CHAPTER 205
MUNICIPAL TAX LIENS

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-171. Definitions.
Sec. 12-172. Tax liens; precedence; enforcement.
Sec. 12-173. Certificate continuing lien. Discharge. Valid notice.
Sec. 12-174. Deferred collection.
Sec. 12-175. Further continuance of lien.
Sec. 12-176. Fees of collectors and town clerks.
Sec. 12-177. Certificates continuing tax liens; ordinances in certain large municipalities.
Sec. 12-178. Precedence of School Fund or Agricultural College Fund mortgage.
Sec. 12-179. Discharge of tax liens.
Sec. 12-180. Record of undischarged tax liens.
Sec. 12-181. Foreclosure of tax liens.
Sec. 12-182. Summary foreclosure of tax liens.
Sec. 12-183. Form of petition for summary foreclosure.
Sec. 12-184. Appointment of appraisers.
Sec. 12-185. Withdrawal of property from scope of proceeding.
Sec. 12-186. Publication and notice.
Sec. 12-187. Filing of a bona fide defense.
Sec. 12-188. Presumption of validity.
Sec. 12-189. Right of redemption. Title to vest upon failure to redeem. Certificate of redemption.
Sec. 12-190. Return of tax collector.
Sec. 12-191. Final judgment. Certificate of foreclosure.
Sec. 12-192. Joint foreclosure by two or more municipalities. Costs and fees to be shared.
Sec. 12-193. Costs and fees to be taxed. Reimbursement to taxpayer where error by tax assessor or tax collector.
Sec. 12-194. Entry fee.
Sec. 12-195. Removal of taxes and assessments on real estate acquired by a municipality.
Sec. 12-195a. Personal property tax liens: Definitions.
Sec. 12-195b. Perfection. Priority.
Sec. 12-195c. Notice of lien.
Sec. 12-195d. Effective period of lien. Limitation period.
Sec. 12-195e. Rights and remedies of municipality and taxpayer.
Sec. 12-195f. Validity of liens.
Sec. 12-195g. Discharge.
Sec. 12-195h. Assignment of liens.

      Sec. 12-171. Definitions. Unless the context otherwise requires, "municipality", wherever used in sections 12-172 to 12-177, inclusive, has the same meaning as that given it in section 12-141; "town" includes each town, consolidated town and city, and consolidated town and borough; and "tax" includes (1) each property tax and each installment and part thereof due a municipality as it may have been increased by interest, fees and charges, and (2) each obligation to make a payment in lieu of such tax with respect to any real estate, provided such obligation arises under an agreement made by the owner or owners of such real estate, which agreement shall (A) be in writing, (B) be witnessed and acknowledged as required for a conveyance of land, (C) contain a legally sufficient description of such real estate, (D) describe the nature and extent of the obligation to make such payment in lieu of taxes, (E) expressly grant to the municipality the lien described in this chapter on such real estate to secure such obligation as it becomes due and payable, and (F) be recorded in the land records of the municipality in which such real estate is located.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1852; P.A. 89-361, S. 1, 4.)

      History: P.A. 89-361 redefined "tax" to include Subdiv. (2) concerning payments in lieu of taxes.

      Former statute cited. 131 C. 54.

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      Sec. 12-172. Tax liens; precedence; enforcement. The interest of each person in each item of real estate, which has been legally set in his assessment list, shall be subject to a lien for that part of his taxes laid upon the valuation of such interest, as found in such list when finally completed, as such part may be increased by interest, fees and charges, and a lien for any obligation to make a payment in lieu of any such taxes, as defined in section 12-171. Such lien, unless otherwise specially provided by law, shall exist from the first day of October or other assessment date of the municipality in the year previous to that in which such tax, or the first installment thereof, became due until two years after such tax or first installment thereof became due and, during its existence, shall take precedence of all transfers and encumbrances in any manner affecting such interest in such item, or any part of it. Such lien, during its existence, may be enforced by levy and sale of such real estate if such person has complete title thereto or of his interest in such real estate if he does not have complete title thereto. No sale of real estate for taxes or foreclosure of any lien shall divest the estate sold of any existing lien for other taxes.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1853; P.A. 78-332; P.A. 79-342, S. 10; P.A. 89-361, S. 2, 4; P.A. 07-99, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 78-332 included proceeds payable under fire insurance policy if fire loss exceeds $5,000 in lien for taxes; P.A. 79-342 repealed amendment enacted in 1978 act; P.A. 89-361 included liens for payments in lieu of taxes; P.A. 07-99 increased time period of lien from one to two years after tax or first installment became due, effective October 1, 2007, and applicable to liens filed on or after that date.

      See Sec. 49-73a et seq. re municipal liens on proceeds of fire insurance.

      See Sec. 21-73c re constructive notice of lien.


      Tax paid by mortgagee to protect the estate a charge on the land. 14 C. 32. Voluntary payment of tax not recoverable. 24 C. 88; 30 C. 395; 47 C. 294; 51 C. 259; 108 C. 48; see notes to sections 12-155 and 12-162. Foreclosure, after title has become absolute, is a "transfer". 46 C. 243. Under former statute, lien was good for all owner's taxes, both on realty and personalty, and took precedence of preexisting mortgage, notwithstanding owner had other property subject to levy. 48 C. 243. Owner of equity of redemption acquires no title, by purchase at tax sale, against mortgagee. Id., 395. Land is not rightly listed or liened in name of agent. 59 C. 423. Lien is independent of demand for, or attempt to collect, the tax. Id., 521; 103 C. 261. Land now subject to lien only for tax on itself. 60 C. 117. Under old law, this section simply fixed a time beyond which tax lien shall not have precedence over other liens. 68 C. 294; 87 C. 148. Each piece of property subject to lien only for taxes assessed on it. 74 C. 94; 76 C. 699; 91 C. 336. Cited. 106 C. 547. Cited. 112 C. 654. Tax liens are superior to mortgages and in computing deficiency judgment on foreclosure should be deducted from appraised value. 116 C. 334. Cited. 121 C. 249. Cited. 135 C. 234. Liens had priority over mortgages, judgment lien and tax liens of the United States. 139 C. 363; 155 C. 340. Cited. 196 C. 355. Cited. 210 C. 175.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

      Tax liens entirely statutory; water liens not preferred. 4 CS 431. Lien not choate until rate is set. 19 CS 340.


