CHAPTER 952
PENAL CODE: OFFENSES

Table of Contents

Sec. 53a-30. Conditions of probation and conditional discharge.
Sec. 53a-32. Violation of probation or conditional discharge. Arrest. Hearing. Disposition.
Sec. 53a-32a. Violation of probation by certain sexual offenders.
Sec. 53a-35a. Imprisonment for any felony committed on or after July 1, 1981: Definite sentences; terms authorized.
Sec. 53a-35b. "Life imprisonment" defined.
Sec. 53a-40. Persistent offenders: Definitions; defense; authorized sentences.
Sec. 53a-40e. Standing criminal restraining order.
Sec. 53a-54a. Murder.
Sec. 53a-55a. Manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable.
Sec. 53a-59. Assault in the first degree: Class B felony: Nonsuspendable sentences.
Sec. 53a-59a. Assault of an elderly, blind, disabled, pregnant or mentally retarded person in the first degree: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable.
Sec. 53a-64aa. Strangulation in the first degree: Class C felony.
Sec. 53a-64bb. Strangulation in the second degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-64cc. Strangulation in the third degree: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.
Sec. 53a-70c. Aggravated sexual assault of a minor: Class A felony.
Sec. 53a-71. Sexual assault in the second degree: Class C or B felony.
Sec. 53a-73a. Sexual assault in the fourth degree: Class A misdemeanor or class D felony.
Sec. 53a-90a. Enticing a minor. Penalties.
Sec. 53a-90b. Misrepresentation of age to entice a minor: Class C felony.
Sec. 53a-103. Burglary in the third degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-123. Larceny in the second degree: Class C felony.
Sec. 53a-125b. Larceny in the sixth degree: Class C misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-133. Unlawful alteration or disposal of rental electric storage batteries.
Sec. 53a-136. Robbery in the third degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-136a. Robbery involving occupied motor vehicle. Penalty.
Sec. 53a-139. Forgery in the second degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-141. Criminal simulation: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-167a. Interfering with an officer: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-180d. Misuse of the emergency 9-1-1 system: Class B misdeameanor.
Sec. 53a-181. Breach of the peace in the second degree: Class B misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-181k. Intimidation based on bigotry or bias in the second degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-183c. Disruption of a funeral: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-196a. Employing a minor in an obscene performance: Class A felony.
Sec. 53a-196c. Importing child pornography: Class B felony.
Sec. 53a-196d. Possessing child pornography in the first degree: Class B felony.
Sec. 53a-196e. Possessing child pornography in the second degree: Class C felony.
Sec. 53a-196f. Possessing child pornography in the third degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-211. Possession of a sawed-off shotgun or silencer: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-212. Stealing a firearm: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-222. Violation of conditions of release in the first degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-222a. Violation of conditions of release in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor.

PART II
SENTENCES AND SENTENCING PROCEDURE

      Sec. 53a-30. Conditions of probation and conditional discharge.

      Trial court's imposition of restitution as additional condition of probation was not punitive in nature and therefore did not affect defendant's sentence. Section does not deprive trial court of jurisdiction to impose a condition of probation subsequent to initial sentencing and prior to defendant's commencement of probation period. 283 C. 735.

      Subsec. (a):

      Court's termination of defendant's status in accelerated rehabilitation program cannot rest solely on undisposed charge of a crime identical to the underlying charge for which defendant seeks dismissal. 98 CA 111. Subdiv. (17): In order for a condition of probation to be "reasonably related to the defendant's rehabilitation" pursuant to subdiv., there must be a nexus between the condition of probation and the charge for which defendant is serving probation. 102 CA 507.


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      Sec. 53a-32. Violation of probation or conditional discharge. Arrest. Hearing. Disposition.

      Trial court properly found violations of defendant's probation and did not abuse its discretion in revoking his probation. 102 CA 154.

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      Sec. 53a-32a. Violation of probation by certain sexual offenders.

      Defendant had been afforded a full hearing on his violation of probation charge as required under Sec. 53a-32(a). Even when defendant is acquitted of the underlying crime leading to probation revocation proceeding, probation may still be revoked. 281 C. 548.

      Simply because automatic revocation proceeding established by section arguably is inapplicable to defendant convicted after trial, it does not follow that such defendant is immune from discretionary revocation sought by defendant's probation officer on the basis of defendant's discharge from sex offender treatment in accordance with the normal procedures set forth in Sec. 53a-32. 98 CA 579.


