Sec. 1-1. Words and phrases. Construction of statutes. (a) In the construction of
the statutes, words and phrases shall be construed according to the commonly approved
usage of the language; and technical words and phrases, and such as have acquired a
peculiar and appropriate meaning in the law, shall be construed and understood accordingly.
(b) The phrase "railroad company" shall be construed to mean and include all corporations, trustees, receivers or other persons, that lay out, construct, maintain or operate a railroad, unless such meaning would be repugnant to the context or to the manifest intention of the General Assembly.
(c) The term "banks" shall include all incorporated banks.
(d) The term "savings banks" shall include savings banks, societies for savings and savings societies.
(e) The term "public buildings" shall include a statehouse, courthouse, townhouse, arsenal, magazine, prison, community correctional center, almshouse, market or other building belonging to the state, or to any town, city or borough in the state, and any church, chapel, meetinghouse or other building generally used for religious worship, and any college, academy, schoolhouse or other building generally used for literary instruction.
(f) Words importing the singular number may extend and be applied to several persons or things, and words importing the plural number may include the singular.
(g) Words importing the masculine gender may be applied to females and words importing the feminine gender may be applied to males.
(h) Words purporting to give a joint authority to several persons shall be construed as giving authority to a majority of them.
(i) The word "month" shall mean a calendar month, and the word "year" a calendar year, unless otherwise expressed.
(j) The word "oath" shall include affirmations in cases where by law an affirmation may be used for an oath, and, in like cases, the word "swear" shall include the word "affirm".
(k) The words "person" and "another" may extend and be applied to communities, companies, corporations, public or private, limited liability companies, societies and associations.
(l) The words "preceding", "following" and "succeeding", when used by way of reference to any section or sections, shall mean the section or sections next preceding, next following or next succeeding, unless some other section is expressly designated in such reference.
(m) Except as provided in section 7-452, the words "legislative body", as applied to unconsolidated towns, shall mean the town meeting; as applied to cities and consolidated towns and cities, shall mean the board of aldermen, council or other body charged with the duty of making annual appropriations; as applied to boroughs and consolidated towns and boroughs, shall mean the board of burgesses; as applied to all other districts and associations, shall mean the district committee or association committee or other body charged with the duty of making annual appropriations.
(n) "Ordinance" shall mean an enactment under the provisions of section 7-157.
(o) "Voters" shall mean those persons qualified to vote under the provisions of section 7-6.
(p) Repealed by P.A. 76-186.
(q) Except as otherwise specifically defined, the words "agriculture" and "farming" shall include cultivation of the soil, dairying, forestry, raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training and management of livestock, including horses, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals and wildlife, and the raising or harvesting of oysters, clams, mussels, other molluscan shellfish or fish; the operation, management, conservation, improvement or maintenance of a farm and its buildings, tools and equipment, or salvaging timber or cleared land of brush or other debris left by a storm, as an incident to such farming operations; the production or harvesting of maple syrup or maple sugar, or any agricultural commodity, including lumber, as an incident to ordinary farming operations or the harvesting of mushrooms, the hatching of poultry, or the construction, operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs or waterways used exclusively for farming purposes; handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing or delivering to storage or to market, or to a carrier for transportation to market, or for direct sale any agricultural or horticultural commodity as an incident to ordinary farming operations, or, in the case of fruits and vegetables, as an incident to the preparation of such fruits or vegetables for market or for direct sale. The term "farm" includes farm buildings, and accessory buildings thereto, nurseries, orchards, ranges, greenhouses, hoophouses and other temporary structures or other structures used primarily for the raising and, as an incident to ordinary farming operations, the sale of agricultural or horticultural commodities. The term "aquaculture" means the farming of the waters of the state and tidal wetlands and the production of protein food, including fish, oysters, clams, mussels and other molluscan shellfish, on leased, franchised and public underwater farm lands. Nothing herein shall restrict the power of a local zoning authority under chapter 124.
(r) Definition of felony and misdemeanor repealed by 1969, P.A. 828, S. 214.
(s) When a statute repealing another is afterwards repealed, the first shall not be revived without express words to that effect.
(t) The repeal of an act shall not affect any punishment, penalty or forfeiture incurred before the repeal takes effect, or any suit, or prosecution, or proceeding pending at the time of the repeal, for an offense committed, or for the recovery of a penalty or forfeiture incurred under the act repealed.
(u) The passage or repeal of an act shall not affect any action then pending.
(v) All provisions of the statutes relating to annual town meetings or elections shall be applicable to biennial meetings or elections unless a contrary intent appears.
(w) "Correctional institution", "state prison", "community correctional center" or "jail" means a correctional facility administered by the Commissioner of Correction.
(x) Whenever a title which denotes gender is applied to an individual the title shall suit the gender of the individual.
(y) "Deposit account" includes a share account of a savings and loan association.
(z) If a statute refers to another statute of this state, the reference includes any amendments to the referenced statute unless a contrary intent is clearly expressed.
