CHAPTER 170
BOARDS OF EDUCATION

Table of Contents

Sec. 10-220h. Transfer of student records.
Sec. 10-222f. College informational forums.
Sec. 10-223e. State-wide education accountability plan and possible actions. Study of academic achievement.
Sec. 10-223f. Pilot program for inclusion of charter school data to determine a district's adequate yearly progress.
Sec. 10-228a. Free textbook loans to pupils attending nonpublic schools.
Sec. 10-231b. Pesticide applications at schools: Authorized applications. Ban. Exceptions.
Sec. 10-233a. *(See end of section for amended version of subdivision (c) and effective date.) Definitions.
Sec. 10-233c. *(See end of section for new subsection (g) and effective date.) Suspension of pupils.
Sec. 10-233d. Expulsion of pupils.
Sec. 10-239d. Demonstration board and staff. Scholarships.

      Sec. 10-220h. Transfer of student records. When a student enrolls in a school in a new school district, the new school district shall provide written notification of such enrollment to the school district in which the student previously attended school. The school district in which the student previously attended school (1) shall transfer the student's education records to the new school district no later than ten days after receipt of such notification, and (2) if the student's parent or guardian did not give written authorization for the transfer of such records, shall send notification of the transfer to the parent or guardian at the same time that it transfers the records. In the case of a student who transfers from Unified School District #1, the new school district shall provide written notification of such enrollment to Unified School District #1 not later than ten days after the date of enrollment, the unified school district shall, not later than ten days after receipt of notification of enrollment from the new school district, transfer the records of the student to the new school district and the new school district shall, not later than thirty days after receiving the student's education records, credit the student for all instruction received in Unified School District #1.

      (P.A. 00-220, S. 1, 43; P.A. 06-192, S. 1; P.A. 07-38, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 00-220 effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 06-192 added language re transfer of records from Unified School District #1 and receipt of credit for instruction received in said district, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 07-38 added language re notification of enrollment by new school district in the case of a transfer from Unified School District #1, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-222f. College informational forums. Each local and regional board of education may require any high school under its jurisdiction that hosts an informational forum concerning college preparation or the college admission process to which parents and guardians of students are invited to provide such parents and guardians with information about the optional nature of some surveys and questions that accompany examinations taken for college admission. The information provided to parents and guardians shall include a warning that the release of personal identifying information, as defined in subsection (b) of section 53a-129a, may increase a student's vulnerability to identify theft.

      (P.A. 07-241, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-241 effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-223e. State-wide education accountability plan and possible actions. Study of academic achievement. (a) In conformance with the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, the Commissioner of Education shall prepare a state-wide education accountability plan, consistent with federal law and regulation. Such plan shall identify the schools and districts in need of improvement, require the development and implementation of improvement plans and utilize rewards and consequences.

      (b) Public schools identified by the State Board of Education pursuant to section 10-223b of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 2001, as schools in need of improvement shall: (1) Continue to be identified as schools in need of improvement, and continue to operate under school improvement plans developed pursuant to said section 10-223b through June 30, 2004; (2) on or before February 1, 2003, be evaluated by the local board of education and determined to be making sufficient or insufficient progress; (3) if found to be making insufficient progress by a local board of education, be subject to a new remediation and organization plan developed by the local board of education; (4) continue to be eligible for available federal or state aid; (5) beginning in February, 2003, be monitored by the Department of Education for adequate yearly progress, as defined in the state accountability plan prepared in accordance with subsection (a) of this section; and (6) be subject to rewards and consequences as defined in said plan.

      (c) (1) Any school or school district identified as in need of improvement pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and requiring corrective action pursuant to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, shall be designated and listed as a low achieving school or school district and shall be subject to intensified supervision and direction by the State Board of Education.

      (2) Notwithstanding any provision of this title or any regulation adopted pursuant to said statutes, in carrying out the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, the State Board of Education shall take any of the following actions to improve student performance and remove the school or district from the list of schools or districts designated and listed as a low achieving school or district pursuant to said subdivision (1), and to address other needs of the school or district: (A) Require an operations audit to identify possible programmatic savings and an instructional audit to identify any deficits in curriculum and instruction or in the learning environment of the school or district; (B) require the local or regional board of education for such school or district to use state and federal funds for critical needs, as directed by the State Board of Education; (C) provide incentives to attract highly qualified teachers and principals; (D) direct the transfer and assignment of teachers and principals; (E) require additional training and technical assistance for teachers, principals and central office staff members hired by the district; (F) require the local or regional board of education for the school or district to implement model curriculum, including, but not limited to, recommended textbooks, materials and supplies approved by the Department of Education; (G) identify schools for reconstitution, as may be phased-in by the commissioner, as state or local charter schools, schools established pursuant to section 10-74g, or schools based on other models for school improvement, or for management by an entity other than the local or regional board of education for the district in which the school is located; (H) direct the local or regional board of education for the school or district to develop and implement a plan addressing deficits in achievement and in the learning environment as recommended in the instructional audit; (I) assign a technical assistance team to the school or district to guide school or district initiatives and report progress to the Commissioner of Education; (J) establish instructional and learning environment benchmarks for the school or district to meet as it progresses toward removal from the list of low achieving schools or districts; (K) provide funding to any proximate district to a district designated as a low achieving school district so that students in a low achieving district may attend public school in a neighboring district; (L) direct the establishment of learning academies within schools that require continuous monitoring of student performance by teacher groups; or (M) any combination of the above actions or similar, closely related actions.

