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EDUCATION - SPECIAL; EDUCATION - SPECIAL - FINANCE;

OLR Research Report


January 22, 2009

 

2009-R-0039

SPECIAL EDUCATION MANDATES AND FUNDING

By: Judith Lohman, Chief Analyst

You asked (1) what special education services school districts must provide, (2) what laws require districts to provide the services, (3) for a summary of special education process requirements, and (4) what special education funding towns and school districts receive from the federal and state governments. This report updates information in OLR Report 2005-R-0892.

SUMMARY

Special education is mandated by both state and federal law. Though Connecticut's special education law predates the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) by seven years, the federal law currently controls. Special education laws do not consist of a series of specific mandates. Rather, they establish broad requirements that school districts identify children with disabilities that affect their educational performance and provide them with a “free and appropriate public education” tailored to their individual needs. Federal and state laws and regulations also impose procedural requirements for implementing the overarching mandate.

State and federal laws give children the right to special education. Schools must take certain procedural steps to protect this right, and must give parents a copy of the steps when (1) a child is first referred for evaluation or testing, (2) a parent is invited to a planning and placement team meeting to talk about the child's individualized education plan, (3) a child is to be reevaluated, (4) a hearing is requested, or (5) a change is being made to the child's program because a school rule was broken.

School districts receive funding for special education from both the federal government and the state, although school district expenditures for special education commonly exceed federal and state aid amounts. The major federal special education grant, known as IDEA Part B, is distributed annually to local school districts through the State Department of Education (SDE). A federal formula determines the grant distribution. The state funds special education through a categorical grant that reimburses school districts based on actual special education expenditures for both local students and for students in the district placed by a state agency for whom no home district liable for special education costs can be identified.

STATE AND FEDERAL SPECIAL EDUCATION LAWS

Special education mandates on local school districts are required by both state and federal law. Connecticut's special education law (CGS 10-76a, et seq.) predates the federal law, having been first passed in 1967 while the federal law was passed in 1974. The federal law essentially supersedes the state law and the state law has been frequently amended to remain in conformity with the federal one.

Both laws require school districts to identify children requiring special education, prescribe suitable educational programs for eligible children, and provide special education for any eligible child. Since each eligible child must receive an individualized educational program appropriate for his needs, the services school districts must provide vary from student to student.

Children are eligible for special education if they have one or more of the following conditions, listed in federal regulations and incorporated by reference into state law, that affect their educational performance: mental retardation; hearing impairment including deafness; speech or language impairment; visual impairment including blindness; serious emotional disturbance; orthopedic impairment; autism; traumatic brain injury; other health impairment; specific learning disability; deaf-blindness; or multiple disabilities. Federal law also allows states to include as eligible children aged three through nine who are experiencing a “developmental delay.” Connecticut law makes such children eligible.

Both laws define “special education” as specially designed instruction, developed in accordance with federal and state regulations, to meet the needs of each exceptional child, including related services recommended by the child's planning and placement team. It must be provided for children who require it from age three until they either graduate from high school or turn 21 years of age.

School districts must also comply with special education hearing procedures, if a parent or other person responsible for a special education child requests one, to review the child's diagnosis, special programs, exemption from school privileges, or any other matter concerning his right to a special education.

Another federal law, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, guarantees access to, and prohibits discrimination against, individuals with disabilities in any program or activity that receives or benefits from federal assistance. This law also covers public schools. It applies to any physical or mental disability that limits a major life function, such as learning. Thus, a student who does not meet the disability definitions required for special education but whose disability is covered by Section 504 must be afforded a “reasonable accommodation” for his disability to allow him to benefit from his education.

SPECIAL EDUCATION PROCESS

Children with eligible disabilities have a right to special education and related services if (1) the disability adversely affects educational performance and (2) the student needs a specially designed instructional program to address his unique educational needs. The first step in determining whether this is the case is for a parent, school personnel, or other appropriate person (such as a physician or social worker) to refer the child for special education. A referral is a written request that the school district where the child attends school evaluate whether he is eligible for and needs special education.