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      Sec. 12-173. Certificate continuing lien. Discharge. Valid notice. (a) The collector of each municipality, by pursuing the method authorized by either section 12-174 or 12-175, may continue any tax lien existing against any item of real estate to secure the payment of the tax assessed by such municipality thereon or of any obligation to make a payment in lieu of any such tax, as defined in section 12-171, as such tax has been increased by legal interest, fees and charges, by making out and filing, within the time limited by section 12-174 or 12-175, in the office of the town clerk of the town wherein such real estate is situated, a certificate containing the following information: (1) The name of the person against whom such tax appears in the rate bill; (2) a description of such real estate; (3) the principal of such tax due thereon, the amount of which, with interest, if any, and fees and other charges, is secured by such lien; (4) the date or dates when the principal of such tax became due; and (5) a statement giving notice of his intention to file a lien pursuant to sections 12-172 and 49-73a to 49-73i, inclusive, against the proceeds of any policy of insurance providing coverage for loss or damage caused by fire, if a loss or damage has occurred. The town clerk shall record such certificate in the land records. Any tax lien so continued, when the tax has been paid with interest, fees and charges as provided by law, shall be discharged by a certificate of the then collector of taxes. Such certificate of release shall be delivered by such collector to the town clerk, who shall record it in the land records.

      (b) A certificate continuing a tax lien under this section, filed in a timely manner, provides valid notice of the continuance of the lien to a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer if the recorded certificate is sufficient to place a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer on notice of the existence and extent of that lien, notwithstanding any error, irregularity or omission in that certificate. A certificate that erroneously states the amount due provides valid notice to a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer up to the amount stated or the amount actually due, whichever is less.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1854; P.A. 80-207, S. 5, 7; P.A. 89-361, S. 3, 4; P.A. 99-238, S. 2, 8; P.A. 00-84, S. 3, 6.)

      History: P.A. 80-207 added Subdiv. (5) to require that certificate contain statement of intention to file lien against proceeds of insurance covering fire loss or damage; P.A. 89-361 included payments in lieu of taxes; P.A. 99-238 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re validation of certificate continuing a tax lien if certificate provides sufficient notice notwithstanding any error, irregularity or omission, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-84 revised effective date of P.A. 99-238 to specify applicability of section as amended by that act to errors, irregularities and omissions occurring on or after January 1, 1999, effective July 1, 2000.

      See Sec. 7-34a re town clerks' fees generally.

      Certificate for tax assessed on building alone not invalid for including land also. 51 C. 259. Certificate must give data showing correct amount of tax itself. 67 C. 528. Must include all land subject to one tax. 74 C. 94. Certificate must not include tax on personal property. 90 C. 312. Power of legislature to cure invalidity in tax lien by retrospective validating act. Id., 315. Cited. 101 C. 389. Cited. 103 C. 261. Cited. 104 C. 547. Certificate not invalid though written directly into land records by town clerk who subsequently obtained tax collector's signature; tax lien as breach of covenant of warranty. 107 C. 136. Cited. 192 C. 653.

      Cited. 11 CA 308.

      Cited. 38 CS 722.


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      Sec. 12-174. Deferred collection. Any person, as owner in whole or in part of, or fiduciary having control of, or interest in, any real estate, may file with the tax collector, at any time within ninety days from the date when the first installment of a tax, or the whole tax in case installments are not authorized, has become due, and within thirty days from the date when the second or any succeeding installment of a tax, all previous installments of which have been paid, has become due, an affidavit showing in detail the existence of unusual financial or other circumstances which justify deferring collection of the tax laid upon such real estate. On receipt of such affidavit, which shall request that the collection of such tax be deferred, the tax collector shall, with the tax collector's recommendations thereon, refer the same to the selectmen if a town not consolidated with a city or borough, to the common council or mayor and board of aldermen if a city, to the warden and burgesses if a borough or to the governing board if any other municipality, for authority to continue the lien securing such tax for a period not exceeding fifteen years. If action granting such authority is taken within sixty days from the receipt thereof, but not otherwise, the tax collector shall make out and file, within the first year after the first installment of the tax, or the whole tax in case installment payments are not authorized, has become due, a certificate containing the information required in section 12-173, and the town clerk shall record such certificate; provided, (1) the tax collector shall notify the owner of such real estate of the intent to file a lien by mail not later than fifteen days prior to the filing of such lien, and (2) if such affidavit is approved with respect to any installment, the succeeding installments, if any, shall become due and payable from the due date of such installment, and such certificate shall be made out and recorded to secure payment of all unpaid installments of such tax. Failure to notify such owner of the intent to file a lien shall not affect the validity of the lien. Each tax, the lien for which has been continued by certificate under the provisions of this section, shall not be subject to interest as provided by section 12-146. Each lien continued by certificate under the provisions of this section shall be subject to foreclosure at any time, but shall be invalid after the expiration of fifteen years from the date of recording the certificate continuing the same, unless an action of foreclosure has been commenced within such time. After the expiration of such period of fifteen years, if such action has not been commenced, the tax collector then in office shall, upon the request of any interested person, discharge such lien of record by filing a discharge of lien in the office of the town clerk, and the town clerk shall record a discharge of lien in the land records.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1855; P.A. 85-396, S. 1; P.A. 90-117, S. 1.; P.A. 09-213, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 85-396 extended term of the lien from 10 to 15 years; P.A. 90-117 required the collector to notify the owner of the intent to file a lien not later than 15 days prior to filing and provided that the failure to so notify the owner does not affect the validity of the lien; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the Revisors editorially changed the reference in Subdiv. (1) from "not later that fifteen days ..." to "not later than fifteen days ..."; P.A. 09-213 replaced "the town clerk then in office shall discharge such lien of record by noting on the margin thereof the words `Discharged by operation of law', together with the date and his signature" with "the tax collector then in office shall, upon the request of any interested person, discharge such lien of record by filing a discharge of lien in the office of the town clerk, and the town clerk shall record a discharge of lien in the land records" and made technical changes.

