CHAPTER 246a
MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

Table of Contents

Sec. 14-164c. (Formerly Sec. 14-100c). Motor vehicle emissions systems. Emissions standards and inspections. Inspection facilities. Fees. Penalty.
Sec. 14-164n. Emissions control devices. Definitions.
Sec. 14-164o. Emissions control devices required in school buses. Exception. Procurement contracts.

      Sec. 14-164c. (Formerly Sec. 14-100c). Motor vehicle emissions systems. Emissions standards and inspections. Inspection facilities. Fees. Penalty. (a) No person shall fail to maintain in good working order or remove, dismantle or otherwise cause to be inoperative any equipment or feature constituting an operational element of the air pollution control system or mechanism of a motor vehicle required by regulations of the Commissioner of Environmental Protection to be maintained or on the vehicle. Any such failure to maintain in good working order or removal, dismantling or causing of inoperability shall subject the owner thereof to revocation of registration for such vehicle by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles unless all parts and equipment constituting elements of air pollution control have been made operable and in good working order within thirty days of notice by said commissioner of such violation. Any such failure shall be considered a failure to comply with the periodic inspection requirements established under subsection (c) of this section. As used in this section, motor vehicle shall have the same meaning as is provided in section 14-1.

      (b) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall consult with the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and furnish the commissioner with technical information, including testing techniques, standards and instructions for emission control features and equipment. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall furnish the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles with emission standards for all motor vehicles subject to the inspection and maintenance requirements. Such standards shall be consistent with provisions of federal law, if any, relating to control of emissions from the vehicles concerned or any regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection which implement the low-emission vehicle and clean fuels regulations adopted by the state of California, as amended. Such standards shall be periodically reviewed by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and revised, if necessary, to achieve the objectives of the vehicle emission inspection program.

      (c) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section. Such regulations shall include provision for a periodic inspection of air pollution control equipment and compliance with or waiver of exhaust emission standards or compliance with or waiver of on-board diagnostic standards or other standards defined by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and approved by the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, compliance with or waiver of, air pollution control system integrity standards defined by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection and compliance with or waiver of purge system standards defined by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection. Such regulations may provide for an inspection procedure using an on-board diagnostic information system for all 1996 model year and newer motor vehicles. Such regulations shall apply to all motor vehicles registered or which will be registered in this state except: (1) Vehicles having a gross weight of more than ten thousand pounds; (2) vehicles powered by electricity; (3) bicycles with motors attached; (4) motorcycles; (5) vehicles operating with a temporary registration; (6) vehicles manufactured twenty-five or more years ago; (7) new vehicles at the time of initial registration; (8) vehicles registered but not designed primarily for highway use; (9) farm vehicles, as defined in subsection (q) of section 14-49; (10) diesel-powered type II school buses; (11) a vehicle operated by a licensed dealer or repairer either to or from a location of the purchase or sale of such vehicle or for the purpose of obtaining an official emissions or safety inspection; or (12) vehicles that have met the inspection requirements of section 14-103a and are registered by the commissioner as composite vehicles. On and after July 1, 2002, such regulations shall exempt from the periodic inspection requirement any vehicle four or less model years of age, beginning with model year 2003 and the previous three model years, provided that such exemption shall lapse upon a finding by the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or by the Secretary of the United States Department of Transportation that such exemption causes the state to violate applicable federal environmental or transportation planning requirements. Notwithstanding any provisions of this subsection, the commissioner may require an initial emissions inspection and compliance or waiver prior to registration of a new motor vehicle. If the Commissioner of Environmental Protection finds that it is necessary to inspect motor vehicles which are exempt under subdivision (1) or (4) of this subsection, or motor vehicles that are four or less model years of age in order to achieve compliance with federal law concerning emission reduction requirements, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to require the inspection of motorcycles, designated motor vehicles having a gross weight of more than ten thousand pounds or motor vehicles four or less model years of age.

