CHAPTER 814c
HUMAN RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

Table of Contents

Sec. 46a-51. (Formerly Sec. 31-122). Definitions.
Sec. 46a-56. Commission duties.
Sec. 46a-58. (Formerly Sec. 53-34). Deprivation of rights. Desecration of property. Cross burning. Penalty.
Sec. 46a-64. (Formerly Sec. 53-35). Discriminatory public accommodations practices prohibited. Penalty.
Sec. 46a-64c. Discriminatory housing practices prohibited. Disposition of complaints. Penalty.
Sec. 46a-68. (Formerly Sec. 4-61s). State affirmative action plans; filing; monitoring; reports; affirmative action officers; review and investigation of discrimination complaints; regulations.
Sec. 46a-68h. Hearing re noncompliance.
Sec. 46a-68i. Right of appeal.
Sec. 46a-81b. Sexual orientation discrimination: Associations of licensed persons.
Sec. 46a-81c. Sexual orientation discrimination: Employment.
Sec. 46a-81d. Sexual orientation discrimination: Public accommodations.
Sec. 46a-81e. Sexual orientation discrimination: Housing.
Sec. 46a-81f. Sexual orientation discrimination: Credit practices.
Sec. 46a-81r. Sexual orientation discrimination: Construction of statutes.
Sec. 46a-82. (Formerly Sec. 31-127). Complaint: Filing.
Sec. 46a-83. Complaint: Review; dismissal; investigation; finding; reconsideration; attempt to eliminate discriminatory practice; default order.
Sec. 46a-84. Complaint: Certification; hearing; settlement or alternate dispute resolution endeavors; default order.
Sec. 46a-86. Complaint: Determination; orders; dismissal. Treatment of discrimination awards.

PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      Sec. 46a-51. (Formerly Sec. 31-122). Definitions. As used in section 4a-60a and this chapter:

      (1) "Blind" refers to an individual whose central visual acuity does not exceed 20/ 200 in the better eye with correcting lenses, or whose visual acuity is greater than 20/ 200 but is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than twenty degrees;

      (2) "Commission" means the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities created by section 46a-52;

      (3) "Commission legal counsel" means a member of the legal staff employed by the commission pursuant to section 46a-54;

      (4) "Commissioner" means a member of the commission;

      (5) "Court" means the Superior Court or any judge of said court;

      (6) "Discrimination" includes segregation and separation;

      (7) "Discriminatory employment practice" means any discriminatory practice specified in section 46a-60 or 46a-81c;

      (8) "Discriminatory practice" means a violation of section 4a-60, 4a-60a, 4a-60g, 46a-58, 46a-59, 46a-60, 46a-64, 46a-64c, 46a-66, 46a-68, 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, or 46a-70 to 46a-78, inclusive, subsection (a) of section 46a-80 or sections 46a-81b to 46a-81o, inclusive;

      (9) "Employee" means any person employed by an employer but shall not include any individual employed by such individual's parents, spouse or child, or in the domestic service of any person;

      (10) "Employer" includes the state and all political subdivisions thereof and means any person or employer with three or more persons in such person's or employer's employ;

      (11) "Employment agency" means any person undertaking with or without compensation to procure employees or opportunities to work;

      (12) "Labor organization" means any organization which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection in connection with employment;

      (13) "Mental retardation" means mental retardation as defined in section 1-1g;

      (14) "Person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, receivers and the state and all political subdivisions and agencies thereof;

      (15) "Physically disabled" refers to any individual who has any chronic physical handicap, infirmity or impairment, whether congenital or resulting from bodily injury, organic processes or changes or from illness, including, but not limited to, epilepsy, deafness or hearing impairment or reliance on a wheelchair or other remedial appliance or device;

      (16) "Respondent" means any person alleged in a complaint filed pursuant to section 46a-82 to have committed a discriminatory practice;

      (17) "Discrimination on the basis of sex" includes but is not limited to discrimination related to pregnancy, child-bearing capacity, sterilization, fertility or related medical conditions;

      (18) "Discrimination on the basis of religious creed" includes but is not limited to discrimination related to all aspects of religious observances and practice as well as belief, unless an employer demonstrates that the employer is unable to reasonably accommodate to an employee's or prospective employee's religious observance or practice without undue hardship on the conduct of the employer's business;

      (19) "Learning disability" refers to an individual who exhibits a severe discrepancy between educational performance and measured intellectual ability and who exhibits a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in a diminished ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations;

      (20) "Mental disability" refers to an individual who has a record of, or is regarded as having one or more mental disorders, as defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders".

      (1949 Rev., S. 7401; 1959, P.A. 145, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 253; 636, S. 5, 6; P.A. 75-350, S. 1; P.A. 76-96, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-452, S. 61, 72; P.A. 80-422, S. 1; 80-449, S. 3, 6; P.A. 81-81, S. 3; 81-382, S. 1; P.A. 82-51, S. 2; P.A. 83-587, S. 56, 96; P.A. 84-204; P.A. 88-303, S. 4; P.A. 90-246, S. 1; 90-330, S. 2, 11; P.A. 91-58, S. 20; P.A. 95-79, S. 167, 189; P.A. 01-28, S. 1; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 189; P.A. 07-142, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act added Subdiv. (k) defining age; 1967 acts redefined "employer" as one with three or more rather than five or more employees and redefined "commission" and "commissioner" to change commission name from commission on civil rights to commission on human rights and opportunities; P.A. 75-350 deleted definition of "age", i.e. as "any age between forty and sixty-five, inclusive"; P.A. 76-96 redefined "court" as court of common pleas rather than superior court; P.A. 77-452 redefined "court" as superior court; P.A. 80-422 deleted definition of "unfair employment practice", defined "blind", "commission counsel", "discriminatory employment practice", "discriminatory practice", "mental retardation" and "respondent", replaced alphabetic Subdiv. indicators with numeric indicators and arranged definitions in alphabetical order; P.A. 80-449 made no substantive change; Sec. 31-122 transferred to Sec. 46a-51 in 1981; P.A. 81-81 amended Subdiv. (8) by adding reference to "section 47a-2a" which was subsequently transferred and redesignated Sec. 46a-64a; P.A. 81-382 added Subdiv. (17) defining "discrimination on the basis of sex"; P.A. 82-51 redefined "mental retardation" to adopt the definition of Sec. 1-1g of the general statutes; P.A. 83-587 substituted "46a-54" for "46-54" in Subdiv. (3); P.A. 84-204 added Subdiv. (18) defining "discrimination on the basis of religious creed"; P.A. 88-303 redefined "discriminatory practice" to include a violation of Sec. 4-114a; P.A. 90-246 amended Subdiv. (8) by deleting reference to repealed Sec. 46a-64a and adding reference to Sec. 46a-64c; P.A. 90-330 added definition of "learning disability"; P.A. 91-58 added reference in introductory clause to Sec. 4a-60a and proposed to add reference to Secs. 46a-81a to 46a-81o, inclusive, but said Secs. already included in existing reference to "this chapter", amended definition of "discriminatory employment practice" to add reference to Sec. 46a-81c, and amended definition of "discriminatory practice" to include a violation of Sec. 4a-60a and Secs. 46a-81b to 46a-81o, inclusive; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include limited liability companies, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 01-28 added Subdiv. (20) defining "mental disability" and made technical changes for the purpose of gender neutrality in Subdivs. (9), (10) and (18); June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced "commission counsel" with "commission legal counsel" as the defined term and replaced "the counsel employed by the commission pursuant to section 46a-54" with "a member of the legal staff employed by the commission pursuant to section 46a-54" as the definition of said term, effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 07-142 amended Subdiv. (8) by adding reference to Sec. 4a-60g and Secs. 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-56. Commission duties. (a) The commission shall:

      (1) Investigate the possibilities of affording equal opportunity of profitable employment to all persons, with particular reference to job training and placement;

      (2) Compile facts concerning discrimination in employment, violations of civil liberties and other related matters;

      (3) Investigate and proceed in all cases of discriminatory practices as provided in this chapter and noncompliance with the provisions of section 4a-60 or 4a-60a or sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive;

      (4) From time to time, but not less than once a year, report to the Governor as provided in section 4-60, making recommendations for the removal of such injustices as it may find to exist and such other recommendations as it deems advisable and describing the investigations, proceedings and hearings it has conducted and their outcome, the decisions it has rendered and the other work it has performed;

      (5) Monitor state contracts to determine whether they are in compliance with sections 4a-60 and 4a-60a, and those provisions of the general statutes which prohibit discrimination; and

      (6) Compile data concerning state contracts with female and minority business enterprises and submit a report annually to the General Assembly concerning the employment of such business enterprises as contractors and subcontractors.

      (b) The commission may, when it is deemed in the best interests of the state, exempt a contractor from the requirements of complying with any or all of the provisions of section 4a-60, 4a-60a, 46a-68c, 46a-68d or 46a-68e in any specific contract. Exemptions under the provisions of this section may include, but not be limited to, the following instances: (1) If the work is to be or has been performed outside the state and no recruitment of workers within the limits of the state is involved; (2) those involving less than specified amounts of money or specified numbers of workers; (3) to the extent that they involve subcontracts below a specified tier. The commission may also exempt facilities of a contractor which are in all respects separate and distinct from activities of the contractor related to the performance of the contract, provided such an exemption shall not interfere with or impede the effectuation of the purposes of this section and sections 4a-60, 4a-60a, 4a-60g, 4a-62 and 46a-68b to 46a-68k, inclusive.