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      Sec. 12-175. Further continuance of lien. In addition to the method of procuring the continuance of the lien provided in section 12-174, the tax collector of any municipality may continue any tax lien upon any item of real estate by making out a certificate containing the information required by the provisions of section 12-173. Each certificate authorized by the provisions of this section shall be filed in the office of the town clerk of the town in which such real estate is situated not later than two years after the first installment of the tax, or the whole tax in case installment payments are not authorized, has become due, and the town clerk shall record such certificate in the land records of such town, provided the tax collector shall notify the owner of such real estate of the intent to file a lien by mail not later than fifteen days prior to the filing of such lien. Failure to notify such owner shall not affect the validity of the lien. Each such tax, as it may have been increased by interest, fees and charges provided for by law, shall remain a lien upon such real estate from the date of the filing of such certificate; and any tax lien so continued, when the amount due has been paid, may be discharged by a certificate of the then tax collector recorded in such land records; but any tax lien upon private property which has been recorded in the land records of any town for more than fifteen years from the due date of the tax shall be invalid, and such property shall be free from the encumbrance of such lien, unless an action of foreclosure has been commenced during such period of fifteen years and a notice of lis pendens filed for record, and the tax collector shall, if no such notice has been filed, upon the request of any interested person, discharge such lien of record by filing a discharge of lien in the office of the town clerk, and the town clerk shall record a discharge of lien in the land records.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1856; P.A. 85-396, S. 2; P.A. 90-117, S. 2; P.A. 97-91; P.A. 09-213, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 85-396 extended term of the lien from 10 to 15 years; P.A. 90-117 required the tax collector to notify the owner of the intent to file a lien not later than 15 days prior to filing and provided that the failure to so notify the owner does not affect the validity of the lien; P.A. 97-91 extended the time for filing lien certificates in the office of the town clerk from 1 year to 2 years and specified that start date for 15-year validity of lien is due date of tax; P.A. 09-213 replaced provision re "town clerk" shall discharge lien of record by "noting on the margin of such record the words, `Discharged by operation of law'" with provision re "tax collector" shall discharge lien by "filing a discharge of lien in the office of the town clerk, and the town clerk shall record a discharge of lien in the land records" and made a technical change.

      See Sec. 7-34a re town clerks' fees generally.

      Running of statute of limitations tolled by filing of petition in bankruptcy. 210 C. 175.

      Cited. 11 CA 308. Cited. 22 CA 517.


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      Sec. 12-176. Fees of collectors and town clerks. The fee of the collector for making out each certificate continuing a lien for any tax, the collection of which has been deferred for a period not exceeding fifteen years, and furnishing the information required to be furnished by the provisions of sections 12-173 and 12-174, shall be two dollars. The fee of the collector for making out each certificate continuing a lien for any tax and furnishing the information required to be furnished by the provisions of sections 12-173 and 12-175 shall be three dollars. The fee of the collector for the preparation of a certificate discharging the lien for any tax subject to the provisions of sections 12-171 to 12-175, inclusive, and the filing of the same with the town clerk for record, shall be one dollar. The fees herein provided for, and the fees of town clerks provided for under section 7-34a for the recording of any of such certificates, in each case shall become a part of the tax and shall be collected from the taxpayer in addition to the amount of the tax and interest due thereon. Each collector and each town clerk, whose compensation is not in lieu of fees, shall, at the end of each three months, render a bill to his municipality for all fees to which he is entitled, under the provisions of this section, for continuing, releasing or recording any lien for any tax the collection of which has been deferred for a period not exceeding fifteen years under the provisions of sections 12-173 and 12-174. Each such bill shall, upon approval by the proper authority, be forthwith paid by such municipality.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1857; 1967, P.A. 280; 1971, P.A. 53, S. 1; P.A. 85-396, S. 3.)

      History: 1967 act replaced separate references regarding town clerks' recording fees with single provision referring to town clerks' fees under Sec. 7-34a; 1971 act changed collectors' fees for certificates continuing lien re deferred collection from $1.00 to $2.00, for other certificates continuing lien from $2.00 to $3.00 and changed fees for certificates discharging lien from $0.50 to $1.00; P.A. 85-396 extended term of the lien from 10 to 15 years.

      See Sec. 7-34a re town clerks' fees generally.

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      Sec. 12-177. Certificates continuing tax liens; ordinances in certain large municipalities. Any town having a population of more than one hundred thousand as shown by the last United States census and any municipality coterminous with or within any such town may enact an ordinance, specifying the manner by which certificates continuing tax liens shall, without copying and after binding, be incorporated into the land records of such town, provided, directly after each certificate of continuance of a tax lien, a vacant space shall be left for the release, in due course, of such tax lien. Such ordinance may specify the forms of certificates of continuance and of release of tax liens, the number of such certificates of continuance and of release to appear on each page and the form, method and time of binding of such pages into one or more tax lien books for the land records of such town. Any action so taken may be amended, rescinded or otherwise altered at any time by the enactment of a supplementary ordinance. Each such ordinance shall be a matter of public record and shall not be applicable until thirty days from the date of its enactment. The tax collector or other agency authorized by law of any town or municipality proceeding under this section shall continue tax liens by certificate in the manner and form prescribed by the latest applicable ordinance and shall within the time limited by law, file such certificates with the proper town clerk. The town clerk shall forthwith index such certificates in the index records of his office and shall, if such original certificates are not already bound, bind them into one or more volumes, which shall constitute a part of the land records in his office. While such certificates are being so bound, the reference to any such tax lien in the index records of the office of the town clerk shall constitute a sufficient notice to all parties as to the existence and priority of such lien. Such tax collector or other agency authorized by law shall make out a certificate releasing any such tax lien when the total amount represented by such lien has been paid or otherwise legally disposed of. Each such certificate of release shall be filed with the town clerk, who shall record such release in the space provided therefor directly after the applicable certificate of continuance. All such certificates of release shall be preserved by the town clerk. Except as provided in this section, all provisions of the statutes and of relevant special acts relating to tax liens shall continue to apply to all towns and municipalities.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1859; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 71.)