      (d) No motor vehicle subject to the inspection requirements of this section shall be operated upon the highways of this state unless such vehicle has been presented for inspection in accordance with a schedule for inspection and compliance as established by the commissioner. The commissioner shall grant waivers from compliance with standards for vehicles which fail any required inspection and require an unreasonable cost of repair to bring the vehicle into compliance. The commissioner may determine compliance of a vehicle that has failed an emissions retest by means of a complete physical and functional diagnosis and inspection of the vehicle, in accordance with the provisions of 40 CFR Part 51.360, showing that no additional emissions-related repairs are needed. An extension of time, not to exceed the period of inspection frequency, may be granted to obtain needed repairs on a vehicle in the case of economic hardship of the owner. Only one such extension may be granted for any vehicle. The commissioner may design a sticker to be affixed to the windshield of each vehicle which shall bear the date of expiration of the assigned inspection period on both sides. The commissioner may also design a sticker to be affixed to the windshield of each vehicle that is exempt from the requirements of this chapter, which sticker shall bear the date, if any, on which such vehicle is no longer exempt and is required to be presented for inspection. As used in this section, "unreasonable cost of repair" means cost of repair in excess of the amounts required to be expended by Title 40, Part 51.360 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as amended.

      (e) In order to provide for emissions inspection facilities, the commissioner may enter into a negotiated inspection agreement or agreements, notwithstanding chapters 50, 58, 59 and 60, with an independent contractor or contractors, to provide for the leasing, construction, equipping, maintenance or operation of a system of official emissions inspection stations in such numbers and locations as may be required to provide vehicle owners reasonably convenient access to inspection facilities. The commissioner may employ such system and the services of such contractor or contractors to conduct safety inspections as provided by section 14-16a, subsection (g) of section 14-12 and section 14-103a. Such contractor or contractors, with the approval of the commissioner, may operate inspection stations at suitable locations owned or operated by other persons, firms or corporations, including retail business establishments with adequate facilities to accommodate and to perform inspections on motor vehicles. The commissioner is prohibited from entering into an inspection agreement with any independent contractor who: (1) Is engaged in the business of maintaining or repairing vehicles in this state, except that the independent contractor shall not be precluded from maintaining or repairing any vehicle owned or operated by the independent contractor; or (2) does not have the capability, resources or technical and management skill to adequately conduct, equip, operate and maintain a sufficient number of official emissions inspection stations. All persons employed by the independent contractor in the performance of an inspection agreement are deemed to be employees of the independent contractor and not of this state. The inspection agreement or agreements authorized by this section shall be subject to other provisions as follows: (A) Minimum requirements for staff, equipment, management and hours and place of operation of official emissions inspection stations including such additional testing facilities as may be established and operated in accordance with subsection (g) of this section; (B) reports and documentation concerning the operation of official emissions inspection stations and additional testing facilities as the commissioner may require; (C) surveillance privileges for the commissioner to ensure compliance with standards, procedures, rules, regulations and laws; and (D) any other provision deemed necessary by the commissioner for the administration of the inspection agreement. Nothing in the inspection agreement shall require the state to purchase any asset or assume any liability if such agreement is not renewed.

      (f) (1) The commissioner may authorize and appoint any motor vehicle dealer or repairer that is licensed in accordance with the provisions of subpart (D) of part III of chapter 246 and that has the qualifications established by the commissioner to conduct emissions inspections in a designated area of its licensed premises and to report the results thereof to the Department of Motor Vehicles, provided such licensee signs a statement that such licensee understands the provisions of this section and regulations adopted under authority of this section, understands the necessity to comply with administrative and technical directives and advisories that the commissioner issues and understands that any failure by such licensee to comply with this section, the regulations or the directives or advisories constitutes grounds for the commissioner to suspend or revoke the authority for such licensee to conduct inspections.

      (2) Each such licensee shall conduct an emissions inspection of any registered motor vehicle requiring such an inspection at any time during its normal and posted hours of operation or, at the discretion of the commissioner, at a predetermined or appointed time, when such motor vehicle is presented for inspection. No such licensee shall charge any fee for the inspection except the fee authorized by subsection (k) of this section. The results of each emissions inspection performed in accordance with this subsection shall be evidenced by a written vehicle inspection report, containing such information and certification by the inspecting licensee as the commissioner shall prescribe. The licensee shall furnish a copy of such inspection report to the operator of the motor vehicle at the time of completion of the inspection.

      (3) No such licensee may be appointed by the commissioner nor may any such licensee conduct any inspection unless the licensee has in its employ one or more certified emissions inspectors and repair technicians. Such inspectors and technicians shall conduct all inspections and related emissions repair work and shall meet the training and certification requirements in 40 CFR Part 51.367 and of the regulations adopted by the commissioner in accordance with this subsection.