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      Sec. 53a-35a. Imprisonment for any felony committed on or after July 1, 1981: Definite sentences; terms authorized. For any felony committed on or after July 1, 1981, the sentence of imprisonment shall be a definite sentence and the term shall be fixed by the court as follows: (1) For a capital felony, a term of life imprisonment without the possibility of release unless a sentence of death is imposed in accordance with section 53a-46a; (2) for the class A felony of murder, a term not less than twenty-five years nor more than life; (3) for the class A felony of aggravated sexual assault of a minor under section 53a-70c, a term not less than twenty-five years or more than fifty years; (4) for a class A felony other than an offense specified in subdivision (2) or (3) of this section, a term not less than ten years nor more than twenty-five years; (5) for the class B felony of manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm under section 53a-55a, a term not less than five years nor more than forty years; (6) for a class B felony other than manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm under section 53a-55a, a term not less than one year nor more than twenty years, except that for a conviction under section 53a-59(a)(1), 53a-59a, 53a-70a, 53a-94a, 53a-101(a)(1) or 53a-134(a)(2), the term shall be not less than five years nor more than twenty years; (7) for a class C felony, a term not less than one year nor more than ten years, except that for a conviction under section 53a-56a, the term shall be not less than three years nor more than ten years; (8) for a class D felony, a term not less than one year nor more than five years, except that for a conviction under section 53a-60b or 53a-217, the term shall be not less than two years nor more than five years, for a conviction under section 53a-60c, the term shall be not less than three years nor more than five years, and for a conviction under section 53a-216, the term shall be five years; (9) for an unclassified felony, a term in accordance with the sentence specified in the section of the general statutes that defines the crime.

      (P.A. 80-442, S. 10, 28; P.A. 86-220; P.A. 92-260, S. 15; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 2; P.A. 07-143, S. 12.)

      History: P.A. 80-442 effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 86-220 amended Subdiv. (1) to add "imprisonment without the possibility of release" to reflect revision made by P.A. 85-366; P.A. 92-260 amended Subdiv. (6) to add reference to "Sec. 53a-217" and provision that "for a conviction under section 53a-216, the term shall be five years", to reflect existing minimum mandatory sentences prescribed in said sections; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 added a new Subdiv. (4) to provide a term of not less than 5 years nor more than 40 years for the class B felony of manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm under Sec. 53a-55a, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and amended Subdiv. (5) to provide that the specified sentence is for a class B felony "other than manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm under section 53a-55a" and delete a reference to Sec. 53a-55a, reflecting the separate sentencing provisions established for Sec. 53a-55a in Subdiv. (4); P.A. 07-143 added new Subdiv. (3) to provide a term of not less than 25 years or more than 50 years for the class A felony of aggravated sexual assault of a minor under Sec. 53a-70c, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and amended renumbered Subdiv. (4) to replace "a class A felony other than murder" with "a class A felony other than an offense specified in subdivision (2) or (3) of this section", effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-35b. "Life imprisonment" defined.

      Statutory provision affects substantive rights. In the absence of any clear and unequivocal expression by legislature rebutting presumption of prospective application, statute does not apply retroactively to persons sentenced prior to its enactment. 282 C. 317.

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      Sec. 53a-40. Persistent offenders: Definitions; defense; authorized sentences.

      Finding by trial court, rather than jury, that imposing extended incarceration would best serve the public interest clearly violated defendant's constitutional rights under the 6th Amendment to U.S. Constitution. Section is unconstitutional to the extent it does not provide that defendant is entitled to have jury make a required finding that exposes defendant to a greater punishment than that authorized by jury's guilty verdict. 283 C. 748.

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      Sec. 53a-40e. Standing criminal restraining order. (a) If any person is convicted of (1) a violation of section 53a-59, 53a-59a, 53a-60, 53a-60a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-181c, 53a-181d, 53a-181e, 53a-182b, 53a-183, 53a-223, 53a-223a or 53a-223b or attempt or conspiracy to violate any of said sections or section 53a-54a, against a family or household member, as defined in section 46b-38a, or (2) any crime that the court determines constitutes a family violence crime, as defined in section 46b-38a, or attempt or conspiracy to commit any such crime, the court may, in addition to imposing the sentence authorized for the crime under section 53a-35a or 53a-36, if the court is of the opinion that the history and character and the nature and circumstances of the criminal conduct of such offender indicate that a standing criminal restraining order will best serve the interest of the victim and the public, issue a standing criminal restraining order which shall remain in effect until modified or revoked by the court for good cause shown. If any person is convicted of any crime against a family or household member, as defined in section 46b-38a, other than a crime specified in subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection, the court may, for good cause shown, issue a standing criminal restraining order pursuant to this subsection.

      (b) Such standing criminal restraining order may include but is not limited to enjoining the offender from (1) imposing any restraint upon the person or liberty of the victim; (2) threatening, harassing, assaulting, molesting, sexually assaulting or attacking the victim; or (3) entering the family dwelling or the dwelling of the victim.