When it receives the referral, the district must convene a planning and placement team (PPT) to review the referral and determine whether the child requires special education or needs to be evaluated further. Parents have a right to notice of PPT meetings and a right to participate in them. The PPT's evaluation of the child must be comprehensive enough to determine all his special education and related service needs. The school system must pay for any evaluation requested by the PPT.

A parent who disagrees with the results of the PPT's evaluation can ask for an independent educational evaluation (IEE) of their child by someone who does not work for the school district. The school system must either pay for the IEE or prove, on appeal, to a state special education due process hearing officer that its own evaluation is appropriate. A school district may not refuse to evaluate a child or pay for an IEE because of insufficient funds. A school district must give a list of qualified independent evaluators to parents who request an IEE for their child.

If the state hearing officer finds the district's evaluation is appropriate, parents may still obtain an IEE for their child at their own expense and submit the findings and recommendations to the PPT. Regardless of who pays for an IEE, the PPT is required only to consider the IEE's results. It need not implement them. A parent who objects to the PPT's decisions may appeal through the state special education hearing process and, if still dissatisfied, to the courts.

For your further information, I am enclosing a State Department of Education publication that explains parents' special education notice and appeal rights in detail (Steps to Protect a Child's Right to Special Education: Procedural Safeguards).

STATE AND FEDERAL SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING

Federal Grants

The federal government provides three special education grants to states under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The largest of the three is called “IDEA Part B.” This grant supports special education programs provided by states and local school districts for children in grades K-12. Two smaller grants support preschool programs (those for children aged 3 to 5 in Connecticut) and programs for infants and families (the so-called Birth-to-Three Program).

IDEA Part B grants are distributed to states according to a formula. The states in turn are required to distribute most of the funds to local education agencies directly serving children. States may retain part of the money for state-level activities, including administration and support of, and direct services to, children with disabilities. Connecticut distributed $110.86 million in IDEA Part B funds to local school districts in FY 08.

Federal FY 09 funding for IDEA Part B is currently estimated at $11.3 billion of which Connecticut share is estimated at $129.86 million. The proposed federal stimulus package announced on January 15, 2009 by the U.S. House Appropriations Committee includes an additional $13 billion for state special education grants (presumably spread over two years – FY 09 and FY 10).

Table 1 below shows Connecticut's actual federal special education funding for federal FY 07 and its current estimated funding for federal FYs 08 and 09.

TABLE 1: FEDERAL SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING TO CONNECTICUT

FFYS 2007-2009

Grant

2007

(actual)

2008

(estimate)

2009

(estimate)

Special Education - Grants to States (IDEA Part B)

$124,651,626

$126,363,618

$129,864,507

Special Education – Preschool grants

4,903,638

4,827,210

4,827,207

Grants for Infants and Families

3,914,074

4,081,315

4,081,317

Total

$133,469,338

$135,272,143

$138,773,031

Source: U.S. Department of Education

State Grant

The state provides a categorical grant for special education. Money is distributed to towns based on their costs. This grant is called the “excess cost” grant. The grant reimburses school districts for (1) a portion of the reasonable costs of special education for a student who lives in the district and (2) 100% of the cost of special education for any student placed in the district by a state agency and who has no identifiable home district in the state (CGS 10-76g). Reimbursable costs include those for special education instructional personnel, equipment and materials, tuition, transportation, rent for space or equipment, and consultant services, all as defined in 10-76f.

The grant does not reimburse districts for regular education costs attributable to a special education student.

The excess cost grant is calculated by adding up all the reasonable costs of special education services a district provides to a particular student and subtracting the district's “basic contribution.” The basic contribution is 4.5 times a district's average per pupil expenditure for the

preceding year, in the case of a resident student, and 100% of that expenditure in the case of a state-agency-placed child with no identifiable home school district. Any expenditure exceeding the basic contribution is reimbursable by the state.

For example, if a district has an average per pupil expenditure of $9,000, its basic contribution for a special education student who lives in the district is $40,500 ($9,000 x 4.5). If the student is a state-agency-placed child with no identifiable home district, the district's basic contribution is $9,000. If a student receives services costing a total of $45,000, therefore, the state's excess cost reimbursement for the in-district student is $4,500 and for a state-placed student, it is $36,000.

