appeals. (a) The commissioner or his authorized agent may require any taxpayer to submit copies or pertinent extracts of relevant federal income tax returns, or of any other relevant tax return made to any agency of the federal government, or of this or any other state, or of any statement or registration made pursuant to any state or federal law pertaining to securities or securities exchange regulations. The commissioner may require all taxpayers to keep such records as he may prescribe, and he may require the production of books, papers, documents and other data, to provide or secure information pertinent to the determination of the tax imposed under this chapter and the enforcement and collection thereof.

      (b) The commissioner or any agent of the commissioner authorized to conduct any inquiry, investigation or hearing hereunder may administer oaths and take testimony under oath relative to the matter of inquiry or investigation. At any hearing ordered by the commissioner, the commissioner or his agent authorized to conduct such hearing and having authority by law to issue such process may subpoena witnesses and require the production of books, papers and documents pertinent to such inquiry. No witness under subpoena authorized to be issued by the provisions of this section shall be excused from testifying or from producing books or papers on the ground that such testimony or the production of such books or other documentary evidence would tend to incriminate him, but such evidence or the books or papers so produced shall not be used in any criminal proceeding against him. If any person disobeys such process or, having appeared in obedience thereto, refuses to answer any pertinent question put to him by the commissioner or his authorized agent, or to produce any books and papers pursuant thereto, the commissioner or such agent may apply to the superior court for the judicial district wherein the taxpayer resides or wherein the business has been conducted, or to any judge of said court if the same is not in session, setting forth such disobedience to process or refusal to answer, and said court or such judge shall cite such person to appear before said court or such judge to answer such question or to produce such books and papers and, upon his refusal so to do, shall commit such person to a community correctional center until he testifies, but not for a period longer than sixty days. Notwithstanding the serving of the term of such commitment by any person, the commissioner may proceed in all respects with such inquiry and examination as if the witness had not previously been called upon to testify. Officers who serve subpoenas issued by the commissioner or under the authority granted by this section and witnesses attending hearings conducted by him hereunder shall receive fees and compensation at the same rates as officers and witnesses in the courts of this state, to be paid on vouchers of the commissioner on order of the Comptroller from the proper appropriation for the administration of this chapter.

      (c) Any taxpayer aggrieved by the action of the commissioner or his authorized agent in fixing the amount of any tax, penalty or interest provided for by this chapter may apply to the commissioner, in writing, within sixty days after the notice of such action is delivered or mailed to such taxpayer, for a hearing and a correction of the amount of the tax, penalty or interest so fixed, setting forth the reasons why such hearing should be granted and the amount by which such tax, penalty or interest should be reduced. The commissioner shall promptly consider each such application and may grant or deny the hearing requested. If it is granted, the commissioner shall notify the applicant of the time and place fixed for such hearing. After such hearing the commissioner may make such order in the premises as appears to him just and lawful and shall furnish a copy of such order to the applicant. The commissioner may, by notice in writing, at any time within three years after the date when any return of any taxpayer has been due, order a hearing on his own initiative and require the taxpayer or any other individual whom he believes to be in possession of relevant information concerning the taxpayer to appear before him or his authorized agent with any specified books of account, papers or other documents, for examination under oath.

      (d) Any taxpayer aggrieved because of any order, decision, determination or disallowance of the commissioner under the provisions of this chapter may, within one month after service upon the taxpayer of notice of such order, decision, determination or disallowance, make application in the nature of an appeal therefrom to the superior court for the judicial district of New Britain, which shall be accompanied by a citation to the commissioner to appear before said court. Such citation shall be signed by the same authority, and such appeal shall be returnable at the same time and served and returned in the same manner, as is required in case of a summons in a civil action. The authority issuing the citation shall take from the appellant a bond or recognizance to the state of Connecticut, with surety to prosecute the appeal to effect and to comply with the orders and decrees of the court in the premises. Such appeals shall be preferred cases, to be heard, unless cause appears to the contrary, at the first session, by the court or by a committee appointed by it. Said court may grant such relief as may be equitable and, if such tax has been paid prior to the granting of such relief, may order the Treasurer to pay the amount of such relief, with interest at the rate of nine per cent per annum, to the aggrieved taxpayer. If the appeal has been taken without probable cause, the court may tax double or triple costs, as the case demands; and, upon all such appeals which may be denied, costs may be taxed against the appellant at the discretion of the court, but no costs shall be taxed against the state.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 17, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-481, S. 5; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 89-343, S. 10, 17; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-236, S. 6, 25; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 99-215, S. 24, 29.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act without affecting this section; P.A. 84-481 added Subsecs. (b), (c) and (d) relative to hearings and appeals; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 89-343 amended Subsec. (d) to increase the rate of interest on the amount of relief ordered by the court from 6% to 9% per annum; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 91-236 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for 60, rather than 30, days to request a hearing, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to taxes due on or after that date; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 99-215 replaced "judicial district of Hartford" with "judicial district of New Britain" in Subsec. (d), effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 12-405l. Commissioner to adopt regulations re this chapter. The Commissioner of Revenue Services shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to implement the provisions of this chapter, which regulations, when reasonably designed to carry out the intent and purposes of this chapter, shall be prima facie evidence of its proper interpretation.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 18, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1982; P.A. 82-325 revised effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. act but without affecting this section.

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      Sec. 12-405m. Chapter not applicable to income earned on or after January 1, 1991. The provisions of this chapter shall not be applicable with respect to any income of any estate for any income year commencing on or after January 1, 1991.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 125, 168.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 125 effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to taxable years of estates commencing on or after January 1, 1991.

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