      (c) Every standing criminal restraining order of the court made in accordance with this section shall contain the following language: "This order shall remain in effect until modified or revoked by the court for good cause shown. In accordance with section 53a-223a, violation of a standing criminal restraining order issued by the court pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than five years, a fine of not more than five thousand dollars or both."

      (P.A. 96-228, S. 1; P.A. 98-15; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 41, 121; P.A. 99-186, S. 13; P.A. 05-147, S. 2; P.A. 07-123, S. 5.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (c) the reference in public act 96-228 to "section 1 of this act" was deemed by the Revisors to be a reference to section 2 of that act and therefore codified as "section 53a-110c"); P.A. 98-15 amended Subsec. (a) to add references to Secs. 53a-181c, 53a-181d and 53a-181e; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec.(a) to make provisions applicable to any person convicted "of attempt or conspiracy to violate any of said sections or section 53a-54a"; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-223 and make a technical change; P.A. 07-123 amended Subsec. (a) to designate list of qualifying offenses as Subdiv. (1) and amended same by including a violation of Sec. 53a-182b, 53a-183, 53a-223a or 53a-223b and making technical changes, to add Subdiv. (2) re any crime that the court determines constitutes a family violence crime, as defined in Sec. 46b-38a, or attempt or conspiracy to commit any such crime, include sentence authorized under Sec. 53a-36 and to add provision authorizing a court for good cause shown to issue standing criminal restraining order if person is convicted of a crime against a family or household member other than a crime specified in Subdiv. (1) or (2).

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PART IV
HOMICIDE

      Sec. 53a-54a. Murder.

      Subsec. (a):

      Murder is a specific intent crime and although court's instruction improperly referred to general intent to engage in proscribed conduct, the erroneous instruction was not harmful beyond a reasonable doubt and defendant was not deprived of fair trial because court also properly instructed jury that it had to find defendant intended to cause victim's death. 99 CA 230.


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      Sec. 53a-55a. Manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable. (a) A person is guilty of manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm when he commits manslaughter in the first degree as provided in section 53a-55, and in the commission of such offense he uses, or is armed with and threatens the use of or displays or represents by his words or conduct that he possesses a pistol, revolver, shotgun, machine gun, rifle or other firearm. No person shall be found guilty of manslaughter in the first degree and manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm upon the same transaction but such person may be charged and prosecuted for both such offenses upon the same information.

      (b) Manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm is a class B felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment in accordance with subdivision (5) of section 53a-35a of which five years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 75-380, S. 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 1; P.A. 07-143, S. 13.)

      History: July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 amended Subsec. (b) to add provision that any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment in accordance with Sec. 53a-35a(4) and increase the nonsuspendable sentence from one year to five years; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2007.

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PART V
ASSAULT AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-59. Assault in the first degree: Class B felony: Nonsuspendable sentences.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1): Evidence that defendant arrived at crime scene and fired several shots at bedroom where he believed wife was staying was sufficient for jury to conclude that defendant committed attempt to commit assault in the first degree which requires proof of intentional conduct constituting a substantial step toward intentionally causing victim serious physical injury by means of a dangerous instrument or deadly weapon. 99 CA 203.


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      Sec. 53a-59a. Assault of an elderly, blind, disabled, pregnant or mentally retarded person in the first degree: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdivs. (1) and (5) do not proscribe the same offense for double jeopardy purposes. 98 CA 85.


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      Sec. 53a-64aa. Strangulation in the first degree: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of strangulation in the first degree when such person commits strangulation in the second degree as provided in section 53a-64bb and (1) in the commission of such offense, such person (A) uses or attempts to use a dangerous instrument, or (B) causes serious physical injury to such other person, or (2) such person has previously been convicted of a violation of this section or section 53a-64bb.

      (b) No person shall be found guilty of strangulation in the first degree and unlawful restraint or assault upon the same incident, but such person may be charged and prosecuted for all three offenses upon the same information. For the purposes of this section, "unlawful restraint" means a violation of section 53a-95 or 53a-96, and "assault" means a violation of section 53a-59, 53a-59a, 53a-59b, 53a-59c, 53a-60, 53a-60a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-61 or 53a-61a.

      (c) Strangulation in the first degree is a class C felony.

      (P.A. 07-123, S. 8.)

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      Sec. 53a-64bb. Strangulation in the second degree: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of strangulation in the second degree when such person restrains another person by the neck or throat with the intent to impede the ability of such other person to breathe or restrict blood circulation of such other person and such person impedes the ability of such other person to breathe or restricts blood circulation of such other person.

