CHAPTER 672a
UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT

Table of Contents

Sec. 36b-14. (Formerly Sec. 36-482). Records and financial reports required.
Sec. 36b-15. (Formerly Sec. 36-484). Denial, suspension or revocation of registration by commissioner. Withdrawal from registration or of application.
Sec. 36b-24. (Formerly Sec. 36-493). Findings by commissioner.
Sec. 36b-27. (Formerly Sec. 36-496). Enforcement powers of commissioner.

      Sec. 36b-14. (Formerly Sec. 36-482). Records and financial reports required. (a)(1) Every registered investment adviser shall make, keep and preserve such accounts, correspondence, memoranda, papers, books and other records as the commissioner by regulation adopted, in accordance with chapter 54, or order prescribes. All such records shall be preserved for such period as the commissioner by regulation or order prescribes.

      (2) Every investment adviser that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or excepted from the definition of investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, and every registered broker-dealer, shall make, keep and preserve such accounts, correspondence, memoranda, papers, books and other records as the Securities and Exchange Commission requires. All such records shall be preserved for such period as the Securities and Exchange Commission requires.

      (3) Broker-dealer records required to be maintained under subdivision (2) of this subsection may be maintained in any form of data storage acceptable under Section 17(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 if they are readily accessible to the commissioner. Investment adviser records required to be maintained under this section may be stored on microfilm, microfiche or on an electronic data processing system or similar system utilizing an internal memory device provided that a printed copy of any such record is immediately accessible.

      (b) (1) Every registered investment adviser shall file such financial reports as the commissioner by regulation prescribes.

      (2) Every investment adviser that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or excepted from the definition of investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, and, subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, every registered broker-dealer shall file such financial reports as the commissioner by regulation prescribes, except that the commissioner shall not require the filing of financial reports that are not required to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

      (c) If the information contained in any document filed with the commissioner under this section is or becomes inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect, the person making the filing shall promptly file a correcting amendment unless notification of the correction has been given under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive.

      (d) All the records of a registered investment adviser and a registered broker-dealer referred to in subsection (a) of this section are subject at any time or from time to time to such reasonable periodic, special or other examinations by the commissioner, within or without this state, as the commissioner deems necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors. Every registered investment adviser and every registered broker-dealer shall keep such records open to examination by the commissioner and, upon the commissioner's request, shall provide copies of any such records to the commissioner. For the purpose of avoiding unnecessary duplication of examinations, the commissioner, insofar as the commissioner deems it practicable in administering this subsection, may cooperate with the securities administrators of other states, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and any self-regulatory organization.

      (e) Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, an agent may not have custody of funds or securities of a customer except under the supervision of a broker-dealer and an investment adviser agent may not have custody of funds or securities of a client except under the supervision of an investment adviser. Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the commissioner may, by regulation adopted, in accordance with chapter 54, or order, prohibit, limit or impose conditions on a broker-dealer regarding custody of funds or securities of a customer and on an investment adviser regarding custody of funds or securities of a client.

      (P.A. 77-482, S. 13; P.A. 85-169, S. 6, 11; P.A. 97-220, S. 7, 15; P.A. 98-162, S. 4; P.A. 05-177, S. 4; P.A. 07-72, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 85-169 amended Subsec. (a) to permit records to be stored on microfilm, microfiche or other electronic data processing system; Sec. 36-482 transferred to Sec. 36b-14 in 1995; P.A. 97-220 amended Subsec, (a) to delete three-year record retention period and require retention of records for period prescribed by regulation, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-162 amended Subsec. (a) by designating existing provisions as Subdivs. (1) and (3), by adding new Subdiv. (2) re record requirements for registered broker-dealers and investment advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or excepted from the federal definition of investment adviser, and by making technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and adding new Subdiv. (2) re financial reports of registered broker-dealers and investment advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or excepted from the federal definition of investment adviser, made technical changes in Subsec. (c), and amended Subsec. (d) by adding provisions re examination and copying of records of registered broker-dealers and investment advisers and making technical changes; P.A. 05-177 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to require that the regulations be adopted in accordance with chapter 54 and to authorize commissioner to prescribe requirements by order, amended Subsec. (a)(3) to allow broker-dealer records required under Subdiv. (2) to be maintained in any form of data storage acceptable under Sec. 17(a) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 if readily accessible to commissioner and to allow required investment adviser records to be stored under Subdiv., amended Subsec. (b)(2) to insert "subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934," and to make a technical change, amended Subsec. (d) to substitute "self-regulatory organization" for "national securities exchange or national securities association registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934", and added Subsec. (e) re custody of funds or securities of a customer or client; P.A. 07-72 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(3).