      (c) If the commission determines through its monitoring and compliance procedures that a contractor or subcontractor is not complying with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60 or 4a-60a or the provisions of sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, the commission may issue a complaint pursuant to subsection (c) of section 46a-82. Such complaint shall be scheduled for a hearing before a hearing officer or human rights referee appointed to act as a presiding officer. Such hearing shall be held in accordance with chapter 54 and section 46a-84. If, after such hearing, the presiding officer makes a finding of noncompliance with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60 or 4a-60a or the provisions of sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, the presiding officer may: (1) Order the state to retain two per cent of the total contract price per month on any existing contract with such contractor; (2) prohibit the contractor from participation in any further contracts with state agencies until: (A) The expiration of a period of two years from the date of the finding of noncompliance, or (B) the presiding officer determines that the contractor has adopted policies consistent with such statutes, provided the presiding officer shall make such determination within forty-five days of such finding of noncompliance; (3) publish, or cause to be published, the names of contractors or unions that the presiding officer has found to be in noncompliance with such provisions; (4) notify the Attorney General that, in cases in which there is substantial or material violation or the threat of substantial or material violation of the contractual provisions set forth in section 4a-60 or 4a-60a, appropriate proceedings should be brought to enforce such provisions, including the enjoining, within the limitations of applicable law, of organizations, individuals or groups who prevent directly or indirectly, or seek to prevent directly or indirectly, compliance with the provisions of section 4a-60 or 4a-60a; (5) recommend to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or the Department of Justice that appropriate proceedings be instituted under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, when necessary; (6) recommend to the appropriate prosecuting authority that criminal proceedings be brought for the furnishing of false information to any contracting agency or to the commission as the case may be; (7) order the contractor to bring itself into compliance with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60 or 4a-60a or sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, within a period of thirty days or, for good cause shown, within an additional period of thirty days, and, if such contractor fails to bring itself into such compliance within such time period and such noncompliance is substantial or material or there is a pattern of noncompliance, recommend to the contracting agency that such agency declare the contractor to be in breach of the contract and that such agency pursue all available remedies; or (8) order the contracting agency to refrain from entering into further contracts, or extensions or other modifications of existing contracts, with any noncomplying contractor, until such contractor has satisfied the commission that such contractor has established and will carry out personnel and employment policies in compliance with antidiscrimination statutes and the provisions of section 4a-60 or 4a-60a and sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive. The commission shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (d) If the commission determines, through its monitoring and compliance procedures and after a complaint is filed and a hearing is held pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, that, with respect to a state contract, a contractor, subcontractor or supplier of materials has (1) fraudulently qualified as a minority business enterprise, or (2) performed services or supplied materials on behalf of another contractor, subcontractor or supplier of materials knowing (A) that such other contractor, subcontractor or supplier has fraudulently qualified as a minority business enterprise in order to comply with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60 or 4a-60a, and (B) that such services or materials are to be used in connection with a contract entered into pursuant to subsection (b) of section 4a-60g, the hearing officer or human rights referee before whom such hearing was held shall assess a civil penalty of not more than ten thousand dollars upon such contractor, subcontractor or supplier of materials. The Attorney General, upon complaint of the commission, shall institute a civil action in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to recover such penalty. Any penalties recovered pursuant to this subsection shall be deposited in a special fund and shall be held by the State Treasurer separate and apart from all other moneys, funds and accounts. The resources in such fund shall, pursuant to regulations adopted by the commission in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, be used to assist minority business enterprises. As used in this section, "minority business enterprise" means any contractor, subcontractor or supplier of materials fifty-one per cent or more of the capital stock, if any, or assets of which is owned by a person or persons: (i) Who are active in the daily affairs of the enterprise; (ii) who have the power to direct the management and policies of the enterprise; and (iii) who are members of a minority, as defined in subsection (a) of section 32-9n.

      (P.A. 80-422, S. 5; P.A. 83-569, S. 10, 17; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-303, S. 5; 88-351, S. 7, 16; 88-364, S. 94, 123; P.A. 89-253, S. 5, 7; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-58, S. 22; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 07-142, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 83-569 amended prior provisions to require the commission to monitor state contracts and added Subsec. (b) to prohibit contractors who fail to comply with antidiscrimination statutes from entering into state contracts; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-303 added new subsection requiring the commission to assess a penalty against certain contractors, subcontractors or suppliers of materials; P.A. 88-351 amended duties of commission in Subsec. (a) to include investigation of noncompliance with Sec. 4-114a and compilation of data re state contracts with female and minority business enterprises and submission of annual report, inserted new Subsec. (b) re exemption of contractor from certain affirmative action requirements in certain contracts and added provisions in former Subsec. (b), now Subsec. (c), re retention of 2% of contract price per month, prohibition from participation in further contracts and additional sanctions by commission for noncompliance; P.A. 88-364 amended Subsec. (c) by substituting "commission" for "commissioner" and deleting "subject to the recommendations and approval of the commission"; P.A. 89-253 changed reference to Sec. 4-114a to Sec. 4a-60 throughout section and in Subsec. (b) changed reference to Sec. 4-114c to Sec. 4a-62 and deleted provision re applicability of said sections in absence of exemption; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 91-58 added references to Sec. 4a-60a throughout section; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 1995 the Revisors made an editorial correction at the end of Subsec. (b) substituting "32-9e" for "32-9c", thereby correcting a longstanding clerical error in the codification of P.A. 88-351, S. 7); P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 07-142 amended Subsec. (c) to revise procedures for issuance and hearing of complaints against contractors and subcontractors, add provision re ordering contractor to bring itself into compliance with antidiscrimination statutes, required contract provisions or Secs. 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, and make technical changes and amended Subsec. (d) to make conforming and technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

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PART II
DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES

      Sec. 46a-58. (Formerly Sec. 53-34). Deprivation of rights. Desecration of property. Cross burning. Penalty. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section for any person to subject, or cause to be subjected, any other person to the deprivation of any rights, privileges or immunities, secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of this state or of the United States, on account of religion, national origin, alienage, color, race, sex, sexual orientation, blindness or physical disability.

      (b) Any person who intentionally desecrates any public property, monument or structure, or any religious object, symbol or house of religious worship, or any cemetery, or any private structure not owned by such person, shall be in violation of subsection (a) of this section. For the purposes of this subsection, "desecrate" means to mar, deface or damage as a demonstration of irreverence or contempt.

      (c) Any person who places a burning cross or a simulation thereof on any public property, or on any private property without the written consent of the owner, shall be in violation of subsection (a) of this section.

      (d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor, except that if property is damaged as a consequence of such violation in an amount in excess of one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a class D felony.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8374; P.A. 74-80; P.A. 77-278, S. 1; P.A. 80-54; 80-422, S. 7; P.A. 84-15; P.A. 05-288, S. 155; P.A. 07-62, S. 1; 07-217, S. 166.)

      History: P.A. 74-80 applied penalty to discrimination based on sex and specified violation as class A misdemeanor, deleting penalty of maximum fine of $1,000 and/or maximum imprisonment of one year; P.A. 77-278 applied penalty to discrimination based on blindness or physical disability; P.A. 80-54 applied penalty to discrimination based on religion or national origin and added Subsecs. (b) and (c) re desecration of property and burning crosses on property; P.A. 80-422 rephrased Subsec. (a) and designated penalty provision formerly in Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (d); Sec. 53-34 transferred to Sec. 46a-58 in 1981; P.A. 84-15 amended Subsec. (d) by increasing the penalty to a class D felony if property is damaged in an amount in excess of $1,000; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 07-62 amended Subsec. (a) by applying penalty to discrimination based on sexual orientation; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-64. (Formerly Sec. 53-35). Discriminatory public accommodations practices prohibited. Penalty. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section: (1) To deny any person within the jurisdiction of this state full and equal accommodations in any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement because of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, mental retardation, mental disability or physical disability, including, but not limited to, blindness or deafness of the applicant, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all persons; (2) to discriminate, segregate or separate on account of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, mental retardation, mental disability, learning disability or physical disability, including, but not limited to, blindness or deafness; (3) for a place of public accommodation, resort or amusement to restrict or limit the right of a mother to breast-feed her child; (4) for a place of public accommodation, resort or amusement to fail or refuse to post a notice, in a conspicuous place, that any blind, deaf or mobility impaired person, accompanied by his guide dog wearing a harness or an orange-colored leash and collar, may enter such premises or facilities; or (5) to deny any blind, deaf or mobility impaired person or any person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person, accompanied by his guide dog or assistance dog, full and equal access to any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement. Any blind, deaf or mobility impaired person or any person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person may keep his guide dog or assistance dog with him at all times in such place of public accommodation, resort or amusement at no extra charge, provided the dog wears a harness or an orange-colored leash and collar and is in the direct custody of such person. The blind, deaf or mobility impaired person or person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person shall be liable for any damage done to the premises or facilities by his dog. For purposes of this subdivision, "guide dog" or "assistance dog" includes a dog being trained as a guide dog or assistance dog and "person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person" means a person who is employed by and authorized to engage in designated training activities by a guide dog organization or assistance dog organization that complies with the criteria for membership in a professional association of guide dog or assistance dog schools and who carries photographic identification indicating such employment and authorization.