      (b) No person shall be found guilty of strangulation in the second degree and unlawful restraint or assault upon the same incident, but such person may be charged and prosecuted for all three offenses upon the same information. For the purposes of this section, "unlawful restraint" means a violation of section 53a-95 or 53a-96, and "assault" means a violation of section 53a-59, 53a-59a, 53a-59b, 53a-59c, 53a-60, 53a-60a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-61 or 53a-61a.

      (c) Strangulation in the second degree is a class D felony.

      (P.A. 07-123, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 53a-64cc. Strangulation in the third degree: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of strangulation in the third degree when such person recklessly restrains another person by the neck or throat and impedes the ability of such other person to breathe or restricts blood circulation of such other person.

      (b) No person shall be found guilty of strangulation in the third degree and unlawful restraint or assault upon the same incident, but such person may be charged and prosecuted for all three offenses upon the same information. For the purposes of this section, "unlawful restraint" means a violation of section 53a-95 or 53a-96, and "assault" means a violation of section 53a-59, 53a-59a, 53a-59b, 53a-59c, 53a-60, 53a-60a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-61 or 53a-61a.

      (c) Strangulation in the third degree is a class A misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 07-123, S. 10.)

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PART VI
SEX OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1): Sexual assault in the second degree was not a lesser offense included within sexual assault in the first degree because it would be possible to commit the latter offense in the manner described in the information and bill of particulars without committing the former offense. 99 CA 251.


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      Sec. 53a-70c. Aggravated sexual assault of a minor: Class A felony. (a) A person is guilty of aggravated sexual assault of a minor when such person commits a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21 or section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-71, 53a-86, 53a-87 or 53a-196a and the victim of such offense is under thirteen years of age, and (1) such person kidnapped or illegally restrained the victim, (2) such person stalked the victim, (3) such person used violence to commit such offense against the victim, (4) such person caused serious physical injury to or disfigurement of the victim, (5) there was more than one victim of such offense under thirteen years of age, (6) such person was not known to the victim, or (7) such person has previously been convicted of a violent sexual assault.

      (b) Aggravated sexual assault of a minor is a class A felony and any person found guilty under this section shall, for a first offense, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of twenty-five years which may not be suspended or reduced by the court and, for any subsequent offense, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of fifty years which may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 07-143, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 07-143 effective July 13, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-71. Sexual assault in the second degree: Class C or B felony. (a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the second degree when such person engages in sexual intercourse with another person and: (1) Such other person is thirteen years of age or older but under sixteen years of age and the actor is more than three years older than such other person; or (2) such other person is mentally defective to the extent that such other person is unable to consent to such sexual intercourse; or (3) such other person is physically helpless; or (4) such other person is less than eighteen years old and the actor is such person's guardian or otherwise responsible for the general supervision of such person's welfare; or (5) such other person is in custody of law or detained in a hospital or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over such other person; or (6) the actor is a psychotherapist and such other person is (A) a patient of the actor and the sexual intercourse occurs during the psychotherapy session, (B) a patient or former patient of the actor and such patient or former patient is emotionally dependent upon the actor, or (C) a patient or former patient of the actor and the sexual intercourse occurs by means of therapeutic deception; or (7) the actor accomplishes the sexual intercourse by means of false representation that the sexual intercourse is for a bona fide medical purpose by a health care professional; or (8) the actor is a school employee and such other person is a student enrolled in a school in which the actor works or a school under the jurisdiction of the local or regional board of education which employs the actor; or (9) the actor is a coach in an athletic activity or a person who provides intensive, ongoing instruction and such other person is a recipient of coaching or instruction from the actor and (A) is a secondary school student and receives such coaching or instruction in a secondary school setting, or (B) is under eighteen years of age; or (10) the actor is twenty years of age or older and stands in a position of power, authority or supervision over such other person by virtue of the actor's professional, legal, occupational or volunteer status and such other person's participation in a program or activity, and such other person is under eighteen years of age.

