CHAPTER 446k
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

Table of Contents

Sec. 22a-449. (Formerly Sec. 25-54cc). Duties and powers of commissioner re sources of potential pollution or damage. Licenses. Regulations. Nonresidential underground storage tank systems.
Sec. 22a-449c. Underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account. Residential underground heating oil storage tank system clean-up subaccount. Applications for payment or reimbursement.
Sec. 22a-449f. Application for reimbursement for claims resulting from release of petroleum.
Sec. 22a-449m. Standards for remediation of soil and replacement of residential underground heating oil storage tank systems. Regulations.
Sec. 22a-449q. Storage of underground storage tank system records.
Sec. 22a-452a. State lien against real estate as security for amounts paid to clean up or to remove hazardous waste. Notice and hearing.
Sec. 22a-483. Bond issue for Clean Water Fund projects. General obligation bonds. Revenue bonds.
Sec. 22a-497. Municipal stormwater authority pilot program. Priority municipalities. Application. Selection criteria. Grants.
Sec. 22a-498. Creation of stormwater authority. Members. Purposes. Powers.
Sec. 22a-499. Joint report re pilot program.
Sec. 22a-500. Regional water pollution control authorities: Definitions. Authorization. Directors. Membership. Termination.
Sec. 22a-517. Regional water pollution control authorities: Receipt of Clean Water Fund disbursements.

      Sec. 22a-449. (Formerly Sec. 25-54cc). Duties and powers of commissioner re sources of potential pollution or damage. Licenses. Regulations. Nonresidential underground storage tank systems. (a) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall, to the extent possible, immediately, whenever there is discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration of oil or petroleum or chemical liquids or solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous wastes upon any land or into any of the waters of the state or into any offshore or coastal waters, which may result in pollution of the waters of the state, damage to beaches, wetlands, stream banks or coastal areas, or damage to sewers or utility conduits or other public or private property or which may create an emergency, cause such discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration to be contained and removed or otherwise mitigated by whatever method said commissioner considers best and most expedient under the circumstances. The commissioner shall also (1) determine the person, firm or corporation responsible for causing such discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration, and (2) send notice, in writing, to the chief executive officer and the local director of health of the municipality in which such discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration occurs of such occurrence. Such notification shall be sent not later than twenty-four hours after the commissioner becomes aware of the contamination.

      (b) The commissioner may: (1) License terminals in the state for the loading or unloading of oil or petroleum or chemical liquids or solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous wastes and shall adopt, in accordance with chapter 54, reasonable regulations in connection therewith for the purposes of identifying terminals subject to licensure and protecting the public health and safety and for preventing the discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration of oil or petroleum or chemical liquids or solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous wastes. Each license issued under this section shall be valid for a period of not more than ten years from the date of issuance, unless sooner revoked by the commissioner, and there shall be charged for each such license or renewal thereof fees established by regulation sufficient to cover the reasonable cost to the state of inspecting and licensing such terminals; (2) provide by regulations for the establishment and maintenance in operating condition and position of suitable equipment to contain as far as possible the discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage or filtration of any oil or petroleum or chemical liquids or solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous wastes; (3) inspect periodically all hoses, gaskets, tanks, pipelines and other equipment used in connection with the transfer, transportation or storage of oil or petroleum or chemical liquids or solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous wastes to make certain that they are in good operating condition, and order the renewal of any such equipment found unfit for further use. No person shall commence operation of any such terminal in this state on or after July 1, 1993, without a license issued by the commissioner. Any person who operates any such terminal without a license issued by the commissioner shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars per day during any period of unlicensed operation.

      (c) The commissioner may establish such programs and adopt, in accordance with chapter 54, and enforce such regulations as he deems necessary to carry out the intent of sections 22a-133a to 22a-133j, inclusive, sections 22a-448 to 22a-454, inclusive, and Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC 6901 et seq.), as amended from time to time, except that actions pursuant to the state's hazardous waste program shall be brought under the provisions of sections 22a-131 and 22a-131a.

      (d) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Safety may establish by regulations adopted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 standards and criteria for the nonresidential underground storage of oil, petroleum and chemical liquids which may include but not be limited to standards and criteria for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and monitoring of facilities for the underground storage and handling of such liquids. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection may establish such programs and adopt, in accordance with chapter 54, and enforce such regulations as he deems necessary to carry out the intent of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC 6901, et seq.), as amended from time to time.

      (e) The fee for the inspection of each nonresidential underground storage facility which, pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to this section, submits notification to the commissioner shall be one hundred dollars per tank, provided such fee may not be charged more than once every five years.

      (f) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to establish (1) requirements for the inspection of nonresidential underground storage tank systems for compliance with the requirements of this chapter, including, but not limited to, the minimum frequency, method and content of inspections, and maintenance and disclosure of results, (2) a program to authorize persons to (A) perform inspections, including, but not limited to, education and training requirements for such persons, and whether or not such persons may be employed by the owner or operator of the subject nonresidential underground storage tank system, and (B) determine whether the violations for which a nonresidential underground storage tank system has been taken out of service pursuant to subsection (g) of this section have been corrected, which regulations may include, but not be limited to, a prohibition for an owner or operator of any such system from placing such system back into service pursuant to subsection (g) of this section after the regulations take effect or additional requirements for an owner or operator of any such system, and (3) requirements, in addition to the requirements contained in subsection (g) of this section, relating to the prohibition of deliveries to and the use of nonresidential underground storage tank systems that are not in compliance with section 22a-449o or with the requirements of this section and any regulations adopted under this section.

      (g) (1) If the commissioner determines that there is a release from a nonresidential underground storage tank system or that such system (A) is not designed, constructed, installed and operated in accordance with section 22a-449o or regulations adopted pursuant to this section, (B) fails to have or operate proper release detection equipment in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to this section, or (C) fails to have or operate proper overfill and spill protection measures or equipment in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to this section, then the commissioner may require the owner or operator of the nonresidential underground storage tank system to pump out the contents of its system, and the commissioner may place a notice on a system that is plainly visible, indicating that the system is not in compliance with the requirements applicable to nonresidential underground storage tank systems and that such system cannot be used and deliveries to such system cannot be accepted, or the commissioner may disable the use of such system by placing a disabling device on the system that prohibits deliveries to such system. Any action pursuant to this subdivision shall not be based solely on requirements relating to reporting or recordkeeping. No person shall make deliveries to any nonresidential underground storage tank system bearing the notice described in this subdivision or on which the commissioner has placed a disabling device. The owner or operator of such system shall ensure that any such system is not used for dispensing a product or receiving deliveries while any notice or disabling device has been placed upon such system. Except as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, no person or municipality shall remove, alter, deface or tamper with any notice or disabling device placed by the commissioner pursuant to this subdivision.

      (2) Not later than two business days after placing a notice or disabling device on a nonresidential underground storage tank system pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection, the commissioner shall provide the owner or operator of the affected underground storage tank system with an opportunity for a hearing. Any such hearing shall be limited to whether the violation upon which the commissioner took action under subdivision (1) of this subsection occurred and whether such violation is continuing.

      (3) A nonresidential underground storage tank system upon which a notice or disabling device has been placed pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection shall not be put back into service and shall not be used for dispensing a product or receiving deliveries until the violations that caused the notice or disabling device to be placed have been corrected to the satisfaction of (A) the commissioner, or (B) a person who, pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (f) of this section, has been authorized by the commissioner to determine whether such violations have been corrected. The commissioner shall determine whether any applicable violation has been corrected not later than twenty-four hours after being contacted by the owner or operator of the underground storage tank system that any such violation has been fully corrected. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision, until the commissioner authorizes persons to determine whether violations have been corrected pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (f) of this section, the owner or operator of an underground storage tank system upon which a notice or a disabling device has been placed by the commissioner may place such system back into service, where, not later than twenty-four hours after being contacted by the owner or operator, the commissioner has not determined whether any applicable violation has been corrected and on the day any such system is returned to service or the next business day in the event such day is a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the owner or operator provides the commissioner with a written affidavit fully describing all actions taken to correct the violations that caused a notice or disabling device to be placed upon such system and certifying that all such violations were fully corrected before any such system was returned to service.

      (4) Nothing in this subsection shall affect the authority of the commissioner under any other statute or regulation.

      (h) The person submitting a notification of installation for a nonresidential underground storage tank or underground storage tank system pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to this section shall submit with such notification a notification fee of one hundred dollars per tank.

      (i) Any moneys collected for the issuance or renewal of a license, pursuant to subsection (b) of this section or regulations adopted pursuant to said subsection, shall be deposited in the General Fund.

      (1969, P.A. 765, S. 2, 8; 1971, P.A. 433, S. 1; 872, S. 102; 1972, P.A. 252, S. 1; P.A. 79-605, S. 3, 17; P.A. 81-443, S. 5, 7; P.A. 82-233; P.A. 83-142; 83-587, S. 93, 96; P.A. 86-28, S. 1, 2; 86-403, S. 118, 132; P.A. 87-561, S. 12, 13; P.A. 88-119; P.A. 90-231, S. 7, 28; 90-269, S. 2, 8; 90-276, S. 1; P.A. 91-369, S. 32, 36; P.A. 93-428, S. 34, 39; P.A. 95-208, S. 10, 13; P.A. 98-140, S. 1; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 134; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 89; P.A. 06-76, S. 22; P.A. 07-192, S. 3.)

      History: 1971 acts required water resources commission to act if there is discharge, spillage, seepage, etc. upon land, where previously only discharge into waters was mentioned and later replaced water resources commission with environmental protection commissioner; 1972 act increased fee for license or renewal of license from $10 to $125; P.A. 79-605 clarified provisions, including references to uncontrolled loss of oil, petroleum or chemical liquids, to hazardous wastes, to pollution of state waters, wetlands, stream banks, etc., to damage to sewers, utility conduits or other property, and rephrasing in some cases for clarity and economy of expression, amended Subsec. (b) to replace set license fee with charge of an amount sufficient to cover state inspection and licensing costs and to delete Subdivs. (4) and (5) which had required that equipment be available to remove pollutants from waters of state and that companies pay inspection cost and amended Subsec. (c) to require that regulations be in accordance with chapter 54 and to add reference to federal act; P.A. 81-443 added exception in Subsec. (c) re actions pursuant to hazardous waste program approved in accordance with federal act; P.A. 82-233 added Subsec. (d) authorizing the commissioner of environmental protection to adopt regulations governing nonresidential underground storage of oil and chemicals; Sec. 25-54cc transferred to Sec. 22a-449 in 1983; P.A. 83-142 amended Subsec. (d) to authorize monitoring to determine the life expectancy or failure of an underground storage facility; P.A. 83-587 changed effective date of P.A. 83-142 from October 1, 1983, to May 16, 1983; P.A. 86-28 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting requirement that actions pursuant to the state's hazardous waste program be approved in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and substituted "Subchapter III" for "Subtitle C"; P.A. 86-403 made technical change changing "Subchapter III" to "Subtitle C"; P.A. 87-561 amended Subsec. (c) to authorize regulations enforcing Secs. 22a-133a to 22a-133j, inclusive; P.A. 88-119 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting language re monitoring to determine life expectancy or failure of a facility and substituting provision re adoption of regulations by the commissioner of environmental protection to implement the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; P.A. 90-231 amended Subsec. (d) to require the payment of notification fees by facilities and provided that on and after July 1, 1993, the fees shall be prescribed by regulations and added Subsec. (e) re inspection fees; P.A. 90-269 added Subsec. (f) re deposits into the emergency spill response fund; P.A. 90-276 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (2) re notification of a chemical spill; P.A. 91-369 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) to restate commissioner's authority to adopt regulations setting the fees required by this section; P.A. 93-428 amended Subsec. (b) to extend the period of oil terminal licensure from one year to three years and to increase the per diem fine for failure to obtain such a license from $100 to $5,000, effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 1995 the phrase "emergency spill response fund" was replaced editorially by the Revisors with "emergency spill response account" to conform section with Sec. 22a-451, as amended by P.A. 94-130); P.A. 95-208 amended Subsec. (f) to require that moneys collected for issuance or renewal of license be deposited in General Fund, rather than emergency spill response account, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 98-140 amended Subsec. (a) to require the commissioner to notify municipal officials within 24 hours of certain contamination events; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (d)and (e) to increase notification and inspection fees from $50 to $100 and to delete provisions re amount of fees prescribed by regulation, effective August 20, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (d) to delete language re notification fee, redesignated existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (i), added new Subsec. (f) re inspections of nonresidential systems and prohibitions re use of and deliveries to certain nonresidential systems, added Subsec. (g) re placement of notice of noncompliance or disabling device on a nonresidential system for certain violations, and added Subsec. (h) re notification fee, effective June 30, 2005; P.A. 06-76 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to replace "three years commencing July first" with "ten years from the date of issuance"; P.A. 07-192 made technical changes in Subsec. (f), effective July 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-449c. Underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account. Residential underground heating oil storage tank system clean-up subaccount. Applications for payment or reimbursement. (a)(1) There is established an account to be known as the "underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account". The underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account shall be an account of the Environmental Quality Fund. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, any moneys collected shall be deposited in the Environmental Quality Fund and credited to the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account. Any balance remaining in said account at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in said account for the fiscal year next succeeding.