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      Sec. 12-178. Precedence of School Fund or Agricultural College Fund mortgage. No tax assessed upon property mortgaged to the state of Connecticut to secure a loan from the School Fund or from the Agricultural College Fund shall be a lien upon such property which shall take precedence of any such mortgage.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1860.)

      Quaere, whether "tax" includes benefits assessed. 81 C. 12; see 131 C. 53.

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      Sec. 12-179. Discharge of tax liens. The selectmen of any town, the mayor of any city, the warden of any borough or the chairman of the governing board of any municipal district may discharge any lien filed to secure payment of any tax, a certificate of which has been recorded in the land records, by causing to be recorded in the office of the town clerk a certificate discharging such lien in such land records, if any tax secured by such lien has been duly abated, or if the tax secured by any such lien has been paid and the collector is without authority of law to discharge such lien, or when counsel for any such municipality delivers an opinion in writing showing that he is satisfied that the tax has been paid, though payment has not been credited to the taxpayer, or when such opinion has been delivered by counsel showing that any lien is illegal because the requirements of the statute respecting the same have not been complied with. In each such opinion, the counsel shall state wherein any lien so filed is illegal. Each such discharge shall be signed by a majority of the board of selectmen, the mayor, the warden or the chairman, as the case may be, and shall recite the fact that counsel for the municipality has rendered an opinion respecting such lien in accordance with the provisions of this section. Each opinion showing that any lien is illegal shall be filed with the town clerk of the town wherein such lien is to be so discharged. For recording any such discharge, the town clerk shall receive from the town, city, borough or other municipal district, if his annual compensation is not fixed by law, a fee of fifty cents.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1861.)

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      Sec. 12-180. Record of undischarged tax liens. The record of all undischarged tax liens of each town, city, borough or other municipal district which was required by law to be prepared on or before June 6, 1930, by the tax collector of such municipality shall be kept up to date by such tax collector by the addition thereto of all new certificates and the removal therefrom of all certificates which have been lawfully discharged, and the reasonable cost to him therefor shall be paid by such town, city, borough or municipal district. Such records shall be kept on forms prescribed by the Commissioner of Revenue Services. If any tax collector has failed to prepare such record or fails to keep such record up to date, the Commissioner of Revenue Services may apply to the superior court of the judicial district wherein such town, city, borough or municipal district is situated, or to a judge of said court if said court is not in session, for an order requiring such tax collector to prepare such record or cause the same to be prepared or corrected within a reasonable time, and said court or such judge shall, upon proof of such failure, issue such order, against such tax collector or such other official of such municipality, or both, as may be necessary in order to procure the preparation or correction of such record.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1862; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county".

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      Sec. 12-181. Foreclosure of tax liens. Whenever used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires, "municipality" has the meaning given thereto in section 12-141. The tax collector of any municipality may bring suit for the foreclosure of tax liens in the name of the municipality by which the tax was laid, and all municipalities having tax liens upon the same piece of real estate may join in one complaint for the foreclosure of the same, in which case the amount of the largest unpaid tax shall determine the jurisdiction of the court. If all municipalities having tax liens upon the same piece of real estate do not join in a foreclosure action, any party to such action may petition the court to cite in any or all of such municipalities as may be omitted, and the court shall order such municipality or municipalities to appear in such action and be joined in one complaint. The court in which action is commenced shall continue to have jurisdiction thereof and may dispose of such action in the same manner as if all the municipalities had commenced action by joining in one complaint. If one or more municipalities having one or more tax liens upon the same piece of property are not joined in one action, each of such municipalities shall have the right to petition the court to be made a party plaintiff to such action and have its claims determined in the same action, in which case the same court shall continue to have jurisdiction of the action and shall have the same rights to dispose of such action as if all municipalities had originally joined in the complaint. The court having jurisdiction under the provisions of this section may limit the time for redemption, order the sale of the real estate, determine the relative amount of the undivided interest of each municipality in real estate obtained by absolute foreclosure if two or more municipalities are parties to one foreclosure action or pass such other decree as it judges to be equitable. If one or more municipalities foreclose one or more tax liens on real estate and acquire absolute title thereto and if any other municipality having one or more tax liens upon such real estate at the time such foreclosure title becomes absolute has not, either as plaintiff or defendant, been made a party thereto, the tax liens of each of such other municipalities shall not be thereby invalidated or jeopardized.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1863.)

      Effect of foreclosure. 74 C. 683. One paying tax not subrogated to right to foreclose. 75 C. 372. Court may apply partial payments. 76 C. 699. Cited. 128 C. 552. Cited. 201 C. 1. Cited. 225 C. 211. Cited. 236 C. 710. Deficiency judgment provisions of Sec. 49-14 do not apply to tax lien foreclosure actions brought pursuant to this section. 255 C. 379.

      Cited. 4 CA 460. Cited. 21 CA 275. Although section may preclude invalidation of tax liens, it does not deprive court of subject matter jurisdiction over the cause of action. 61 CA 481.

      Cited. 4 CS 391. Statute is a municipal empowerment statute, not a statutory cause of action. 45 CS 435.


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      Sec. 12-182. Summary foreclosure of tax liens. Whenever used in sections 12-182 to 12-194, inclusive, "municipality" has the meaning given it in section 12-141 and "tax" includes each property tax or assessment and each installment and part thereof due a municipality, with any interest or other lawful charges incident thereto. In addition to other remedies provided by law, the tax collector of any municipality may bring in its name an action in the nature of an action in rem to foreclose a tax lien or liens on real estate the fair market value of which, in his judgment, is less than the total of the amounts due upon the tax liens and other encumbrances upon the property so liened and is not more than one hundred thousand dollars with respect to any one parcel. No judgment shall be rendered in such proceeding for the recovery of a personal judgment against the owner of the property subject to such lien or liens or any person having an interest therein.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1864; P.A. 83-173, S. 1; P.A. 97-320, S. 7, 11; P.A. 02-137, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 83-173 increased limit from $5,000 to $20,000; P.A. 97-320 increased fair market value limit to $50,000, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 02-137 increased fair market value limit to $100,000.

      Cited. 201 C. 1. Cited. 236 C. 710.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.