For FY 09, the state appropriated $133.89 million for these grants. If total grants payable exceed the amount appropriated, payments cannot be reduced. Districts must file their special education cost information with the State Department of Education by December 1 each year and file any updated information for additional costs or students by March 1. The state must pay 75% of the reimbursable cost in February and the balance in May.

Table 2 below provides a breakdown of each district's FY 08 (1) special education spending, including the amount spent in dollars and as a percentage of its total education spending; (2) federal IDEA Part B grant; and (3) state excess cost grants for local and state-placements. It also shows the state and federal share of districts' special education spending.

TABLE 2: SCHOOL DISTRICT SPECIAL EDUCATION SPENDING & STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS RECEIVED, 2007-08

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

Andover

478,528

12.59

55,733

0

0

11.65%

0

Ansonia

7,169,740

23.76

572,653

508,054

498,240

7.99%

14.04%

Ashford

2,271,459

32.21

106,142

345,357

0

4.67%

15.20%

Avon

7,632,793

18.78

446,625

620,533

48,283

5.85%

8.76%

Barkhamsted

656,136

18.44

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

Berlin

7,273,030

18.85

572,939

590,161

13,240

7.88%

8.30%

Bethany

1,316,531

21.4

84,101

22,017

0

6.39%

1.67%

Bethel

8,610,052

21.36

548,370

735,893

331,689

6.37%

12.40%

Bloomfield

7,324,327

18.14

511,172

213,168

217,282

6.98%

5.88%

Bolton

2,484,337

20.43

172,645

331,888

69,453

6.95%

16.15%

Table 2: -Continued-

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

Bozrah

1,095,387

22.09

62,449

95,327

0

5.70%

8.70%

Branford

8,884,470

19.11

843,380

453,184

169,731

9.49%

7.01%

Bridgeport

52,806,344

19.67

4,943,893

2,911,502

2,274,252

9.36%

9.82%

Bristol

20,747,516

20.26

1,940,868

868,920

1,352,466

9.35%

10.71%

Brookfield

5,443,916

15.36

519,011

397,913

65,322

9.53%

8.51%

Brooklyn

2,464,833

16.25

215,524

107,369

80,219

8.74%

7.61%

Canaan

234,784

11.41

0

10,337

0

0.00%

4.40%

Canterbury

2,311,415

20.71

126,290

120,860

131,940

5.46%

10.94%

Canton

4,327,208

19.78

261,688

274,473

88,685

6.05%

8.39%

Chaplin

467,543

14.43

0

233

0

0.00%

0.05%

Cheshire

12,916,187

22.49

987,158

363,655

130,586

7.64%

3.83%

Chester

938,731

23.2

0

24,792

0

0.00%

2.64%

Clinton

5,785,075

20.16

460,661

299,956

76,231

7.96%

6.50%

Colchester

7,820,848

22.62

581,836

616,346

347,246

7.44%

12.32%

Colebrook

373,614

21.28

0

10,849

0

0.00%

2.90%

Columbia

2,412,562

20.88

77,806

182,472

32,690

3.23%

8.92%

Cornwall

296,645

11.18

0

13,792

0

0.00%

4.65%

Coventry

4,876,017

20.38

364,538

410,283

239,232

7.48%

13.32%

Cromwell

3,729,259

14.96

345,217

145,553

304,139

9.26%

12.06%

Danbury

21,707,332

18.18

2,230,738

463,625

697,776

10.28%

5.35%

Darien

14,472,379

21.88

703,206

2,386,945

0

4.86%

16.49%

Deep River

1,063,336

22.18

0

51,745

0

0.00%

4.87%

Derby

3,920,187

21.74

233,087

268,654

129,097

5.95%

10.15%

Eastford

555,672

14.69