      (2) The account shall be used by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection to provide money for reimbursement or payment pursuant to section 22a-449f, to responsible parties or parties supplying goods or services, for costs, expenses and other obligations paid or incurred, as the case may be, as a result of releases, and suspected releases, costs of investigation and remediation of releases and suspected releases, and for claims by a person other than a responsible party for bodily injury, property damage and damage to natural resources that have been finally adjudicated or settled with the prior written consent of the board. The commissioner may also make payment from the account to an assignee who is in the business of receiving assignments of amounts approved by the board, but not yet paid from the account, provided the party making any such assignment, using a form approved by the commissioner, directs the commissioner to pay such assignee, that no cost of any assignment shall be borne by the account and that the state and its agencies shall not bear any liability with respect to any such assignment.

      (3) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section regarding reimbursements of parties pursuant to section 22a-449f and regulations adopted pursuant to section 22a-449e, and regardless of when an application for payment or reimbursement from the account may have been submitted to the board, payment or reimbursement shall be made in accordance with the following: (A) After June 1, 2004, no payment or reimbursement shall be made for any costs, expenses and other obligations paid or incurred for remediation, including any monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the remediation, of a release to levels more stringent than or beyond those specified in the remediation standards established pursuant to section 22a-133k, except to the extent the applicant demonstrates that it has been directed otherwise, in writing, by the commissioner; (B) after June 1, 2005, no payment or reimbursement from the account shall be made to any person for diminution in property value or interest, provided that reimbursement for interest accrued on attorneys' fees may be permitted if an application seeking interest accrued on attorneys' fees was submitted to the commissioner on or before March 31, 2003, and such application has been tabled by the board for three or more years; and (C) after June 1, 2005, no payment or reimbursement from the account shall be made for attorneys' fees or other costs of legal representation paid or incurred as a result of a release or suspected release (i) in excess of five thousand dollars to any responsible party, (ii) in excess of ten thousand dollars to any person other than a responsible party, and (iii) by a responsible party regarding the defense of claims brought by another person, except that applications for reimbursement filed on or before June 30, 2005, shall not be subject to the limitations for reimbursement imposed by clauses (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph. In addition, notwithstanding the provisions of this section regarding reimbursements of parties pursuant to section 22a-449f, the responsible party shall bear all costs of the release that are less than ten thousand dollars and all persons shall bear all costs of the release that are more than one million dollars, except that for any such release which was reported to the department prior to December 31, 1987, and for which more than five hundred thousand dollars has been expended by the responsible party to remediate such release prior to June 19, 1991, the responsible party for the release shall bear all costs of such release which are less than ten thousand dollars or more than five million dollars, provided the portion of any reimbursement or payment in excess of three million dollars may, at the discretion of the commissioner, be made in annual payments for up to a five-year period. There shall be allocated to the department annually, for administrative costs, two million dollars.

      (b) There is established a subaccount within the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account to be known as the "residential underground heating oil storage tank system clean-up subaccount" to be used solely for the provision of reimbursements under sections 22a-449l and 22a-449n, for the remediation of contamination attributed to residential underground heating oil storage tank systems. The subaccount shall hold the proceeds of the bond funds allocated pursuant to section 51 of public act 00-167*.

      (c) There is established a subaccount within the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account to be known as the "pay for performance subaccount" with which the commissioner may implement a program, in consultation with the board, in which reimbursement or repayment in accordance with this section is based upon the achievement of environmental milestones or results. The commissioner, with the approval of the board, may enter into contracts to implement any such program.

      (d) (1) If an initial application or request for payment or reimbursement is received by the board before July 1, 2005, no supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement shall be submitted to the board on or after October 1, 2009, regarding costs, expenses or other obligations paid or incurred in response to the release or suspected release noted in any such initial application or request for payment or reimbursement. The provisions of this subdivision shall apply regardless of whether the cost, expense or other obligation was paid or incurred before October 1, 2009, and no reimbursement or payment from the account shall be ordered by the board or made by the commissioner regarding any such supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement received by the board on or after the October 1, 2009, deadline established in this subdivision.

      (2) If an initial application or request for payment or reimbursement is received by the board on or after July 1, 2005, no supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement shall be submitted to the board more than five years after the date that the initial application or request for payment or reimbursement was received by the board, regarding costs, expenses or other obligations paid or incurred in response to the release or suspected release noted in such initial application or request for payment or reimbursement. The provisions of this subdivision shall apply regardless of whether a cost, expense or other obligation was paid or incurred before the expiration of the five-year deadline established in this subdivision and no reimbursement or payment from the account shall be ordered by the board or made by the commissioner regarding any such supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement received by the board after the five-year deadline established in this subdivision.

      (3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (i) of section 22a-449f, if an application or request for payment or reimbursement is not brought before the board for a decision not later than six months after having been received by the board, then six months shall be added to the deadline applicable pursuant to subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection, provided no more than two years shall be added to the deadline established pursuant to subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection regardless of whether one or more applications or requests for payment or reimbursement have been received by the board but have not been brought before the board for a decision not later than six months after receipt. In addition, if the commissioner determines that an application or request for payment or reimbursement is ready for decision by the board and such application or request has been placed on the agenda for the meeting of the board, but cannot be brought before the board because the board is unable to meet or cannot act on such application or request, the deadlines established pursuant to subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection shall also be extended only for that period that the board is unable to meet or is unable to act on such application or request.

      (4) The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to annual groundwater remedial actions, including the preparation of a groundwater remedial action progress report, performed pursuant to subdivision (6) of section 22a-449p. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the board may continue to receive applications or requests for payment or reimbursement and provided all other requirements have been met, may order payment or reimbursement from the account for such activities.

      (e) (1) Any person who has insurance, or a contract or other agreement to provide payment or reimbursement for any costs, expense or other obligation paid or incurred in response to a release or suspected release may submit an application or request seeking payment or reimbursement from the account to the board, provided any such application or request for payment or reimbursement shall be subject to all applicable requirements, including, but not limited to, subdivision (7) of subsection (c) of section 22a-449f.

      (2) Any person who at any time receives or expects to receive payment or reimbursement from any source other than the account for any cost, expense, obligation, damage or injury for which such person has received or has applied for payment or reimbursement from the account, shall notify the board, in writing, of such supplemental or expected payment and shall, not more than thirty days after receiving such supplemental payment, repay the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account all such amounts received from any other source.

      (3) If the board determines that a person is seeking or has sought payment or reimbursement for any cost, expense, obligation, damage or injury from the account and that payment or reimbursement for any such cost, expense, obligation, damage or injury is actually or potentially available to any such person from any source other than the account, the board may impose any conditions it deems reasonable regarding any amount it orders to be paid from the account.

      (P.A. 89-373, S. 4, 10; P.A. 90-181, S. 1; P.A. 91-254, S. 1, 7; P.A. 94-130, S. 6; P.A. 96-132, S. 1, 5; P.A. 97-241, S. 3, 5; P.A. 00-201, S. 2, 8; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 37, 131; P.A. 02-80, S. 1; P.A. 04-244, S. 2; P.A. 05-288, S. 107; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 91; P.A. 06-196, S. 259; P.A. 07-192, S. 4.)

      *Note: Section 51 of public act 00-167 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: P.A. 90-181 amended Subsec. (b) to allow payments or reimbursement to parties supplying goods or services, allowed payments and reimbursements for expenses resulting from suspected releases, authorized payment of costs of defense of third party claims and costs of investigation and deleted the requirement that the responsible party be responsible for all costs which are less than $10,000; P.A. 91-254 added the requirement that the responsible party be responsible for all costs which are less than $10,000, added the provisions concerning releases reported prior to December 31, 1987, and for which more than $500,000 had been expended and added provisions re funds for administrative costs which are to be allocated to the department; P.A. 94-130 changed name of fund from "Underground Storage Tank Petroleum Clean-Up Fund" to "underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account" and eliminated requirement that investment earnings credited to assets of fund shall become part of the assets of said fund; P.A. 96-132 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the allocation for administrative costs, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-241 amended Subsec. (b) to increase costs of remediation to be borne by certain responsible parties under this section and to increase the allocation to the department for administrative costs, effective June 24, 1997; P.A. 00-201 redesignated existing language in Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (a)(1) and existing language in Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (a)(2) and added new Subsec. (b) establishing residential underground heating oil storage tank system clean-up subaccount, effective June 1, 2000; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 amended Subsec. (a) to add references to Sec. 22a-449f and increase amount of administrative costs from $1,150,000 to $2,000,000 and amended Subsec. (b) to add reference to Sec. 22a-449n, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-80 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to raise limit for payments from account from $3,000,000 to $5,000,000 for costs or expenses incurred in connection with any release reported to the Department of Environmental Protection prior to December 31, 1987, and for which the responsible party has expended more than $500,000 for remediation prior to June 19, 1991, and to add proviso that the portion of any reimbursement or payment in excess of $3,000,000 may, at the discretion of the commissioner, be made in annual payments for up to a five-year period, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 04-244 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add prohibition against payment or reimbursement for costs incurred for remediation of a release to levels more stringent than those specified in remediation standards, except as required by the department, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (a)(2), effective July 13, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (a)(2) to delete "or both, to responsible parties", to insert "and remediation", to replace "third party" with "for", to insert "by a person other than a responsible party", to require final adjudication or settlement of a claim, and to allow payment to an assignee, inserted designator for Subsec. (a)(3), amended Subsec. (a)(3) to insert "in writing", to prohibit, after June 1, 2005, payment or reimbursement for diminution in property value or interest and for certain attorneys' fees, and to insert "and all persons shall bear all costs of the release that are", added Subsec. (c) establishing pay for performance subaccount, added Subsec. (d) re submission of supplemental applications, and added Subsec. (e) re insurance and receipt of payment or reimbursement from other sources, effective June 30, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (e)(2), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-192 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to permit certain applicants to receive reimbursement for interest on attorney's fees and to exempt certain applications from limitations on such fees, effective July 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-449f. Application for reimbursement for claims resulting from release of petroleum. (a) Application. Notice of claim. A responsible party may apply to the Underground Storage Tank Petroleum Clean-Up Account Review Board established under section 22a-449d, for reimbursement for costs paid and payment of costs incurred as a result of a release, or a suspected release, including costs of investigating and remediating a release, or a suspected release, incurred or paid by such party who is determined not to have been liable for any such release. If a person other than a responsible party, claims to have suffered bodily injury, property damage or damage to natural resources from a release, the person with such claim shall make reasonable attempts to provide written notice to the responsible party of such claim and if such person cannot provide such notice or if the responsible party does not apply to the board for payment of such claim not later than sixty days after receipt of such notice or such other time as may be agreed to by the parties, the person holding such claim may apply to the board for payment for such damage or bodily injury.