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      Sec. 36b-15. (Formerly Sec. 36-484). Denial, suspension or revocation of registration by commissioner. Withdrawal from registration or of application. (a) The commissioner may, by order, deny, suspend or revoke any registration or, by order, restrict or impose conditions on the securities or investment advisory activities that an applicant or registrant may perform in this state if the commissioner finds that (1) the order is in the public interest, and (2) the applicant or registrant or, in the case of a broker-dealer or investment adviser, any partner, officer, or director, any person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, or any person directly or indirectly controlling the broker-dealer or investment adviser: (A) Has filed an application for registration which as of its effective date, or as of any date after filing in the case of an order denying effectiveness, was incomplete in any material respect or contained any statement which was, in light of the circumstances under which it was made, false or misleading with respect to any material fact; (B) has wilfully violated or wilfully failed to comply with any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or a predecessor statute or any regulation or order under said sections or a predecessor statute; (C) has been convicted, within the past ten years, of any misdemeanor involving a security, any aspect of the securities business, or any felony, provided any denial, suspension or revocation of such registration shall be in accordance with the provisions of section 46a-80; (D) is permanently or temporarily enjoined by any court of competent jurisdiction from engaging in or continuing any conduct or practice involving any aspect of the securities or commodities business; (E) is the subject of a cease and desist order of the commissioner or an order of the commissioner denying, suspending, or revoking registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser agent; (F) is the subject of any of the following sanctions that are currently effective or were imposed within the past ten years: (i) An order issued by the securities administrator of any other state, Canadian province or territory, or by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Commodity Futures Trading Commission denying, suspending or revoking registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, investment adviser agent or a person required to be registered under the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 USC 1 et seq., as from time to time amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder, or the substantial equivalent of those terms, as defined in sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, (ii) an order of the Securities and Exchange Commission or Commodity Futures Trading Commission suspending or expelling such applicant, registrant or person from a national securities or commodities exchange or national securities or commodities association registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 USC 1 et seq., as from time to time amended, or, in the case of an individual, an order of the Securities and Exchange Commission or an equivalent order of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission barring such individual from association with a broker-dealer or an investment adviser, (iii) a suspension, expulsion or other sanction issued by a national securities exchange or other self-regulatory organization registered under federal laws administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Commodity Futures Trading Commission if the effect of the sanction has not been stayed or overturned by appeal or otherwise, (iv) a United States Post Office fraud order, or (v) a cease and desist order entered by the Securities and Exchange Commission, a self-regulatory organization or the securities agency or administrator of any other state or Canadian province or territory; but the commissioner may not (I) institute a revocation or suspension proceeding under this subparagraph more than five years from the date of the sanction relied on, and (II) enter an order under this subparagraph on the basis of an order under any other state act unless that order was based on facts which would constitute a ground for an order under this section; (G) may be denied registration under federal law as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, investment adviser agent or as a person required to be registered under the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 USC 1 et seq., as from time to time amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, or the substantial equivalent of those terms as defined in sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive; (H) has engaged in fraudulent, dishonest or unethical practices in the securities or commodities business, including abusive sales practices in the business dealings of such applicant, registrant or person with current or prospective customers or clients; (I) is insolvent, either in the sense that the liabilities of such applicant, registrant or person exceed the assets of such applicant, registrant or person, or in the sense that such applicant, registrant or person cannot meet the obligations of such applicant, registrant or person as they mature; but the commissioner may not enter an order against a broker-dealer or investment adviser under this subparagraph without a finding of insolvency as to the broker-dealer or investment adviser; (J) is not qualified on the basis of such factors as training, experience, and knowledge of the securities business, except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section; (K) has failed reasonably to supervise: (i) The agents or investment adviser agents of such applicant or registrant, if the applicant or registrant is a broker-dealer or investment adviser; or (ii) the agents of a broker-dealer or investment adviser agents of an investment adviser, if such applicant, registrant or other person is or was an agent, investment adviser agent or other person charged with exercising supervisory authority on behalf of a broker-dealer or investment adviser; (L) in connection with any investigation conducted pursuant to section 36b-26 or any examination under subsection (d) of section 36b-14, has made any material misrepresentation to the commissioner or upon request made by the commissioner, has withheld or concealed material information from, or refused to furnish material information to the commissioner, provided, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that any records, including, but not limited to, written, visual, audio, magnetic or electronic records, computer printouts and software, and any other documents, that are withheld or concealed from the commissioner in connection with any such investigation or examination are material, unless such presumption is rebutted by substantial evidence; (M) has wilfully aided, abetted, counseled, commanded, induced or procured a violation of any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or a predecessor statute or any regulation or order under such sections or a predecessor statute; or (N) has failed to pay the proper filing fee; but the commissioner may enter only a denial order under this subparagraph, and the commissioner shall vacate any such order when the deficiency has been corrected. The commissioner may not institute a suspension or revocation proceeding on the basis of a fact or transaction known to the commissioner when the registration became effective unless the proceeding is instituted within one hundred eighty days of the effective date of such registration.