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      Sec. 12-183. Form of petition for summary foreclosure. The tax collector may, by his attorney, not more than twice in each calendar year, file in the office of the clerk of the superior court for the judicial district in which the property is situated, a petition in the name of the municipality for the foreclosure of any tax lien or liens on the respective properties so liened, and may include in one petition any number of such properties, each of which shall be numbered serially. Such petition shall be addressed to the court, as above stated, and shall be substantially in the following form: "The .... of ...., acting by its tax collector hereunto subscribing, herewith submits a list of properties located in the .... of .... upon which are liens for unpaid taxes and states that in his judgment the fair market value of each of such properties is not more than one hundred thousand dollars and such value is less than the total amount due upon tax liens and other encumbrances thereon." A list of the various parcels of property sought to be foreclosed shall follow, containing, as to each parcel, the following information: (a) A description sufficient to identify each parcel affected by any such tax lien. The latest description of such parcel as appears of record shall be considered a sufficient description and, in all cases in which such parcel can be further identified by a known street address, such address shall be included in the description; (b) the name, residence and, if known, the address of the owner or owners of such parcel as they appear on the most recent assessment list of the taxing district wherein such property is located; (c) the principal of such tax due thereon, the amount of which, with interest, if any, and the fees and other charges, is secured by such lien and the date or dates when the principal of such tax becomes due; (d) the name, residence and, if known, the address, of each present record holder of any interest in, or encumbrance on, such liened property and the nature and amount thereof, as disclosed by the land records; (e) the last day of the period during which such property may be redeemed, which shall be the last day of the fourth month after the month in which the list is filed in court. Such petition shall be verified by the oath of the tax collector that the information contained therein is true to the best of his knowledge and belief.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1865; P.A. 76-436, S. 307, 681; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; P.A. 83-173, S. 2; P.A. 97-320, S. 8, 11; P.A. 02-137, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to court of common pleas and added reference to judicial districts, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; P.A. 83-173 increased limit from $5,000 to $20,000 and reduced redemption time from seven to four months; P.A. 97-320 revised form to change maximum value of property from $20,000 to $50,000, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 02-137 increased fair market value limit to $100,000 and provided that the tax collector may file petitions twice in each calendar year rather than once a year.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-184. Appointment of appraisers. Upon the filing of any such petition in court, the clerk shall record the date of its receipt thereon and promptly bring the same to the attention of the court, or any judge thereof, who shall, within two weeks from the filing date, appoint two qualified and disinterested appraisers to appraise such real estate being foreclosed and report to said court the fair market value of each liened parcel appearing in such petition. Such appraisers shall file their report in duplicate with the court, or any judge thereof, within thirty days from the date of their appointment, identifying each parcel listed in such petition by its serial number. The court, or any judge thereof, in its or his discretion, may grant a reasonable extension of said thirty-day period only upon due cause being shown. When their report has been returned to and accepted by the court, it, or any judge thereof, shall determine the compensation to be paid to each of them and, if more than one municipality has joined in the proceeding, the part of such compensation each shall pay. The clerk of the court shall certify the amounts of compensation to be paid by each municipality to its treasurer, who shall pay the same. The filing of such petition in the office of the clerk of the court shall constitute the beginning of an action for the foreclosure of the tax lien or liens upon each of the parcels of real estate described.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1866.)

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-185. Withdrawal of property from scope of proceeding. If the report of the appraisers shows that the fair market value of any parcel of property listed in such petition is greater than the total of the amounts due upon the tax lien or liens and the recorded principal amounts of all other encumbrances thereon or is more than one hundred thousand dollars, the clerk shall write the word "Withdrawn" opposite the item of property on the list and thereafter such property shall not be within the scope of the proceeding.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1867; P.A. 83-173, S. 3; P.A. 97-320, S. 9, 11; P.A. 02-137, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 83-173 increased limit from $5,000 to $20,000; P.A. 97-320 increased lien limit to $50,000, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 02-137 increased fair market value amount from more than $50,000 to more than $100,000.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-186. Publication and notice. When the list has been thus marked, the clerk shall immediately give notice in writing to the tax collector of such fact and the tax collector shall, within one week of receipt of such notice, give notice of the pendency of the petition for foreclosure by causing a copy of the petition, with the parcels so marked "Withdrawn" deleted therefrom, to be published at least once in a newspaper having a general circulation in the municipality where the properties listed are located. Such notice shall be preceded by the following statement: "Notice of petition of foreclosure of tax liens by the collector of ..... Under the provisions of section 12-182 an action has been brought and is pending in the superior court for the judicial district of .... to foreclose tax liens upon the properties described below. No personal judgment will be rendered in such proceeding for the payment of such taxes against the owner or any person having an interest in any of such properties. All persons having or claiming an interest in any of them are hereby notified of the pendency of the action. With the exception of any properties withdrawn from said proceeding in accordance with the provisions of sections 12-185 and 12-187, the right, title or interest of any person in any of said properties will be foreclosed unless the amounts due upon the tax lien or liens against the same, with any interest, fees and other charges thereon which have accrued since the bringing of the action, shall be paid before the expiration of the period designated therein for the redemption of such property." The tax collector shall, on or before the date of publication of the notice, cause a copy of such notice to be filed in the office of the town clerk of the town in which the property is situated and such filing shall have the same force and effect as the filing of a notice of lis pendens in accordance with the provisions of section 52-325 and such notice shall be kept by the town clerk as part of the land records and be indexed in the same manner as a lis pendens as to the property being foreclosed and the names of the owners thereof or of any interest therein or encumbrances thereon as recited in such petition. The tax collector shall also, within such time, post a copy of such notice in some conspicuous place in the office of the town clerk and in his own office and shall cause a notice of the pendency of such action to be sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, to the owner or owners of each of such properties and of any encumbrance thereon or interest therein, as they appear in such petition, directed to the best address of each that he is able to obtain from known and readily available sources, including city directories.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1868; 1949, S. 1081d; P.A. 76-435, S. 64, 82; 76-436, S. 308, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 4, 72; P.A. 78-280, S. 21, 127.)