      (4) The commissioner may suspend or revoke the authority to conduct emissions inspections by any such licensee that is authorized to conduct emissions inspections if the licensee fails to comply with the provisions of this section, regulations adopted under authority of this section, or administrative or technical directives or advisories that the commissioner issues.

      (5) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish the qualifications for such licensees to be authorized and appointed to conduct emissions inspections, and to establish standards and procedures for such inspections, reporting requirements by such licensees and training and certification requirements for inspectors and repair technicians.

      (g) The independent contractor or contractors retained by the state in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section may conduct emissions inspections at one or more facilities owned or operated by a motor vehicle dealer or dealers, licensed in accordance with section 14-52. No such inspection facility located on the premises of a licensed dealer shall be operated without the prior approval of the commissioner. The operation of each such facility shall be subject to such procedures and requirements, to be followed by the contractor and the licensee, as may be prescribed by the terms and conditions of the contract entered into in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section, and in regulations as may be adopted by the commissioner in accordance with chapter 54. The state shall not be a party to, or assume or incur any liability of any kind under, any agreement entered into between the independent contractor and any dealer in furtherance of the provisions of this subsection. The contract or contracts entered into by the state in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of this section shall provide for indemnification of the state with respect to the operation of any such inspection facility located at a motor vehicle dealership, in the same manner and to the same extent as the operation of an official emissions inspection station.

      (h) In order to provide for management and oversight of emissions inspection facilities established in accordance with subsection (e) of this section and to establish and maintain necessary electronic data capture and reporting systems for such facilities and for licensed dealers and repairers who may be authorized to perform inspections in accordance with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, the commissioner may enter into a negotiated personal service agreement or agreements, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 55a, with any qualified person, firm or corporation. The responsibilities of any such contractor retained by the commissioner shall include, but need not be limited to, the following: (1) Review and analysis of data from all official emissions inspections performed, and provision to the commissioner of recommendations to improve the quality and integrity of such data, (2) provision of program information and standards to inspection facilities and locations, (3) provision to the commissioner of regular reports, assessments and recommendations to maintain or improve the effectiveness, efficiency, quality and integrity of such inspection operations, and (4) identification of measures to enhance public convenience, and compliance with the inspection requirements. No such contractor retained in accordance with the provisions of this subsection may be licensed as, or have any financial interest in any firm engaged in the business of selling or repairing motor vehicles, or may be a provider of emissions inspection equipment or facilities to the state.

      (i) The commissioner may license an owner or operator of a fleet of motor vehicles which are subject to emissions inspection pursuant to subsection (c) of this section or section 14-164i, to establish a fleet emissions inspection station, provided that the fleet owner or operator conforms with regulations for fleet emissions inspection stations adopted by the commissioner which shall specify the classes or other characteristics of vehicles eligible for inspection at such stations.

      (j) The commissioner may establish a program for the on-road testing of motor vehicles subject to this chapter. The program shall test not less than one-half of one per cent of the subject fleet state-wide or twenty thousand vehicles, whichever is less, per inspection cycle under conditions of highway operation in order to provide information concerning the emission performance of such in-use vehicles. Testing may be performed by means of remote sensing devices, or roadside pullovers followed by tailpipe emissions testing using a suitable, portable device and recording system. Owners of vehicles that have previously been through scheduled periodic inspection and passed, and are found by on-road testing to be high emitters, in accordance with the standards established under subsection (b) of this section and the regulations adopted under subsection (c) of this section, may be notified that their vehicles are required to pass an out-of-cycle follow-up inspection at an inspection station. Notification may be made by mailing in the case of remote sensing on-road testing or through immediate notification if roadside pullovers are used. The commissioner may use the services of the independent contractor or contractors to implement the on-road testing program. If a method of roadside pullovers is used in the program, such method shall be employed with due regard to traffic safety considerations and performed with the assistance of inspectors of the Department of Motor Vehicles or members of state or municipal police forces.