(1949 Rev., S. 3639, 8873, 8890; 1955, S. 1700d, 1701d; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 1; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 78; 152, S. 1; 1961, P.A. 130, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 642, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 152, S. 9, 10; 1969, P.A. 297; 828, S. 214; 1971, P.A. 154, S. 1; P.A. 73-436; P.A. 74-127; P.A. 75-366; P.A. 76-186; P.A. 78-121, S. 87, 113; P.A. 81-269; P.A. 86-186, S. 1; P.A. 87-282, S. 1; P.A. 90-24; P.A. 92-26; P.A. 95-79, S. 1, 189; P.A. 96-77, S. 15, 17; P.A. 01-20, S. 1; P.A. 09-57, S. 2.)
History: 1959 acts repealed definition of municipal courts and eliminated "county" from the definition of public buildings; 1961 act added definitions of "penal institutions" and "correctional institutions"; 1963 act eliminated "work house" from the definition of public buildings; 1967 act redefined "penal institutions" and "correctional institutions"; 1969 P.A. 297 redefined "correctional institutions" and P.A. 828 repealed the definition of "felonies" and "misdemeanors," effective October 1, 1971; 1971 act redefined "correction institutions"; P.A. 73-436 added Subsec. (x); P.A. 74-127 amended Subsec. (g) to provide that words which imply feminine gender also apply to males; P.A. 75-366 expanded and clarified the definitions of "agriculture" and "farming"; P.A. 76-186 repealed Subsec. (p) defining "page"; P.A. 78-121 added definition of "deposit account"; P.A. 81-269 amended Subsec. (q) by expanding the definition of agriculture to include the raising or harvesting of shellfish and by defining aquaculture; P.A. 86-186 amended Subsec. (w) to reflect restructuring of Connecticut Correctional Institution, Enfield as Connecticut Correctional Institution, Enfield-Medium, and Connecticut Correctional Institution, Enfield-Minimum, to add the Connecticut Correctional Center, Cheshire and to change the name of the Connecticut Correctional Institution, Cheshire to the John R. Manson Youth Institution, Cheshire; P.A. 87-282 amended Subsec. (w) to change the name of the Connecticut Correctional Institution, Enfield-Minimum to the Carl Robinson Correctional Institution, Enfield; P.A. 90-24 redefined "correctional institutions" in Subsec. (w) by deleting reference to "Connecticut Correctional Camp, Portland" and by adding reference to the Eddy/DWI Correctional Unit, Middletown; the Hartell/DWI Correctional Unit, Windsor Locks; the J.B. Gates Correctional Unit, Niantic; the Jennings Road Detention Center, Hartford; the Morgan Street Detention Center, Hartford; the Union Avenue Detention Center, New Haven; the Western Substance Abuse Treatment Unit, Newtown, and made certain other technical changes; P.A. 92-26 redefined "agriculture" and "aquaculture" to include the raising or harvesting of fish and expanded the definition of "farm" to include hoophouses and other temporary structures; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" and "another" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 96-77 amended Subsec. (k) to reposition "limited liability companies"; P.A. 01-20 amended Subsec. (w) to replace provisions defining "correctional institutions" and listing by name the correctional institutions, youth institutions, correctional centers, community correctional centers, detention centers, correctional units and substance abuse treatment units included within that definition and provisions construing "State Prison", "State Prison for Women", "jail" or "jails", "Connecticut Reformatory" and "The Connecticut State Farm for Women" with provision that "correctional institution", "state prison", "community correctional center" or "jail" means a correctional facility administered by the Commissioner of Correction; P.A. 09-57 added Subsec. (z) re construction of statutory references, effective May 20, 2009.
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Sec. 1-1j. Methods of payment for licenses, fees, costs or fines. (a) Each state
agency, as defined in section 4-166, shall accept payment in cash or by check, draft or
money order for any license issued by such agency pursuant to the provisions of the
(b) Except as otherwise provided by the general statutes, the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management may authorize any state agency (1) to accept payment of any fee, cost or fine payable to such agency by means of a credit card, charge card or debit card, or an electronic payment service, and (2) to charge a service fee for any such payment made by credit card, charge card or debit card or an electronic payment service. Such service fee shall be (A) related to the cost of service, (B) uniform for all credit cards, charge cards and debit cards accepted, and (C) applied only when allowed by the operating rules and regulations of the credit card, charge card or debit card issuer or processor involved or when authorized in writing by such issuer or processor. Payments by credit card, charge card, debit card or an electronic payment service shall be made at such times and under such conditions as the secretary may prescribe in regulations adopted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. Payment of a fee, cost or fine by credit card, charge card, debit card or an electronic payment service shall constitute full payment of such fee, regardless of any discount applied by a credit card company.
(May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 86, 117; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-1, S. 2, 51; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 55.)
History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-1 added provisions concerning payment of license fees with a credit card, charge card or debit card, effective July 1, 1999; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 designated existing provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (b) and amended Subsec. (b) to authorize state agencies to accept payment of any fee, cost or fine by credit card, charge card, debit card or electronic payment service, effective October 5, 2009.
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Sec. 1-1m. Applicability of marriage terms. Wherever in the general statutes or
the public acts the term "husband", "wife", "groom", "bride", "widower" or "widow"
is used, such term shall be deemed to include one party to a marriage between two
persons of the same sex.
(P.A. 09-13, S. 8.)
History: P.A. 09-13 effective April 23, 2009.
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