35,854

0

0

6.45%

0.00%

East Granby

2,277,087

17.97

135,309

205,354

0

5.94%

9.02%

East Haddam

4,085,355

22.18

289,154

492,372

198,093

7.08%

16.90%

East Hampton

6,049,436

23.93

254,375

613,404

83,784

4.20%

11.52%

East Hartford

17,158,642

18.16

1,771,280

1,153,285

974,646

10.32%

12.40%

East Haven

8,882,738

19.27

516,153

551,093

222,127

5.81%

8.70%

East Lyme

9,223,447

23.24

556,768

746,141

79,410

6.04%

8.95%

Easton

2,998,453

20.51

112,476

294,120

0

3.75%

9.81%

East Windsor

3,926,122

20.76

238,987

540,797

176,751

6.09%

18.28%

Ellington

5,880,434

20.95

337,876

241,470

247,636

5.75%

8.32%

Enfield

13,462,092

17.76

1,500,837

548,123

277,114

11.15%

6.13%

Essex

1,426,877

22.1

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

Fairfield

30,841,882

21.87

2,261,136

2,295,033

48,823

7.33%

7.60%

Farmington

8,378,100

16.18

593,295

744,199

53,142

7.08%

9.52%

Franklin

679,171

16.7

22,322

76,459

0

3.29%

11.26%

Table 2: -Continued-

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

Glastonbury

14,473,146

17.43

948,763

1,296,923

105,995

6.56%

9.69%

Granby

4,309,667

16.2

334,796

166,804

0

7.77%

3.87%

Greenwich

31,740,869

20.49

2,106,674

1,221,544

30,813

6.64%

3.95%

Griswold

5,530,477

23.19

383,961

103,643

171,631

6.94%

4.98%

Groton

15,195,682

20.73

999,721

640,643

326,825

6.58%

6.37%

Guilford

10,809,407

22.54

754,045

896,853

154,359

6.98%

9.72%

Hamden

23,354,646

24.28

1,200,000

964,665

1,023,620

5.14%

8.51%

Hampton

326,237

13.86

28,443

0

0

8.72%

0.00%

Hartford

81,322,293

22.32

6,204,859

874,298

8,171,047

7.63%

11.12%

Hartland

782,145

16.98

0

0

53,495

0.00%

6.84%

Hebron

2,411,700

20.86

248,580

76,178

65,867

10.31%

5.89%

Kent

714,348

16.69

0

65,867

0

0.00%

9.22%

Killingly

7,866,458

21.83

626,061

497,226

471,986

7.96%

12.32%

Lebanon

3,479,033

20.79

200,503

384,578

64,585

5.76%

12.91%

Ledyard

8,191,515

24.32

467,170

478,425

298,710

5.70%

9.49%

Lisbon

1,893,004

20.41

100,000

128,615

0

5.28%

6.79%

Litchfield

3,167,606

18.92

232,914

224,122

95,151

7.35%

10.08%

Madison

7,672,164

17.63

639,861

1,044,730

0

8.34%

13.62%

Manchester

24,459,976

24.68

1,934,308

630,393

1,035,156

7.91%

6.81%

Mansfield

3,845,810

18.66

248,242

15,680

20,438

6.45%

0.94%

Marlborough

1,389,904

19.6

102,010

81,747

0

7.34%

5.88%

Meriden

27,423,301

23.78

1,931,200

882,080

1,425,368

7.04%

8.41%

Middletown

15,402,661

21.37

1,560,933

1,089,844

742,319

10.13%

11.90%

Milford

20,812,656

21

1,815,930

510,796

291,767

8.73%

3.86%

Monroe

7,818,429

16.08

627,130

539,518

78,375

8.02%

7.90%

Montville

7,002,971

19.57

603,624

54,636

140,812

8.62%

2.79%

Naugatuck

11,571,639

18.57

123,305

170,496

648,369

1.07%

7.08%

New Britain

36,192,626

25.57

3,417,912

1,223,259

1,413,820

9.44%

7.29%

New Canaan

13,706,837

19.64

946,461

880,538

172,337

6.91%

7.68%

New Fairfield

6,489,892

19.28

445,924

187,043

58,384

6.87%

3.78%

New Hartford

1,542,631

21.24

0

115,741

84,904

0.00%

13.01%

New Haven

55,145,583

17.7

5,489,632