      (b) Approval by commissioner or licensed environmental professional. (1) In addition to all other applicable requirements, a person seeking payment or reimbursement from the account shall demonstrate that when the total costs, expenses or other obligations in response to a release or suspected release (A) are two hundred fifty thousand dollars or less, that all labor, equipment and materials provided after October 1, 2005, and all services and activities undertaken after October 1, 2005, are approved, in writing, either by the commissioner or by a licensed environmental professional with a currently valid and effective license issued pursuant to section 22a-133v; and (B) exceed two hundred fifty thousand dollars, that all labor, equipment and materials provided after October 1, 2005, and all services and activities undertaken after October 1, 2005, are approved, in writing, by the commissioner, provided the commissioner may authorize, in writing, a licensed environmental professional with a currently valid and effective license issued pursuant to section 22a-133v to approve, in writing, such labor, equipment, materials, services and activities, in lieu of the commissioner. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to all costs, expenses or other obligations for which a person is seeking payment or reimbursement from the account and the board shall not order and the commissioner shall not make payment or reimbursement from the account for any cost, expense or other obligation, unless the person seeking such payment or reimbursement provides the written approval required by this subdivision. Any written approval provided by a licensed environmental professional pursuant to this subdivision shall be submitted with the application for payment or reimbursement. Any written approval provided by the commissioner pursuant to this subdivision shall not constitute an approval pursuant to any other provision of the general statutes or any regulation and shall be presented to the board prior to the board making a decision regarding the application that such approval concerns.

      (2) The fees charged by a licensed environmental professional regarding labor or services rendered in response to a release or suspected release may be included in any application or request for payment or reimbursement submitted to the board. The amount to be paid or reimbursed from the account for such fees may also be established in the schedule adopted by the commissioner pursuant to subsection (b) of section 22a-449e.

      (3) Providing it is true and accurate, a licensed environmental professional shall submit the following certification regarding any approval provided under subdivision (1) of this subsection and section 22a-449p: "I hereby agree that all of the labor, equipment, materials, services, and activities described in or covered by this certification were appropriate under the circumstances to abate an emergency or were performed as part of a plan specifically designed to ensure that the release or suspected release is or has been investigated in accordance with prevailing standards and guidelines and remediated consistent with and to achieve compliance with the remediation standards adopted under section 22a-133k of the general statutes.".

      (c) Conditions for reimbursement or payment. The board shall order reimbursement or payment from the account for any cost paid or incurred, as the case may be, if, (1) such cost is or was incurred after July 5, 1989, (2) a responsible party was or would have been required to demonstrate financial responsibility under 40 CFR Part 280.90 et seq. as said regulation was published in the Federal Register of October 26, 1988, for the underground storage tank or underground storage tank system from which the release emanated, whether or not such party is required to comply with said requirements on the date any such cost is incurred, provided if the state is the responsible party, the board may order payment from the account without regard to whether the state was or would have been required to demonstrate financial responsibility under said sections 40 CFR Part 280.90 et seq., (3) after the release, if any, the responsible party incurred a cost, expense or obligation for investigation, cleanup or for claims of a person other than a responsible party resulting from the release, provided any such claim shall be required to be finally adjudicated or settled with the prior written approval of the board before an application for reimbursement or payment is made, (4) the board determines that the cost, expense or other obligation is reasonable and that there are not grounds for recovery specified in subdivision (1) or (3) of subsection (g) of this section, (5) the responsible party notified the board, as soon as practicable, of the release and of any other claim by a person other than a responsible party, resulting from the release, in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to section 22a-449e, (6) the responsible party, or, if a person other than a responsible party applies for payment or reimbursement from the account, then such person demonstrates the remediation, including any monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the remediation, for which payment or reimbursement is sought is not more stringent than that required by the remediation standards established pursuant to section 22a-133k, except to the extent the responsible party or such person demonstrates that it has been directed otherwise, in writing, by the commissioner, (7) the responsible party, or, if a person other than a responsible party applies for payment or reimbursement from the account, then such person demonstrates that it does not have insurance, or a contract or other agreement to provide payment or reimbursement for any cost, expense or other obligation incurred in response to a release or suspected release, or if there is any such insurance, contract or other agreement, that any insurance coverage has been denied or is insufficient to cover the costs, expenses or other obligations, paid or incurred or that any contract or other agreement is not able to or is insufficient to cover the costs, expenses or other obligations, paid or incurred, for which payment or reimbursement is sought from the account, (8) the responsible party demonstrates and the board determines that one of the milestones noted in section 22a-449p has been completed, (9) the board determines what, if any, reductions to the amounts sought from the account should be made based upon the compliance evaluations performed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, and (10) at the time any application or request for payment or reimbursement, including any supplemental application or request, is submitted to the board, (A) for applications filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account on or after October 1, 2007, there is no underground storage tank system subject to the financial responsibility demonstration required in subdivision (2) of this subsection dispensing petroleum on the property where the release or suspected release emanated or occurred, and if the application is submitted by the person who owns or operates or who owned or operated the underground storage tank system at the time of the release, such person demonstrates, in addition to all other applicable requirements, that lack of compliance with provisions of the general statutes and regulations governing underground storage tank systems was not a proximate cause of the release or suspected release and that there are not grounds for recovery specified in subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section, or (B) for applications filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account prior to October 1, 2007, there is no underground storage tank system dispensing petroleum on the property where the release or suspected release emanated or occurred, and if the application is submitted by the person who owns or operates or who owned operated the underground storage tank system at the time of the release, such person demonstrates, in addition to all other applicable requirements, that lack of compliance with provisions of the general statutes and regulations governing underground storage tank systems was not a proximate cause of the release or suspected release and that there are not grounds for recovery specified in subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section. Subdivision (10) of this section shall not apply to any application filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account concerning a release of an underground storage tank system that was reported to the Commissioner of Environmental Protection in September, 2003 where such system was owned or operated by a municipality or other political subdivision of the state at the time of the release and such system was removed on or before April 1, 2005. In acting on an application or a request for payment or reimbursement, the board, using funds from the account, may contract with experts, including, but not limited to, attorneys and medical professionals, to better evaluate and defend against claims and negotiate claims by persons other than responsible parties. The costs of the board for experts shall not be charged to the amount allocated to the Department of Environmental Protection pursuant to section 22a-449c. If a person other than a responsible party applies to the board claiming to have suffered bodily injury, property damage or damage to natural resources, the board shall order reimbursement or payment from the account if such person demonstrates that subdivisions (1), (2), (6) and (7) of this subsection are satisfied, the board determines that as a result of a release or suspected release such person has suffered bodily injury, property damage or damage to natural resources, that the costs, expenses or other obligations incurred are reasonable and the person submitting such claim demonstrates that it has attempted to or has provided written notice of its claim to the responsible party as required in subsection (a) of this section and that the responsible party has not applied to the board for payment or reimbursement of this claim. On or before June 30, 2005, if the board denied reimbursement or provided for only partial payment or reimbursement from the account regarding a release, pursuant to subdivision (4) of this section, such denial or partial payment or reimbursement shall remain in effect and shall apply to all subsequent applications or requests for payment or reimbursement regarding such release.

      (d) Compliance status of underground storage tank systems. Applicability. Evaluation. (1) Except as provided in this subsection, if at the time any application or request for payment or reimbursement is submitted to the board, including any supplemental application or request, there is an underground storage tank system dispensing petroleum on the property where the release or suspected release emanated or occurred, such application or request shall not be deemed complete and shall not be acted upon by the board unless such application or request includes a summary of the compliance status of all the underground storage tank systems on the subject property. Any such summary shall include an evaluation of compliance with the design, construction, installation, notification, general operating, release detecting, system upgrading, abandonment and removal date requirements of the regulations adopted pursuant to sections 22a-449 and 22a-449o and shall be prepared by an independent consultant on a form prescribed by or acceptable to the commissioner. The summary shall be based on an evaluation of said underground storage tank systems performed not more than one hundred eighty days before the board receives an application or a request for reimbursement or payment, except that with respect to any provision of the subject regulations regarding record keeping, periodic monitoring or testing, the summary shall be based on an evaluation of a one-year period terminating within one hundred eighty days prior to the board's receipt of an application or a request for payment or reimbursement. The summary shall also include a full description of all corrective measures that have been taken or that are being taken with regard to any noncompliance identified in the compliance evaluation performed pursuant to this subdivision.

      (2) With respect to any initial application or request for payment or reimbursement regarding a release or suspected release the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection shall apply only to applications or requests received on or after January 1, 2006. With respect to any supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement regarding a release or suspected release, the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection shall apply to each application or request submitted to the board on or after January 1, 2006, regardless of when the initial application or request was submitted, except that submission of a compliance summary shall not be required if at the time a supplemental application or request is submitted, less than one year has passed since the performance of a compliance evaluation submitted with any prior application or request.

      (3) The cost of hiring an independent consultant to perform a compliance evaluation, as required by this subsection, shall be eligible for payment or reimbursement from the account up to a maximum of one thousand dollars per compliance evaluation, provided the evaluation is in conformance with the requirements of this subsection and includes all underground storage tank systems on the property where a release or suspected release emanated or occurred. If the schedule adopted by the commissioner pursuant to subsection (b) of section 22a-449e includes an amount for performing a compliance evaluation, upon adoption of any such schedule, the amount eligible for payment or reimbursement for performing a compliance evaluation shall be the amount prescribed in any such schedule.

      (4) Nothing in this subsection shall affect the continued applicability of any decision of the board to (A) deny reimbursement or payment from the account, or (B) provide only partial payment or reimbursement regarding all applications or requests for payment or reimbursement from the account. Any such decision shall remain in effect and shall not be subject to reconsideration or reevaluation as a result of this subsection.

      (5) Except as provided for in this subdivision, if at the time any application or request for payment or reimbursement, including any supplemental application or request, is submitted, there is no underground storage tank system dispensing petroleum on the property where the release or suspected release emanated or occurred, any such application or request shall be subject to the provisions of subdivision (10) of subsection (c) of this section, even where a prior application or request was subject to the provisions of this subsection. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to an application or request for payment or reimbursement for annual groundwater remedial actions, including the preparation of a groundwater remedial action progress report, performed pursuant to subdivision (6) of section 22a-449p.