      (k) (1) The commissioner, with approval of the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, shall establish, and from time to time modify, the inspection fees, not to exceed ten dollars per annual inspection or twenty dollars for each biennial inspection or reinspection required pursuant to this chapter for inspections performed at official emissions inspection stations. Such fees shall be paid in a manner prescribed by the commissioner. If the costs to the state of the emissions inspection program, including administrative costs and payments to any independent contractor, exceed the income from such fees, such excess costs shall be borne by the state. Any person whose vehicle has been inspected at an official emissions inspection station shall, if such vehicle is found not to comply with any required standards, have the vehicle repaired and have the right within thirty consecutive calendar days to return such vehicle to the same official emissions inspection station for one reinspection without charge, provided, where the thirtieth day falls on a Sunday, legal holiday or a day on which the commissioner has established that special circumstances or conditions exist that have caused emissions inspection to be impracticable, such person may return such vehicle for reinspection on the next day. The commissioner shall assess a late fee of twenty dollars for the emissions inspection of a motor vehicle performed at an official emissions inspection station later than thirty days after the expiration date of the assigned inspection period provided the commissioner may waive such late fee when it is proven to the commissioner's satisfaction that the failure to have the vehicle inspected within thirty days of the assigned inspection period was due to exigent circumstances. If ownership of the motor vehicle has been transferred subsequent to the expiration date of the assigned inspection period and the new owner has such motor vehicle inspected within thirty days of the registration of such motor vehicle, the commissioner shall waive the late fee. If the thirtieth day falls on a Sunday, legal holiday or a day on which the commissioner has established that special circumstances or conditions exist that have caused emissions inspection to be impracticable, such vehicle may be inspected on the next day and no late fee shall be assessed.

      (2) If the commissioner authorizes a licensed dealer or repairer to conduct emissions inspections of 1996 model year and newer vehicles required by this chapter, the commissioner may authorize such licensee to charge a fee, not to exceed twenty dollars for each biennial inspection or reinspection.

      (3) Upon the registration of each new motor vehicle subject to the inspection requirements of this chapter, or of each motor vehicle that is four or less model years of age that has not been registered previously in this state, the commissioner may issue a sticker indicating the exempt status of such motor vehicle and the date on which the motor vehicle is scheduled to be presented for inspection. Any such sticker that may be issued shall be displayed on the motor vehicle in accordance with subsection (d) of this section. On and after July 1, 2002, the commissioner shall charge a fee of forty dollars in addition to any other fees required for such registration. All receipts from the payment of such fee shall be deposited in the Special Transportation Fund.

      (l) The commissioner may acquire in the name of the state by purchase, lease, gift, devise or otherwise any special equipment, tools, materials or facilities needed to adequately administer, investigate or enforce the provisions of this chapter.

      (m) A person shall not in any manner represent any place to be an official emissions inspection station unless such station has been established and is operated in accordance with the provisions of this section.

      (n) No person, firm or corporation shall operate or allow to be operated any motor vehicle that has not been inspected and found to be in compliance with the provisions of subsections (c), (d) and (i) of this section and the regulations adopted by the commissioner. Operation in violation of said subsections or the regulations adopted by the commissioner shall be an infraction for each violation, except that the fine for a first violation shall be thirty-five dollars. The commissioner may deny the issuance of registration to the owner of a motor vehicle, or the renewal of registration to any such owner, or suspend or revoke any registration that has been issued, if such motor vehicle is not in compliance with the inspection requirements of this chapter, or such owner has failed to pay any fee required by the provisions of this chapter.

      (1969, P.A. 758, S. 25; 1971, P.A. 872, S. 30; P.A. 75-577, S. 57, 126; P.A. 78-335, S. 2, 6; P.A. 79-238, S. 2, 4; P.A. 80-458, S. 2, 4; P.A. 83-561, S. 3-5; P.A. 84-11, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-484, S. 2-4; P.A. 90-299, S. 3; P.A. 91-123, S. 2, 3; 91-142, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-13, S. 14, 21; P.A. 92-156, S. 3, 4, 6, 7; P.A. 93-312, S. 1, 7; P.A. 94-189, S. 11; P.A. 96-167, S. 35, 36, 49; P.A. 97-82, S. 1, 2; 97-236, S. 15, 27; P.A. 98-182, S. 4, 5, 17, 22; P.A. 99-268, S. 18, 22; P.A. 00-169, S. 22, 29-32, 36; 00-180, S. 1, 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 42, 131; P.A. 02-70, S. 81; P.A. 03-19, S. 27, 28; P.A. 04-182, S. 15; 04-199, S. 4, 27; P.A. 05-218, S. 44; P.A. 07-167, S. 35.)