      (3) The Comptroller shall, pursuant to the provisions of section 10-262i, withhold any grant funds that a town is otherwise required to appropriate to a local or regional board of education due to low academic achievement in the school district pursuant to section 10-262h. Said funds shall be transferred to the Department of Education and shall be expended by the department on behalf of the identified school district. Said funds shall be used to implement the provisions of subdivision (2) of this subsection and to offset such other local education costs that the Commissioner of Education deems appropriate to achieve school improvements. These funds shall be awarded by the commissioner to the local or regional board of education for such identified school district upon condition that said funds shall be spent in accordance with the directives of the commissioner.

      (d) The State Board of Education shall monitor the progress of each school or district designated as a low achieving school or district pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of this section and provide notice to the local or regional board of education for each such school or district of the school or district's progress toward meeting the benchmarks established by the State Board of Education pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. If a district fails to make acceptable progress toward meeting such benchmarks established by the State Board of Education and fails to make adequate yearly progress pursuant to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, for two consecutive years while designated as a low achieving school district, the State Board of Education, after consultation with the Governor and chief elected official or officials of the district, may request that the General Assembly enact legislation authorizing that control of the district be reassigned to the State Board of Education or other authorized entity.

      (e) Any school district or elementary school after two successive years of failing to make adequate yearly progress shall be designated as a low achieving school district or school and shall be evaluated by the Commissioner of Education. After such evaluation, the commissioner may require that such school district or school provide full-day kindergarten classes, summer school, extended school day, weekend classes, tutorial assistance to its students or professional development to its administrators, principals, teachers and paraprofessional teacher aides if (1) on any subpart of the third grade state-wide mastery examination, thirty per cent or more of the students in any subgroup, as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, do not achieve the level of proficiency or higher, or (2) the commissioner determines that it would be in the best educational interests of the school or the school district to have any of these programs. In ordering any educational program authorized by this subsection, the commissioner may limit the offering of the program to the subgroup of students that have failed to achieve proficiency as determined by this subsection, those in particular grades or those who are otherwise at substantial risk of educational failure. The costs of instituting the ordered educational programs shall be borne by the identified low achieving school district or the school district in which an identified low achieving school is located. The commissioner shall not order an educational program that costs more to implement than the total increase in the amount of the grant that a town receives pursuant to section 10-262i in any fiscal year above the prior fiscal year.

      (f) The Commissioner of Education shall conduct a study, within the limits of the capacity of the Department of Education to perform such study, of academic achievement of individual students over time as measured by performance on the state-wide mastery examination in grades three to eight, inclusive. If this study evidences a pattern of continuous and substantial growth in educational performance on said examinations for individual students, then the commissioner may determine that the school district or elementary school shall not be subject to the requirements of subsection (e) of this section, but shall still comply with the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, P.L. 107-110, if applicable.

      (May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-7, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 32.)

      History: May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-7 effective August 15, 2002; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 added Subsecs. (c) to (f) re low achieving schools or districts and direction by the State Board of Education, re monitoring of progress by State Board of Education, re evaluation by Commissioner of Education and re study of academic achievement, respectively, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-223f. Pilot program for inclusion of charter school data to determine a district's adequate yearly progress. (a) For the fiscal years ending June 30, 2008, to June 30, 2013, inclusive, there shall be a pilot program concerning the determination of adequate yearly progress for the school districts for Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven. Under the program, the Department of Education shall determine the adequate yearly progress, as defined in the state accountability plan prepared in accordance with subsection (a) of section 10-223e, for each district with data from each school under the jurisdiction of the board of education for such district and data from any state charter school, as defined in subdivision (3) of section 10-66aa, located in such district, provided the local board of education for such district and the charter school reach mutual agreement for the inclusion of the data from the charter schools and the terms of such agreement are approved by the State Board of Education.