      (b) The following provisions govern the application of subparagraph (J) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section: (1) The commissioner may not enter an order against a broker-dealer on the basis of the lack of qualification of any person other than (A) the broker-dealer if the broker-dealer is an individual, or (B) an agent of the broker-dealer; (2) the commissioner may not enter an order against an investment adviser on the basis of the lack of qualification of any person other than (A) the investment adviser if the investment adviser is an individual, or (B) any other person who represents the investment adviser in doing any of the acts which make the investment adviser an investment adviser; (3) the commissioner may not enter an order solely on the basis of lack of experience if the applicant or registrant is qualified by training or knowledge or both; (4) the commissioner shall consider that an agent who will work under the supervision of a registered broker-dealer need not have the same qualifications as a broker-dealer; (5) the commissioner shall consider that an investment adviser is not necessarily qualified solely on the basis of experience as a broker-dealer or agent. When the commissioner finds that an applicant for initial or renewal registration as a broker-dealer is not qualified as an investment adviser, the commissioner may by order condition the applicant's registration as a broker-dealer upon the applicant's not transacting business in this state as an investment adviser; (6) the commissioner may by regulation provide for an examination, which may be written or oral or both, to be taken by any class of or all applicants, as well as persons who represent or will represent an investment adviser in doing any of the acts which make the investment adviser an investment adviser.

      (c) The commissioner may by order summarily postpone or suspend registration or require a registrant to take or refrain from taking such action that in the opinion of the commissioner will effectuate the purposes of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, pending final determination of any proceeding under this section. Upon the entry of the order, the commissioner shall promptly notify the applicant or registrant, as well as the employer or prospective employer if the applicant or registrant is an agent or an investment adviser agent, that it has been entered and of the reasons therefor and that within fifteen days after the receipt of a written request the matter will be set down for hearing. If no hearing is requested and none is ordered by the commissioner, the order will remain in effect until it is modified or vacated by the commissioner. If a hearing is requested or ordered, the commissioner, after notice of and opportunity for hearing, may modify or vacate the order or extend it until final determination.