      (b) Sexual assault in the second degree is a class C felony or, if the victim of the offense is under sixteen years of age, a class B felony, and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which nine months of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 72; P.A. 75-619, S. 4; P.A. 82-428, S. 3; P.A. 83-326, S. 1; P.A. 85-341, S. 2; P.A. 93-340, S. 2; P.A. 94-221, S. 18; P.A. 00-161, S. 2; P.A. 02-106, S. 1; 02-138, S. 7; P.A. 04-130, S. 1; P.A. 07-143, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 75-619 restated Subsec. (a) to conform with changes made in definitions of Sec. 53a-65, referred to sexual "assault" rather than to sexual "misconduct" and made the offense a Class C felony rather than a Class A misdemeanor; P.A. 82-428 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that nine months of sentence may not be suspended or reduced by the court; P.A. 83-326 amended Subsec. (a) to impose liability when the victim is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated "to the extent that he is unable to consent to such sexual intercourse", redesignated as Subdiv. (3) a victim who is "physically helpless" and renumbered the remaining Subdivs.; P.A. 85-341 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to increase the applicable age from 15 to 16 years; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to specify that the other person be 13 years of age or older and the actor be more than 2 years older than such person, added Subdivs. (6) and (7) re sexual intercourse between a psychotherapist and a patient or former patient and re sexual intercourse accomplished by false representation that it is for a bona fide medical purpose; P.A. 94-221 added Subsec. (a)(8) concerning school employees and students; P.A. 00-161 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by deleting provision re the act of engaging in sexual intercourse with a person who is mentally incapacitated, which conduct was reclassified as sexual assault in the first degree under Sec. 53a-70 by same public act, and by making a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 02-106 added Subsec. (a)(9) re sexual intercourse between a coach or instructor and a person who is a recipient of such coaching or instruction and is a secondary school student receiving such coaching or instruction in a secondary school setting or under 18 years of age; P.A. 02-138 amended Subsec. (b) to classify the offense as a class B felony if the victim is under 16 years of age; P.A. 04-130 added Subsec. (a)(10) re actor 20 years of age or older who stands in a position of power, authority or supervision over another person under 18 years of age and engages in sexual intercourse with such other person; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to increase the age differential from 2 to 3 years and make a technical change.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1): Sexual assault in the second degree was not a lesser offense included within sexual assault in the first degree because it would be possible to commit the latter offense in the manner described in the information and bill of particulars without committing the former offense. 99 CA 251.


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      Sec. 53a-73a. Sexual assault in the fourth degree: Class A misdemeanor or class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the fourth degree when: (1) Such person intentionally subjects another person to sexual contact who is (A) under thirteen years of age and the actor is more than two years older than such other person, or (B) thirteen years of age or older but under fifteen years of age and the actor is more than three years older than such other person, or (C) mentally defective or mentally incapacitated to the extent that such other person is unable to consent to such sexual contact, or (D) physically helpless, or (E) less than eighteen years old and the actor is such other person's guardian or otherwise responsible for the general supervision of such other person's welfare, or (F) in custody of law or detained in a hospital or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over such other person; or (2) such person subjects another person to sexual contact without such other person's consent; or (3) such person engages in sexual contact with an animal or dead body; or (4) such person is a psychotherapist and subjects another person to sexual contact who is (A) a patient of the actor and the sexual contact occurs during the psychotherapy session, or (B) a patient or former patient of the actor and such patient or former patient is emotionally dependent upon the actor, or (C) a patient or former patient of the actor and the sexual contact occurs by means of therapeutic deception; or (5) such person subjects another person to sexual contact and accomplishes the sexual contact by means of false representation that the sexual contact is for a bona fide medical purpose by a health care professional; or (6) such person is a school employee and subjects another person to sexual contact who is a student enrolled in a school in which the actor works or a school under the jurisdiction of the local or regional board of education which employs the actor; or (7) such person is a coach in an athletic activity or a person who provides intensive, ongoing instruction and subjects another person to sexual contact who is a recipient of coaching or instruction from the actor and (A) is a secondary school student and receives such coaching or instruction in a secondary school setting, or (B) is under eighteen years of age; or (8) such person subjects another person to sexual contact and (A) the actor is twenty years of age or older and stands in a position of power, authority or supervision over such other person by virtue of the actor's professional, legal, occupational or volunteer status and such other person's participation in a program or activity, and (B) such other person is under eighteen years of age.

      (b) Sexual assault in the fourth degree is a class A misdemeanor or, if the victim of the offense is under sixteen years of age, a class D felony.

      (P.A. 75-619, S. 6; P.A. 83-326, S. 2; P.A. 93-340, S. 3; P.A. 94-221, S. 19; P.A. 02-106, S. 2; 02-138, S. 10; P.A. 04-130, S. 2; P.A. 07-143, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 83-326 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to impose liability when the victim is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated "to the extent that he is unable to consent to such sexual contact", redesignated as Subpara. (C) a victim who is "physically helpless" and relettered the remaining subparagraphs; P.A. 93-340 added Subsec. (a)(4)and (5) re sexual contact by a psychotherapist with a patient or former patient and re sexual contact accomplished by means of false representation that it is for a bona fide medical purpose; P.A. 94-221 added Subsec. (a)(6) re school employees and students; P.A. 02-106 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1)(B) for purposes of gender neutrality and added Subsec. (a)(7) re a coach or instructor subjecting another person to sexual contact who is a recipient of such coaching or instruction and is a secondary school student receiving such coaching or instruction in a secondary school setting or under 18 years of age; P.A. 02-138 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (b) to classify the offense as a class D felony if the victim is under 16 years of age; P.A. 04-130 added Subsec. (a)(8) re actor 20 years of age or older who stands in a position of power, authority or supervision over another person under 18 years of age and subjects that other person to sexual contact; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to revise Subpara. (A) re when victim is under 15 years of age by establishing an age differential between the victim and the actor requiring that for a victim under 13 years of age the actor be more than 2 years older and requiring that for a victim 13 years of age or older but under 15 years of age the actor be more than 3 years older, designating the latter provision as new Subpara. (B) and relettering the remaining Subparas. accordingly.