      (b) Not later than October 1, 2013, the Department of Education shall report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, the results of the determination of adequate yearly progress for any school district that participates in the pilot program pursuant to subsection (a) of this section to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to education.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 54.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-228a. Free textbook loans to pupils attending nonpublic schools. Each local and regional board of education may, at the request of any nonpublic elementary or secondary school pupil, including a kindergarten pupil, residing in and attending a nonpublic school in such district, or at the request of the parent or guardian of such pupil, or at the request of an administrator at the nonpublic school, on behalf of the pupil, arrange for a loan of nonreligious textbooks available to the local or regional board of education from a book distributor used by such board to such pupil, free of charge, provided the loan of any such textbook shall be requested for not less than one semester's use.

      (P.A. 75-397; P.A. 78-218, S. 157; P.A 07-190, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 78-218 specified local and regional boards and deleted reference to school districts; P.A. 07-190 added provisions re request of nonpublic school administrator on behalf of pupil and requiring that books be nonreligious and be available to board of education by distributor used by board, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-231b. Pesticide applications at schools: Authorized applications. Ban. Exceptions. (a) No person, other than a pesticide applicator with supervisory certification under section 22a-54 or a pesticide applicator with operational certification under section 22a-54 under the direct supervision of a supervisory pesticide applicator, may apply pesticide within any building or on the grounds of any school, other than a regional vocational agriculture center. This section shall not apply in the case of an emergency application of pesticide to eliminate an immediate threat to human health where it is impractical to obtain the services of any such applicator provided such emergency application does not involve a restricted use pesticide, as defined in section 22a-47.

      (b) No person shall apply a lawn care pesticide on the grounds of any public or private preschool or public or private school with students in grade eight or lower, except that (1) on and after January 1, 2006, until July 1, 2009, an application of a lawn care pesticide may be made at a public or private school with students in grade eight or lower on the playing fields and playgrounds of such school pursuant to an integrated pest management plan, which plan (A) shall be consistent with the model pest control management plan developed by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection pursuant to section 22a-66l, and (B) may be developed by a local or regional board of education for all public schools under its control, and (2) an emergency application of a lawn care pesticide may be made to eliminate a threat to human health, as determined by the local health director, the Commissioner of Public Health, the Commissioner of Environmental Protection or, in the case of a public school, the school superintendent.

      (P.A. 99-165, S. 2, 6; P.A. 05-252, S. 3; P.A. 06-14, S. 2; 06-196, S. 224; P.A. 07-168, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 99-165 effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 05-252 designated existing language as Subsec. (a) and made a technical change therein, and added Subsec. (b) to prohibit, with certain exceptions, the use of lawn care pesticides on the grounds of a public or private preschool or public or private elementary school, effective January 1, 2006; P.A. 06-14 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-168 amended Subsec. (b) to extend ban to any school with students grade eight or lower, and to extend end date of when certain applications are permitted to July 1, 2009.

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      Sec. 10-233a. *(See end of section for amended version of subdivision (c) and effective date.) Definitions. Whenever used in sections 10-233a to 10-233g, inclusive:

      (a) "Exclusion" means any denial of public school privileges to a pupil for disciplinary purposes.

      (b) "Removal" means an exclusion from a classroom for all or part of a single class period, provided such exclusion shall not extend beyond ninety minutes.

      *(c) "In-school suspension" means an exclusion from regular classroom activity for no more than five consecutive school days, but not exclusion from school, provided such exclusion shall not extend beyond the end of the school year in which such in-school suspension was imposed.

      (d) "Suspension" means an exclusion from school privileges or from transportation services only for no more than ten consecutive school days, provided such exclusion shall not extend beyond the end of the school year in which such suspension was imposed.

      (e) "Expulsion" means an exclusion from school privileges for more than ten consecutive school days and shall be deemed to include, but not be limited to, exclusion from the school to which such pupil was assigned at the time such disciplinary action was taken, provided such exclusion shall not extend beyond a period of one calendar year.

      (f) "Emergency" means a situation under which the continued presence of the pupil in school poses such a danger to persons or property or such a disruption of the educational process that a hearing may be delayed until a time as soon after the exclusion of such pupil as possible.

      (g) "School" means any school under the direction of a local or regional board of education or any school for which one or more such boards of education pays eighty per cent or more of the tuition costs for students enrolled in such school.

      (h) "School-sponsored activity" means any activity sponsored, recognized or authorized by a board of education and includes activities conducted on or off school property.

      (P.A. 75-609, S. 1; P.A. 78-218, S. 162; P.A. 79-136, S. 1, 2; 79-236, S. 1; P.A. 80-483, S. 42, 186; P.A. 83-119, S. 1, 8; P.A. 86-398, S. 1; P.A. 95-304, S. 4, 9.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2008, subdivision (c) of this section, as amended by section 1 of public act 07-66, is to read as follows:

      "(c) "In-school suspension" means an exclusion from regular classroom activity for no more than ten consecutive school days, but not exclusion from school, provided such exclusion shall not extend beyond the end of the school year in which such in-school suspension was imposed."