      (d) If the commissioner finds that any registrant or applicant for registration is no longer in existence or has ceased to do business as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser agent, or is subject to an adjudication of mental incompetence or to the control of a committee, conservator, or guardian, or cannot be located after reasonable search, the commissioner may by order cancel the registration or application.

      (e) (1) Withdrawal from registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser agent, or withdrawal of an application for registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser agent, becomes effective ninety days after receipt of an application to withdraw such registration or a notice of intent to withdraw such application for registration or within such shorter period of time as the commissioner may determine, unless a denial, revocation or suspension proceeding is pending when the application or notice is filed or a proceeding to deny, revoke, suspend or impose conditions upon the withdrawal is instituted within ninety days after the application or notice is filed. If a proceeding is pending or instituted, withdrawal becomes effective at such time and upon such conditions as the commissioner by order determines. If no proceeding is pending or instituted and withdrawal automatically becomes effective, the commissioner may nevertheless institute a denial, revocation or suspension proceeding under subsection (a) of this section within one year after withdrawal became effective.

      (2) If the registration of a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser agent expires due to the registrant's failure to renew, within one year of such expiration, the commissioner may nevertheless institute a revocation or suspension proceeding or issue an order suspending or revoking the registration under subsection (a) of this section.

      (f) No order may be entered under this section except as provided in subsection (c) of this section without (1) appropriate prior notice to the applicant or registrant and to the employer or prospective employer if such applicant or registrant is an agent or investment adviser agent, (2) opportunity for hearing, and (3) written findings of fact and conclusions of law.

      (g) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner may deny an application for registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, investment adviser agent or branch office if the applicant fails to respond to any request for information required under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or the regulations adopted pursuant to said sections. The commissioner shall notify the applicant in writing that if such information is not submitted within sixty days the application shall be deemed abandoned and denied. An application filing fee paid prior to the date an application is denied pursuant to this subsection shall not be refunded. Denial of an application pursuant to this subsection shall not preclude the applicant from submitting a new application for registration under said sections. The hearing requirement provided for in subsection (f) of this section shall not apply to the denial of an application issued pursuant to this subsection.

      (P.A. 77-482, S. 15; P.A. 80-88, S. 5, 12; P.A. 82-149, S. 6, 16; P.A. 87-375, S. 4; P.A. 88-208, S. 2; P.A. 89-220, S. 3, 4; P.A. 91-145, S. 4, 5; P.A. 94-178, S. 1; P.A. 96-192, S. 4; P.A. 99-38, S. 2; P.A. 01-48, S. 3; P.A. 03-19, S. 87; 03-259, S. 20; P.A. 04-45, S. 4; P.A. 05-177, S. 5; P.A. 07-91, S. 25.)