      History: P.A. 76-435 substituted "52-325" for "52-235"; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 included reference to judicial districts, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-187. Filing of a bona fide defense. The owner or any person having an interest in or encumbrance on any piece of property may, at any time at least three months before the last day of the redemption period, file in the office of the clerk of said court a bona fide defense, verified under oath, in duplicate, to the proceeding in respect to such property, identifying the same by its serial number, and, if the court is satisfied that the defense stated is a bona fide defense, it shall direct the clerk to write opposite the description of the property in the list the word "Withdrawn", and thereafter such property shall not be within the scope of the proceeding.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1869.)

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-188. Presumption of validity. It shall not be necessary for any municipality to plead or prove the various steps, procedures and notices for the assessment and levy of the taxes, assessments or other lawful charges against the properties included in the judgment rendered in the proceeding, but such taxes, assessments or other lawful charges and the corresponding liens thereof shall be presumed to be valid.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1870.)

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-189. Right of redemption. Title to vest upon failure to redeem. Certificate of redemption. Any person, including the state or a municipality, other than the one foreclosing, having any title to or interest in any property described in such list, may redeem such parcel by the payment of the amounts due upon tax liens thereon as stated in the list, with the addition of such interest, lien fees and other charges thereon as have accrued since the filing of the petition, before the expiration of the period fixed for redemption. In the event of a failure to redeem the property within the period allowed, the owner of any piece of land not marked "Withdrawn", as hereinbefore provided, and all parties and their respective heirs, successors, assigns, executors, administrators, guardians, conservators, representatives, trustees and successors in title, including any municipality not joined in the proceeding, having any interest therein shall be barred and forever foreclosed of their rights, title and interest in and to such property. Upon the redemption of any such parcel of property, the person redeeming shall be entitled to a certificate, in triplicate, that it has been redeemed, signed by the tax collector of the municipality to which the taxes are due, describing the property in the same manner in which it is described in the list, and reciting his name, together with the names of any other parties having an interest in such parcel, with the date and the amount of the payment made by him to effect such redemption. Such certificate shall be filed for record with the town clerk and with the clerk of the court and, upon the filing of such certificate with the latter, he shall note such redemption, stating the name of the person redeeming and the amount and date of such payment opposite the description of the property on the list.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1871.)

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-190. Return of tax collector. Not less than one week before the last day of redemption the tax collector shall file with the clerk of the court a return under oath with respect to his doings concerning the provisions of publication and notice required by section 12-186.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1872.)

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-191. Final judgment. Certificate of foreclosure. Upon the expiration of the period for redemption, the court shall make a final judgment of the foreclosure of the tax lien or liens upon any such properties not withdrawn or redeemed and direct that possession of such property be given to the municipality or municipalities having the lien or liens thereon. Upon the rendition of such judgment, all persons having any right, title or interest in or to such properties shall be forever barred and foreclosed of their rights therein. The tax collector shall, thereupon, sign and file in the office of the town clerk for record a separate certificate of foreclosure as to each of such properties, describing it as it appears as listed in the petition. Such certificate shall be substantially as follows:

      "To all whom it may concern: This certifies that a tax lien (or liens) for unpaid taxes due the .... of .... upon property standing upon the land records of the town of .... in the name of .... and described as follows: .... was foreclosed upon petition of said .... of .... filed in the superior court for the judicial district of .... under the provisions of section 12-183 on the .... day of ...., 20.., no person having a right, title or interest in said property having redeemed the same and that title to said property has become absolute in said .... of .....

      Dated at .... this .... day of ...., 20...

      .... Tax Collector."


      (1949 Rev., S. 1873; P.A. 76-436, S. 309, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 5, 72; P.A. 78-280, S. 22, 127.)

      History: P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to court of common pleas, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 included reference to judicial districts, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; (Revisor's note: In 2001 the references in this section to the date "19.." were changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-192. Joint foreclosure by two or more municipalities. Costs and fees to be shared. If two or more municipalities have tax liens against any of such properties, they may join in the proceeding. Upon foreclosure in such a case, the court shall decree that each municipality has an undivided interest in such property in proportion to the amount due upon the tax lien or liens it has against it, plus any interest, lien fees and other charges which have accrued upon them since the bringing of the petition. In the event of such joinder, the entry fee, judgment fee and costs of publication shall be shared by the municipalities foreclosing in proportion to the amount of taxes, interest and other charges due each municipality. Any court costs, appraiser's fees or attorney's fees which are recovered in accordance with section 12-193, shall also be shared by the municipalities in proportion to the amount of taxes, interest and other charges due to each such municipality.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1874; P.A. 75-73, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-73 required sharing of court costs, appraisers fees or attorneys fees recovered by municipalities having tax liens against property.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-193. Costs and fees to be taxed. Reimbursement to taxpayer where error by tax assessor or tax collector. Court costs, reasonable appraiser's fees, and reasonable attorney's fees incurred by a municipality as a result of any foreclosure action brought pursuant to section 12-181 or 12-182 and directly related thereto shall be taxed in any such proceeding against any person or persons having title to any property so foreclosed and may be collected by the municipality once a foreclosure action has been brought pursuant to section 12-181 or 12-182. A municipality shall reimburse a taxpayer for the costs of state marshal fees or any property seized if the court finds that such costs were incurred because of an error by the tax assessor or tax collector and not as the result of any action or failure on the part of the taxpayer.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1875; P.A. 75-73, S. 1; P.A. 84-282, S. 2; P.A. 88-153, S. 1, 2; P.A. 07-50, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 75-73 reversed previous provision which forbade charging costs against persons having title to or interest in property and specifically made provisions applicable to foreclosure actions; P.A. 84-282 specified section is applicable to any foreclosure action brought pursuant to Sec. 12-181 or 12-182; P.A. 88-153 authorized collection of costs associated with foreclosure by the municipality once a foreclosure action has been brought pursuant to Sec. 12-181 or 12-182; P.A. 07-50 added provision re reimbursement to taxpayer if court finds error by the tax assessor or tax collector.

      Cited. 201 C. 1. Cited. 236 C. 710.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.


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      Sec. 12-194. Entry fee. A single entry fee of twenty-five dollars shall be paid to the clerk of the court by each municipality filing a petition under the provisions of section 12-183.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1876; 1969, P.A. 374, S. 1.)