      (b) (1) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of sex discrimination shall not apply to (A) the rental of sleeping accommodations provided by associations and organizations which rent all such sleeping accommodations on a temporary or permanent basis for the exclusive use of persons of the same sex or (B) separate bathrooms or locker rooms based on sex. (2) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of age shall not apply to minors or to special discount or other public or private programs to assist persons sixty years of age and older. (3) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of physical disability shall not require any person to modify his property in any way or provide a higher degree of care for a physically disabled person, including, but not limited to blind or deaf persons, than for a person not physically disabled. (4) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of creed shall not apply to the practice of granting preference in admission of residents into a nursing home as defined in section 19a-490, if (A) the nursing home is owned, operated by or affiliated with a religious organization, exempt from taxation for federal income tax purposes and (B) the class of persons granted preference in admission is consistent with the religious mission of the nursing home. (5) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of lawful source of income shall not prohibit the denial of full and equal accommodations solely on the basis of insufficient income.

      (c) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars or more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

      (1949 Rev., S. 8375; 1949, 1953, S. 3267d; 1959, P.A. 113; 1961, P.A. 472; 1963, P.A. 594; February, 1965, P.A. 141; 1967, P.A. 177, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 186, S. 15; P.A. 73-119; 73-279, S. 6; P.A. 74-205; P.A. 75-323; P.A. 76-49, S. 3; P.A. 77-604, S. 37, 84; P.A. 78-148, S. 12; P.A. 79-186; P.A. 80-422, S. 12; 80-483, S. 135, 186; P.A. 85-289, S. 7; 85-512, S. 5; P.A. 88-114; 88-288; P.A. 89-21, S. 2; 89-288, S. 2; P.A. 90-230, S. 63, 101; 90-246, S. 3; 90-330, S. 4, 11; P.A. 94-238, S. 4, 6; P.A. 97-141, S. 2; 97-210, S. 1; P.A. 07-217, S. 167.)

      History: 1959 act included as place of public accommodation housing which is one of five or more accommodations located on a single parcel or contiguous parcels of land and owned and controlled by any person; 1961 act included building lots as housing accommodations, reduced the number of accommodations to be subject to section from five to three and made person who owned or controlled the accommodations within one year prior to a violation liable and provided ownership or control by the same interests would be deemed to be by one person; 1963 act deleted the aforesaid provisions re accommodations on a single parcel of land making the statute applicable to a single accommodation or lot and added Subdivs. (1) and (2); 1965 act added prohibition against discrimination by reason of national origin or ancestry; 1967 act added commercial property and buildings; 1972 act included mobile home parks as place of public accommodation, resort or amusement in Subsec. (a); P.A. 73-119 specified discrimination based on sex as violation of section and specified inapplicability of section re sex discrimination to rental of sleeping accommodations by associations or organizations when rent accommodations for exclusive use of persons of same sex; P.A. 73-279 prohibited discrimination because of physical disability including blindness, inserted new Subsecs. (b) and (c) qualifying said prohibition, designated penalty provisions as Subsec. (d) and relettered former Subsec. (b) as (e); P.A. 74-205 prohibited discrimination based on marital status and added provision rendering that prohibition inapplicable to cases where housing accommodation denied to man and woman who are unrelated and not married to each other; P.A. 75-323 prohibited discrimination on basis of age and added provision limiting that prohibition with respect to minors, housing for elderly and housing exclusively for persons within specified age groups; P.A. 76-49 prohibited discrimination based on deafness, applied provisions of Subsecs. (b) and (c) to deaf persons and defined "deaf person" in Subsec. (b); P.A. 77-604 made technical correction in Subsec. (a); P.A. 78-148 prohibited discrimination based on mental retardation in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-186 required posting of notice re guide dogs in Subsec. (c); P.A. 80-422 rephrased and rearranged provisions, deleted provisions defining "place of public accommodation, resort or amusement" and "deaf person", deleted former Subsec. (e) which specified that section does not apply to proceedings pending before civil rights commission or any court on October 1, 1963, and extended provision limiting prohibition on age discrimination to include discount and other programs for persons 60 and older; P.A. 80-483 added feminine personal pronouns in Subsec. (c); Sec. 53-35 transferred to Sec. 46a-64 in 1981; P.A. 85-289 made Subsec. (a) applicable to mobility impaired persons; P.A. 85-512 amended section to provide for exemption from age discrimination prohibition for certain mobile manufactured home parks; P.A. 88-114 added Subsec. (b)(6) exempting practice of granting preference in admission of residents into a nursing home from provisions of section re discrimination on basis of creed if it is owned, operated by or affiliated with a religious organization, exempt from taxation and the class of persons granted preference in admission is consistent with religious mission of nursing home; P.A. 88-288 added reference to mental disability in Subsec. (a); P.A. 89-21 added option that guide dog wear an orange-colored leash and collar; P.A. 89-288 amended Subsec. (a) to prohibit discrimination in places of public accommodation based on lawful source of income and added new Subsec. (b)(7) rendering the prohibition inapplicable to cases where the denial of full and equal accommodations is solely based on insufficient income; P.A. 90-230 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 90-246 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting references to housing accommodations or mobile manufactured home parks; P.A. 90-330 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to persons with "learning disability"; P.A. 94-238 amended Subsec. (b) by exempting separate bathrooms or locker rooms based on sex, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 97-141 amended Subsec. (a) to make provisions applicable with respect to any person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person, and to add definitions of "assistance dog", "guide dog" and "person training a dog as a guide dog for a blind person or a dog to assist a deaf or mobility impaired person"; P.A. 97-210 added new Subsec. (a)(3) re breast-feeding and renumbering the remaining Subdivs; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective July 12, 2007.

      Subsec. (a):

      Although no private organization is duty-bound to offer its services and facilities to all comers, once such an organization has determined to eschew selectivity, under statute it may not discriminate among the general public. Accordingly, coverage under this subsec. depends, in each case, upon extent to which a particular establishment has maintained a private relationship with its own constituency or a general relationship with the public at large. 99 CA 839. Connecticut's courts, in construing state antidiscrimination statutes that have similar federal counterparts, have looked to federal case law for guidance, even though federal and state statutes may differ somewhat. Under certain circumstances, federal law defines the beginning and not the end of state's approach to the subject. Consequently, on occasion, state courts have interpreted statutes even more broadly than their counterparts, to provide even greater protections to state citizens, especially in the area of civil rights. Id.


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      Sec. 46a-64c. Discriminatory housing practices prohibited. Disposition of complaints. Penalty. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section:

      (1) To refuse to sell or rent after the making of a bona fide offer, or to refuse to negotiate for the sale or rental of, or otherwise make unavailable or deny, a dwelling to any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income or familial status.

      (2) To discriminate against any person in the terms, conditions, or privileges of sale or rental of a dwelling, or in the provision of services or facilities in connection therewith, because of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income or familial status.

      (3) To make, print or publish, or cause to be made, printed or published any notice, statement, or advertisement, with respect to the sale or rental of a dwelling that indicates any preference, limitation, or discrimination based on race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability, or an intention to make any such preference, limitation or discrimination.

      (4) (A) To represent to any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability that any dwelling is not available for inspection, sale or rental when such dwelling is in fact so available.

      (B) It shall be a violation of this subdivision for any person to restrict or attempt to restrict the choices of any buyer or renter to purchase or rent a dwelling (i) to an area which is substantially populated, even if less than a majority, by persons of the same protected class as the buyer or renter, (ii) while such person is authorized to offer for sale or rent another dwelling which meets the housing criteria as expressed by the buyer or renter to such person and (iii) such other dwelling is in an area which is not substantially populated by persons of the same protected class as the buyer or renter. As used in this subdivision, "area" means municipality, neighborhood or other geographic subdivision which may include an apartment or condominium complex; and "protected class" means race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability.

      (5) For profit, to induce or attempt to induce any person to sell or rent any dwelling by representations regarding the entry or prospective entry into the neighborhood of a person or persons of a particular race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability.

      (6) (A) To discriminate in the sale or rental, or to otherwise make unavailable or deny, a dwelling to any buyer or renter because of a learning disability or physical or mental disability of: (i) Such buyer or renter; (ii) a person residing in or intending to reside in such dwelling after it is so sold, rented, or made available; or (iii) any person associated with such buyer or renter.

      (B) To discriminate against any person in the terms, conditions or privileges of sale or rental of a dwelling, or in the provision of services or facilities in connection with such dwelling, because of a learning disability or physical or mental disability of: (i) Such person; or (ii) a person residing in or intending to reside in such dwelling after it is so sold, rented, or made available; or (iii) any person associated with such person.

      (C) For purposes of this subdivision, discrimination includes: (i) A refusal to permit, at the expense of a person with a physical or mental disability, reasonable modifications of existing premises occupied or to be occupied by such person if such modifications may be necessary to afford such person full enjoyment of the premises; except that, in the case of a rental, the landlord may, where it is reasonable to do so, condition permission for a modification on the renter agreeing to restore the interior of the premises to the condition that existed before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted; (ii) a refusal to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices or services, when such accommodations may be necessary to afford such person equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling; (iii) in connection with the design and construction of covered multifamily dwellings for the first occupancy after March 13, 1991, a failure to design and construct those dwellings in such manner that they comply with the requirements of Section 804(f) of the Fair Housing Act or the provisions of the state building code as adopted pursuant to the provisions of sections 29-269 and 29-273, whichever requires greater accommodation. "Covered multifamily dwellings" means buildings consisting of four or more units if such buildings have one or more elevators, and ground floor units in other buildings consisting of four or more units.

      (7) For any person or other entity engaging in residential real-estate-related transactions to discriminate against any person in making available such a transaction, or in the terms or conditions of such a transaction, because of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability.