      History: 1971 act replaced clean air commission with commissioner of environmental protection; P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (d); P.A. 78-335 included deadline for minimum exhaust emission standards in Subsec. (b), replaced Subsecs. (c) and (d) with new provisions re compliance with standards and added Subsecs. (e) to (k) further detailing emissions inspection program; Sec. 14-100c transferred to Sec. 14-164c in 1979; P.A. 79-238 changed deadline for required repairs in Subsec. (a) from 10 to 30 days after notice, changed deadline for standards definition in Subsec. (b) from January 1, 1980, to November 1, 1979, and added provision re periodic review and revision, required adoption of regulations in Subsec. (c) by November 1, 1979, revised exception to provisions by deleting vehicles with dealers or repairers plates, deleting provisions re inspection of new vehicles before delivery and exemption of new vehicles for one year and adding to exception new vehicles at time of initial registration, vehicles not designed primarily for highway use and farm vehicles, revised dates in Subsec. (d) and cost of repair provisions, deleted provisions re inspections by state employees and by private service stations in Subsec. (e), deleted reference to inspection of nonfleet vehicles in Subsec. (f), increased inspection fee from $5 to $10 in Subsec. (g), deleted Subsec. (h) re inspection fund, relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly and added provision in Subsec. (j) (formerly (k)) re inspections after January 1, 1982; P.A. 80-458 amended Subsec. (d) to postpone commencement of inspection and to delete provision re voluntary inspections on limited basis, amended Subsec. (g) to require that state absorb excess costs and revised dates in Subsec. (j); P.A. 83-561 amended Subsec. (d) to make commissioner's authority to grant waivers from compliance for vehicles which fail and require an unreasonable cost of repair to bring into compliance mandatory rather than discretionary and to reduce the cost of minimum repair requirements from a maximum of $70 to a maximum of $40 and amended Subsec. (g), providing where the thirtieth day of the period of free reinspection falls on a day when the inspection station is closed, the motorist may return for reinspection on the next day the station is open; P.A. 84-11 amended Subsec. (j) by replacing provision which had imposed a fine of not more than $100 with provision designating violation of Subsecs. (c) and (d) as an infraction; P.A. 85-484 amended Subsec. (d), requiring commissioner to design a windshield sticker bearing expiration date of assigned inspection period on both sides and amended Subsec. (j), requiring a fine of $35 for a first violation of Subsecs. (c) and (d) or regulations adopted thereunder; P.A. 90-299 amended Subsec. (g) to require commissioner to assess $10 fee for late emissions inspection; P.A. 91-123 amended Subsec. (g) to permit commissioner to waive late fee when it is proven that failure to have inspection was due to exigent circumstances; P.A. 91-142 amended Subsec. (b) to allow emission standards to be consistent with any regulations adopted by the commissioner of environmental protection which implement the California emission standards; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-13 amended Subsec. (g) to require that income from the emissions inspections program which exceeds the administrative costs of the program be deposited in the general fund; P.A. 92-156 amended Subsecs. (c) and (d) to provide for periodic emissions inspection, eliminating references to "annual" inspection, and to delete obsolete provisions, amended Subsec. (g) to require $10 fee to terminate at expiration of negotiated agreement in effect on June 1, 1992, and establishment of temporary inspection fee to be effective until general assembly establishes a new fee and amended Subsec. (j) to eliminate reference to annual inspections and to delete obsolete phrase; P.A. 93-312 amended Subsec. (a) to specify that failure to maintain motor vehicle air pollution control equipment shall be considered a violation of the periodic inspection requirements under Subsec. (c), amended Subsec. (b) by replacing requirement that the commissioner of environmental protection furnish the commissioner of motor vehicles with "a definition of minimum exhaust emission standards for all gasoline-powered vehicles" with requirement that he furnish "emission standards for all motor vehicles designated as a 1968 or later model", amended Subsec. (c) to expand regulations to include "air pollution control system integrity standards and purge systems standards", to make Subdiv. (2) of the exemptions applicable to "vehicles powered by electricity" rather than "vehicles powered by a fuel other than gasoline", and to authorize regulations re motorcycles and vehicles in excess of 10,000 pounds, amended Subsec. (d) to authorize the commissioner of motor vehicles to grant certain waivers from compliance for vehicles which fail "any required" inspection rather than "emissions inspection", by deleting provision that commissioner shall prescribe minimum repair requirements, not to exceed $40, as condition of waiver of compliance for vehicle which would require an unreasonable cost of repair to bring it into compliance, to authorize commissioner to determine compliance of a vehicle that has failed a transient emissions retest, to provide additional authority re certain retesting and extensions and to modify the definition of "unreasonable cost of repair", amended Subsec. (e) to authorize emissions inspection contractors to perform safety