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      Sec. 53a-90a. Enticing a minor. Penalties. (a) A person is guilty of enticing a minor when such person uses an interactive computer service to knowingly persuade, induce, entice or coerce any person under sixteen years of age to engage in prostitution or sexual activity for which the actor may be charged with a criminal offense. For purposes of this section, "interactive computer service" means any information service, system or access software provider that provides or enables computer access by multiple users to a computer server, including specifically a service or system that provides access to the Internet and such systems operated or services offered by libraries or educational institutions.

      (b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, enticing a minor is a class D felony for a first offense, a class C felony for a second offense and a class B felony for any subsequent offense.

      (2) Enticing a minor is a class B felony if the victim of the offense is under thirteen years of age and any person found guilty of such class B felony shall, for a first offense, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which five years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court and, for any subsequent offense, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which ten years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 99-113; P.A. 04-139, S. 1; P.A. 07-143, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 04-139 amended Subsec. (b) to increase penalty for a first offense from a class A misdemeanor to a class D felony, for a second offense from a class D felony to a class C felony and for any subsequent offense from a class C felony to a class B felony, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing penalty provision as Subdiv. (1) and amend same to add exception re Subdiv. (2) and to add new Subdiv. (2) classifying offense as a class B felony if the victim is under 13 years of age and specifying a term of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced by the court of 5 years for a first offense and 10 years for a subsequent offense, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-90b. Misrepresentation of age to entice a minor: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of misrepresentation of age to entice a minor when such person, in the course of and in furtherance of the commission of a violation of section 53a-90a, intentionally misrepresents such person's age.

      (b) Misrepresentation of age to entice a minor is a class C felony.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 97.)

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PART VIII
BURGLARY, CRIMINAL TRESPASS, ARSON,
CRIMINAL MISCHIEF AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-103. Burglary in the third degree: Class D felony.

      Evidence that defendant entered residence and stated he would be able to hit wife before police could arrive was sufficient to establish that at the time he entered dwelling defendant intended to commit crime of assault. 99 CA 203.

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PART IX
LARCENY, ROBBERY AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-123. Larceny in the second degree: Class C felony.

      Since statute's language includes both taking of property and subsequent retention of the stolen property, to charge defendant with two counts of larceny is improper; they are not separately punishable and to so charge violates defendant's constitutional guarantee against double jeopardy. 100 CA 565.

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      Sec. 53a-125b. Larceny in the sixth degree: Class C misdemeanor.

      Statutory requirement of "value" set forth in statute is satisfied where witness testified about the usefulness of coats that had been left in her vehicle. It was not necessary to prove coats were spun from silk or fashioned from the finest cloth to satisfy statutory requirement of "value". 101 CA 144.

      Subsec. (a):

      No double jeopardy where defendant convicted of larceny in the sixth degree and robbery in the third degree. 100 CA 122.


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      Sec. 53a-133. Unlawful alteration or disposal of rental electric storage batteries.

      Subdiv. (2):

      Defendant's actions in keeping victim's ATM card and the money and ordering victim out of vehicle at gun point were sufficient to constitute the "deliver up" of property within statute's meaning. 102 CA 532.


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      Sec. 53a-136. Robbery in the third degree: Class D felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Jury could reasonably find that defendant's threat was part of the same continuous transaction as the larceny; use or threatened use of a firearm is not an element of the crime. 100 CA 122.


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      Sec. 53a-136a. Robbery involving occupied motor vehicle. Penalty.

      Section is a sentence enhancement provision and not a separate crime, notwithstanding the requirement of proof of an additional element to establish a violation of the section. 100 CA 565.

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PART X
FORGERY AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-139. Forgery in the second degree: Class D felony.

      Defendant's true identity is related directly to the crime and therefore defendant must be provided with "Miranda" warnings prior to being asked his or her identity as part of booking process. 103 CA 544.

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      Sec. 53a-141. Criminal simulation: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal simulation when: (1) With intent to defraud, he makes or alters any object in such manner that it appears to have an antiquity, rarity, source or authorship which it does not in fact possess; or (2) with knowledge of its true character and with intent to defraud, he issues or possesses an object so simulated.

      (b) Criminal simulation is a class D felony.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 143; P.A. 07-206, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-206 changed penalty from class A misdemeanor to class D felony.