      (8) To deny any person access to or membership or participation in any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' organization or other service, organization, or facility relating to the business of selling or renting dwellings, or to discriminate against him in the terms or conditions of such access, membership or participation, on account of race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability.

      (9) To coerce, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any person in the exercise or enjoyment of, or on account of his having exercised or enjoyed, or on account of his having aided or encouraged any other person in the exercise or enjoyment of, any right granted or protected by this section.

      (b) (1) The provisions of this section shall not apply to (A) the rental of a room or rooms in a single-family dwelling unit if the owner actually maintains and occupies part of such living quarters as his residence or (B) a unit in a dwelling containing living quarters occupied or intended to be occupied by no more than two families living independently of each other, if the owner actually maintains and occupies the other such living quarters as his residence. (2) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of marital status shall not be construed to prohibit the denial of a dwelling to a man or a woman who are both unrelated by blood and not married to each other. (3) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of age shall not apply to minors, to special discount or other public or private programs to assist persons sixty years of age and older or to housing for older persons as defined in section 46a-64b, provided there is no discrimination on the basis of age among older persons eligible for such housing. (4) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of familial status shall not apply to housing for older persons as defined in section 46a-64b or to a unit in a dwelling containing units for no more than four families living independently of each other, if the owner of such dwelling resides in one of the units. (5) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of lawful source of income shall not prohibit the denial of full and equal accommodations solely on the basis of insufficient income. (6) The provisions of this section with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex shall not apply to the rental of sleeping accommodations to the extent they utilize shared bathroom facilities when such sleeping accommodations are provided by associations and organizations which rent such sleeping accommodations on a temporary or permanent basis for the exclusive use of persons of the same sex based on considerations of privacy and modesty.

      (c) Nothing in this section limits the applicability of any reasonable state statute or municipal ordinance restricting the maximum number of persons permitted to occupy a dwelling.

      (d) Nothing in this section or section 46a-64b shall be construed to invalidate or limit any state statute or municipal ordinance that requires dwellings to be designed and constructed in a manner that affords persons with physical or mental disabilities greater access than is required by this section or section 46a-64b.

      (e) Nothing in this section prohibits a person engaged in the business of furnishing appraisals of real property to take into consideration factors other than race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, age, lawful source of income, familial status, learning disability or physical or mental disability.

      (f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, complaints alleging a violation of this section shall be investigated within one hundred days of filing and a final administrative disposition shall be made within one year of filing unless it is impracticable to do so. If the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities is unable to complete its investigation or make a final administrative determination within such time frames, it shall notify the complainant and the respondent in writing of the reasons for not doing so.

      (g) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars or more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

      (P.A. 90-246, S. 5; P.A. 91-407, S. 1, 42; P.A. 92-257, S. 2; P.A. 07-217, S. 168.)

      History: P.A. 91-407 added references to "learning disability" (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a)(4)(B), numeric indicators within Subpara. (B) were changed editorially by the Revisors to lower case Roman numerals for consistency with usage elsewhere in section); P.A. 92-257 amended Subsec. (b) by adding "single-family" before "dwelling" and "unit" after "dwelling", adding "to the extent they utilize shared bathroom facilities when such sleeping accommodations are" after "sleeping accommodations" and adding phrase "based on considerations of privacy and modesty"; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (g), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-68. (Formerly Sec. 4-61s). State affirmative action plans; filing; monitoring; reports; affirmative action officers; review and investigation of discrimination complaints; regulations. (a) Each state agency, department, board and commission shall develop and implement, in cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, an affirmative action plan that commits the agency, department, board or commission to a program of affirmative action in all aspects of personnel and administration. Such plan shall be developed pursuant to regulations adopted by the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities in accordance with chapter 54 to ensure that affirmative action is undertaken as required by state and federal law to provide equal employment opportunities and to comply with all responsibilities under the provisions of sections 4-61u to 4-61w, inclusive, sections 46a-54 to 46a-64, inclusive, section 46a-64c and sections 46a-70 to 46a-78, inclusive. The executive head of each such agency, department, board or commission shall be directly responsible for the development, filing and implementation of such affirmative action plan.

      (b) (1) Each state agency, department, board or commission shall designate a full-time or part-time affirmative action officer. If such affirmative action officer is an employee of the agency, department, board or commission, the executive head of the agency, department, board or commission shall be directly responsible for the supervision of the officer.

      (2) The Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities shall provide training and technical assistance to affirmative action officers in plan development and implementation.

      (3) The Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities and the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women shall provide training concerning state and federal discrimination laws and techniques for conducting investigations of discrimination complaints to persons designated by state agencies, departments, boards or commissions as affirmative action officers and persons designated by the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee to represent such agencies, departments, boards or commissions pursuant to subdivision (5) of this subsection. Such training shall be provided for a minimum of ten hours during the first year of service or designation, and a minimum of five hours per year thereafter.

      (4) (A) Each person designated by a state agency, department, board or commission as an affirmative action officer shall (i) be responsible for mitigating any discriminatory conduct within the agency, department, board or commission, (ii) investigate all complaints of discrimination made against the state agency, department, board or commission, and (iii) report all findings and recommendations upon the conclusion of an investigation to the commissioner or director of the state agency, department, board or commission for proper action.

      (B) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (A)(i), (A)(ii) and (A)(iii) of this subdivision, if a discrimination complaint is made against the executive head of a state agency or department, any member of a state board or commission or any affirmative action officer alleging that the executive head, member or officer directly or personally engaged in discriminatory conduct, or if a complaint of discrimination is made by the executive head of a state agency, any member of a state board or commission or any affirmative action officer, the complaint shall be referred to the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities for review and, if appropriate, investigation by the Department of Administrative Services. If the discrimination complaint is made by or against the executive head, any member or the affirmative action officer of the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities alleging that the executive head, member or officer directly or personally engaged in discriminatory conduct, the commission shall refer the complaint to the Department of Administrative Services for review and, if appropriate, investigation. If the complaint is by or against the executive head or affirmative action officer of the Department of Administrative Services, the complaint shall be referred to the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities for review and, if appropriate, investigation. Each person who conducts an investigation pursuant to this subparagraph shall report all findings and recommendations upon the conclusion of such investigation to the appointing authority of the individual who was the subject of the complaint for proper action. The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply to any such complaint pending on or after July 5, 2007.

      (5) Each person designated by a state agency, department, board or commission as an affirmative action officer, and each person designated by the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee to represent an agency pursuant to subdivision (6) of this subsection, shall complete training provided by the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities and the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection.

      (6) No person designated by a state agency, department, board or commission as an affirmative action officer shall represent such agency, department, board or commission before the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concerning a discrimination complaint. If a discrimination complaint is filed with the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission against a state agency, department, board or commission, the Attorney General, or the Attorney General's designee, other than the affirmative action officer for such agency, department board or commission, shall represent the state agency, department, board or commission before the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

      (c) Each state agency, department, board and commission shall file an affirmative action plan developed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, with the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, semiannually, except that any state agency, department, board or commission which has an affirmative action plan approved by the commission may be permitted to file its plan on an annual basis in a manner prescribed by the commission and any state agency, department, board or commission that employs twenty or fewer full-time employees shall file its affirmative action plan biennially.

      (d) The Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities shall review and formally approve, conditionally approve or disapprove the content of such affirmative action plans within ninety days of the submission of each plan to the commission. If the commissioners, by a majority vote of those present and voting, fail to approve, conditionally approve or disapprove a plan within that period, the plan shall be deemed to be approved.

      (e) The Commissioner of Administrative Services and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall cooperate with the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities to insure that the State Personnel Act and personnel regulations are administered, and that the process of collective bargaining is conducted by all parties in a manner consistent with the affirmative action responsibilities of the state.

      (f) The Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities shall monitor the activity of such plans within each state agency, department, board and commission and report to the Governor and the General Assembly on or before April first of each year concerning the results of such plans.

      (g) The Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to carry out the requirements of this section. Such regulations shall include a schedule for semiannual, annual and biennial filing of plans.