inspections, amended Subsec. (f) to modify the reference to fleet vehicles by adding the words "having a gross weight of more than ten thousand pounds" to authorize a program of on-road testing, amended Subsec. (g) to delete provisions re generation of excess fees and amended Subsec. (j) to modify the authority of the commissioner of motor vehicles to suspend motor vehicle registrations for violations of this section, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-189 amended Subsec. (e) by replacing references to chapters 51 and 51a with references to chapters 59 and 60 and inserting "or" between Subdivs. (1) and (2); P.A. 96-167 amended Subsec. (f) to delete references to "twenty-five or more" motor vehicles "having a gross weight of more than ten thousand pounds" in description of fleet and to require regulations re fleet emissions inspection stations to specify classes or other characteristics of vehicles eligible for inspection at such stations, effective October 1, 1996, and amended Subsec. (g) to increase the late fee from $10 to $20 and to require that 50% of late fees be deposited in General Fund and remainder be deposited in Emissions Enterprise Fund instead of all late fees deposited in General Fund, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-82 amended Subsec. (c) to add to exception antique, rare or special interest motor vehicles, effective May 29, 1997; P.A. 97-236 amended Subsec. (c) to add to exception diesel-powered type II school buses, effective June 24, 1997; P.A. 98-182 amended Subsec. (c)(6) by replacing "vehicles manufactured before the 1968 model year" with "vehicles manufactured twenty-five or more years ago", added Subsec. (c)(12) exempting a vehicle from emissions inspection and compliance or waivers which is operated by a dealer or repairer either to or from a location of purchase or sale, or obtaining an emissions or safety inspection, and added Subsec. (g)(12) re the waiver of late fee for a motor vehicle which has been transferred to a new owner subsequent to the expiration date of the assigned inspection period and has been tested within 30 days of the transfer of ownership, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-268 amended Subsec. (f) by allowing the commissioner to license an owner or operator of a fleet of motor vehicles, which are subject to emissions inspection pursuant to Sec. 14-164i, to establish a fleet emissions inspection station, and amended Subsec. (g) to require the commissioner to waive a late fee if a motor vehicle has been inspected within 30 days of registration in lieu of within 30 days of transfer of ownership, and to make a technical change re gender neutrality; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (d) by deleting references to and the definition of a transient emissions test or retest and Subsec. (e) by adding Ch. 58 to the list of chapters at the beginning of the Subsec., by deleting Subdiv. (A) re contracts for performance of inspections for a minimum term of five years and relettering Subdivs. (B) to (E), inclusive, as (A) to (D), inclusive, effective October 1, 2000, amended Subsec. (g) by restating inspection fees, by deleting a provision that required the deposit of 50% of late fees to the General Fund and 50% to the Emissions Enterprise Fund and by changing the reference to the negotiated agreement from the agreement in effect on June 1, 1992, to the agreement in effect on June 1, 2000, effective June 1, 2000, amended Subsec. (j) by adding authority for the commissioner to deny issuance of a registration or renewal of a registration to the owner of a motor vehicle if such vehicle is not in compliance with the inspection requirements of this chapter, effective October 1, 2000, and revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section; P.A. 00-180 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing the term "emissions inspection" with "inspection of air pollution control equipment" and requiring, not later that October 1, 2002, that regulations exempt any vehicle manufactured four or less years ago and amended Subsec. (g) to require fees to be paid in a manner prescribed by the commissioner; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes, to allow the commissioner to adopt regulations providing for an inspection procedure using an on-board diagnostic information system for all motor vehicles starting from model year 1996 and to provide that the regulations re emissions testing shall exempt from the periodic inspection requirement any vehicles of four or less model years of age, beginning with model year 2003 and the previous three model years, rather than exempting vehicles that were manufactured four or less years ago as of October 1, 2002, amended Subsec. (d) to prohibit any motor vehicle subject to inspection from being operated unless such vehicle has been presented for inspection, rather than requiring such vehicle to have evidence of inspection and compliance with Subsec. (c) of the section, to allow the commissioner to design a windshield sticker that bears the date of expiration of the assigned inspection, rather than require the commissioner to do so, and to allow the commissioner to design a windshield sticker for vehicles that are exempt from the chapter, amended Subsec. (e) to allow the commissioner to enter into a negotiated inspection agreement or agreements, rather than require the commissioner to do so, to allow independent contractors, with the commissioner's approval, to operate inspection stations at locations with adequate facilities that are owned by other persons, and to add a reference to new Subsec. (g), added new