      History: P.A. 80-88 added references to commodities, commodity futures trading commission and Commodity Exchange Act where appearing in Subsec. (a), inserted new Subdiv. (G) and relettered former Subdivs. (G) to (K) accordingly; P.A. 82-149 made a technical correction to Subsec. (b); P.A. 87-375 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(E) by adding the reference to a cease and desist order of the commissioner and added new Subsec. (g) re abandoned applications; P.A. 88-208 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(F) by clarifying that in order for the commissioner to take any action, the sanctions must be currently effective and been imposed within the past five years, added subparagraph designations throughout Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(ii) re orders barring an individual from associations with a broker-dealer or an investment advisor, added Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(iii) re sanctions issued by certain self-regulatory organizations, and amended Subsec. (a)(2)(L) by extending the time period in which the commissioner may bring a suspension or revocation proceeding from 30 to 180 days; P.A. 89-220 added new Subsec. (a)(L) re withholding or concealing information from the commissioner and relettered the remaining subparagraph accordingly and amended Subsec. (e) by changing the date a withdrawal from registration becomes effective from 30 to 90 days after receipt of the application and made other technical changes; P.A. 91-145 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the commissioner to deny, suspend or revoke registration upon a finding that sanctions have been imposed on the applicant or registrant by the securities administrator of a Canadian province or territory, added Subpara. (F)(v) re cease and desist orders entered by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the securities agency or administrator of another state or Canadian province or territory to Subsec. (a)(23), and amended Subsec. (a)(2)(K) by adding agents charged with exercising supervisory authority on behalf of broker-dealers and amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the commissioner to deny applications for registration as a branch office for failure to respond to requests for information; P.A. 94-178 authorized commissioner to "by order restrict or impose conditions on the securities or investment advisory activities that an applicant or registrant may perform in this state" in Subsec. (a); Sec. 36-484 transferred to Sec. 36b-15 in 1995; P.A. 96-192 added Subsec. (e)(2) re commissioner's power to suspend or revoke expired registrations; P.A. 99-38 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(L) by adding provisions re rebuttable presumption; P.A. 01-48 amended Subsec. (e)(1) by adding provisions re notice of intent to withdraw and withdrawal of an application for registration and denial of such withdrawal; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (e)(1), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 03-259 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(F) by substituting "ten years" for "five years" and Subsec. (a)(2)(H) by inserting "fraudulent" and ", including abusive sales practices in the business dealings of such applicant, registrant or person with current or prospective customers or clients" in and made technical changes; P.A. 04-45 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(G) to make a technical change, amended Subsec. (a)(2)(K) to divide Subpara. into clauses (i) and (ii), in (i) making technical and organizational changes and in (ii) specifying failure reasonably to supervise agents of broker-dealer or investment adviser agents of investment adviser, if applicant, registrant or other person is or was an agent, investment adviser agent or other person charged with exercising supervisory authority on behalf of broker-dealer or investment adviser, and amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes; P.A. 05-177 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(v) to allow commissioner to deny, suspend or revoke any registration based on a cease and desist order entered by a self-regulatory organization, amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add new Subpara. (M) allowing commissioner to deny, suspend or revoke any registration for the wilful aiding, abetting, counseling, commanding, inducing or procuring a violation of any provision of the Act or a predecessor statute or any regulation or order under the Act or such statute, and to redesignate existing Subpara. (M) as Subpara. (N), and made technical changes throughout Subsec. (a); P.A. 07-91 amended Subsec. (c) to allow commissioner, by order, to require registrant to take or refrain from taking action that will effectuate purposes of Secs. 36b-2 to 36b-33 pending final determination of proceeding under section, effective June 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 36b-24. (Formerly Sec. 36-493). Findings by commissioner. (a) Neither (1) the fact that an application for registration under sections 36b-6 to 36b-15, inclusive, or a registration statement under sections 36b-16 to 36b-20, inclusive, has been filed, nor (2) the fact that a person or security is effectively registered constitutes a finding by the commissioner that any document filed under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, is true, complete and not misleading. Neither any such fact nor the fact that an exemption or exception is available for security or a transaction means that the commissioner has passed in any way upon the merits or qualifications of, or recommended or given approval to, any person, security or transaction.

      (b) No person shall make, or cause to be made, to any prospective purchaser, customer or client any representation inconsistent with subsection (a) of this section.

      (P.A. 77-482, S. 25; P.A. 07-217, S. 155.)