      (P.A. 75-536, S. 1-3; P.A. 77-614, S. 66, 610; P.A. 79-255; P.A. 80-422, S. 16; P.A. 83-569, S. 12, 17; P.A. 84-41, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-255; P.A. 90-246, S. 7; P.A. 99-233, S. 6, 7; P.A. 01-53, S. 1, 2; P.A. 03-151, S. 1; P.A. 05-287, S. 54; P.A. 07-181, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 replaced department of personnel and administration, i.e. personnel department, with department of administrative services in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-255 replaced department of administrative services with commission on human rights and opportunities, added exception re annual filing and required approval of plan within 75 rather than 60 days in Subsec. (b) and added Subsec. (d) re adoption of regulations; P.A. 80-422 updated section listing in Subsec. (a), designated provision re deadline for approval as Subsec. (c), deleted provisions re proceedings upon commission's issuance of complaint for failure to submit plan or submission of plan which violates laws and redesignated former Subsecs. (c) and (d) accordingly; Sec. 4-61s transferred to Sec. 46a-68 in 1981; P.A. 83-569 amended section to require designation of full or part-time affirmative action officers trained by commission, to eliminate specified filing dates for plans, to require formal approval or disapproval of plans within 75 days and to require the commissioner of administrative services and the secretary of the office of policy and management to cooperate with the commission to insure that state personnel act and regulations and the collective bargaining process are administered and conducted in a manner consistent with the affirmative action responsibilities of the state; P.A. 84-41 amended Subsec. (d) increasing length of time for commission to review plans from 75 to 90 days and providing if commissioners, by a majority of those "present and voting", fail to approve or disapprove plan, the plan shall be deemed approved; P.A. 87-255 added provisions in Subsec. (a) re direct responsibility for development, filing and implementation of affirmative action plan and added provisions in Subsec. (b) re direct responsibility for supervision of affirmative action officer; P.A. 90-246 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to Sec. 46a-64c; P.A. 99-233 amended Subsec. (d) to provide for conditional approval of plans, effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 01-53 amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re biennial filing of affirmative action plans by state agency or department with twenty or fewer full-time employees and amended Subsec. (g) by adding reference to biennial filing of plans; P.A. 03-151 amended Subsec. (b) by dividing existing provisions into Subdivs. (1) and (2) and adding new Subdivs. (3) to (5), inclusive, requiring CHRO and PCSW to annually provide at least 10 hours of discrimination training to affirmative action officers and other persons designated to represent state agencies, boards, departments and commissions before the EEOC or CHRO, and specifying duties, responsibilities and proscriptions for affirmative action officers; P.A. 05-287 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to apply 10-hour training requirement to first year of service only and to require a minimum of 5 hours of training per year thereafter; P.A. 07-181 amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing Subparas. in Subdiv. (4) as clauses within Subpara. (A) and adding new Subpara. (B) requiring that discrimination complaints by or against executive heads of state agencies or departments, members of state boards or commissions or affirmative action officers be referred to Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities and may be investigated by Department of Administrative Services, that discrimination complaints by or against executive head, member or affirmative action officer of Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities be referred to Department of Administrative Services, that discrimination complaints by or against executive head or affirmative action officer of Department of Administrative Services be referred to Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, by replacing existing Subdiv. (5) with new Subdiv. (5) requiring that affirmative action officers of state agencies, departments, boards or commissions and persons designated by Attorney General to represent agencies pursuant to new Subdiv. (6) complete training specified in Subdiv. (3), and by adding new Subdiv. (6) prohibiting affirmative action officers from representing agencies, departments, boards or commissions before Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities or Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and requiring Attorney General or designee to make such representations, effective July 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-68h. Hearing re noncompliance. Section 46a-68h is repealed, effective July 1, 2007.

      (P.A. 88-351, S. 9, 16; P.A. 90-271, S. 21, 24; P.A. 98-245, S. 10, 14; P.A. 07-142, S. 11.)

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      Sec. 46a-68i. Right of appeal. The commission or any contractor or subcontractor aggrieved by a decision of the hearing officer or human rights referee following a hearing held pursuant to subsection (c) of section 46a-56 shall have a right of appeal to the Superior Court as provided for in section 4-183. Such appeal shall be privileged in order of assignment of trial.

      (P.A. 88-351, S. 10, 16; P.A. 90-271, S. 22, 24; P.A. 98-245, S. 11, 14; P.A. 07-142, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 88-351, S. 10 effective April 1, 1989; P.A. 90-271 substituted "hearing officer" for "hearing examiner"; P.A. 98-245 added reference to human rights referee, effective July 1, 1998, and applicable to all cases pending with the commission or in the courts and cases filed on or after said date; P.A. 07-142 inserted "following a hearing held" and replaced reference to Sec. 46a-68h with reference to Sec. 46a-56(c), effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81b. Sexual orientation discrimination: Associations of licensed persons. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section for any association, board or other organization the principal purpose of which is the furtherance of the professional or occupational interests of its members, whose profession, trade or occupation requires a state license, to refuse to accept a person as a member of such association, board or organization because of such person's sexual orientation.

      (b) Any association, board or other organization which violates the provisions of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars or more than five hundred dollars.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 2; P.A. 07-217, S. 169.)

      History: P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81c. Sexual orientation discrimination: Employment. It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section: (1) For an employer, by himself or his agent, except in the case of a bona fide occupational qualification or need, to refuse to hire or employ or to bar or to discharge from employment any individual or to discriminate against him in compensation or in terms, conditions or privileges of employment because of the individual's sexual orientation or civil union status, (2) for any employment agency, except in the case of a bona fide occupational qualification or need, to fail or refuse to classify properly or refer for employment or otherwise to discriminate against any individual because of the individual's sexual orientation or civil union status, (3) for a labor organization, because of the sexual orientation or civil union status of any individual to exclude from full membership rights or to expel from its membership such individual or to discriminate in any way against any of its members or against any employer or any individual employed by an employer, unless such action is based on a bona fide occupational qualification, or (4) for any person, employer, employment agency or labor organization, except in the case of a bona fide occupational qualification or need, to advertise employment opportunities in such a manner as to restrict such employment so as to discriminate against individuals because of their sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 3; P.A. 07-245, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 07-245 added references to "civil union status", effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81d. Sexual orientation discrimination: Public accommodations. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section: (1) To deny any person within the jurisdiction of this state full and equal accommodations in any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement because of such person's sexual orientation or civil union status, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all persons; or (2) to discriminate, segregate or separate on account of sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (b) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars or more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 4; P.A. 07-217, S. 170; 07-245, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007; P.A. 07-245 amended Subsec. (a) to add references to "civil union status", effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81e. Sexual orientation discrimination: Housing. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section:

      (1) To refuse to sell or rent after the making of a bona fide offer, or to refuse to negotiate for the sale or rental of, or otherwise make unavailable or deny, a dwelling to any person because of sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (2) To discriminate against any person in the terms, conditions, or privileges of sale or rental of a dwelling, or in the provision of services or facilities in connection therewith, because of sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (3) To make, print or publish, or cause to be made, printed or published any notice, statement, or advertisement, with respect to the sale or rental of a dwelling that indicates any preference, limitation, or discrimination based on sexual orientation or civil union status, or an intention to make any such preference, limitation or discrimination.

      (4) (A) To represent to any person because of sexual orientation or civil union status, that any dwelling is not available for inspection, sale or rental when such dwelling is in fact so available. (B) It shall be a violation of this subdivision for any person to restrict or attempt to restrict the choices of any buyer or renter to purchase or rent a dwelling (i) to an area which is substantially populated, even if less than a majority, by persons of the same sexual orientation or civil union status as the buyer or renter, (ii) while such person is authorized to offer for sale or rent another dwelling which meets the housing criteria as expressed by the buyer or renter to such person and (iii) such other dwelling is in an area which is not substantially populated by persons of the same sexual orientation or civil union status as the buyer or renter. As used in this subdivision, "area" means municipality, neighborhood or other geographic subdivision which may include an apartment or condominium complex.

      (5) For profit, to induce or attempt to induce any person to sell or rent any dwelling by representations regarding the entry or prospective entry into the neighborhood of a person or persons of a particular sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (6) For any person or other entity engaging in residential-real-estate-related transactions to discriminate against any person in making available such a transaction, or in the terms or conditions of such a transaction, because of sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (7) To deny any person access to or membership or participation in any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' organization or other service, organization, or facility relating to the business of selling or renting dwellings, or to discriminate against him in the terms or conditions of such access, membership or participation, on account of sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (8) To coerce, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any person in the exercise or enjoyment of, or on account of his having exercised or enjoyed, or on account of his having aided or encouraged any other person in the exercise or enjoyment of, any right granted or protected by this section.

      (b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to (1) the rental of a room or rooms in a unit in a dwelling if the owner actually maintains and occupies part of such unit as his residence, or (2) a unit in a dwelling containing not more than four units if the owner actually maintains and occupies one of such other units as his residence.

      (c) Nothing in this section limits the applicability of any reasonable state statute or municipal ordinance restricting the maximum number of persons permitted to occupy a dwelling.

      (d) Nothing in this section prohibits a person engaged in the business of furnishing appraisals of real property to take into consideration factors other than sexual orientation or civil union status.

      (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, complaints alleging a violation of this section shall be investigated within one hundred days of filing and a final administrative disposition shall be made within one year of filing unless it is impracticable to do so. If the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities is unable to complete its investigation or make a final administrative determination within such time frames, it shall notify the complainant and the respondent in writing of the reasons for not doing so.

      (f) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars or more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 5; P.A. 07-217, S. 171; 07-245, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subces. (f), effective July 12, 2007; P.A. 07-245 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to add references to "civil union status" and made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81f. Sexual orientation discrimination: Credit practices. (a) It shall be a discriminatory practice in violation of this section for any creditor to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation or civil union status, against any person eighteen years of age or over in any credit transaction.