      (P.A. 75-609, S. 1; P.A. 78-218, S. 162; P.A. 79-136, S. 1, 2; 79-236, S. 1; P.A. 80-483, S. 42, 186; P.A. 83-119, S. 1, 8; P.A. 86-398, S. 1; P.A. 95-304, S. 4, 9; P.A. 07-66, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 78-218 specified local or regional boards in Subsec. (f) and replaced "school boards" with "boards of education"; P.A. 79-136 redefined "expulsion" to replace requirement that exclusion from school not extend beyond school year in which imposed with provision that exclusion may carry over but may not be for more than 180 consecutive school days; P.A. 79-236 inserted definition of "in-school suspension" as Subsec. (c) and relettered remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 80-483 extended applicability of definitions by substituting "10-233g" for "10-233e"; P.A. 83-119 redefined "suspension" to include exclusion from transportation services only; P.A. 86-398 added Subdiv. (h) defining "school-sponsored activity"; P.A. 95-304 amended Subsec. (e) to base time limitation on expulsions on calendar year rather than school year, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 07-66 amended Subdiv. (c) defining "in-school suspension" to increase maximum consecutive days from 5 to 10, effective July 1, 2008.

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      Sec. 10-233c. *(See end of section for new subsection (g) and effective date.) Suspension of pupils. (a) Any local or regional board of education may authorize the administration of the schools under its direction to suspend from school privileges any pupil whose conduct on school grounds or at a school sponsored activity is violative of a publicized policy of such board or is seriously disruptive of the educational process or endangers persons or property or whose conduct off school grounds is violative of such policy and is seriously disruptive of the educational process. In making a determination as to whether conduct is seriously disruptive of the educational process, the administration may consider, but such consideration shall not be limited to: (1) Whether the incident occurred within close proximity of a school; (2) whether other students from the school were involved or whether there was any gang involvement; (3) whether the conduct involved violence, threats of violence or the unlawful use of a weapon, as defined in section 29-38, and whether any injuries occurred; and (4) whether the conduct involved the use of alcohol. Any such board may authorize the administration to suspend transportation services for any pupil whose conduct while awaiting or receiving transportation to and from school endangers persons or property or is violative of a publicized policy of such board. Unless an emergency exists, no pupil shall be suspended without an informal hearing by the administration, at which such pupil shall be informed of the reasons for the disciplinary action and given an opportunity to explain the situation, provided nothing herein shall be construed to prevent a more formal hearing from being held if the circumstances surrounding the incident so require, and further provided no pupil shall be suspended more than ten times or a total of fifty days in one school year, whichever results in fewer days of exclusion, unless such pupil is granted a formal hearing pursuant to sections 4-176e to 4-180a, inclusive, and section 4-181a. If an emergency situation exists, such hearing shall be held as soon after the suspension as possible.

      (b) In determining the length of a suspension period, the administration may receive and consider evidence of past disciplinary problems which have led to removal from a classroom, suspension or expulsion of such pupil.

      (c) Whenever any administration suspends a pupil, such administration shall not later than twenty-four hours after the suspension notify the superintendent or such superintendent's designee as to the name of the pupil against whom such disciplinary action was taken and the reason therefor.

      (d) Any pupil who is suspended shall be given an opportunity to complete any classwork including, but not limited to, examinations which such pupil missed during the period of suspension.

      (e) For any pupil who is suspended for the first time pursuant to this section and who has never been expelled pursuant to section 10-233d, the administration may shorten the length of or waive the suspension period if the pupil successfully completes an administration-specified program and meets any other conditions required by the administration. Such administration-specified program shall not require the pupil or the parent or guardian of the pupil to pay for participation in the program.

      (f) Whenever a pupil is suspended pursuant to the provisions of this section, notice of the suspension and the conduct for which the pupil was suspended shall be included on the pupil's cumulative educational record. Such notice shall be expunged from the cumulative educational record by the local or regional board of education if a pupil graduates from high school, or in the case of a suspension of a pupil for which the length of the suspension period is shortened or the suspension period is waived pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, such notice shall be expunged from the cumulative educational record by the local or regional board of education (1) if the pupil graduates from high school, or (2) if the administration so chooses, at the time the pupil completes the administration-specified program and meets any other conditions required by the administration pursuant to said subsection (e), whichever is earlier.

      (P.A. 75-609, S. 3; P.A. 78-218, S. 164; P.A. 79-115, S. 1, 3; P.A. 83-119, S. 2, 8; P.A. 84-546, S. 24, 173; P.A. 88-317, S. 56, 107; P.A. 94-221, S. 3; P.A. 96-244, S. 18, 63; P.A. 97-247, S. 16, 27; P.A. 98-139, S. 1, 3; P.A. 07-122, S. 1.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2008, this section is amended by section 2 of public act 07-66 to add new subsection (g) as follows:

      "(g) Suspensions pursuant to this section shall be in-school suspensions, unless during the hearing held pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the administration determines that the pupil being suspended poses such a danger to persons or property or such a disruption of the educational process that the pupil shall be excluded from school during the period of suspension."