      (e) Reduction of payment or reimbursement. Authority of commissioner. (1) If the compliance evaluation summary performed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section indicates that any of the violations noted in this subdivision exist with respect to any underground storage tank or underground storage tank system on the property at which a release or suspected release occurred and any such violations have not been fully corrected by the time an application or request for reimbursement is submitted to the board, the board shall reduce any payment or amount to be reimbursed as follows: (A) A one hundred per cent reduction of the payment or amount to be reimbursed for failure to meet the tank or piping construction requirements of section 22a-449o or the regulations adopted pursuant to section 22a-449 or for failure to report the release to the commissioner as required by this section, (B) a seventy-five per cent reduction of the payment or amount to be reimbursed for failure to have properly functioning cathodic protection, spill prevention, overfill prevention, or release detection as required by the regulations adopted pursuant to section 22a-449. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the board may reduce any amount to be paid or reimbursed based on any other violation of the provisions of the general statutes or regulations of Connecticut state agencies regarding ownership or operation of an underground storage tank system.

      (2) Nothing in this subsection and no determination by the board of any issue of fact or law shall affect the authority of the commissioner under any other statute or regulations, including, but not limited to, taking any enforcement action based upon the violations identified in any compliance evaluation performed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

      (f) Payment or reimbursement for work, services, material. (1) For all work or services performed or materials provided before October 1, 2004, the board shall not order payment or reimbursement from the account for any cost paid or incurred, unless when seeking payment or reimbursement, the application or any submission regarding work, services or materials that have been pre-authorized by the board is received by the board on or before April 1, 2005.

      (2) For purposes of this subsection, work or services shall be deemed rendered or performed on the date such work is rendered or performed and a material shall be deemed provided on the date a material is made available for use.

      (3) After June 30, 2005, the board shall not order payment or reimbursement from the account for any cost, expense or other obligation, paid or incurred, unless the application or request for payment or reimbursement is received by the board not later than one year after the completion of all or substantially all of the work or activities necessary to prepare the plan or report required by the milestones set forth in section 22a-449p.

      (g) Civil actions. The Attorney General, upon the request of the board or the commissioner, may institute an action in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to recover the amounts specified in this section from any person who owns or operates an underground storage tank system at the time a release emanates or occurs from such system or any person who owns the real property on which a release emanates or occurs, provided such person owned the real property at or any time after the release emanates or occurs until the time that a final remediation action report is submitted by a licensed environmental professional or approved by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision (7) of section 22a-449p, if: (1) Prior to the occurrence of the release, the underground storage tank or underground storage tank system from which the release emanated was required by regulations adopted under section 22a-449 to be the subject of an Underground Storage Facility Notification Form, or EPHM-6 but the person who owns or operates or who owned or operated such tank or tank system knowingly and intentionally failed to submit such notification form to the commissioner; (2) the release results from a reckless, wilful, wanton or intentional act or omission of such person or a negligent act or omission of such person that constitutes noncompliance with the general statutes or regulations governing the installation, operation and maintenance of underground storage tanks; or (3) the release occurs from an underground storage tank or system which is not in compliance with a final order issued by the commissioner pursuant to this chapter or a final judgment issued by a court concerning noncompliance with a requirement of this chapter; or (4) payment has been made from the account, including payment to the commissioner pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, to a person other than a person against whom an action may be brought pursuant to this subsection. All costs to the state relating to actions to recover such payments, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees, shall initially be paid from the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account. In any recovery the board or the commissioner is entitled to recover from such person (A) all payments made from the account with respect to a release or suspected release, (B) all payments made by the commissioner pursuant to subsection (i) of this section with respect to a release or suspected release, (C) interest on such payments at a rate of ten per cent per year from the date such payments were made, and (D) all costs of the state relating to actions to recover such payments, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees. All actions brought pursuant to this section shall have precedence in the order of trial, as provided in section 52-191. If the Attorney General has filed an action against a person seeking recovery of the amounts specified in this subsection or if the commissioner sends a person a demand letter regarding costs incurred by the state pursuant to section 22a-451, any such person against whom an action has been brought or who receives a demand letter shall not submit an application or request for payment or reimbursement to the board seeking payment or reimbursement of any such amount sought by the Attorney General or by the commissioner. If any such application or request for payment or reimbursement is submitted, the board shall not take any action regarding any such application or request.

      (h) Rendering of decision by board. Hearings. The board shall render its decision not more than ninety days after receipt of an application from a person, provided, in the case of a second or subsequent application, the board shall render its decision not more than forty-five days after receipt of such application. A copy of the decision shall be sent to the commissioner and the person seeking payment or reimbursement by certified mail, return receipt requested. The commissioner or any person aggrieved by the decision of the board may, within twenty days from the date of issuance of such decision, request a hearing before the board in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. After such hearing, the board shall consider the information submitted to it and affirm or modify its decision on the application. A copy of the affirmed or modified decision shall be sent to all parties to the hearing by certified mail, return receipt requested. Once the board renders a decision regarding an application or request for payment or reimbursement and no hearing has been requested pursuant to this subsection regarding any such decision, the costs, expenses or other obligations addressed by any such decision shall not be resubmitted in any other application or request.

      (i) Use of account for clean-up. Whenever the commissioner determines that as a result of a release, as defined in section 22a-449a, or a suspected release, a clean-up is necessary, including, but not limited to, actions to prevent or abate pollution or a potential source of pollution and to provide potable drinking water, the commissioner may undertake such actions using not more than one million dollars from the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account for each release or suspected release from an underground storage tank or an underground storage tank system for which the responsible party is the state or for which a responsible party was or would have been required to demonstrate financial responsibility under 40 CFR Part 280.90 et seq., as said regulation was published in the Federal Register of October 26, 1988.

      (j) Percentage payments. (1) If through an initial application or request for payment or reimbursement received by the board before June 1, 2005, the board has determined that a person has paid or incurred costs, expenses or other obligations that are eligible for payment or reimbursement from the account, with respect to any supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement the following shall apply. The commissioner may identify a category of activities, costs, expenses, or other obligations that are less than one hundred thousand dollars for which, in lieu of full payment, the board may approve a percentage of the costs, expenses or other obligations paid or incurred. In making any such recommendation to the board, the commissioner shall consider the amounts previously paid from the account and any other information the commissioner deems relevant. Any such percentage shall be not more than, but may be less than, ninety per cent of the average amount, as determined by the commissioner, previously paid from the account for any activity, cost, expense or obligation. The board shall approve or disapprove, but shall not modify, payment of the percentage recommended by the commissioner pursuant to this subdivision. The commissioner may, using the procedures specified in this subdivision, recommend changes to any percentage previously approved by the board under this subdivision.

      (2) If the board approves payment of the percentage recommended by the commissioner, a person with a supplemental application or request for payment or reimbursement may agree to accept the percentage payment approved by the board. Any such acceptance shall be in writing, signed by the person seeking payment or reimbursement and shall acknowledge that the person is agreeing to accept less than the full amount sought by such person for the costs, expenses or other obligations covered by such acceptance. If the commissioner has prescribed forms, any such acceptance shall be made using the forms prescribed by the commissioner. Once a completed written acceptance is received, the board shall, not later than ninety days after receiving such acceptance, determine whether to order payment or reimbursement from the account. Any such determination by the board shall be limited to whether the costs, expenses or other obligations are within those for which the board has approved payment pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection.

      (3) Any amount ordered to be paid or reimbursed by the board shall be considered full payment for any such activity, expense or other obligation and a person shall not seek any additional reimbursement from the account for any such activity, expense or other obligation. The categories or activities for which the commissioner recommends payment of a percentage pursuant to this subsection may constitute all or a portion of the amounts sought in a supplemental application or supplemental request for payment or reimbursement.

      (k) Notification to commissioner. Notification to the commissioner pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to section 22a-449 shall constitute compliance with any regulation adopted pursuant to section 22a-449e regarding notification to the board of a release.

      (P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 89-373, S. 7, 10; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; 90-181, S. 3; P.A. 91-254, S. 4, 7; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94-28, S. 2, 3; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 96-180, S. 81, 166; P.A. 04-244, S. 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 94; P.A. 06-196, S. 260; P.A. 07-192, S. 5-7.)