      (b) No liability may be imposed under this section for an act done or omitted in conformity with a regulation or declaratory ruling of the Banking Commissioner, the Federal Reserve Board or any other governmental agency having jurisdiction under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, notwithstanding that after the act or omission the regulation or declaratory ruling may be amended, repealed or determined to be invalid for any reason.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 6; P.A. 03-84, S. 35; P.A. 07-245, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 03-84 changed "Commissioner of Banking" to "Banking Commissioner" in Subsec. (b), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 07-245 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to "civil union status", effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-81r. Sexual orientation discrimination: Construction of statutes. Nothing in sections 4a-60a, 45a-726a, 46a-51, 46a-54, 46a-56, 46a-63, 46a-64b, 46a-65, 46a-67, 46a-68b and 46a-81a to 46a-81q, inclusive, subsection (e) of section 46a-82, subsection (a) of section 46a-83, and sections 46a-86, 46a-89, 46a-90a, 46a-98, 46a-98a and 46a-99 shall be deemed or construed (1) to mean the state of Connecticut condones homosexuality or bisexuality or any equivalent lifestyle, (2) to authorize the promotion of homosexuality or bisexuality in educational institutions or require the teaching in educational institutions of homosexuality or bisexuality as an acceptable lifestyle, (3) to authorize or permit the use of numerical goals or quotas, or other types of affirmative action programs, with respect to homosexuality or bisexuality in the administration or enforcement of the provisions of sections 4a-60a, 45a-726a, 46a-51, 46a-54, 46a-56, 46a-63, 46a-64b, 46a-65, 46a-67, 46a-68b and 46a-81a to 46a-81q, inclusive, subsection (e) of section 46a-82, subsection (a) of section 46a-83, and sections 46a-86, 46a-89, 46a-90a, 46a-98, 46a-98a and 46a-99, (4) to authorize the recognition of or the right of marriage between persons of the same sex, or (5) to establish sexual orientation as a specific and separate cultural classification in society.

      (P.A. 91-58, S. 36; P.A. 07-142, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 07-142 replaced references to Sec. 46a-82(d) with references to Sec. 46a-82(e) and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

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PART III
DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE COMPLAINT PROCEDURE

      Sec. 46a-82. (Formerly Sec. 31-127). Complaint: Filing. (a) Any person claiming to be aggrieved by an alleged discriminatory practice, except for an alleged violation of section 4a-60g or 46a-68 or the provisions of sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, may, by himself or herself or by such person's attorney, make, sign and file with the commission a complaint in writing under oath, which shall state the name and address of the person alleged to have committed the discriminatory practice, and which shall set forth the particulars thereof and contain such other information as may be required by the commission. After the filing of a complaint pursuant to this subsection, the commission shall serve upon the person claiming to be aggrieved a notice that: (1) Acknowledges receipt of the complaint; and (2) advises of the time frames and choice of forums available under this chapter.

      (b) The commission, whenever it has reason to believe that any person has been engaged or is engaged in a discriminatory practice, may issue a complaint, except for a violation of subsection (a) of section 46a-80.

      (c) The commission, whenever it has reason to believe that any contractor or subcontractor is not complying with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60, 4a-60a or 4a-60g or the provisions of sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, may issue a complaint.

      (d) The commission may issue a complaint if: (1) An affirmative action plan filed pursuant to section 46a-68 is in violation of any of the provisions of section 4-61u or 4-61w, sections 46a-54 to 46a-64, inclusive, section 46a-64c or sections 46a-70 to 46a-78, inclusive; or (2) an agency, department, board or commission fails to submit an affirmative action plan required under section 46a-68.

      (e) Any employer whose employees, or any of them, refuse or threaten to refuse to comply with the provisions of section 46a-60 or 46a-81c may file with the commission a written complaint under oath asking for assistance by conciliation or other remedial action.

      (f) Any complaint filed pursuant to this section must be filed within one hundred and eighty days after the alleged act of discrimination, except that any complaint by a person claiming to be aggrieved by a violation of subsection (a) of section 46a-80 must be filed within thirty days of the alleged act of discrimination.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7406; 1959, P.A. 334; February, 1965, P.A. 576; 1967, P.A. 715, S. 3; 1971, P.A. 547, S. 1; P.A. 74-54; P.A. 75-27; 75-214, S. 1, 2; P.A. 76-141, S. 1, 2; P.A. 80-422, S. 30; P.A. 83-569, S. 13, 17; P.A. 90-246, S. 9; P.A. 91-58, S. 28; P.A. 07-142, S. 5.)

      History: 1959 act authorized the ordering of affirmative action and shortened period for filing complaint; 1965 act authorized commission to issue subpoenas requiring production of employment records related to complaint under investigation; 1967 act authorized commission counsel to present case supporting complaint at hearing; 1971 act changed composition of hearing tribunal from three commission members or a panel of hearing examiners to one commission member or one hearing examiner; P.A. 74-54 changed deadline for filing complaint from ninety to 180 days after alleged discriminatory act; P.A. 75-27 added provisos re liability for back pay and effect of interim earnings on award of back pay; P.A. 75-214 added provisions re effect of submission of claim to arbitration on filing of complaint and re use of arbitration decision as evidence; P.A. 76-141 deleted references to "preliminary" investigations; P.A. 80-422 substituted "discriminatory" for "unfair employment" practice where occurring, deleted detailed provisions re investigation and hearing procedures and orders made on basis of findings, designated remaining provisions as Subsecs. (a), (b), (d) and (e), inserted new Subsec. (c) re plans which fail to meet criteria or state agencies, etc. which fail to file plans, added exception re Sec. 4-61o(a) in Subsecs. (b) and (e) and substituted reference to Sec. 31-126 for "this chapter" in Subsec. (d); Sec. 31-127 transferred to Sec. 46a-82 in 1981 and internal section references changed as necessary to reflect their transfer; P.A. 83-569 amended Subsec. (c) to include references to violations of Secs. 4-61u and 4-61w; P.A. 90-246 amended Subsec. (a) by adding requirement that commission serve upon aggrieved person notice acknowledging receipt of complaint and advising of time frames and choice of forums available, and amended Subsec. (c) by adding reference to Sec. 46a-64c; P.A. 91-58 amended Subsec. (d) to add reference to Sec. 46a-81c; P.A. 07-142 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to Sec. 4a-60g and Secs. 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, added new Subsec. (c) re issuance of complaint whenever contractor or subcontractor is not complying with antidiscrimination statutes, required contract provisions or Secs. 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, redesignated existing Subsecs. (c), (d) and (e) as Subsecs. (d), (e) and (f) and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

      Subsec. (e):

      Filing period commences upon actual cessation of employment, rather than notice thereof. 103 CA 188.


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      Sec. 46a-83. Complaint: Review; dismissal; investigation; finding; reconsideration; attempt to eliminate discriminatory practice; default order. (a) Within twenty days after the filing of any discriminatory practice complaint pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 46a-82, or an amendment to such complaint adding an additional respondent, the commission shall cause the complaint to be served upon the respondent together with a notice (1) identifying the alleged discriminatory practice, and (2) advising of the procedural rights and obligations of a respondent under this chapter. The respondent shall file a written answer to the complaint under oath with the commission within thirty days of receipt of the complaint, provided a respondent may request, and the commission may grant, for good cause shown, one extension of time of fifteen days within which to file an answer to a complaint. The answer to any complaint alleging a violation of section 46a-64c or 46a-81e shall be filed within ten days of receipt.

      (b) Within ninety days of the filing of the respondent's answer to the complaint, the executive director or the executive director's designee shall review the file. The review shall include the complaint, the respondent's answer and the responses to the commission's requests for information, if any, and the complainant's comments, if any, to the respondent's answer and information responses. If the executive director or the executive director's designee determines that the complaint fails to state a claim for relief or is frivolous on its face, that the respondent is exempt from the provisions of this chapter or that there is no reasonable possibility that investigating the complaint will result in a finding of reasonable cause, the complaint shall be dismissed. This subsection shall not apply to any complaint alleging a violation of section 46a-64c or 46a-81e. The executive director shall report the results of the executive director's determinations pursuant to this subsection to the commission quarterly during each year.

      (c) The executive director of the commission or his designee shall determine the most appropriate method for processing any complaint pending after review in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. The commission may conduct mandatory mediation sessions, expedited or extended fact-finding conferences or complete investigations or any combination thereof during the investigatory process for the purpose of finding facts, promoting the voluntary resolution of complaints or determining if there is reasonable cause for believing that a discriminatory practice has been or is being committed as alleged in the complaint. As used in this section and section 46a-84, reasonable cause means a bona fide belief that the material issues of fact are such that a person of ordinary caution, prudence and judgment could believe the facts alleged in the complaint. A complaint may be dismissed if a complainant, after notice and without good cause, fails to attend a mandatory mediation session. A mediator may recommend, but not order, a resolution of the complaint. A complaint may be dismissed if the respondent has eliminated the discriminatory practice complained of, taken steps to prevent a like occurrence in the future and offered full relief to the complainant, even though the complainant has refused such relief.

      (d) (1) Before issuing a finding of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause, the investigator shall afford each party and his representative an opportunity to provide written or oral comments on all evidence in the commission's file, except as otherwise provided by federal law or any other provision of the general statutes. The investigator shall consider such comments in making his determination. The investigator shall make a finding of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause in writing and shall list the factual findings on which it is based not later than one hundred ninety days from the date of the determination based on the review of the complaint, conducted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, except that for good cause shown, the executive director or his designee may grant no more than two extensions of the investigation of three months each.

      (2) If the investigator makes a determination that there is reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 46a-64c has occurred, the complainant and the respondent shall have twenty days from receipt of notice of the reasonable cause finding to elect a civil action in lieu of an administrative hearing pursuant to section 46a-84. If either the complainant or the respondent requests a civil action, the commission, through the Attorney General or a commission legal counsel, shall commence an action pursuant to subsection (b) of section 46a-89 within ninety days of receipt of the complainant's or the respondent's notice of election of a civil action. If the Attorney General or a commission legal counsel, and a commissioner, believe that injunctive relief, punitive damages or a civil penalty would be appropriate, such relief, damages or penalty may also be sought pursuant to said subsection. Any civil action brought under this subdivision shall be limited to such claims, counterclaims, defenses or the like that would be required for the commission to have jurisdiction over the complaint had the complaint remained with the commission for disposition. If the Attorney General or a commission legal counsel determines that a material mistake of law or fact has been made in such finding of reasonable cause, the Attorney General or a commission legal counsel may decline to bring a civil action and, in such case, shall remand the file to the investigator for further action. The investigator shall complete any such action not later than ninety days after receipt of such file.