      History: 1969 act increased entry fee from $7 to $25 and deleted provision re judgment fee of $10 paid by municipality upon foreclosure judgment.

      Cited. 21 CA 275.

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      Sec. 12-195. Removal of taxes and assessments on real estate acquired by a municipality. When any municipality acquires real estate by foreclosure, including foreclosure by sale or auction, or by deed in lieu of foreclosure, of a tax or an assessment lien or liens thereon, the right to accept which deed is hereby granted to municipalities, the tax collector, upon proper notice of the recording of the certificate of foreclosure of the real estate so acquired or the recording of such deed in lieu of foreclosure, shall enter or cause to be entered in his books against the unpaid tax or assessment account of such real estate, the one of the following notations which the case may require: "Acquired by Foreclosure", "Acquired by deed in lieu of Foreclosure", which notation shall be completed by a statement of the day, month and year of the acquisition of such real estate. Immediately after such entry in his books against such unpaid account, the tax collector shall file for record, in the town clerk's office in the town in which such property is located, a release of such lien or liens on such real estate then on record in such office. The acquisition of such real estate by the municipality shall be deemed a cancellation by such municipality of all of its claims against the tax collector for unpaid taxes and assessments, interest or lien fees assessed against such real estate. The real estate so acquired shall be held free of any taxes or assessments levied by the municipality which has acquired it until such real estate is sold. Upon the sale of such acquired real estate by the municipality, the proceeds thereof remaining after payment of the expenses of such sale shall be deposited in the general treasury of the municipality.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1877; P.A. 98-35, S. 1, 2.)

      History: P.A. 98-35 added foreclosure by sale or auction, effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 12-195a. Personal property tax liens: Definitions. As used in sections 12-195a to 12-195g, inclusive, unless the context requires otherwise:

      (a) "Goods" means goods as defined in subdivision (44) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102;

      (b) "Proceeds" means proceeds as defined in subdivision (64) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102;

      (c) "Debtor" means taxpayer;

      (d) "Secured party" means municipality;

      (e) "Collateral" means property which is the subject of the lien;

      (f) "Obligations" means amount of tax and accrued interest claimed to be due by the municipality by the lien;

      (g) "Default" means the date of filing of notice of a tax lien;

      (h) "Person" means any individual, trust, partnership, association, company, limited liability company or corporation;

      (i) "Purchase money security interest" means purchase money security interest as defined in section 42a-9-103a.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 1; P.A. 77-604, S. 44, 84; P.A. 95-79, S. 25, 189; P.A. 01-132, S. 158.)

      History: P.A. 77-604 redefined "goods" by substituting Subdiv. "(h)" for Subdiv. (f); P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 01-132 replaced Sec. 42a-9-105(1)(h) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(44) as the statutory reference for the definition of "goods", replaced Sec. 42a-9-306(1) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(64) as the statutory reference for the definition of "proceeds" and replaced Sec. 42a-9-107 with Sec. 42a-9-103a as the statutory reference for the definition of "purchase money security interest".

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      Sec. 12-195b. Perfection. Priority. (a) If any personal property tax, other than a tax on a motor vehicle, due any municipality is not paid within the time limited by any local charter or ordinance, or in the event that the municipality, following the assessment date for such tax, has reason to believe that such tax will not be paid when due, the municipality shall have a lien, upon perfection as hereinafter provided, upon the goods situated in this state and owned by the taxpayer upon the date of perfection, or upon the goods thereafter acquired by the taxpayer. Such lien shall attach and become perfected at the time when notice of such lien is filed pursuant to the filing provisions of part 5 of article 9 of title 42a, except that the signature of the taxpayer against whose property the lien is claimed shall not be required on said notice of lien and, in each case, the notice of lien shall be filed as if the debtor were located in this state. Except as hereinafter provided, upon perfection, such lien shall have priority over all subsequently perfected liens and security interests. Such lien shall not attach to or be applicable to proceeds.

      (b) On and after July 1, 1999, and except as otherwise provided by law, a notice of lien upon personal property for taxes payable to a municipality shall, once perfected under part 5 of article 9 of title 42a, have priority over all previously perfected liens and security interests and other encumbrances of record under the Connecticut Uniform Commercial Code. If more than one municipality perfects such a notice of lien on the same day, the priority of such liens shall be determined by the time of day such liens were perfected, and if perfected at the same time, the lien for the highest tax amount shall take precedence. As used in this section, "municipality" means any town, consolidated town and city, consolidated town and borough, borough, district, as defined in section 7-324, and any city not consolidated with a town.

      (c) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to create any implication related to the priority of a lien perfected on or before June 30, 1999.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 2; P.A. 99-283, S. 7, 10; P.A. 01-132, S. 159.)

      History: P.A. 99-283 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added new Subsecs. (b) and (c) giving perfected personal property tax liens priority over all previously perfected liens, security interests and other recorded encumbrances, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 01-132 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that "in each case, the notice of lien shall be filed as if the debtor were located in this state" and replaced references to "part 4" with "part 5" of article 9 of title 42a in Subsecs. (a) and (b).

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      Sec. 12-195c. Notice of lien. Each such notice of lien shall contain such information as will identify (a) the owner of the property upon which the lien is claimed, (b) the residence or business address of such owner, (c) the specific property claimed to be subject to such lien, (d) the location of such property, (e) the amount of tax and accrued interest claimed due the municipality by said lien, (f) the tax year or years for which such lien is claimed, and (g) the municipality claiming the lien.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 12-195d. Effective period of lien. Limitation period. The lien shall be effective for a period of fifteen years from the date of filing unless discharged as provided in section 12-195g. A notice of tax lien shall not be effective if filed more than two years from the date of assessment for the taxes claimed to be due.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 4; P.A. 85-396, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 85-396 extended term of the lien from 10 to 15 years.