      History: Sec. 36-493 transferred to Sec. 36b-24 in 1995; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 36b-27. (Formerly Sec. 36-496). Enforcement powers of commissioner. (a) Whenever it appears to the commissioner after an investigation that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, or that the further sale or offer to sell securities would constitute a violation of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order, or that any person has engaged in a dishonest or unethical practice in the securities or commodities business within the meaning of sections 36b-31-15a to 36b-31-15d, inclusive, of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies, the commissioner may, in the commissioner's discretion, order (1) the person, (2) any other person that directly or indirectly controls such person and that is, was or would be a cause of the violation of such sections or any such regulation, rule or order, due to an act or omission such other person knew or should have known would contribute to such violation, or (3) any other person that has materially aided, is materially aiding or is about to materially aid in such violation, to cease and desist from the violations or the causing of or aiding in the violations of the provisions of said sections or of the regulations, rules or orders thereunder, or from the further sale or offer to sell securities constituting or which would constitute a violation of the provisions of said sections or of the regulations, rules or orders thereunder, or from further engaging in such dishonest or unethical practice and to take or refrain from taking such action that in the opinion of the commissioner will effectuate the purposes of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive. After such an order is issued, the person named in the order may, within fourteen days after receipt of the order, file a written request for a hearing. Any such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (b) Whenever it appears to the commissioner, after an investigation, that any person has violated any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, or that the further sale or offer to sell securities would constitute a violation of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order, or that such person has engaged in a dishonest or unethical practice in the securities or commodities business within the meaning of sections 36b-31-15a to 36b-31-15d, inclusive, of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies, the commissioner may, in addition to any other remedy under this section, order the person to (1) make restitution of any sums shown to have been obtained in violation of any of the provisions of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order or as a result of such dishonest or unethical practice plus interest at the legal rate set forth in section 37-1, (2) provide disgorgement of any sums shown to have been obtained in violation of any of the provisions of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order or as a result of such dishonest or unethical practice, or (3) both make restitution and provide disgorgement. After such an order is issued, the person named in the order may, not later than fourteen days after receipt of the order, file a written request for a hearing. Any such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (c) The commissioner, in the commissioner's discretion, may order any person who directly or indirectly controls a person liable under subsection (b) of this section or who has materially aided a person liable under subsection (b) of this section in violation of any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, to make restitution, provide disgorgement, or both, of any sums shown to have been obtained as a result of a dishonest or unethical practice or in violation of any of the provisions of said sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections. Such controlling person or aider shall be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as the person liable under subsection (b) of this section, unless such controlling person or aider allegedly liable under this subsection sustains the burden of proof that such person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of facts by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist. After such an order is issued, the person named in the order may, within fourteen days after receipt of the order, file a written request for a hearing. Any such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. There shall be contribution as in cases of contract among the several persons so liable.

      (d) (1) Whenever the commissioner finds as the result of an investigation that any person has violated any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, the commissioner may send a notice to (A) such person, (B) any other person that directly or indirectly controls such person and that was a cause of the violation of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order, due to an act or omission such other person knew or should have known would contribute to such violation, or (C) any other person that has materially aided in such violation, by registered mail, return receipt requested, or by any express delivery carrier that provides a dated delivery receipt. Any such notice shall include: (i) A reference to the title, chapter, regulation, rule or order alleged to have been violated; (ii) a short and plain statement of the matter asserted or charged; (iii) the maximum fine that may be imposed for such violation; and (iv) the time and place for the hearing. Any such hearing shall be fixed for a date not earlier than fourteen days after the notice is mailed.

      (2) The commissioner shall hold a hearing upon the charges made unless such person fails to appear at the hearing. Any such hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. After the hearing if the commissioner finds that the person has violated, caused a violation or materially aided in the violation of any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, the commissioner may, in the commissioner's discretion and in addition to any other remedy authorized by said sections, order that a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand dollars per violation be imposed upon such person. If such person fails to appear at the hearing, the commissioner may, as the facts require, order that a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand dollars per violation be imposed upon such person. The commissioner shall send a copy of any order issued pursuant to this subsection by registered mail, return receipt requested, or by any express delivery carrier that provides a dated delivery receipt, to any person named in such order.