447,451

3,459,652

9.95%

7.09%

Newington

8,967,783

15.96

689,304

630,002

106,318

7.69%

8.21%

New London

12,571,378

26.35

1,192,965

198,965

679,154

9.49%

6.99%

New Milford

12,462,224

21.69

748,119

1,089,537

145,850

6.00%

9.91%

Newtown

11,240,163

16.99

880,662

1,598,299

66,853

7.83%

14.81%

Norfolk

419,768

16.5

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

North Branford

4,990,504

17.84

518,731

172,801

54,334

10.39%

4.55%

Table 2: -Continued-

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

North Canaan

807,628

15.99

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

North Haven

8,413,707

19.55

571,505

939,272

312,057

6.79%

14.87%

North Stonington

2,193,363

18.26

134,002

19,308

0

6.11%

0.88%

Norwalk

29,938,909

18.76

1,827,053

1,368,792

339,910

6.10%

5.71%

Norwich

19,535,392

26.56

1,223,303

1,206,444

1,635,945

6.26%

14.55%

Old Saybrook

3,663,611

18.34

288,460

118,091

192,082

7.87%

8.47%

Orange

4,001,180

23.51

205,583

383,339

119,856

5.14%

12.58%

Oxford

5,415,177

21.99

262,209

316,292

0

4.84%

5.84%

Plainfield

8,643,922

26.03

566,340

545,985

233,865

6.55%

9.02%

Plainville

6,682,870

19.62

596,123

328,987

381,773

8.92%

10.64%

Plymouth

5,308,448

23.45

327,708

566,860

0

6.17%

10.68%

Pomfret

2,238,210

24.56

153,411

547,059

88,133

6.85%

28.38%

Portland

3,187,536

17.66

186,011

132,993

133,153

5.84%

8.35%

Preston

2,845,352

26.52

132,881

162,196

31,535

4.67%

6.81%

Putnam

3,715,218

21.48

328,219

272,970

63,232

8.83%

9.05%

Redding

3,907,953

20.35

337,473

369,680

16,557

8.64%

9.88%

Ridgefield

12,511,648

16.75

802,211

1,257,664

35,994

6.41%

10.34%

Rocky Hill

5,613,878

18.24

513,156

295,885

7,227

9.14%

5.40%

Salem

1,654,280

16.44

104,942

138,878

0

6.34%

8.40%

Salisbury

711,498

13.14

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

Scotland

518,448

21.94

31,402

0

0

6.06%

0.00%

Seymour

4,334,509

14.96

393,309

295,688

96,730

9.07%

9.05%

Sharon

551,908

13.21

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

Shelton

11,912,763

18.37

641,523

1,340,712

199,072

5.39%

12.93%

Sherman

1,777,754

22.12

91,800

137,964

21,919

5.16%

8.99%

Simsbury

10,982,820

18.3

1,159,728

501,570

294,599

10.56%

7.25%

Somers

3,831,076

20.05

310,194

366,550

58,463

8.10%

11.09%

Southington

18,999,404

24.16

1,520,571

1,130,283

535,596

8.00%

8.77%

South Windsor

10,683,476

17.98

910,664

875,536

123,845

8.52%

9.35%

Sprague

2,019,358

30.55

85,000

431,720

17,385

4.21%

22.24%

Stafford

5,358,794

21.39

364,458

424,392

128,193

6.80%

10.31%

Stamford

45,954,944

19.63

2,996,601

1,305,583

838,838

6.52%

4.67%

Sterling

2,203,002

28.15

103,206

75,614

6,480

4.68%

3.73%

Stonington

6,776,208

21.66

527,180

680,846

136,048

7.78%

12.06%

Stratford

18,653,353

20.71

1,500,000

1,021,127

530,018

8.04%

8.32%

Suffield

5,240,568

18.14

380,291

560,659

0

7.26%

10.70%

Thomaston

2,894,880

19.8

295,761

125,813

219,298

10.22%

11.92%

Table 2: -Continued-

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

Thompson

2,754,204