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      Sec. 12-195e. Rights and remedies of municipality and taxpayer. A municipality which has filed a notice of tax lien and the taxpayer against whom said lien has been filed, shall have the rights and remedies of a secured party and debtor, respectively, as provided for in sections 42a-9-601 to 42a-9-628, inclusive, except that the municipality shall not have the right to propose to retain any property in satisfaction of the obligation as provided in section 42a-9-620. In proceeding to enforce said lien, the municipality shall observe the procedures applicable to a secured party under sections 42a-9-601 to 42a-9-628, inclusive.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 5; P.A. 01-132, S. 160.)

      History: P.A. 01-132 replaced references to Secs. 42a-9-501 to 42a-9-507, inclusive, with Secs. 42a-9-601 to 42a-9-628, inclusive, and replaced reference to Sec. 42a-9-505 with Sec. 42a-9-620.

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      Sec. 12-195f. Validity of liens. Even though notice of a lien has been filed by a municipality, such lien shall not be valid:

      (1) With respect to a security interest which came into existence after tax lien filing but which (A) is in qualified property covered by the terms of a written agreement entered into before tax lien filing and constituting (i) a commercial transactions financing agreement, or (ii) an obligatory disbursement agreement, and (B) is protected under the laws of the state of Connecticut against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation. (C) For purposes of this section, (i) the term "commercial transactions financing agreement" means an agreement, entered into by a person in the course of such person's trade or business, to make loans to the taxpayer, part or all of the security for repayment of said loans being inventory acquired by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of such taxpayer's trade or business, but such an agreement shall be treated as coming within the term only to the extent that such loan is made before the forty-sixth day after the date of tax lien filing or before the lender had actual notice or knowledge of such tax lien filing, whichever is earlier. (ii) The term "qualified property", when used with respect to a commercial transactions financing agreement, means inventory acquired by the taxpayer before the forty-sixth day after the date of tax lien filing. (iii) The term "obligatory disbursement agreement" means an agreement, entered into by a person in the course of such person's trade or business, to make disbursements, but such an agreement shall be treated as coming within the term only to the extent of disbursements which are required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of a person other than the taxpayer. (iv) The term "qualified property", when used with respect to an obligatory disbursement agreement, means property subject to the lien imposed by sections 12-195a to 12-195g, inclusive, at the time of tax lien filing and, to the extent that the acquisition is directly traceable to the disbursements referred to in subparagraph (iii), property acquired by the taxpayer after tax lien filing. (v) The term "inventory" when used in this section means inventory as defined in subdivision (48) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102;

      (2) With respect to a security interest which came into existence after tax lien filing by reason of disbursements made before the forty-sixth day after the date of tax lien filing, or before the person making such disbursements had actual notice or knowledge of tax lien filing, whichever is earlier, but only if such security interest (A) is in property (i) subject, at the time of tax lien filing, to the lien imposed by sections 12-195a to 12-195g, inclusive, and (ii) covered by the terms of a written agreement entered into before tax lien filing, and (B) is protected under the laws of the state of Connecticut against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation;

      (3) With respect to tangible personal property purchased at retail, as against a purchaser in the ordinary course of the seller's trade or business, unless at the time of such purchase such purchaser intends such purchase to, or knows such purchase will, hinder, evade, or defeat the collection of any tax under said sections;

      (4) With respect to a purchase money security interest, if said purchase money security interest would be prior to a conflicting security interest in the same collateral under sections 42a-9-322 and 42a-9-324.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 6; P.A. 96-180, S. 24, 166; P.A. 01-132, S. 161.)

      History: P.A. 96-180 made technical relettering and renumbering changes to conform Subdivs., Subparas. and clauses with customary statutory usage, effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 01-132 amended Subdiv. (1) to replace Sec. 42a-9-109(4) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(48) as the statutory reference for the definition of "inventory" and make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality and amended Subdiv. (4) to replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-312 with Secs. 42a-9-322 and 42a-9-324.

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      Sec. 12-195g. Discharge. If any lien created under sections 12-195a to 12-195g, inclusive, shall be discharged, then a certificate of discharge shall promptly be filed by the tax collector of the municipality which originally filed the notice of lien, or by the tax collector's successor with the Uniform Commercial Code Division of the office of the Secretary of the State in the same manner as termination statements are filed under section 42a-9-513. The municipal officer who has filed the notice of lien shall file a notice of discharge of the lien in the manner provided in this section if: A. The taxes for which the lien has been filed are fully paid together with all interest due thereon or; B. a cash bond or surety company bond is furnished to the municipality conditioned upon the payment of the amount liened together with interest due thereon within the effective period of the lien as hereinbefore provided or; C. a final judgment shall be rendered in favor of the taxpayer or others claiming an interest in the personal property liened determining that the tax is not owed, or that the lien is not valid. If the judgment shall determine that the tax is partially owed, then the officer who filed the notice of lien or the officer's successor shall within ten days of the rendition of the final judgment of the court file an amended tax lien for the actual amount of tax found to be due by the court, which amended lien shall be effective as to the revised amount of the lien as of the date of the filing of the original notice of tax lien, and said officer or said officer's successor at the time of the filing of the amended tax lien shall also file a discharge of the original tax lien.

      (1971, P.A. 722, S. 7; P.A. 01-132, S. 162.)

      History: P.A. 01-132 replaced reference to Sec. 42a-9-404 with Sec. 42a-9-513 and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality.

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      Sec. 12-195h. Assignment of liens. Any municipality, by resolution of its legislative body, as defined in section 1-1, may assign, for consideration, any and all liens filed by the tax collector to secure unpaid taxes on real property as provided under the provisions of this chapter. The consideration received by the municipality shall be negotiated between the municipality and the assignee. The assignee or assignees of such liens shall have and possess the same powers and rights at law or in equity as such municipality and municipality's tax collector would have had if the lien had not been assigned with regard to the precedence and priority of such lien, the accrual of interest and the fees and expenses of collection. The assignee shall have the same rights to enforce such liens as any private party holding a lien on real property.

      (P.A. 93-434, S. 19, 20.)

      History: P.A. 93-434 effective June 30, 1993.

      Change in marital status affecting ownership is not by itself good cause to open foreclosure judgment based on change in circumstances. 52 CA 52.

      Assignee succeeds only to the assignor municipality's enforcement right empowered by Sec. 12-181, and not to the municipality's other authorized collection methods. 45 CS 435.


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