      (e) Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, or that the further sale or offer to sell securities would constitute a violation of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order, the commissioner may, in the commissioner's discretion and in addition to any other remedy authorized by this section, bring an action in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to: (1) Enjoin the acts or practices and to enforce compliance with sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any such regulation, rule or order against (A) such person; (B) any other person who directly or indirectly controls such person and who is, was or would be a cause of the violation of said sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any such regulation, rule or order due to an act or omission such other person knew or should have known would contribute to such violation; or (C) any other person who has materially aided, is materially aiding or is about to materially aid in such violation. Upon a proper showing, the court may issue a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order or writ of mandamus and may order other appropriate or ancillary relief, which may include: (i) An asset freeze, accounting, writ of attachment, writ of general or specific execution, and appointment of a receiver or conservator, who may be the commissioner or a person recommended by the commissioner, for the defendant or the defendant's assets. If a person other than the commissioner is appointed receiver or conservator, the commissioner shall be a party to the receivership proceeding or conservatorship with standing to initiate or contest any motion, and the views of the commissioner shall be entitled to deference unless they are inconsistent with the plain meaning of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive. The commissioner may appoint such employees and retain such consultants as the commissioner deems necessary for liquidating or administering the affairs of the defendant; (ii) an order directing the commissioner to take charge and control of a defendant's property, including investment accounts and accounts in a depository institution, rents, and profits; to collect debts; and to acquire and dispose of property; (iii) an order directing the payment of prejudgment and postjudgment interest; or (iv) an order covering such other relief as the court considers appropriate. The court shall not require the commissioner to post a bond; (2) seek a court order imposing a fine not to exceed one hundred thousand dollars per violation against the person found to have violated, caused a violation or materially aided in the violation of any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive; (3) apply for an order whereby the person that violated any of the provisions of said sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections shall be ordered to: (A) Make restitution of those sums shown by the commissioner to have been obtained by such person in violation of any of the provisions of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order, plus interest at the rate set forth in section 37-3a; (B) provide disgorgement of any sums shown to have been obtained in violation of any of the provisions of said sections or any such regulation, rule or order; (C) both make restitution and provide disgorgement; or (4) apply for an order whereby any person who directly or indirectly controls a person liable under subdivision (3) of this subsection, or who has materially aided a person liable under subdivision (3) of this subsection in a violation of any of the provisions of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation, rule or order adopted or issued under said sections, to make restitution, provide disgorgement, or both, of any sums shown to have been obtained as a result of such violation. Such controlling person or aider shall be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as the person liable under subdivision (3) of this subsection, unless such controlling person or aider allegedly liable under this subdivision sustains the burden of proof that such person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of facts by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist. Such restitution or disgorgement shall, at the option of the court, be payable to the receiver or conservator appointed pursuant to this subsection, or directly to the persons whose assets were obtained in violation of any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any such regulation, rule or order.

      (f) Any time after the issuance of an order or notice provided for in subsection (a), (b) or (c) or subdivision (1) of subsection (d) of this section, the commissioner may accept an agreement by any respondent named in such order or notice to enter into a written consent order in lieu of an adjudicative hearing. The acceptance of a consent order shall be within the complete discretion of the commissioner. The consent order provided for in this subsection shall contain (1) an express waiver of the right to seek judicial review or otherwise challenge or contest the validity of the order or notice; (2) a provision that the order or notice may be used in construing the terms of the consent order; (3) a statement that the consent order shall become final when issued; (4) a specific assurance that none of the violations alleged in the order or notice shall occur in the future; (5) such other terms and conditions as are necessary to further the purposes and policies of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive; (6) the signature of each of the individual respondents evidencing such respondent's consent; and (7) the signature of the commissioner or of the commissioner's authorized representative.

      (P.A. 77-482, S. 28; P.A. 78-34, S. 8, 17; P.A. 79-396, S. 8, 11; P.A. 80-483, S. 166, 186; P.A. 87-375, S. 6; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-145, S. 7; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94-178, S. 3; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 110; P.A. 95-66, S. 2; 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 97-220, S. 13, 15; P.A. 98-162, S. 8; P.A. 99-38, S. 6; P.A. 01-48, S. 4; P.A. 03-259, S. 21; P.A. 05-177, S. 10; P.A. 07-91, S. 26.)