16.68

283,629

559,357

215,313

10.30%

28.13%

Tolland

5,317,255

15.88

452,832

835,980

67,794

8.52%

17.00%

Torrington

15,896,463

25.78

953,889

1,140,047

1,247,972

6.00%

15.02%

Trumbull

15,079,047

18.23

1,091,365

1,376,447

0

7.24%

9.13%

Union

174,812

11.88

10,055

0

0

5.75%

0.00%

Vernon

11,127,725

23.58

690,710

505,656

573,236

6.21%

9.70%

Voluntown

1,487,157

23.79

74,972

2,069

36,320

5.04%

2.58%

Wallingford

19,464,368

22.73

1,200,000

1,275,581

436,740

6.17%

8.80%

Waterbury

52,860,116

22.74

4,108,837

521,282

2,366,205

7.77%

5.46%

Waterford

9,221,816

22.57

591,431

302,762

737,422

6.41%

11.28%

Watertown

6,148,468

17.86

665,483

405,515

278,296

10.82%

11.12%

Westbrook

1,990,475

15.48

145,069

8,621

142,980

7.29%

7.62%

West Hartford

25,091,955

20.55

1,932,673

662,813

717,065

7.70%

5.50%

West Haven

19,028,316

22.58

1,842,593

1,234,682

629,266

9.68%

9.80%

Weston

8,146,281

18.84

435,118

607,401

0

5.34%

7.46%

Westport

16,315,241

17.58

870,159

727,574

91,924

5.33%

5.02%

Wethersfield

9,339,681

19.6

683,937

487,174

236,371

7.32%

7.75%

Willington

1,585,834

20.5

116,408

29,408

0

7.34%

1.85%

Wilton

13,078,893

19.72

635,451

1,559,944

158,366

4.86%

13.14%

Winchester

5,095,226

24.04

306,910

377,682

457,114

6.02%

16.38%

Windham

14,023,801

27.92

808,251

271,602

243,713

5.76%

3.67%

Windsor

12,109,106

20.29

905,933

542,323

478,196

7.48%

8.43%

Windsor Locks

5,468,241

20.32

349,595

97,376

120,018

6.39%

3.98%

Wolcott

5,844,360

18.25

472,824

629,819

0

8.09%

10.78%

Woodbridge

2,502,331

21.4

99,772

164,789

0

3.99%

6.59%

Woodstock

2,601,177

16.76

312,429

107,035

241

12.01%

4.12%

District 1

2,045,814

20.8

561,471

244,093

61,969

27.44%

14.96%

District 4

2,786,054

19.95

328,691

239,236

12,362

11.80%

9.03%

District 5

5,215,393

15.26

371,317

266,237

0

7.12%

5.10%

District 6

2,630,737

16.91

165,366

54,498

133,450

6.29%

7.14%

District 7

2,965,964

18.61

0

113,870

181,652

0.00%

9.96%

District 8

5,185,259

24.8

235,243

401,951

161,759

4.54%

10.87%

District 9

3,531,234

20.27

139,102

542,657

21,538

3.94%

15.98%

District 10

5,981,873

18.78

490,436

1,035,157

341,848

8.20%

23.02%

District 11

1,364,299

21.52

109,514

10,788

104,741

8.03%

8.47%

District 12

3,561,410

18.26

276,803

172,356

0

7.77%

4.84%

District 13

5,452,869

19.2

355,226

316,080

300,926

6.51%

11.32%

District 14

6,869,626

23.86

466,555

254,403

232,473

6.79%

7.09%

Table 2: -Continued-

District

Special Education

Spending

Special Education

% of Total Education

Spending

IDEA Part B

Excess Cost: Local Placement

Excess Cost: State Placement

Federal Share

State

Share

District 15

11,269,568

20.5

806,381

884,744

56,632

7.16%

8.35%

District 16

5,588,756

18.27

499,561

292,019

102,177

8.94%

7.05%

District 17

4,610,358

13.89

272,134

295,511

191,985

5.90%

10.57%

District 18

6,010,978

23.88

316,303

456,904

278,123

5.26%

12.23%

District 19

3,550,199

20.1

207,378

184,697

110,261

5.84%

8.31%

Source: State Department of Education, unaudited data.

JL:ts