      History: P.A. 90-181 amended Subsec. (a) to allow a responsible party to apply for costs paid, to allow application for reimbursement and payment of costs for a suspected release, to allow the board to order reimbursement in addition to payment, added Subdiv. (1) re requirement that reimbursement may only be ordered if the cost is or was incurred after July 5, 1989, amended Subdiv. (2) to provide that the responsible party had to demonstrate financial responsibility under the CFR as it was published in the Federal Register of October 26, 1988, regardless of whether the owner is required to comply with said requirements on the date the cost is incurred, amended Subdiv. (3) to include expense for investigation and amended Subsec. (b) to allow the board the right of subrogation if the release occurs from a tank or system which is not in compliance with the general statutes and regulations governing such tanks and to allow the board an additional right for subrogation against a responsible party for the first $10,000 of reimbursements and payments it makes in respect to a release unless the responsible party incurring the costs is determined not to have been liable for the release; P.A. 91-254 added Subsec. (a)(4) and (5) concerning a determination by the board for disbursement from the fund, amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the attorney general to institute actions to recover amounts disbursed from the fund, to set forth prerequisite factors for such action and to provide for payment of costs for such actions, and to specify what may be recovered in such action, amended Subsec. (c) to provide for a process of appeal from decisions of the board and added Subsec. (d) concerning use of the fund by the commissioner in case of a release (Revisor's note: P.A. 88-230 and P.A. 90-98 authorized substitution of "judicial district of Hartford" for "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain at Hartford" in public and special acts of the 1991 session of the general assembly, effective September 1, 1993); P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-28 amended Subsec. (c) to extend the time for decisions by the board regarding first applications for reimbursement from 45 to 90 days, effective July 1, 1994, and applicable to applications filed with the board after said date; (Revisor's note: In 1995 the word "fund" was replaced editorially by the Revisors with "account" in references to the former underground storage tank petroleum clean-up fund and its review board to conform section with Secs. 22a-449b et seq., as amended by P.A. 94-130); P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-180 amended Subsec. (d) to correct a grammatical error, effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 04-244 added Subsec. (a)(6) re demonstration that the remediation is not more stringent than required by remediation standards, added new Subsec. (b) re deadlines for submission of application or preauthorization request, redesignated existing Subsecs. (b) to (d) as new Subsecs. (c) to (e), respectively, and made technical changes in said Subsec. (c), effective June 8, 2004; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) to add "and remediating", to delete references to "responsible" party and to "entity", to replace "damage or personal injury" with "bodily injury, property damage or damage to natural resources", to add requirement re attempt to provide written notice, to delete reference to denial of release, and to add 60-day requirement re application, designated a portion of existing Subsec. (a) as new Subsec. (c), added new Subsec. (b) re approval of services and activities that surpass certain cost thresholds and inclusion of fees and certification by licensed environmental professional, amended new Subsec. (c) to make technical changes, to change names of certain entities and notification requirement, to add new criteria for applicants in Subdivs. (7) to (10), and to specify criteria for persons other than a responsible party, added new Subsec. (d) re compliance evaluations of existing tank systems, added new Subsec. (e) re reduction of payment or amount to be reimbursed based on compliance evaluations, deleted former Subsec. (b)(1) and redesignated existing Subsecs. (b)(2) and (3) as Subsecs. (f)(1) and (2), amended Subsec. (f)(1) to rephrase language re preauthorization, added new Subsec. (f)(3) re deadline for applications, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (g) and amended same to allow commissioner to request an action, to revise persons from which attorney general may attempt to recover costs, to make technical changes, to delete references to knowingly and intentionally failing to notify commissioner, to add negligent acts or omissions that constitute noncompliance with installation, operation, and maintenance requirements in Subdiv. (2), to revise Subdiv. (3) to insert reference to "a final" order, to replace reference to general statutes and regulations with "this chapter" or certain final judgments, to add Subdiv. (4) re payment made from account, and to add language re inability of person to file an application or request upon receipt of demand letter or where person is subject of an action, redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (h) and amended same to change names of certain entities, to make technical changes, and to prohibit resubmission of costs in application subject to board decision, redesignated existing Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (i) and amended same to make a technical change and to delete language re refusal to pay first $10,000 of third party claims, added Subsec. (j) re identification of a category of activities and approval of a percentage of costs, and added Subsec. (k) re notification of release, effective June 30, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (b)(1)(B) and (3), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-192 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to make technical changes, provide differing timeframes for submission of approval by a licensed environmental professional and add provision re commissioner's approval pursuant to subdivision, effective July 5, 2007, and applicable to applications filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account on or after July 1, 2005, amended Subsec. (c)(5) to require notification concerning release and to add reference to regulations, and amended Subsec. (c)(10) to add Subpara. (A) designator, to add requirement re demonstration of financial responsibility, to require that only certain applicants do proximate cause analysis, to add new Subpara. (B) and to add provision re denial or partial payment or reimbursement on or before June 30, 2005, effective July 5, 2007, and applicable to applications filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account either prior to or subsequent to July 5, 2007, except that the provisions of Subsec. (a)(10)(A) shall be applicable only to applications filed on or after October 1, 2007, and amended Subsec. (g)(1) to add provision re knowing or intentional failure to submit Underground Storage Facility Notification Form, effective July 5, 2007, and applicable to applications filed with the underground storage tank petroleum clean-up account both prior to and subsequent to July 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-449m. Standards for remediation of soil and replacement of residential underground heating oil storage tank systems. Regulations. (a) Any remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater the cost of which is to be paid out of the subaccount established under subsection (b) of section 22a-449c shall be performed by or under the direct onsite supervision of a registered contractor, as defined in sections 22a-449l and 22a-449n and shall be performed in accordance with regulations adopted by the commissioner pursuant to section 22a-133k that establish direct exposure criteria for soil, pollutant mobility criteria for soil and groundwater protection criteria for GA and GAA areas. If the replacement of any such residential underground heating oil storage tank system performed pursuant to the provisions of this section involves installation of an underground petroleum storage tank, such tank shall conform to any standards which apply to new underground petroleum storage tanks.

      (b) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, setting forth the standards and criteria for residential underground heating oil storage tank systems which may include, but not be limited to, (1) standards for criteria for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and monitoring of such facilities, (2) the life expectancy after which such systems must be removed and replaced, and (3) standards and procedures for the granting of a waiver for the installation of a new residential underground heating oil storage tank system or the replacement of an existing system. The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, regarding the removal of all pipes connected to both above ground and underground residential heating oil storage tank systems, when a storage tank is removed, regardless of the storage tank's capacity.

      (P.A. 00-201, S. 7, 8; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 40, 131; P.A. 07-192, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 00-201 effective June 1, 2000; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 22a-449n, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 07-192 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and require adoption of regulations re removal of pipes.

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      Sec. 22a-449q. Storage of underground storage tank system records. The owner or operator of an underground storage tank system storing petroleum that is subject to section 22a-449(d)-101 et seq. of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies, who owns or operates more than ten facilities with underground storage tank systems, may store records required to be maintained under section 22a-449(d)-103(e) of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies, in a central location in the state of Connecticut, provided such owner or operator: (1) Specifies, in writing, the location of any such centrally stored records and such other information as the Commissioner of Environmental Protection may prescribe related to such storage on a form prescribed by said commissioner and submits such form to said commissioner; and (2) ensures that such records are immediately available for inspection by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, or the commissioner's designee, at any such central location. The following records may not be stored solely at such a central location but shall be maintained at the site of the underground storage tank system: (A) A copy of all Underground Storage Tank Facility Notification Forms, or EPHM-6, submitted to the commissioner, regarding underground storage tanks for the site; (B) for all metallic underground storage tank systems, records concerning the most recent cathodic protection test; (C) for underground storage tank systems with impressed current cathodic protection, the last six months of records regarding the inspection of the cathodic protection systems, if applicable; (D) the most recent prior twelve months of records related to repairs of the underground storage tank system required by section 22a-449(d)-103(d)(6) of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies; (E) the most recent six months of records demonstrating compliance with the release detection requirements of section 22a-449(d)-104 of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies, including, but not limited to, inventory control and reconciliation of such inventory control records; (F) records regarding the two most recent underground storage tank tightness pursuant to section 22a-449(d)-104(e)(3) of the regulations of Connecticut state agencies; and (G) any other records regarding the underground storage tank system that the commissioner specifies, in writing. Nothing in this section shall affect any requirement of this chapter other than the location of where certain records may be stored.

      (P.A. 07-192, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 22a-452a. State lien against real estate as security for amounts paid to clean up or to remove hazardous waste. Notice and hearing. (a) On and after June 3, 1985, any amount paid by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection pursuant to subsection (b) of section 22a-451 to contain and remove or mitigate the effects of a spill or to remove any hazardous waste shall be a lien against the real estate on which the spill occurred or from which it emanated or against real estate where no spill occurred but from which hazardous waste was removed provided such hazardous waste did not enter such real estate through surface or subsurface migration. Any such lien shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of this section, except that such lien against real estate which has been transferred in accordance with the provisions of sections 22a-134 to 22a-134d, inclusive, shall not have priority over any previous transfer or encumbrance. The amount of the lien shall include administrative costs, as set forth in subsection (a) of section 22a-451, as of the date of the filing of the lien. Any costs incurred subsequent to the filing of the lien may be the subject of another lien.

      (b) A lien pursuant to this section shall not be effective unless (1) a certificate of lien is filed in the land records of each town in which the real estate is located, describing the real estate, the amount of the lien, the name of the owner as grantor, and (2) the commissioner mails a copy of the certificate to the owner of record and to all other persons of record holding an interest in such real estate over which the commissioner's lien is entitled to priority. Upon presentation of a certificate of lien, the town clerk shall endorse thereon his identification and the date and time of receipt and forthwith record it in accordance with section 42a-9-519.

      (c) (1) Before filing a lien under this section, the commissioner shall give the owner of the property on which the lien is to be filed and mortgagees and lienholders of record a notice of his intent to file a certificate of lien, as provided in this subsection.

      (2) The notice required under this subsection shall be sent by certified mail or served in the manner for serving civil process and shall provide the following: (A) A statement of the purpose of the lien; (B) a brief description of the property to be affected by the lien; (C) a statement of the sum of the expenses incurred by the commissioner in containing, removing or mitigating the effects of a spill or removing hazardous waste; (D) a brief statement of the facts demonstrating probable cause that the property is the subject of the expenses incurred by the commissioner; and (E) the time period following service during which any recipient of such notice whose legal rights may be affected by the lien may request a hearing before the commissioner. A request for a hearing under this subsection must be received by the commissioner on or before thirty days following the service of the notice of intent to file a certificate of lien. A hearing held pursuant to a request filed under this subsection shall be limited to determining, in a summary manner, probable cause for filing the certificate of lien.

      (d) In the absence of a timely request for a hearing, the certificate of lien may be filed on the land records immediately. If a hearing is held, the commissioner may issue a decision authorizing the filing of a certificate of lien on the land records, denying the filing of a certificate of lien or authorizing the filing and modifying the amount of the certificate of lien.

      (e) Within thirty days after the filing of the certificate of lien pursuant to this section, any property owner, mortgagee or other lienholder of record who has been served with a copy of the certificate of lien and whose legal rights may be affected by the lien may file with the commissioner a request for a hearing limited to the issues of a reduction in the amount of the lien or a discharge of the lien in its entirety. If requested, the commissioner shall hold a hearing as soon thereafter as practicable. There shall be no stay of a decision by the commissioner authorizing the filing of a certificate of lien unless the party seeking a stay has posted a surety acceptable to the commissioner in an amount sufficient to cover the full amount of the lien plus interest and costs.

      (f) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, such lien shall take precedence over all transfers and encumbrances recorded on or after June 3, 1985, in any manner affecting such interest in such real estate or any part of it on which the spill occurred or from which the spill emanated, or real estate which has been included, within the preceding three years, in the property description of such real estate and is contiguous to such real estate. This subsection shall not apply to real estate which consists exclusively of residential real estate, including, but not limited to, residential units in any common interest community, as defined in section 47-202.

      (g) In the case of all other real estate, including real estate which consists exclusively of residential real estate, including but not limited to, residential units in any common interest community, as defined in section 47-202, the lien shall take precedence over any transfer or encumbrance recorded after the commissioner files with the town clerk notice of intent to file a lien on the land records in the town in which the real estate is located.

      (h) When any amount with respect to which a lien has been recorded under the provisions of this section has been paid or reduced, the commissioner, upon request of any interested party, shall issue a certificate discharging or partially discharging such lien, which certificate shall be recorded in the same office in which the lien was recorded. The town clerk shall note the recording of the certificate of discharge upon the original notice of lien. Any action for the foreclosure of such lien shall be brought by the Attorney General in the name of the state in the superior court for the judicial district in which the property subject to such lien is situated, or, if such property is located in two or more judicial districts, in the superior court for any one such judicial district, and the court may limit the time for redemption or order the sale of such property or make such other or further decree as it judges equitable.

      (P.A. 84-535, S. 2; P.A. 85-443, S. 2, 5; P.A. 87-475, S. 3; P.A. 97-218, S. 3; P.A. 01-132, S. 168; P.A. 07-217, S. 116.)

      History: P.A. 85-443 divided section into Subsecs. and amended Subsec. (a) to apply section to amounts paid after June 3, 1985, instead of October 1, 1984; inserted new provisions as Subsec. (b) to require filing of the lien in the town clerk's office; amended Subsec. (c) to give the lien precedence over transfers and encumbrances to property on which the spill occurred or emanated from three years prior to the spill except residential real estate; inserted new provisions as Subsec. (d) to give the lien precedence over all transfers after filing, and amended Subsec. (e) to authorize the commissioner to issue a certificate partially discharging the lien; P.A. 87-475 amended Subsec. (a) by making the lien apply only to real estate on which a spill occurred, or from which it emanated and adding provision limiting the lien to prospective transfers only, amended Subsec. (b) by requiring that town clerk make certain endorsements and amended Subsec. (e) by requiring the town clerk to note any discharge on the original lien notice; P.A. 97-218 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that the lien under this section may be filed against real property in certain circumstances where no spill occurred but from which hazardous waste was removed and to provide that the amount of the lien shall include administrative costs, made a technical change in Subsec. (b), added new Subsecs. (c), (d) and (e) re notice and hearing requirements for imposition of the lien, redesignated former Subsecs. (c), (d) and (e) as Subsecs. (f), (g) and (h), and deleted provision in Subdiv. (h) re action or appeal in accordance with Secs. 49-35a to 49-35c, inclusive; P.A. 01-132 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change and replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-409 with Sec. 42a-9-519; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (f), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-483. Bond issue for Clean Water Fund projects. General obligation bonds. Revenue bonds. (a) For the purposes of sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, the State Bond Commission shall have the power, from time to time to authorize the issuance of bonds of the state in one or more series and in principal amounts, not exceeding in the aggregate nine hundred sixty-one million thirty thousand dollars, provided ninety million dollars of said authorization shall be effective July 1, 2008.