      (P.A. 75-609, S. 3; P.A. 78-218, S. 164; P.A. 79-115, S. 1, 3; P.A. 83-119, S. 2, 8; P.A. 84-546, S. 24, 173; P.A. 88-317, S. 56, 107; P.A. 94-221, S. 3; P.A. 96-244, S. 18, 63; P.A. 97-247, S. 16, 27; P.A. 98-139, S. 1, 3; P.A. 07-66, S. 2; 07-122, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 78-218 specified local boards of education rather than town boards, deleted reference to school districts and substituted "such principal's" for "his" in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-115 inserted new Subsec. (b) re consideration of past disciplinary problems in determining length of suspension and relettered former Subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d); P.A. 83-119 authorized boards of education to suspend transportation services from any pupil whose conduct while waiting for or receiving transportation endangers person or property or violates published policy of the board, and changed references from "building principal" or his designee to "administration"; P.A. 84-546 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-177 to 4-180 in Subsec. (a) to include new sections added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 94-221 added Subsec. (e) re inclusion of notice of suspension in the cumulative educational record; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions relating to where the conduct took place and establishing distinct criteria for suspension for conduct on school grounds or at a school sponsored activity and off school grounds, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 97-247 amended Subsec. (e) to eliminate a requirement to expunge the notice if a pupil is not expelled or suspended again during the two-year period commencing on the date of his return to school from the suspension, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-139 amended Subsec. (a) to add criteria for consideration in determining whether conduct is seriously disruptive of the educational process, effective June 4, 1998; P.A. 07-66 added new subsection, designated as Subsec. (g), re requirement that suspensions be in-school, effective July 1, 2008, P.A. 07-122 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), added new Subsec. (e) re program for first time suspensions, redesignated existing Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f) and added provision therein re shortened or waived suspension period, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-233d. Expulsion of pupils. (a)(1) Any local or regional board of education, at a meeting at which three or more members of such board are present, or the impartial hearing board established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, may expel, subject to the provisions of this subsection, any pupil whose conduct on school grounds or at a school-sponsored activity is violative of a publicized policy of such board or is seriously disruptive of the educational process or endangers persons or property or whose conduct off school grounds is violative of such policy and is seriously disruptive of the educational process, provided a majority of the board members sitting in the expulsion hearing vote to expel and that at least three affirmative votes for expulsion are cast. In making a determination as to whether conduct is seriously disruptive of the educational process, the board of education or impartial hearing board may consider, but such consideration shall not be limited to: (A) Whether the incident occurred within close proximity of a school; (B) whether other students from the school were involved or whether there was any gang involvement; (C) whether the conduct involved violence, threats of violence or the unlawful use of a weapon, as defined in section 29-38, and whether any injuries occurred; and (D) whether the conduct involved the use of alcohol.

      (2) Expulsion proceedings pursuant to this section, except as provided in subsection (i) of this section shall be required whenever there is reason to believe that any pupil (A) on school grounds or at a school-sponsored activity, was in possession of a firearm, as defined in 18 USC 921, as amended from time to time, or deadly weapon, dangerous instrument or martial arts weapon, as defined in section 53a-3, (B) off school grounds, did possess such a firearm in violation of section 29-35 or did possess and use such a firearm, instrument or weapon in the commission of a crime under chapter 952, or (C) on or off school grounds, offered for sale or distribution a controlled substance, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 21a-240, whose manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription, dispensing, transporting or possessing with intent to sell or dispense, offering, or administering is subject to criminal penalties under sections 21a-277 and 21a-278. Such a pupil shall be expelled for one calendar year if the local or regional board of education or impartial hearing board finds that the pupil did so possess or so possess and use, as appropriate, such a firearm, instrument or weapon or did so offer for sale or distribution such a controlled substance, provided the board of education or the hearing board may modify the period of expulsion for a pupil on a case by case basis, and as provided for in subdivision (2) of subsection (c) of this section.

      (3) Unless an emergency exists, no pupil shall be expelled without a formal hearing held pursuant to sections 4-176e to 4-180a, inclusive, and section 4-181a, provided whenever such pupil is a minor, the notice required by section 4-177 and section 4-180 shall also be given to the parents or guardian of the pupil. If an emergency exists, such hearing shall be held as soon after the expulsion as possible. The notice shall include information concerning legal services provided free of charge or at a reduced rate that are available locally and how to access such services.

      (b) For purposes of conducting expulsion hearings as required by subsection (a) of this section, any local or regional board of education or any two or more of such boards in cooperation may establish an impartial hearing board of one or more persons. No member of any such board or boards shall be a member of the hearing board. The hearing board shall have the authority to conduct the expulsion hearing and render a final decision in accordance with the provisions of sections 4-176e to 4-180a, inclusive, and section 4-181a.