      History: P.A. 78-34 rephrased situations in which commissioner may take action and added provisions designated as Subdiv. (a); P.A. 79-396 added Subdivs. (c) to (e) and provisions specifying contents of consent order; P.A. 80-483 substituted "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" for "Hartford county" in Subdiv. (b); P.A. 87-375 restructured the section by dividing it into Subsecs., made technical changes in Subsecs. (a), (c) and (d), added new provisions in Subsec. (b) re notice requirements for hearings, increased the fine the commissioner may impose to $10,000 and amended Subsec. (c) to include provisions that restitution shall be paid with interest at the rate set forth in Sec. 37-3a and to increase the fine a court may impose for violations of orders of the commissioner to $10,000; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 91-145 amended Subsec. (c) by subjecting persons who have violated the provisions of the Uniform Securities Act to the enforcement powers of the commissioner and requiring the commissioner to apply to the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford-New Britain for an order of restitution; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-178 added Subsec. (a)(2) to(4) re ordering restitution, disgorgement or both, inserted new Subsec. (b) re liability of controlling persons to make restitution or provide disgorgement, and renumbered former Subsecs. (b) through (d) as Subsecs. (c) through (e); May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes to Subsec. (a); Sec. 36-496 transferred to Sec. 36b-27 in 1995; P.A. 95-66 amended Subsec. (a) to delete remedies other than cease and desist orders for existing or prospective violations, added a new Subsec. (b) re restitution or disgorgement for past violations, and renumbered remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-220 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to persons who have violated the provisions of Secs. 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, and amended Subsec. (d) to require notice by registered mail, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-162 amended Subsec. (d)(2) by changing "civil penalty" to "fine"; P.A. 99-38 added provisions throughout re engaging in a dishonest or unethical practice in the securities or commodities business, changed the interest rate reference in Subsec. (b) from Sec. 37-3a to the legal rate set forth in Sec. 37-1, added provisions re joint and several liability of controlling persons and made a technical change in Subsec. (c), and changed "person charged with violating any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive" to "respondent named in such order" and made technical changes in Subsec. (f); P.A. 01-48 made technical changes throughout, amended Subsec. (c) by adding reference to violation of any regulation, rule or order, amended Subsec. (d) by adding references to express delivery and amended Subsec. (f) by adding references to notice and to Subsec. (d)(1); P.A. 03-259 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize commissioner to issue order to any other persons causing violation, added Subsec. (b)(3) authorizing commissioner to order both restitution and disgorgement, inserted "or both" in Subsec. (c), increased fines in Subsecs. (d)(2) and (e) from $10,000 to $100,000, inserted "or any such regulation, rule or order" in Subsec. (e) and made technical changes; P.A. 05-177 amended Subsec. (a) to insert Subdiv. designators (1) to (3), to authorize commissioner to issue a cease and desist order against person that directly or indirectly controls a person who commits violation and any other person that has materially aided, is materially aiding or is about to materially aid in violation, amended Subsec. (c) to authorize commissioner to order restitution and disgorgement for any person who has materially aided a person liable in violation under Subsec. (b) and to insert "or aider" re joint liability, amended Subsec. (d) to authorize commissioner to impose a fine on any person that directly or indirectly controls a person who commits violation and that was a cause of violation due to an act or omission such other person knew or should have known would contribute to violation and on any person that has materially aided in violation, amended Subsec. (e) to make extensive changes and expand the court-ordered remedies available to commissioner, amended Subsec. (f)(4) to delete reference to dishonest or unethical practices, and made technical changes throughout; P.A. 07-91 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to allow commissioner to order person that has materially aided, is materially aiding or is about to materially aid in violation to take or refrain from taking action that will effectuate purposes of Secs. 36b-2 to 36b-33, effective June 5, 2007.

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