Subsec. (f) to allow the commissioner to authorize and appoint any licensed and qualified motor vehicle dealer or repairer to conduct emissions inspections, establish requirements for such dealers or repairers, establish guidelines for conducting such inspections, provide the commissioner with the authority to suspend or revoke the authority of such dealers or repairers, and require the commissioner to adopt regulations to establish the qualifications for such dealers or repairers, added new Subsec. (g) to allow independent contractors to conduct emissions inspections at licensed motor vehicle dealer facilities with the approval of the commissioner and in accordance with contract conditions and regulations, to provide that the state shall not incur liability under any agreement between an independent contractor and the dealer and to provide that the contract pursuant to Subsec. (e) shall provide for indemnification of the state, added new Subsec. (h) to allow the commissioner to enter into a negotiated personal service agreement with an entity to provide for management and oversight of emissions inspection facilities established under Subsec. (e) and to prohibit such entity from being licensed as, or having a financial interest in, a seller or repairer of motor vehicles or from being a provider of emissions inspection equipment or facilities, redesignated existing Subsecs. (f) to (j) as Subsecs. (i) to (m), amended Subsec. (j) to designate existing language as Subdiv. (1), make a technical change and delete language re termination of $10 fee and establishment of temporary inspection fee, added Subsec. (j)(2) to allow authorized licensed dealers or repairers that conduct inspections of 1996 model year and newer vehicles to charge a fee for biennial inspections, added Subsec. (j)(3) to require the commissioner to issue a sticker to indicate the status of exempt motor vehicles, to require the commissioner to charge a fee for such sticker on and after July 1, 2002, which receipts are to be deposited in the Special Transportation Fund, and to allow a person whose motor vehicle fails an inspection by a licensed dealer or repairer to repair the vehicle and have it reinspected no later than the thirtieth day following the date of the inspection, and amended Subsec. (m) to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute "subject to the inspection and maintenance requirements" for "designated as a 1968 or later model", amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes, amended Subsec.(f) to substitute "the provisions of subpart (D) of part III of chapter 246" for "section 14-52" in Subdiv. (1), to allow emissions inspection at a predetermined or appointed time at the discretion of the commissioner, make a technical change and replace reference to Subsec. (i) with reference to Subsec. (k) in Subdiv. (2), and to require the adoption of regulations re repair technicians in Subdiv. (5), amended Subsec. (g) to make a technical change, designated provisions, formerly part of Subsec. (i), re program for on-road testing as Subsec. (j) and amended same to require that program test not less than 0.5% of the subject fleet state-wide or 20,000 vehicles, whichever is less, per inspection cycle and that owners of vehicles that are found by on-road testing to be high emitters may, in lieu of shall, be notified that vehicles are required to pass an out-of-cycle follow-up inspection, redesignated existing Subsec. (j) as Subsec. (k) and, in Subdiv. (1), provided that any person whose vehicle has failed inspection may return such vehicle to the same official emissions inspection station for one free reinspection and if the thirtieth day falls on a Sunday, legal holiday or a day on which the commissioner has established that special circumstances or conditions exist that have caused emissions inspection to be impracticable, in lieu of any day when the inspection station is closed for business, such person may return such vehicle for reinspection on the next day, deleting "on which such station is open for business", and, in Subdiv. (3), deleted provision re free reinspection for any person whose vehicle is inspected by a licensed dealer or repairer, redesignated existing Subsecs. (k) to (m) as Subsecs. (l) to (n), amended Subsec. (m) to substitute "in accordance with the provisions of this section" for "under a valid inspection agreement with the commissioner" and amended Subsec. (n) to replace reference to Subsec. (h) with reference to Subsec. (i), effective June 3, 2002; P.A. 03-19 made technical changes in Subsecs. (f)(3) and (g), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 04-182 and P.A. 04-199 both amended Subsec. (n) to include revocation of registration as permissible action by commissioner against vehicle owner and to permit commissioner to take specified actions against owner who has failed to pay any required fee, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-199 additionally amended Subsec. (a)(3) to change from mandatory to permissive issuance of sticker indicating exempt status of motor vehicle, effective June 3, 2004; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (c) by deleting former Subdiv. (10) re antique, rare or special interest motor vehicles and redesignating existing Subdivs. (11) and (12) as Subdivs. (10) and (11), effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 07-167 added Subsec. (c)(12) re composite vehicles meeting inspection requirements of Sec. 14-103a, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 14-164n. Emissions control devices. Definitions. (a) As used in this section and sections 14-164o, 22a-21j and 22a-21k:

      (1) "Closed crankcase filtration system" means a system that separates oil and other contaminants from the blow-by gases and routes the blow-by gases into a diesel engine's intake system downstream of the air filter;

      (2) "Emergency contingency vehicle" means a bus placed in an inactive contingency fleet for local emergencies, after the bus has reached the end of its normal minimum useful life;

      (3) "Full-sized school bus" means a school bus, as defined in section 14-275, which is a Type I diesel school bus, including spare buses operated by or under contract to a school district, but not including emergency contingency vehicles or low usage vehicles;

      (4) "Low usage vehicle" means a bus that operates for not more than one thousand miles per year;

      (5) "Model year 2007 emission standards" means engine emission standards promulgated by the federal Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR Parts 69, 80 and 86;

      (6) "Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel" means diesel fuel used by an on-road engine that meets the requirements for sulfur content set forth in 40 CFR 80;

      (7) "Verified emissions control device" means a device that has been verified by the federal Environmental Protection Agency or the California Air Resources Board to reduce particulate matter emissions by a given amount;

      (8) "Level 1 device" means a verified emissions control device that achieves greater than or equal to twenty-five per cent, but less than fifty per cent, particulate matter reduction;

      (9) "Level 2 device" means a verified emissions control device that achieves greater than or equal to fifty per cent, but less than eighty-five per cent, particulate matter reduction; and

      (10) "Level 3 device" means a verified emissions control device that achieves greater than or equal to eighty-five per cent particulate matter reduction or a particulate matter emission standard of 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 16.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 14-164o. Emissions control devices required in school buses. Exception. Procurement contracts. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, not later than September 1, 2010, each full-sized school bus with an engine model year of 1994 or later transporting children in the state shall either: (1) Be equipped with a closed crankcase filtration system and either a level 1 device, level 2 device or level 3 device, or, if the bus has an engine model year of 2003 to 2006, inclusive, has not been retrofitted with a level 1 device or level 2 device prior to July 1, 2007, and is capable of operating normally with a level 3 device that can be installed along with a closed crankcase filtration system for five thousand dollars or less in accordance with a procurement contract developed pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, be equipped with a closed crankcase filtration system and a level 3 device, (2) be equipped with an engine certified by the federal Environmental Protection Agency to meet model year 2007 emission standards, or (3) use compressed natural gas or other alternative fuel certified by the federal Environmental Protection Agency or the California Air Resources Board to reduce particulate matter emissions by not less than eighty-five per cent compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.

      (b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply if the procurement contracts developed pursuant to subsection (c) of this section fail to establish a price level for the purchase, installation and warranty of a closed crankcase filtration system, and either a level 1 device, level 2 device or level 3 device in each type of full-sized school bus that is equivalent to or less than the grant amount for such emissions control device specified in subsection (a) of section 22a-21j.

      (c) The Commissioner of Administrative Services, in consultation with the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, shall develop procurement contracts, in accordance with chapter 58 for (1) level 1, level 2 and level 3 devices, and (2) closed crankcase filtration systems, including the installation and warranty of such devices and such systems. Said procurement contracts shall be made available to state agencies and political subdivisions of the state through the contracting portal section of the Department of Administrative Services' Internet web site.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 17.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 effective July 1, 2007.

      See Secs. 22a-21j, 22a-21k re school bus emissions reduction program.

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