      (c) (1) In determining the length of an expulsion and the nature of the alternative educational opportunity to be offered under subsection (d) of this section, the local or regional board of education, or the impartial hearing board established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, may receive and consider evidence of past disciplinary problems which have led to removal from a classroom, suspension or expulsion of such pupil.

      (2) For any pupil expelled for the first time pursuant to this section and who has never been suspended pursuant to section 10-233c, the local or regional board of education may shorten the length of or waive the expulsion period if the pupil successfully completes a board-specified program and meets any other conditions required by the board. Such board-specified program shall not require the pupil or the parent or guardian of the pupil to pay for participation in the program.

      (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 10-220, local and regional boards of education shall only be required to offer an alternative educational opportunity in accordance with this section. Any pupil under sixteen years of age who is expelled shall be offered an alternative educational opportunity during the period of expulsion, provided any parent or guardian of such pupil who does not choose to have his or her child enrolled in an alternative program shall not be subject to the provisions of section 10-184. Any pupil expelled for the first time who is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen and who wishes to continue his or her education shall be offered an alternative educational opportunity if he or she complies with conditions established by his or her local or regional board of education. Such alternative may include, but shall not be limited to, the placement of a pupil who is at least sixteen years of age in an adult education program pursuant to section 10-69. A local or regional board of education shall count the expulsion of a pupil when he was under sixteen years of age for purposes of determining whether an alternative educational opportunity is required for such pupil when he is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen. A local or regional board of education may offer an alternative educational opportunity to a pupil for whom such alternative educational opportunity is not required pursuant to this section.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section concerning the provision of an alternative educational opportunity for pupils between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, local and regional boards of education shall not be required to offer such alternative to any pupil between the ages of sixteen and eighteen who is expelled because of conduct which endangers persons if it is determined at the expulsion hearing that the conduct for which the pupil is expelled involved (1) possession of a firearm, as defined in 18 USC 921, as amended from time to time, or deadly weapon, dangerous instrument or martial arts weapon, as defined in section 53a-3, on school property or at a school-sponsored activity, or (2) offering for sale or distribution on school property or at a school-sponsored activity a controlled substance, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 21a-240, whose manufacture, distribution, sale, prescription, dispensing, transporting or possessing with the intent to sell or dispense, offering, or administration is subject to criminal penalties under sections 21a-277 and 21a-278. If a pupil is expelled pursuant to this section for possession of a firearm or deadly weapon the board of education shall report the violation to the local police department or in the case of a student enrolled in a regional vocational-technical school to the state police. If a pupil is expelled pursuant to this section for the sale or distribution of such a controlled substance, the board of education shall refer the pupil to an appropriate state or local agency for rehabilitation, intervention or job training, or any combination thereof, and inform the agency of its action. Whenever a local or regional board of education notifies a pupil between the ages of sixteen and eighteen or the parents or guardian of such pupil that an expulsion hearing will be held, the notification shall include a statement that the board of education is not required to offer an alternative educational opportunity to any pupil who is found to have engaged in the conduct described in this subsection.

      (f) (1) Whenever a pupil is expelled pursuant to the provisions of this section, notice of the expulsion and the conduct for which the pupil was expelled shall be included on the pupil's cumulative educational record. Such notice, except for notice of an expulsion based on possession of a firearm or deadly weapon as described in subsection (a) of this section, shall be expunged from the cumulative educational record by the local or regional board of education if a pupil graduates from high school, except as provided for in subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (2) In the case of a pupil for which the length of the expulsion period is shortened or the expulsion period is waived pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (c) of this section, such notice shall be expunged from the cumulative educational record by the local or regional board of education (A) if the pupil graduates from high school, or (B) if the board so chooses, at the time the pupil completes the board-specified program and meets any other conditions required by the board pursuant to said subdivision (2), whichever is earlier.

      (g) A local or regional board of education may adopt the decision of a pupil expulsion hearing conducted by another school district provided such local or regional board of education or impartial hearing board shall hold a hearing pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section which shall be limited to a determination of whether the conduct which was the basis for the expulsion would also warrant expulsion under the policies of such board. The pupil shall be excluded from school pending such hearing. The excluded student shall be offered an alternative educational opportunity in accordance with the provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of this section.

      (h) Whenever a pupil against whom an expulsion hearing is pending withdraws from school after notification of such hearing but before the hearing is completed and a decision rendered pursuant to this section, (1) notice of the pending expulsion hearing shall be included on the pupil's cumulative educational record and (2) the local or regional board of education or impartial hearing board shall complete the expulsion hearing and render a decision. If such pupil enrolls in school in another school district, such pupil shall not be excluded from school in the other district pending completion of the expulsion hearing pursuant to this subsection unless an emergency exists, provided nothing in this subsection shall limit the authority of the local or regional board of education for such district to suspend the pupil or to conduct its own expulsion hearing in accordance with this section.