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PART XI
BRIBERY, OFFENSES AGAINST THE ADMINISTRATION
OF JUSTICE AND OTHER RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-167a. Interfering with an officer: Class A misdemeanor.

      Refusal to comply with police command to provide identification following a Terry stop may constitute a violation of section even if such refusal is unaccompanied by any physical force or other affirmative act; statute broadly proscribes conduct that hinders, obstructs or impedes a police officer in performance of duties irrespective of whether offending conduct is active or passive. 280 C. 824.

      Defendant who placed arresting officer in head lock was in violation of section regardless of whether officer had probable cause for making the arrest. 98 CA 350.


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PART XIII
RIOT AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-180d. Misuse of the emergency 9-1-1 system: Class B misdeameanor. (a) A person is guilty of misuse of the emergency 9-1-1 system when such person (1) dials or otherwise causes E 9-1-1 to be called for the purpose of making a false alarm or complaint, or (2) purposely reports false information which could result in the dispatch of emergency services.

      (b) Misuse of the emergency 9-1-1 system is a class B misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 07-106, S. 6.)

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PART XIV
BREACH OF THE PEACE, HARASSMENT
AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-181. Breach of the peace in the second degree: Class B misdemeanor.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1): Defendant engaged in fighting or violent or tumultuous behavior with intent to cause annoyance, alarm and inconvenience by spitting on victim's face because spitting is an unsanitary act, likely to spread potentially deadly disease and is almost universally regarded as contemptuous, is calculated to incite others to act in retaliation and actual physical contact of defendant with victim is not required. 102 CA 551.


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      Sec. 53a-181k. Intimidation based on bigotry or bias in the second degree: Class D felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (3) not unconstitutionally vague or overbroad. 265 C. 145.

      Subdiv. (3) is not unconstitutionally overbroad because it prohibits only true threats, not all threats, and is not unconstitutionally void for vagueness in context of defendant's actions and words. 104 CA 46.


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      Sec. 53a-183c. Disruption of a funeral: Class A misdemeanor. (a) For the purposes of this section:

      (1) "Funeral" means any ceremony or memorial service held in connection with the burial or cremation of an individual; and

      (2) "Boundary of the location", with respect to a funeral, means (A) in the case of a funeral that is held at a cemetery, the property line of the cemetery; (B) in the case of a funeral that is held at a mortuary, the property line of the mortuary; (C) in the case of a funeral that is held at a house of worship, the property line of the house of worship; and (D) in the case of a funeral that is held at any other type of location, the reasonable property line of that location.

      (b) With respect to any funeral, no individual may engage in an activity during the period beginning sixty minutes before and ending sixty minutes after such funeral, any part of which activity:

      (1) (A) Takes place within the boundaries of the location of such funeral or takes place within one hundred fifty feet of the point of the intersection between (i) the boundary of the location of such funeral; and (ii) a road, pathway, or other route of ingress to or egress from the location of such funeral; and (B) includes the individual wilfully making or assisting in the making of any noise or diversion that is not part of such funeral and that disturbs or tends to disturb the peace or good order of such funeral with the intent of disturbing the peace or good order of that funeral; or

      (2) (A) Is within three hundred feet of the boundary of the location of such funeral; and (B) includes the individual wilfully and without proper authorization impeding the ingress to or egress from such location with the intent to impede the ingress to or egress from such location.

      (c) Any individual who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 07-98, S. 1; 07-187, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 07-187 changed effective date of P.A. 07-98, S. 1 from October 1, 2007, to June 6, 2007, effective June 6, 2007.

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PART XX
OBSCENITY AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-196a. Employing a minor in an obscene performance: Class A felony. (a) A person is guilty of employing a minor in an obscene performance when such person (1) employs any minor, whether or not such minor receives any consideration, for the purpose of promoting any material or performance which is obscene as to minors, notwithstanding that such material or performance is intended for an adult audience, or (2) permits any such minor to be employed, whether or not such minor receives any consideration, in the promotion of any material or performance which is obscene as to minors, notwithstanding that such material or performance is intended for an adult audience, and such person is the parent or guardian of such minor or otherwise responsible for the general supervision of such minor's welfare.

      (b) Employing a minor in an obscene performance is a class A felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which ten years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 77-577, S. 2; P.A. 78-345, S. 2, 4; P.A. 85-496, S. 2; P.A. 92-260, S. 79; P.A. 07-143, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 78-345 restated provisions for conformity with Sec. 53a-193 as amended; P.A. 85-496 increased penalty from class B felony to class A felony; P.A. 92-260 made technical changes; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (b) to require any person found guilty to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which 10 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-196c. Importing child pornography: Class B felony. (a) A person is guilty of importing child pornography when, with intent to promote child pornography, such person knowingly imports or causes to be imported into the state three or more visual depictions of child pornography of known content and character.