      (e) If the investigator issues a finding of no reasonable cause or if the complaint is dismissed (1) for failure to state a claim for relief, (2) because it is frivolous on its face, (3) because the respondent is exempt from the provisions of this chapter, or (4) because there is no reasonable possibility that investigating the complaint will result in a finding of reasonable cause or if the complaint is dismissed pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, the complainant may request reconsideration of such finding or dismissal with the executive director of the commission, or the executive director's designee, not later than fifteen days from the issuance of such finding or dismissal. The executive director of the commission, or the executive director's designee, shall reconsider or reject within ninety days of the issuance of such finding or dismissal. The executive director of the commission, or the executive director's designee, shall conduct such additional proceedings as may be necessary to render a decision on the request for reconsideration.

      (f) Upon a determination that there is reasonable cause to believe that a discriminatory practice has been or is being committed as alleged in the complaint, an investigator shall attempt to eliminate the practice complained of by conference, conciliation and persuasion within fifty days of a finding of reasonable cause. The refusal to accept a settlement shall not be grounds for dismissal of any complaint.

      (g) No commissioner or employee of the commission may disclose, except to the parties or their representatives, what has occurred in the course of such endeavors provided the commission may publish the facts in the case and any complaint which has been dismissed and the terms of conciliation when a complaint has been adjusted. Each party and his representative shall have the right to inspect and copy documents, statements of witnesses and other evidence pertaining to his complaint, except as otherwise provided by federal law or any other provision of the general statutes.

      (h) In the investigation of any complaint filed pursuant to this chapter, the commission may issue subpoenas requiring the production of records and other documents relating to the complaint under investigation.

      (i) The executive director of the commission or his designee may enter an order of default against a respondent (1) who, after notice, fails to answer a complaint in accordance with subsection (a) of this section or within such extension of time as may have been granted or (2) who fails to answer interrogatories issued pursuant to subdivision (11) of section 46a-54 or fails to respond to a subpoena issued pursuant to subsection (h) of this section and subdivision (9) of section 46a-54, provided the executive director or his designee shall consider any timely filed objection or (3) who, after notice and without good cause, fails to attend a mandatory mediation session. Upon entry of an order of default, the executive director or his designee shall appoint a presiding officer to enter, after notice and hearing, an order eliminating the discriminatory practice complained of and making the complainant whole. The commission or the complainant may petition the Superior Court for enforcement of any order for relief pursuant to section 46a-95.

      (P.A. 80-422, S. 31; P.A. 89-332, S. 4, 7; P.A. 90-246, S. 10; P.A. 91-58, S. 29; 91-302, S. 3, 5; P.A. 92-257, S. 3; P.A. 94-238, S. 1, 6; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 114, 130; P.A. 96-241, S. 4, 7; P.A. 98-245, S. 2, 14; P.A. 00-12, S. 1, 2; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 193; P.A. 05-201, S. 3; P.A. 07-142, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 89-332 revised entire section to provide for service of complaint upon respondent, fact-finding conferences during investigatory process, definition of "reasonable cause", opportunity for written or oral comments on all evidence in commission's file, finding of reasonable cause within 9 months of filing of complaint, with single 3-month extension for good cause shown, reconsideration of finding of no reasonable cause within 90 days of finding, conciliation attempts within 60 days of finding of reasonable cause and disclosure of evidence pertaining to complaint to party or his representative; P.A. 90-246 amended Subsec. (a) by adding requirement that commission serve upon respondent, within 10 days of receipt of complaint or amendment adding additional respondent, notice identifying alleged discriminatory practice and advising re procedural rights and obligations of respondent, and requiring that the answer to any complaint alleging violation of Sec. 46a-64c may be filed within 10 days of receipt; P.A. 91-58 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to a violation of Sec. 46a-81e; P.A. 91-302 amended Subsec. (a) by changing "may" to "shall" after "respondent", increasing the amount of time to file an answer to complaint from 15 to 30 days after receipt, changing "chairman of the commission" to "executive director of the commission" and deleting "a commissioner or" before "investigator", amended Subsec. (b) by deleting "commissioner or" before "investigator" and changing "commission" to "executive director or his designee", amended Subsecs. (c), (d) and (e) by deleting "commissioner or" before "investigator", and added a new Subsec. (g) re entry of order of default by executive director against respondent who fails to answer complaint or interrogatories or fails to respond to subpoena, entry of order by presiding officer eliminating discriminatory practice and enforcement by superior court; P.A. 92-257 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re election of civil action in lieu of administrative hearing; P.A. 94-238 inserted new Subsec. (b) re review of complaint by executive director or his designee and dismissal of claim if finding that claim fails to state claim for relief or is frivolous or that no reasonable possibility that investigation will result in reasonable cause, exempting provisions of Subsec. (b) from alleged violations of Sec. 46a-64c or 46a-81e and making provisions applicable to complaints pending assignment to investigator on or before January 1, 1995, created new Subsec. (c) from existing provisions formerly in Subsec. (a), adding provisions re (1) determining most appropriate method for processing complaint, including mandatory mediation sessions, expedited or extended fact-finding, complete investigations or combination thereof and (2) grounds for dismissal, relettering former Subsecs. (b) to (g), accordingly, amended Subsec. (e) by adding provision re request for reconsideration of dismissal and amended Subsec. (i) by adding failure to attend mandatory mediation session as grounds for order of default against respondent, effective July 1, 1994; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (e) by making technical change in Subsec. (e), effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-241 amended Subsec. (d) by changing 9 to 12 months for finding of reasonable cause and changed single extension to no more than two extensions, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 98-245 amended Subsec. (a) changing 10 days to 20 days and providing for extension for good cause shown for 15 days within which to file an answer to the complaint, amended Subsec. (b) by adding "the respondent's answer to the complaint", amended Subsec. (d) reduced 12 months to 190 days from the date of determination based on review of the complaint, amended Subsec. (e) re reconsideration by executive director or his designee and amended Subsec. (i) permitting complainant to petition court for enforcement of order for relief, effective July 1, 1998, and applicable to all cases pending with the commission or in the courts and cases filed on or after said date; P.A. 00-12 amended Subsec. (b) to require the complaint be dismissed if the respondent is exempt from the provisions of this chapter and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality and amended Subsec. (e) to add new Subdiv. (3) re the dismissal of the complaint because the respondent is exempt from the provisions of this chapter, redesignating former Subdiv. (3) as new Subdiv. (4), and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (d) to replace "the commission counsel" with "a commission legal counsel", effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 05-201 amended Subsec. (d) by dividing provisions into Subdivs. (1) and (2) and, in Subdiv. (2), increasing time period for commencing action from within 45 days to within 90 days of receipt of notice of election and adding provisions re injunctive relief, punitive damages and civil penalty, limitation of civil action to jurisdictional claims, counterclaims and defenses and remand of file to investigator for further action, effective July 6, 2005; P.A. 07-142 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to complaint filed pursuant to Sec. 46a-82(a) or (b) and inserting "to such complaint", effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-84. Complaint: Certification; hearing; settlement or alternate dispute resolution endeavors; default order. (a) If the investigator fails to eliminate a discriminatory practice complained of pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 46a-82 within fifty days of a finding of reasonable cause, the investigator shall, within ten days, certify the complaint and the results of the investigation to the executive director of the commission and to the Attorney General.

      (b) Upon certification of a complaint filed pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 46a-82, or upon the filing of a complaint pursuant to subsection (c) of said section, the Chief Human Rights Referee shall appoint, for a complaint filed pursuant to said subsection (a) or (b), a hearing officer, hearing adjudicator or human rights referee, and for a complaint filed pursuant to said subsection (c), a hearing officer or human rights referee, to act as a presiding officer to hear the complaint or to conduct settlement negotiations and shall cause to be issued and served in the name of the commission a written notice, together with a copy of the complaint, as the same may have been amended, requiring the respondent to answer the charges of the complaint at a hearing before the presiding officer or hearing adjudicator at a time and place to be specified in the notice. A hearing on a complaint filed pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 46a-82 shall be commenced by convening a hearing conference not later than forty-five days after the certification of the complaint. Such hearing shall be a de novo hearing on the merits of the complaint and not an appeal of the commission's processing of the complaint prior to its certification. A hearing on a complaint filed pursuant to subsection (c) of section 46a-82 shall be commenced by convening a hearing conference not later than twenty days after the date of notice of such complaint. Hearings shall proceed with reasonable dispatch and be concluded in accordance with the provisions of section 4-180.

      (c) The place of any hearing may be the office of the commission or another place designated by the commission.

      (d) The case in support of the complaint shall be presented at the hearing by the Attorney General, who shall be counsel for the commission, or by a commission legal counsel as provided in section 46a-55, as the case may be. If the Attorney General or the commission legal counsel determines that a material mistake of law or fact has been made in the finding of reasonable cause on a complaint filed pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 46a-82, the Attorney General or the commission legal counsel may withdraw the certification of the complaint and remand the file to the investigator for further action. The complainant may be represented by an attorney of the complainant's own choice. If the Attorney General or the commission legal counsel, as the case may be, determines that the interests of the state will not be adversely affected, the attorney for the complainant shall present all or part of the case in support of the complaint. No commissioner may participate in the deliberations of the presiding officer in the case.