      (i) Prior to conducting an expulsion hearing for a child requiring special education and related services described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (5) of section 10-76a, a planning and placement team shall convene to determine whether the misconduct was caused by the child's disability. If it is determined that the misconduct was caused by the child's disability, the child shall not be expelled. The planning and placement team shall reevaluate the child for the purpose of modifying the child's individualized education program to address the misconduct and to ensure the safety of other children and staff in the school. If it is determined that the misconduct was not caused by the child's disability, the child may be expelled in accordance with the provisions of this section applicable to children who do not require special education and related services. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of this section, whenever a child requiring such special education and related services is expelled, an alternative educational opportunity, consistent with such child's educational needs shall be provided during the period of expulsion.

      (j) An expelled pupil may apply for early readmission to school. Except as provided in this subsection, such readmission shall be at the discretion of the local or regional board of education. The board of education may delegate authority for readmission decisions to the superintendent of schools for the school district. If the board delegates such authority, readmission shall be at the discretion of the superintendent. Readmission decisions shall not be subject to appeal to Superior Court. The board or superintendent, as appropriate, may condition such readmission on specified criteria.

      (k) Local and regional boards of education shall submit to the Commissioner of Education such information on expulsions for the possession of weapons as required for purposes of the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, 20 USC 8921 et seq., as amended from time to time.

      (P.A. 75-609, S. 4; P.A. 78-218, S. 165; P.A. 79-115, S. 2, 3; 79-369, S. 1, 2; P.A. 81-215, S. 1, 3; P.A. 82-118, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-218, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 70, 96; P.A. 84-546, S. 25, 173; P.A. 86-398, S. 2; P.A. 88-317, S. 57, 107; P.A. 92-37, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-35, S. 1-3; P.A. 94-221, S. 2; P.A. 95-304, S. 5, 9; P.A. 96-146, S. 9, 12; 96-244, S. 19-21, 63; P.A. 98-139, S. 2, 3; P.A. 00-157, S. 4, 8; P.A. 07-122, S. 2; 07-217, S. 45; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3, S. 49.)