      (b) The proceeds of the sale of any bonds, state bond anticipation notes or state grant anticipation notes issued pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, shall be deposited in the Clean Water Fund and not less than fifty million dollars of such proceeds shall be deposited in the Long Island Sound clean-up account of said fund.

      (c) All provisions of section 3-20, or the exercise of any right or power granted thereby which are not inconsistent with the provisions of sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, are hereby adopted and shall apply to all bonds authorized by the State Bond Commission pursuant to said sections, and temporary notes in anticipation of the money to be derived from the sale of any such bonds so authorized may be issued in accordance with said section 3-20 and from time to time renewed. None of said bonds shall be authorized except upon a finding by the State Bond Commission that there has been filed with it a request for such authorization, which is signed by or on behalf of the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and states such terms and conditions as said commission, in its discretion, may require. Said bonds issued pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, may be general obligations of the state and in such case the full faith and credit of the state of Connecticut are pledged for the payment of the principal of and interest on said bonds as the same become due, and accordingly and as part of the contract of the state with the holders of said bonds, appropriation of all amounts necessary for punctual payment of such principal and interest is hereby made, and the Treasurer shall pay such principal and interest as the same become due. Such general obligation bonds shall mature at such time or times not exceeding twenty years from their respective dates as may be provided in or pursuant to the resolution or resolutions of the State Bond Commission authorizing such general obligation bonds. The state, acting by and through the State Bond Commission, is hereby authorized to issue from time to time general obligation bonds in such sums as is appropriate and necessary to meet the state's matching requirement for eligibility pursuant to the federal Water Quality Act of 1987 or the federal Safe Drinking Water Act or other similar federal act, provided such sums shall not exceed the aggregate principal amounts of bonds authorized pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. Whenever such bonds are so authorized, the state's obligations shall be issued on such terms and conditions as shall be determined and established by the Treasurer. Such bonds shall bear such rate of interest as the treasurer shall determine, by reference to such open market indices for obligations having similar terms and characteristics as the Treasurer shall determine relevant, in order to arrive at a taxable rate of interest on the obligations of the state issued and sold to the Clean Water Fund. The Treasurer shall deliver such bonds to the Clean Water Fund upon the receipt of evidence from the Environmental Protection Agency evidencing satisfaction by the state of its federal matching requirement pursuant to the federal Water Quality Act of 1987 or the federal Safe Drinking Water Act or other similar federal act.

      (d) Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall preclude the State Bond Commission from authorizing the issuance of revenue bonds, in principal amounts not exceeding in the aggregate one billion seven hundred fifty-three million four hundred thousand dollars, provided one hundred eighty million dollars of said authorization shall be effective July 1, 2008, that are not general obligations of the state of Connecticut to which the full faith and credit of the state of Connecticut are pledged for the payment of the principal and interest. Such revenue bonds shall mature at such time or times not exceeding thirty years from their respective dates as may be provided in or pursuant to the resolution or resolutions of the State Bond Commission authorizing such revenue bonds. The revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes authorized to be issued under sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, shall be special obligations of the state and shall not be payable from nor charged upon any funds other than the revenues or other receipts, funds or moneys pledged therefor as provided in said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, including the repayment of municipal loan obligations; nor shall the state or any political subdivision thereof be subject to any liability thereon except to the extent of such pledged revenues or the receipts, funds or moneys pledged therefor as provided in said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive. The issuance of revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes under the provisions of said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, shall not directly or indirectly or contingently obligate the state or any political subdivision thereof to levy or to pledge any form of taxation whatever therefor or to make any appropriation for their payment. The revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes shall not constitute a charge, lien or encumbrance, legal or equitable, upon any property of the state or of any political subdivision thereof, except the property mortgaged or otherwise encumbered under the provisions and for the purposes of said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive. The substance of such limitation shall be plainly stated on the face of each revenue bond, revenue state bond anticipation note and revenue state grant anticipation note issued pursuant to said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, shall not be subject to any statutory limitation on the indebtedness of the state and such revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes, when issued, shall not be included in computing the aggregate indebtedness of the state in respect to and to the extent of any such limitation. As part of the contract of the state with the owners of such revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes, all amounts necessary for the punctual payment of the debt service requirements with respect to such revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes shall be deemed appropriated, but only from the sources pledged pursuant to said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive. The proceeds of such revenue bonds or notes may be deposited in the Clean Water Fund for use in accordance with the permitted uses of such fund. Any expense incurred in connection with the carrying out of the provisions of this section, including the costs of issuance of revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes and revenue state grant anticipation notes may be paid from the accrued interest and premiums or from any other proceeds of the sale of such revenue bonds, revenue state bond anticipation notes or revenue state grant anticipation notes and in the same manner as other obligations of the state. All provisions of subsections (g), (k), (l), (s) and (u) of section 3-20 or the exercise of any right or power granted thereby which are not inconsistent with the provisions of said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, are hereby adopted and shall apply to all revenue bonds, state revenue bond anticipation notes and state revenue grant anticipation notes authorized by the State Bond Commission pursuant to said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive. For the purposes of subsection (o) of section 3-20, "bond act" shall be construed to include said sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive.

      (e) Any pledge made by the state pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, is a statutory pledge and shall be valid and binding from the time when the pledge is made, and any revenues or other receipts, funds or moneys so pledged and thereafter received by the state shall be subject immediately to the lien of such pledge without any physical delivery thereof or further act. The lien of any such pledge shall be valid and binding as against all parties having claims of any kind in tort, contract or otherwise against the state, irrespective of whether such parties have notice thereof. Neither the resolution nor any other instrument by which a pledge is created need be recorded. Any pledge made by the state pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, to secure revenue bonds issued to finance eligible water quality projects shall secure only revenue bonds issued for such purpose and any such pledge made by the state to secure revenue bonds issued to finance eligible drinking water projects shall secure only revenue bonds issued for such purpose.

      (f) Whenever the General Assembly has authorized the State Bond Commission to authorize bonds of the state for clean water projects and uses and has found that such projects and uses are for any of the purposes set forth in sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, and whenever the State Bond Commission finds that the authorization of such bonds will be in the best interests of the state, the State Bond Commission shall authorize the issuance of such bonds from time to time in one or more series and in principal amounts not exceeding the aggregate amount authorized by the General Assembly.

      (g) Whenever the state has a written commitment to receive a grant-in-aid or similar form of assistance with respect to a project or program for which the issuance of bonds has been authorized pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, the Treasurer may issue state grant anticipation notes in anticipation of the issuance of such a grant-in-aid or other assistance provided (1) the total amount of such notes shall not exceed the amount of the grant commitment which has not been paid to the state and (2) all grant payments with respect to such project or program received by the state, to the extent required, shall be applied promptly toward repayment of such temporary notes as the same shall become due and payable, or shall be deposited in trust for such purpose. Notes evidencing such borrowings shall be signed by the manual or facsimile signature of the Treasurer or his deputy. The principal of and interest on any state grant anticipation notes issued pursuant to this subsection may be repaid from the proceeds of renewals thereof, from grants-in-aid or other assistance pledged for the payment thereof, or from the proceeds of a credit facility including, but not limited to, a letter of credit or policy of bond insurance.

      (h) Bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes issued pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, are hereby made securities in which public officers and public bodies of the state and its political subdivisions, all insurance companies, credit unions, building and loan associations, investment companies, banking associations, trust companies, executors, administrators, trustees and other fiduciaries and pension, profit-sharing and retirement funds may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them. Such bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes are hereby made securities which may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state or municipal officer or any agency or political subdivision of the state for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds, state bond anticipation notes, state grant anticipation notes or other obligations of the state is now or may hereafter be authorized by law.

      (i) The proceedings under which bonds are authorized to be issued may, subject to the provisions of the general statutes, contain any or all of the following: (1) Provisions respecting custody of the proceeds from the sale of the bonds and any bond anticipation notes, including any requirements that such proceeds be held separate from or not be commingled with other funds of the state; (2) provisions for the investment and reinvestment of bond proceeds utilized to pay project costs and for the disposition of any excess bond proceeds or investment earnings thereon; (3) provisions for the execution of reimbursement agreements or similar agreements in connection with credit facilities, including, but not limited to, letters of credit or policies of bond insurance, remarketing agreements and agreements for the purpose of moderating interest rate fluctuations, and of such other agreements entered into pursuant to section 3-20a; (4) provisions for the collection, custody, investment, reinvestment and use of the pledged revenues or other receipts, funds or moneys pledged therefor as provided in sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive; (5) provisions regarding the establishment and maintenance of reserves, sinking funds and any other funds and accounts as shall be approved by the State Bond Commission in such amounts as may be established by the State Bond Commission, and the regulation and disposition thereof, or the establishment of a reserve fund of the state into which may be deposited any moneys appropriated and made available by the state for such fund, any proceeds of the sale of bonds or notes, to the extent provided in the resolution of the state authorizing the issuance thereof, and any other moneys which may be made available to the state for the purpose of such fund from any source whatever and, in lieu of the deposit of any such moneys, evidence by the state of the satisfaction of a federal matching requirement on the part of the state pursuant to the federal Water Quality Act of 1987 or the federal Safe Drinking Water Act or other related federal act, as applicable, including requirements that any such funds and accounts be held separate from or not be commingled with other funds of the state; (6) covenants for the establishment of pledged revenue coverage requirements for the bonds and state bond anticipation notes; (7) provisions for the issuance of additional bonds on a parity with bonds theretofore issued, including establishment of coverage requirements with respect thereto as herein provided; (8) provisions regarding the rights and remedies available in case of a default to bondowners, noteowners or any trustee under any contract, loan agreement, document, instrument or trust indenture, including the right to appoint a trustee to represent their interests upon occurrence of an event of default, as defined in said proceedings, provided that if any bonds or state bond anticipation notes shall be secured by a trust indenture, the respective owners of such bonds or notes shall have no authority except as set forth in such trust indenture to appoint a separate trustee to represent them; (9) provisions for the payment of rebate amounts; and (10) provisions or covenants of like or different character from the foregoing which are consistent with sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, and which the State Bond Commission determines in such proceedings are necessary, convenient or desirable in order to better secure the bonds or state bond anticipation notes, or will tend to make the bonds or state bond anticipation notes more marketable, and which are in the best interests of the state. Any provision which may be included in proceedings authorizing the issuance of bonds hereunder may be included in an indenture of trust duly approved in accordance with sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, which secures the bonds and any notes issued in anticipation thereof, and in such case the provisions of such indenture shall be deemed to be a part of such proceedings as though they were expressly included therein.