      (b) Importing child pornography is a class B felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which five years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 85-496, S. 5; P.A. 04-139, S. 3; P.A. 07-143, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 04-139 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "any child pornography" with "three or more visual depictions of child pornography" and make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, deleted former Subsec. (b) providing that importation of two or more copies of any publication containing child pornography shall be prima facie evidence that such publications were imported with intent to promote child pornography, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as new Subsec. (b) and amended said Subsec. to increase penalty from a class C felony to a class B felony; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to require any person found guilty to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which 5 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-196d. Possessing child pornography in the first degree: Class B felony. (a) A person is guilty of possessing child pornography in the first degree when such person knowingly possesses fifty or more visual depictions of child pornography.

      (b) Possessing child pornography in the first degree is a class B felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which five years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 95-143, S. 3; P.A. 04-139, S. 4; P.A. 07-143, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 04-139 renamed offense by replacing "possessing child pornography" with "possessing child pornography in the first degree" where appearing, amended Subsec. (a) to replace provision that offense occurs when a person "knowingly possesses child pornography, as defined in subdivision (13) of section 53a-193" with "knowingly possesses fifty or more visual depictions of child pornography" and delete provision that possession of a photographic or other visual reproduction of a nude minor for a bona fide artistic, medical, scientific, educational, religious, governmental or judicial purpose is not a violation of subsection, and amended Subsec. (b) to increase penalty from a class D felony to a class B felony; P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to require any person found guilty to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which 5 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-196e. Possessing child pornography in the second degree: Class C felony. (a) A person is guilty of possessing child pornography in the second degree when such person knowingly possesses twenty or more but fewer than fifty visual depictions of child pornography.

      (b) Possessing child pornography in the second degree is a class C felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which two years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 04-139, S. 5; P.A. 07-143, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to require any person found guilty to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which 2 years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 53a-196f. Possessing child pornography in the third degree: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of possessing child pornography in the third degree when such person knowingly possesses fewer than twenty visual depictions of child pornography.

      (b) Possessing child pornography in the third degree is a class D felony and any person found guilty under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which one year of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 04-139, S. 6; P.A. 07-143, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 07-143 amended Subsec. (b) to require any person found guilty to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of which 1 year of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court, effective July 1, 2007.

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PART XXI
MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-211. Possession of a sawed-off shotgun or silencer: Class D felony.

      Fact that the weapon in evidence had a pistol grip was of no consequence because the barrel had been sawed off and therefore weapon was a sawed-off shotgun. 99 CA 183.

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      Sec. 53a-212. Stealing a firearm: Class D felony.

      Fact that the weapon in evidence had a pistol grip and could not be fired from the shoulder was of no consequence because it was a weapon capable of discharging a gunshot and therefore satisfied statutory definition of firearm. 99 CA 183.

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      Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Fact that the weapon in evidence had a pistol grip and could not be fired from the shoulder was of no consequence because it was a weapon capable of discharging a gunshot and therefore satisfied statutory definition of firearm. 99 CA 183.


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      Sec. 53a-222. Violation of conditions of release in the first degree: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of violation of conditions of release in the first degree when, while charged with the commission of a felony, such person is released pursuant to subsection (b) of section 54-63c, subsection (c) of section 54-63d or subsection (c) of section 54-64a, and intentionally violates one or more of the imposed conditions of release.

      (b) Violation of conditions of release in the first degree is a class D felony.

      (P.A. 98-90, S. 1; P.A. 99-186, S. 10; P.A. 07-123, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec. (a) to revise a statutory reference and make provisions gender neutral; P.A. 07-123 renamed offense by replacing "violation of conditions of release" with "violation of conditions of release in the first degree", amended Subsec. (a) to delete provision making offense applicable to a person charged with a "misdemeanor or motor vehicle violation for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment may be imposed", include a person released pursuant to Sec. 54-63c(b), delete provision that person be released "on the condition that such person (1) avoid all contact with the alleged victim or (2) not use or possess a dangerous weapon" and require that person intentionally violate "one or more of the imposed conditions of release", rather than "that condition", and amended Subsec. (b) to increase penalty from a class A misdemeanor to a class D felony.

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      Sec. 53a-222a. Violation of conditions of release in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of violation of conditions of release in the second degree when, while charged with the commission of a misdemeanor or motor vehicle violation for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment may be imposed, such person is released pursuant to subsection (b) of section 54-63c, subsection (c) of section 54-63d or subsection (c) of section 54-64a and intentionally violates one or more of the imposed conditions of release.

      (b) Violation of conditions of release in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 07-123, S. 4.)

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