      History: P.A. 78-218 substituted "local" for "town" boards of education, deleted reference to school districts and included feminine personal pronoun in Subsec. (c); P.A. 79-115 inserted new Subsec. (b) re consideration of past disciplinary problems in determining length of expulsion and alternative educational opportunity to be offered and relettered former Subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d); P.A. 79-369 required presence of at least three members at meeting for expulsion and required majority vote, with at least three votes in favor of expulsion, for expulsion to be effected in Subsec. (a) and made technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 81-215 inserted new Subsec. (b) authorizing boards of education to establish impartial hearing boards for the purpose of conducting expulsion hearings, relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly and amended Subsec. (e) to limit the mandatory provision of an alternative educational opportunity to pupils under 18 years of age, but specified that age limitation shall not apply to special education pupils; P.A. 82-118 repealed Subsec. (d) which required notification be sent to state board of education of any student against whom disciplinary action was taken, relettering Subsec. (e) accordingly, reduced age limitation on offering of alternative educational opportunities to expelled students from 18 to 16 and made offering of such programs to 16 to 18-year-olds made conditional on students' acceptance of board of education requirements in newly relettered Subsec. (d); P.A. 83-218 added Subsec. (e) limiting requirement that boards of education offer alternative educational opportunities to expelled students between the ages of 16 and 18; P.A. 83-587 made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 84-546 made technical change, substituting references to pupils for references to students in Subsecs. (d) and (e); P.A. 86-398 amended Subsec. (e) by restructuring it and by not requiring boards of education to offer alternative educational opportunities to students expelled for offering controlled substances for sale or distribution and by imposing certain duties on boards of education; P.A. 88-317 amended references to Secs. 4-177 to 4-180 in Subsecs. (a) and (b) to include new sections added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 92-37 added Subsecs. (f) and (g) concerning the notice on the cumulative educational record and the adoption of the decision of another school district, respectively; P.A. 93-35 amended Subsec. (g) to limit the scope of the hearing and added Subsec. (h) concerning procedure when pupil who faces expulsion hearing withdraws from school, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for mandatory expulsion proceedings whenever there is reason to believe that a pupil was in possession of a weapon on school grounds and to provide for mandatory expulsion if it is determined as a result of the proceedings that the pupil did so possess the weapon and expanded Subsec. (e)(1) to include firearms and deadly weapons, to apply the provisions to school-sponsored activities and to provide for the referral to a planning and placement team of special education students; P.A. 95-304 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for expulsions for conduct off school grounds, to change the provisions concerning possession of a weapon and to provide for case by case modification of the period of expulsion, amended Subsec. (d) to limit the requirement for the provision of an alternative educational opportunity for pupils between 16 and 18 years of age to such pupils "expelled for the first time", to add provision on the counting of expulsions prior to 16 years of age, to remove language concerning special education students and language specifying that an alternative educational placement may include placement in a regular classroom program in another school and to add language on placement in an adult education program, amended Subsec. (e) to add requirement for report to the police in specified cases, to delete requirement for the board to report to the Commissioner of Education referrals based on the sale or distribution of controlled substances and to delete provisions concerning special education students, amended Subsec. (f) to add exception for possession of a firearm or deadly weapon, added Subsec. (i) re special education students and Subsec. (j) re information on expulsions for the possession of weapons and made technical corrections, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-146 made technical change in Subsec. (i), effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (a) to rewrite the criteria for expulsion for conduct based on where the conduct took place, to insert Subdiv. and Subpara. designations, to make the existing language Subpara. (A) and to apply it to conduct on school grounds or at a school sponsored activity, in Subpara. (A) to delete requirement that the possession be in violation of Secs. 29-35 or 53a-3, to add the cite to federal law for the definition of "firearm", to add "dangerous instrument or martial arts weapon", to add Subpara. (B) re conduct off school grounds and Subpara. (C) re controlled substances, amended Subsec. (e) to apply the federal definition for "firearm", to add "martial arts weapon" and to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (f) to delete provision requiring removal of the notice of expulsion from the cumulative record if the pupil is not expelled again or suspended one or more times during the 2-year period commencing on the date of return to school from the expulsion, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 98-139 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to add criteria for consideration in determining whether conduct is seriously disruptive of the educational process, added new Subsec. (j) re readmission and redesignated existing Subsec. (j) as Subsec. (k), effective June 4, 1998 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a)(1)(D) the word "in" in the phrase "whether the conduct involved in the use of alcohol" was deleted editorially by the Revisors for grammatical accuracy); P.A. 00-157 amended Subsec. (d) to specify that boards of education are only required to offer an alternative educational opportunity in accordance with this section, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 07-122 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(2), amended Subsec. (c) to designate existing language as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdiv. (2) re program for first time expulsions, and amended Subsec. (f) to designate existing language as Subdiv. (1), make a technical change therein and add Subdiv. (2) re shortened or waived expulsion period, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective July 12, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-3 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to add language re legal services information, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 10-239d. Demonstration board and staff. Scholarships. The local or regional board of education may establish a demonstration board and staff and may authorize it to administer the demonstration project authorized by sections 10-239a to 10-239h, inclusive, provided the costs of such organization shall be borne by the contracting federal agency. The members of the demonstration board, if it is not the local or regional board of education itself, shall serve for the terms established by the appointing board.

      (1) The demonstration board may: (A) Employ a staff for the demonstration board, (B) receive and expend funds to support the demonstration board and scholarships for children in the demonstration area, (C) contract with other government agencies and private persons or organizations to provide or receive services, supplies, facilities and equipment, (D) determine rules and regulations for use of scholarships in the demonstration area, (E) adopt rules and regulations for its own government, (F) receive and expend funds from the federal governmental agency necessary to pay for the costs incurred in administering the program, (G) otherwise provide the specified programs, services and activities.

      (2) The demonstration board shall award a scholarship to each school child residing in the demonstration area, subject only to such age and grade restrictions which it may establish. The scholarship funds shall be made available to the parents or legal guardian of a scholarship recipient in the form of a drawing right, certificate or other document which may not be redeemed except for educational purposes.

      (3) The demonstration board shall establish the amount of the scholarship in a fair and impartial manner as follows: There shall be a basic scholarship equal in amount to every other basic scholarship for every eligible student in the demonstration area. In no case shall the amount of the basic scholarship fall below the level of average current expense per pupil for corresponding grade levels in the public schools in the demonstration area in the year immediately preceding the demonstration program.

      (4) In addition to each base scholarship, compensatory scholarships shall be given to disadvantaged children. The amount of such compensatory scholarships and the manner by which children may qualify for them shall be established by the demonstration board.

      (5) Adequate provision for the pro rata or incremental redemption of scholarships shall be made.

      (6) The contract shall provide sufficient money to pay all actual and necessary transportation costs incurred by parents in sending their children to the school of their choice within the demonstration area, subject to distance limitations imposed by existing law.

      (7) The contract shall specify that the contracting federal governmental agency shall hold harmless the participating board from any possible decreased economies of scale or increased costs per pupil caused by the transition to a demonstration program.

      (1972, P.A. 122, S. 4; P.A. 78-218, S. 173; P.A. 07-217, S. 46.)

      History: P.A. 78-218 substituted "local" for "town" boards of education; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subdiv. (1), effective July 12, 2007.

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