      (j) Whether or not any bonds, state bond anticipation notes or state grant anticipation notes issued pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, are of such form and character as to be negotiable instruments under the terms of title 42a, such bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes are hereby made negotiable instruments within the meaning of and for all purposes of title 42a, subject only to the provisions of such bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes for registration.

      (k) The state covenants with the purchasers and all subsequent owners and transferees of bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes issued by the state pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, in consideration of the acceptance of and payment for the bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes, that such bonds, state bond anticipation notes and state grant anticipation notes shall be free at all times from taxes levied by any municipality or political subdivision or special district having taxing powers of the state and the principal and interest of any bonds, state bond anticipation notes and grant anticipation notes issued under the provisions of sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, their transfer and the income therefrom, including revenues derived from the sale thereof, shall at all times be free from taxation of every kind by the state of Connecticut or under its authority, except for estate or succession taxes. The Treasurer is authorized to include this covenant of the state in any agreement with the owner of any such bonds, state bond anticipation notes or state grant anticipation notes.

      (l) Pending the use and application of any bond proceeds, such proceeds may be invested by, or at the direction of the State Treasurer, in obligations listed in section 3-20 or in investment agreements rated within the top rating categories of any nationally recognized rating service or in investment agreements secured by obligations, of or guaranteed by, the United States or agencies or instrumentalities of the United States.

      (m) Any revenue bonds issued under the provisions of sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, and at any time outstanding may, at any time and from time to time, be refunded by the state by the issuance of its revenue refunding bonds in such amounts as the State Bond Commission may deem necessary, but not to exceed an amount sufficient to refund the principal of the revenue bonds to be so refunded, to pay any unpaid interest thereon and any premiums and commissions necessary to be paid in connection therewith and to pay costs and expenses which the Treasurer may deem necessary or advantageous in connection with the authorization, sale and issuance of refunding bonds. Any such refunding may be effected whether the revenue bonds to be refunded shall have matured or shall thereafter mature. All revenue refunding bonds issued hereunder shall be payable solely from the revenues or other receipts, funds or moneys out of which the revenue bonds to be refunded thereby are payable and shall be subject to and may be secured in accordance with the provisions of this section.

      (n) The Treasurer shall have power, out of any funds available therefor, to purchase revenue bonds, state revenue bond anticipation notes and state revenue grant anticipation notes of the state issued pursuant to sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive. The Treasurer may hold, pledge, cancel or resell such bonds or notes, subject to and in accordance with agreements with bondholders or noteholders, as applicable.

      (P.A. 86-420, S. 9, 12; P.A. 87-405, S. 22, 26; 87-571, S. 6, 7; P.A. 88-343, S. 14, 32; P.A. 89-331, S. 21, 30; 89-377, S. 6, 8; P.A. 90-297, S. 14, 24; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 90-1, S. 7, 10; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-4, S. 16, 17, 25; P.A. 92-113, S. 1, 2; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-7, S. 17, 18, 36; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 12, 13, 36, 45; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 10, 11, 203; P.A. 95-272, S. 11, 12, 29; P.A. 96-181, S. 116-118, 121; June 5 Sp. sess. P.A. 97-1, S. 15, 16, 20; P.A. 98-124, S. 9, 12; 98-259, S. 11, 17; P.A. 99-241, S. 14, 15, 66; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-7, S. 6, 7, 28; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-5, S. 12; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-1, S. 8; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-2, S. 58; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-5, S. 10, 11; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-7, S. 50, 51.)

      History: P.A. 87-405 increased the bond authorization from $40,000,000 to $80,000,000; P.A. 87-571 added Subsec. (d) regarding issuance of bonds that are not general obligations of the state; P.A. 88-343 increased the bond authorization to $120,000,000; P.A. 89-331 increased the bond authorization to $220,000,000 and provided that $25,000,000 of the proceeds be deposited in the Long Island Sound account; P.A. 89-377 would have changed aggregate total in Subsec. (a) from $120,000,000 to $145,000,000 but for precedence of P.A. 89-331, reiterated provision of P.A. 89-331 re addition of $25,000,000 to the Long Island Sound clean-up account, provided that the obligations may, rather than shall, be general obligations of the state and added Subdivs. (e) to (l), inclusive; P.A. 90-297 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the bond authorization from $220,000,000 to $345,000,000, amended Subsec. (b) to increase the minimum deposit in the clean water fund from $25,000,000 to $50,000,000, amended Subsec. (c) to require that requests for authorizations be signed by the secretary of the office of policy and management rather than by the commissioner of environmental protection and amended Subsec. (d) to limit revenue bonds to principal amounts not exceeding in the aggregate $100,000,000; June Sp. Sess. 90-1 amended Subsec. (c) to include provisions regarding the issuance of general obligation bonds to meet the matching requirements of federal law and to be delivered to the clean water fund, amended Subsec. (d) to clarify the status and method of issuance of revenue bonds, amended Subsec. (h) to remove credit unions, building and loan associations and investment companies from the list of possible investors, amended Subsec. (i)(3) to clarify the extent to which and manner in which reserve funds could be used, amended Subsec. (k) to reword the provisions concerning state tax exemption and added Subsec. (m), concerning revenue refunding bonds, and Subsec. (n), concerning repurchase of revenue obligations; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-4, in Subsec. (a), increased the bond authorization from $345,000,000 to $395,000,000 and in Subsec. (d), increased the bond authorization from $100,000,000 to $300,000,000; P.A. 92-113 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the rate determined by the treasurer shall be a taxable, rather than tax-exempt, rate; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-7 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the bond authorization from $395,000,000 to $425,000,000 and amended Subsec. (d) to increase the bond authorization from $300,000,000 to $330,000,000; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1 amended Subsec. (a) to increase bond authorization to $558,870,000, provided $75,020,000 of said authorization shall be effective July 1, 1994, amended Subsec. (d) to increase bond authorization from $320,000,000 to $475,400,000, provided $51,600,000 of said authorization shall be effective July 1, 1994, and further amended Subsec. (c) to move provision re bond maturity and amended Subsec. (d) to provide that bonds shall mature not more than 30 years from their dates and that expenses of carrying out provisions may be paid from accrued interest and premiums or other sale proceeds, effective July 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 in Subsec. (a) decreased bond authorization from $558,870,000 to $536,270,000 and in Subsec. (d) decreased bond authorization from $475,400,000 to $466,900,000, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-272 amended Subsec. (a) to increase authorization amount from $536,270,000 to $576,330,000, effective July 1, 1995, provided $23,580,000 shall be effective July 1, 1996, and amended Subsec. (d) to increase authorization amount from $466,900,000 to $633,300,000, effective July 1, 1995, provided $41,000,000 shall be effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-181 amended Subsec. (c) and (i) to add federal Safe Drinking Water Act or similar federal act, and amended Subsec. (e) to add provision re securing revenue bonds issued to finance eligible drinking water projects, effective July 1, 1996; June 5 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-1 amended Subsec. (a) to increase bond authorization from $576,330,000 to $635,330,000 provided $14,000,000 of that authorization is effective July 1, 1998, and amended Subsec. (d) to increase bond authorization from $633,300,000 to $867,900,000 provided $83,300,000 of that authorization is effective July 1, 1998, effective July 31, 1997; P.A. 98-124 amended Subsec. (i)(3) to add agreements entered into pursuant to Sec. 3-20a, effective May 27, 1998; P.A. 98-259 amended Subsec. (a) to decrease authorization from $635,330,000 to $621,330,000 and deleted proviso re use of $14,000,000, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-241 amended Subsec. (a) to increase authorization from $621,330,000 to $717,830,000, effective July 1, 1999, provided $53,100,000 is effective July 1, 2000 and amended Subsec. (d) to increase authorization from $867,900,000 to $999,400,000, effective July 1, 1999, provided $66,900,000 is effective July 1, 2000; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-7 amended Subsec. (a) to increase authorization from $717,830,000 to $797,830,000 provided $40,000,000 is effective July 1, 2002, and amended Subsec. (d) to increase authorization from $999,400,000 to $1,238,400,000 provided $158,000,000 is effective July 1, 2002, effective July 1, 2001; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-5 amended Subsec. (a) to increase authorization from $797,830,000 to $801,030,000 and to provide that $60,000,000 of said authorization shall be effective July 1, 2003, effective July 1, 2002; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-1 amended Subsec. (a) to reduce aggregate authorization to $741,030,000 and deleted provision re funds authorized in 2003, effective July 1, 2004; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-2 amended Subsec. (e) to provide that pledges made by the state under Secs. 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, are statutory and not subject to the Uniform Commercial Code, effective May 12, 2004, and applicable to any pledge, lien or security interest of this state or any political subdivision of this state, which was in existence on October 1, 2003, or created after October 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-5 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the aggregate authorization from $741,030,000 to $781,030,000, of which $20,000,000 is effective July 1, 2006, and amended Subsec. (d) to increase the aggregate authorization from $1,238,400,000 to $1,338,400,000, of which $100,000,000 is effective July 1, 2006, effective July 1, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-7 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing aggregate authorization from $781,030,000 to $961,030,000, of which $90,000,000 is effective July 1, 2008, and amended Subsec. (d) by increasing aggregate authorization from $1,338,400,000 to $1,753,400,000, of which $180,000,000 is effective July 1, 2008, effective November 2, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-497. Municipal stormwater authority pilot program. Priority municipalities. Application. Selection criteria. Grants. (a) Not later than September 1, 2007, the Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall establish a municipal stormwater authority pilot program to provide grants to not more than four municipalities that border Long Island Sound to enable such municipalities to establish stormwater authorities. Municipalities satisfying the following criteria shall be given priority to participate in the pilot program: A municipality that has a population of more than eighteen thousand and less than eighteen thousand five hundred; a municipality that has a population of more than twenty-six thousand and less than twenty-six thousand five hundred; a municipality that has a population of more than eighty-four thousand and less than eighty-four thousand five hundred, and one municipality that has a population of more than one hundred twenty-five thousand and less than one hundred twenty-five thousand five hundred. For the purposes of this section, "population" means the number of people according to the most recent version of the Connecticut Register and Manual.

      (b) In order to be considered for such a grant, each eligible municipality shall submit a grant application on forms prescribed by the commissioner not later than September 15, 2007. The commissioner may reject any grant application that the commissioner determines to be incomplete. The municipality that submitted such rejected application shall be given not more than fifteen days to correct the defects in such application. In the event that a municipality given priority in accordance with subsection (a) of this section is unable to correct such defects to the commissioner's satisfaction, the commissioner shall consider such municipality a nonpriority municipality, as described in subsection (c) of this section. Any municipality that fails to submit a timely application for the grant shall be deemed to have waived such municipality's right to apply for the grant.

      (c) In the event that one or more of the municipalities given priority in accordance with subsection (a) of this section waives its right to participate in such pilot program, any municipality required to comply with the requirements of a permit issued pursuant to section 22a-430 or 22a-430b for the discharge of stormwater from, or associated with, a separate storm sewer system owned or operated by such municipality may apply to the commissioner to participate in the pilot program in accordance with procedures prescribed by the commissioner. Timely applications for such grants will be reviewed in the order in which they were received to determine if such municipality meets the selection criteria for nonpriority municipalities. Such selection criteria shall include, but not be limited to: (1) The proximity of the municipality to Long Island Sound or other major river or water body, and (2) whether the inclusion of such municipality will result, in the aggregate of all participating municipalities, in a diverse representation of urban and suburban areas. For the purpose of this section, "separate storm sewer system" means a conveyance for stormwater, including, but not limited to, roads with drainage systems, streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, man-made channels or storm drains that discharge into the waters of the state.