      (e) A hearing officer, hearing adjudicator, human rights referee or attorney who volunteers service pursuant to subdivision (18) of section 46a-54 may supervise settlement endeavors, or, in employment discrimination cases only, the complainant and respondent, with the permission of the commission, may engage in alternate dispute resolution endeavors for not more than three months. The cost of such alternate dispute resolution endeavors shall be borne by the complainant or the respondent, or both, and not by the commission. Any endeavors or negotiations for conciliation, settlement or alternate dispute resolution shall not be received in evidence.

      (f) The respondent may file a written answer to the complaint under oath and appear at the hearing in person or otherwise, with or without counsel, and submit testimony and be fully heard. If the respondent fails to file a written answer prior to the hearing within the time limits established by regulation adopted by the commission in accordance with chapter 54 or fails to appear at the hearing after notice in accordance with section 4-177, the presiding officer or hearing adjudicator may enter an order of default and order such relief as is necessary to eliminate the discriminatory practice and make the complainant whole. The commission or the complainant may petition the Superior Court for enforcement of any such order for relief pursuant to the provisions of section 46a-95.

      (g) The presiding officer or hearing adjudicator conducting any hearing shall permit reasonable amendment to any complaint or answer and the testimony taken at the hearing shall be under oath and be transcribed at the request of any party.

      (P.A. 80-422, S. 32; P.A. 88-317, S. 100, 107; P.A. 89-332, S. 5, 7; P.A. 91-302, S. 4, 5; P.A. 93-362, S. 3; P.A. 94-238, S. 2, 6; P.A. 96-241, S. 5, 7; P.A. 98-245, S. 4, 14; P.A. 03-19, S. 100; 03-143, S. 2; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 194; P.A. 07-142, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 88-317 substituted "hearing officer" for "hearing examiner" in Subsec. (b) and "presiding officer" for "hearing officer" in Subsecs. (b), (d) and (g), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 89-332 amended Subsec. (a) to require commissioner or investigator to certify complaint if he fails to eliminate discriminatory practice within 45 days of finding of reasonable cause, amended Subsec. (b) to require hearing to be held not later than 90 days of finding of reasonable cause, amended Subsec. (d) to provide complainant may be represented by attorney of own choice, and amended Subsec. (f) to require respondent's written answer to be under oath; P.A. 91-302 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "commissioner or" before "investigator" and changing "chairman" to "executive director", amended Subsec. (b) by changing "chairman" to "executive director or his designee" and deleting "or one member of the commission" after "hearing officer", amended Subsec. (d) by deleting "who previously made the investigation or caused the notice to be issued may participate in the hearing except as a witness, nor" after "commissioner", amended Subsec. (f) by adding provision re entry of order of default and order of such relief as necessary to eliminate discriminatory practice by presiding officer if respondent fails to file written answer or fails to appear and enforcement of order by superior court, and amended Subsec. (g) by changing "may" to "shall" before "permit"; P.A. 93-362 added "or hearing adjudicator" after "hearing officer", added provision that hearing shall be de novo hearing on the merits of complaint and not appeal of commission's processing of complaint prior to its certification, added provision that attorney general or commission counsel may allow attorney for complainant to present all or part of the case in support of the complaint, if interests of state will not be adversely affected, and added Subsec. (e) re supervision of settlement endeavors and alternative dispute resolution endeavors in employment discrimination cases only, where complainant and respondent agree; P.A. 94-238 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re determination of material mistake of law or fact and withdrawal of certification, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-241 amended Subsec. (b) changing reference to hearings "held" to hearings "commenced by convening a hearing conference" and added provision that hearing shall proceed with reasonable dispatch and conclude in accordance with 4-180, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 98-245 amended Subsec. (a) changing 45 to 50 days and providing 10 daqys to certify the complaint and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for hearing conference not later than 45 days after certification of the complaint, effective July 1, 1998, and applicable to all cases pending with the commission or in the courts and cases filed on or after said date; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (e), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 03-143 amended Subsec. (d) by replacing provision re complainant's attorney may be allowed to present all or part of case with provision re complainant's attorney shall present all or part of case; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (d) to authorize presentation of case by "a commission legal counsel" rather than "the commission counsel" and replace subsequent references to "the commission counsel" with "the commission legal counsel", effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 07-142 amended Subsecs. (a), (b) and (d) to distinguish between procedures for complaints filed pursuant to Sec. 46a-82(a) or (b) and procedures for complaints filed pursuant to Sec. 46a-82(c), replaced "executive director of the commission or his designee" with "Chief Human Rights Referee" in Subsec. (b) and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 46a-86. Complaint: Determination; orders; dismissal. Treatment of discrimination awards. (a) If, upon all the evidence presented at the hearing conducted pursuant to section 46a-84, the presiding officer finds that a respondent has engaged in any discriminatory practice, the presiding officer shall state the presiding officer's findings of fact and shall issue and file with the commission and cause to be served on the respondent an order requiring the respondent to cease and desist from the discriminatory practice and further requiring the respondent to take such affirmative action as in the judgment of the presiding officer will effectuate the purpose of this chapter.

      (b) In addition to any other action taken under this section, upon a finding of a discriminatory employment practice, the presiding officer may order the hiring or reinstatement of employees, with or without back pay, or restoration to membership in any respondent labor organization, provided, liability for back pay shall not accrue from a date more than two years prior to the filing or issuance of the complaint and, provided further, interim earnings, including unemployment compensation and welfare assistance or amounts which could have been earned with reasonable diligence on the part of the person to whom back pay is awarded shall be deducted from the amount of back pay to which such person is otherwise entitled. The amount of any such deduction for interim unemployment compensation or welfare assistance shall be paid by the respondent to the commission which shall transfer such amount to the appropriate state or local agency.

      (c) In addition to any other action taken under this section, upon a finding of a discriminatory practice prohibited by section 46a-58, 46a-59, 46a-64, 46a-64c, 46a-81b, 46a-81d or 46a-81e, the presiding officer shall determine the damage suffered by the complainant, which damage shall include, but not be limited to, the expense incurred by the complainant for obtaining alternate housing or space, storage of goods and effects, moving costs and other costs actually incurred by the complainant as a result of such discriminatory practice and shall allow reasonable attorney's fees and costs.

      (d) In addition to any other action taken under this section, upon a finding of a discriminatory practice prohibited by section 46a-66 or 46a-81f, the presiding officer shall issue and file with the commission and cause to be served on the respondent an order requiring the respondent to pay the complainant the damages resulting from the discriminatory practice.

      (e) In addition to any other action taken under this section, upon a finding of noncompliance with antidiscrimination statutes or contract provisions required under section 4a-60 or 4a-60a or the provisions of sections 46a-68c to 46a-68f, inclusive, the presiding officer shall issue and file with the commission and cause to be served on the respondent an order with respect to any remedial action imposed by the presiding officer pursuant to subsection (c) or (d) of section 46a-56.

      (f) If, upon all the evidence and after a complete hearing, the presiding officer finds that the respondent has not engaged in any alleged discriminatory practice, the presiding officer shall state the presiding officer's findings of fact and shall issue and file with the commission and cause to be served on the respondent an order dismissing the complaint.

      (g) Any payment received by a complainant under this chapter or under any equivalent federal antidiscrimination law, either as a settlement of a claim or as an award made in a judicial or administrative proceeding, shall not be considered as income, resources or assets for the purpose of determining the eligibility of or amount of assistance to be received by such person in the month of receipt or the three months following receipt under the state supplement program, Medicaid or any other medical assistance program, temporary family assistance program, state-administered general assistance program, or the temporary assistance for needy families program. After such time period, any remaining funds shall be subject to state and federal laws governing such programs, including, but not limited to, provisions concerning individual development accounts, as defined in section 31-51ww.

      (P.A. 80-422, S. 34; 80-449, S. 4, 6; P.A. 81-81, S. 5; P.A. 85-179; P.A. 88-317, S. 102, 107; P.A. 90-246, S. 11; P.A. 91-58, S. 30; P.A. 93-362, S. 4; P.A. 05-280, S. 45; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 80; P.A. 07-142, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 80-449 made technical changes in Subsec. (c); P.A. 81-81 amended subsec. (c) by adding reference to Sec. "47a-2a" which was subsequently transferred and redesignated Sec. 46a-64a; P.A. 85-179 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision requiring the respondent to pay the amount of any deduction for interim unemployment compensation or welfare assistance to the commission for transfer to the appropriate agency; P.A. 88-317 substituted "presiding officer" for "hearing officer" throughout the section, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 90-246 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting reference to Sec. 46a-64a and adding reference to Sec. 46a-64c and changing provision that damage shall include attorney's fees actually incurred to allowing reasonable attorney's fees and costs; P.A. 91-58 amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to Secs. 46a-81b, 46a-81d and 46a-81e and amended Subsec. (d) to add reference to Sec. 46a-81f; P.A. 93-362 amended Subsec. (e) by adding "and after a complete hearing" after "evidence"; P.A. 05-280, S. 45 re treatment of discrimination payment awards by Department of Social Services in determining eligibility of or amount of assistance to be received by complainant under chapter was added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (f); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 changed effective date of P.A. 05-280, S. 45 from October 1, 2005, to July 1, 2005, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 07-142 added new Subsec. (e) re order with respect to remedial action imposed pursuant to Sec. 46a-56(c) or (d), redesignated existing Subsecs. (e) and (f) as Subsecs. (f) and (g) and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007.

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