      (d) Each municipality selected by the commissioner to participate in such pilot program shall submit a stormwater management program for the commissioner's approval. Such program shall include an estimate of the operational and capital expenses and income required to financially support implementation of the plan over a five-year period, and other such elements as the commissioner may prescribe in accordance with the purposes specified in section 22a-498.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 22a-475 to 22a-483, inclusive, the Commissioner of Environmental Protection may provide grants that in the aggregate do not exceed one million dollars, from any account in the Clean Water Fund established under section 22a-477, to the extent that bond funds are available, to municipalities participating in the pilot program established pursuant to sections 22a-497 to 22a-499, inclusive, for reimbursement of not more than eighty per cent of the costs incurred by said municipalities related to the planning, engineering and legal costs associated with the establishment of an approved stormwater authority and the development of a stormwater program pursuant to sections 22a-497 to 22a-499, inclusive. Any costs associated with the application for participation in the pilot program shall not be eligible for reimbursement. The commissioner shall be reimbursed from the Clean Water Fund for the reasonable costs of administering such grant program.

      (P.A. 07-154, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 07-154 effective June 25, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-498. Creation of stormwater authority. Members. Purposes. Powers. (a) Any municipality selected by the commissioner to participate in the pilot program established pursuant to section 22a-497 may, by ordinance adopted by its legislative body, designate any existing board or commission or establish a new board or commission as the stormwater authority for such municipality. If a new board or commission is created, such municipality shall, by ordinance, determine the number of members thereof, their compensation, if any, whether such members shall be elected or appointed, the method of their appointment, if appointed, and removal and their terms of office, which shall be so arranged that not more than one-half of such terms shall expire within any one year.

      (b) The purposes of the stormwater authority shall be to: (1) Develop a stormwater management program, including, but not limited to, (A) a program for construction and post-construction site stormwater runoff control, including control detention and prevention of stormwater runoff from development sites; or (B) a program for control and abatement of stormwater pollution from existing land uses, and the detection and elimination of connections to the stormwater system that threaten the public health, welfare or the environment; (2) provide public education and outreach in the municipality relating to stormwater management activities and to establish procedures for public participation; (3) provide for the administration of the stormwater management program; (4) establish geographic boundaries of the stormwater authority district; and (5) recommend to the legislative body of the municipality in which such district is located the imposition of a levy upon the taxable interests in real property within such district, the revenues from which may be used in carrying out any of the powers of such district. In accomplishing the purposes of this section, the stormwater authority may plan, layout, acquire, construct, reconstruct, repair, maintain, supervise and manage stormwater control systems.

      (c) Any stormwater authority created by a municipality pursuant to subsection (a) of this section may levy fees from property owners of the municipality for the purposes described in subsection (b) of this section. In establishing fees for any property in its district, the stormwater authority may consider criteria, including, but not limited to, the following: The area of the property containing impervious surfaces from which stormwater runoff is generated, land use types that result in higher concentrations of stormwater pollution and the grand list valuation of the property. The stormwater authority may reduce or defer such fees for land classified as, or consisting of, farm, forest or open space land.

      (d) The authority may adopt municipal regulations to implement the stormwater management program.

      (e) The authority may, subject to the commissioner's approval, enter into contracts with any municipal or regional entity to accomplish the purposes of this section.

      (P.A. 07-154, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-154 effective June 25, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-499. Joint report re pilot program. On or before February 11, 2008, the municipalities participating in the pilot program established in section 22a-497 shall submit a joint report in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to the environment on the status of the pilot program. Such report shall include, but not be limited to: (1) The municipalities' recommendation on whether further legislation is necessary to grant stormwater authorities the additional powers to issue bonds, notes or other evidences of debt, (2) a map showing the geographic boundaries of the stormwater authority district, (3) information concerning the purpose and amount of any assessments recommended to fund the municipal stormwater authority, and (4) any other information that the commissioner requests pursuant to the grant agreement entered into between the commissioner and the municipality in accordance with section 22a-498.

      (P.A. 07-154, S. 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5, S. 37.)

      History: P.A. 07-154 effective September 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5 made technical changes, effective September 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-500. Regional water pollution control authorities: Definitions. Authorization. Directors. Membership. Termination. (a) As used in sections 22a-500 to 22a-519, inclusive, the following words and terms shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates another meaning or intent:

      (1) "Authority" means a regional water pollution authority created under the provisions of this section or any entity which is a successor of an authority;

      (2) "Bonds" means any bonds, notes and other obligations issued by an authority pursuant to the provisions of section 22a-507 and any bonds issued to refund such bonds;

      (3) "Cost" or "costs" as applied to any system means the cost of acquisition or construction, the cost of any subsequent additions or expansion of a wastewater system, the cost of the acquisition of all land and interests in land including rights-of-way, easements and other property rights acquired by the authority for such construction, addition or expansion, the cost of demolition or removal of any building or structure on land so acquired, including the cost of acquiring any lands to which such building or structures may be moved, the cost of dredging and filling underwater areas, all equipment, financing, insurance, interest, administrative and operating costs incurred prior to and during such construction of any addition or expansion, and, if deemed advisable by the authority, for a period not exceeding one year after completion of such construction, addition or expansion, any survey, engineering, architectural, legal, administrative, operating, research, development, operating capital and other such costs or expenses of the authority as may be necessary or incidental to the construction of the wastewater system and any component of any wastewater system, and of such subsequent addition or expansion, and the cost of financing such construction, addition or expansion and placing the project and such additions or expansion in operation;

      (4) "Constituent municipality" means one of two or more municipalities which have adopted the provisions of this section and sections 22a-501 to 22a-519, inclusive, and which have created an authority by concurrent ordinances of their legislative bodies;

      (5) "Municipality" means any town, city, borough, consolidated town and city or consolidated town and borough;

      (6) "Sewage" shall be as defined in section 22a-423; and

      (7) "Wastewater system" means any device, equipment, appurtenance, plant facility and method for receiving, collecting, transporting, reducing, treating, reclaiming, disposing, separating or discharging sewage, or the residue from the treatment of sewage, including any component of any of the foregoing, which the authority is authorized to acquire, plan, design, construct, manage, operate, maintain and finance under the provisions of this section and sections 22a-501 to 22a-519, inclusive, and which the authority may establish as its wastewater system pursuant to the provisions of this section and sections 22a-501 to 22a-519, inclusive, including any interest in real estate and improvements thereto and the extension or provision of utilities and other appurtenant facilities and projects deemed necessary or desirable by the authority for the purpose of establishing and operating wastewater management and water pollution control services.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act or municipal charter, any two or more municipalities may, by concurrent ordinances of their legislative bodies, adopt and exercise the powers granted to a municipality by the provisions of this section and sections 22a-501 to 22a-519, inclusive, and designate any existing board, commission or agency, or create a new board, commission, agency or regional authority to be designated, as its regional authority and thereupon be a constituent municipality of such authority. Such ordinance shall contain a brief statement of the purpose of the authority and shall set forth the article or incorporation of the authority as follows: (1) The name of the authority and address of its principal office; (2) a statement that the authority is created an authority under this section; and (3) the names, addresses and terms of office of the first directors of the authority.

      (c) The constituent municipalities of any authority shall, by concurrent ordinances, determine the number of directors thereof, the number of votes to be cast by each director, the method of determining the directors' compensation, if any, the method of their appointment and removal and their terms of office, which shall be so arranged that not more than one-half of such terms shall expire within any one year. The constituent municipalities shall prepare and submit a preliminary plan of operation for an authority which they propose to form to the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and the State Treasurer for their review and approval in accordance with this section. Each plan of operation shall include the procedure by which bonds of such authority shall be approved. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall review and may approve any preliminary plan of operation, after consultation with the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, if he finds that such plan of operations is in furtherance of the environmental protection laws of the state. The State Treasurer shall review and may approve any preliminary plan of operation if he finds a wastewater system undertaken by an authority operating under such plan of operation is eligible to apply for financing under sections 22a-477 to 22a-483, inclusive. Upon the adoption of such ordinances by the legislative bodies of each constituent municipality designating or creating an authority under this section, and the approval of a preliminary plan of operation for such authority by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and the State Treasurer, the authority created thereby shall constitute a public body politic and corporate of the state, and a political subdivision of the state established and created for the performance of an essential public and governmental function. Any rejection of a preliminary plan of operation shall not preclude the submission of a revised plan. The approval of the preliminary plan of operation by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and the Treasurer in accordance with this section shall constitute conclusive evidence of the state's approval of the creation of an authority under this section. An authority shall not change the procedure for approving the issuance of its bonds as prescribed by its plan of operations without the approval of each constituent municipality, the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and the State Treasurer.

      (d) By ordinance of its legislative body, or by such other body as permitted by section 7-157, any municipality may become a member of an authority upon such terms and conditions as the authority may determine and thereupon be a constituent municipality of such authority.

      (e) Any constituent municipality may elect to withdraw from such authority by the adoption of an ordinance by its legislative body or such other authority as permitted by section 7-157. Such withdrawal shall be effective only after compliance with the terms and conditions contained in any contracts between such constituent municipality and the authority or the holders of any bonds of the authority. No such withdrawal shall relieve such constituent municipality of any liability, responsibility or obligation incurred by it as a member of the authority or as a user of any of its wastewater system.

      (f) Any authority and its corporate existence shall continue until terminated by law or the withdrawal of one of the last two constituent municipalities of such authority, provided no such law shall take effect as long as the authority shall have bonds, notes or other obligations outstanding unless adequate provision has been made for the payment or satisfaction of such obligations. Upon termination of the existence of the authority, all of the rights and properties of the authority then remaining shall pass to and vest in the constituent municipality in which it is located unless otherwise provided in an agreement of the authority and except as otherwise may be specified in such law.

      (P.A. 95-329, S. 10, 31; P.A. 06-196, S. 262; P.A. 07-217, S. 117.)

      History: P.A. 95-329, S. 10 effective July 13, 1995; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (f), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(2), effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 22a-517. Regional water pollution control authorities: Receipt of Clean Water Fund disbursements. (a) An authority created under sections 22a-500 to 22a-519, inclusive, shall be a public authority having power to make charges for its authorized function and shall be considered a municipality as defined in section 22a-475.

      (b) The initial project undertaken by a new authority shall receive (1) a grant of twenty-five per cent of the cost of the project, unless such project is a combined sewer project, in which case a new authority shall receive a grant of fifty-five per cent of the cost of the project. In either case such cost shall be the cost the United States Environmental Protection Agency uses in making grants pursuant to Part 35 of the federal Construction Grant Regulations Act and Titles II and VI of the federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended; and (2) a loan for the remainder of the costs of the project, not exceeding one hundred per cent of the eligible water quality project costs. All loans made in accordance with the provisions of this section shall bear an interest rate of two per cent per annum. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection may allow any project fund obligation to be repaid by a borrowing authority prior to maturity without penalty.

      (P.A. 95-329, S. 27, 31; P.A. 07-154, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 95-329, S. 27 effective July 13, 1995; P.A. 07-154 amended Subsec. (b) to delete provision barring eligible projects that receive a loan from receiving a project grant, effective June 25, 2007.

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