CHAPTER 14
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT

Table of Contents

Sec. 1-205. (Formerly Sec. 1-21j). Freedom of Information Commission.
Sec. 1-206. (Formerly Sec. 1-21i). Denial of access to public records or meetings. Appeals. Notice. Orders. Civil penalty. Service of process upon commission. Frivolous appeals.
Sec. 1-210. (Formerly Sec. 1-19). Access to public records. Exempt records.
Sec. 1-225. (Formerly Sec. 1-21). Meetings of government agencies to be public. Recording of votes. Schedule and agenda of meetings to be filed and posted on web sites. Notice of special meetings. Executive sessions.

      Sec. 1-205. (Formerly Sec. 1-21j). Freedom of Information Commission. (a) There shall be a Freedom of Information Commission consisting of five members appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of either house of the General Assembly, who shall serve for terms of four years from the July first of the year of their appointment, except that of the members appointed prior to and serving on July 1, 1977, one shall serve for a period of six years from July 1, 1975, one shall serve for a period of four years from July 1, 1975, and one shall serve for a period of six years from July 1, 1977. Of the two new members first appointed after July 1, 1977, one shall serve from the date of such appointment until June 30, 1980, and one shall serve from the date of such appointment until June 30, 1982. No more than three members shall be members of the same political party.

      (b) Each member shall receive two hundred dollars per day for each day such member is present at a commission hearing or meeting, and shall be entitled to reimbursement for actual and necessary expenses incurred in connection therewith, in accordance with the provisions of section 4-1.

      (c) The Governor shall select one of its members as a chairman. The commission shall maintain a permanent office at Hartford in such suitable space as the Commissioner of Public Works provides. All papers required to be filed with the commission shall be delivered to such office.

      (d) The commission shall, subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act promptly review the alleged violation of said Freedom of Information Act and issue an order pertaining to the same. Said commission shall have the power to investigate all alleged violations of said Freedom of Information Act and may for the purpose of investigating any violation hold a hearing, administer oaths, examine witnesses, receive oral and documentary evidence, have the power to subpoena witnesses under procedural rules adopted by the commission to compel attendance and to require the production for examination of any books and papers which the commission deems relevant in any matter under investigation or in question. In case of a refusal to comply with any such subpoena or to testify with respect to any matter upon which that person may be lawfully interrogated, the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, on application of the commission, may issue an order requiring such person to comply with such subpoena and to testify; failure to obey any such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

      (e) The Freedom of Information Commission, and the Department of Information Technology with respect to access to and disclosure of computer-stored public records, shall conduct training sessions, at least annually, for members of public agencies for the purpose of educating such members as to the requirements of sections 1-7 to 1-14, inclusive, 1-16 to 1-18, inclusive, 1-200 to 1-202, inclusive, 1-205, 1-206, 1-210 to 1-217, inclusive, 1-225 to 1-232, inclusive, 1-240, 1-241 and 19a-342.

      (f) Not later than December 31, 2001, the Freedom of Information Commission shall create, publish and provide to the chief elected official of each municipality a model ordinance concerning the establishment by any municipality of a municipal freedom of information advisory board to facilitate the informed and efficient exchange of information between the commission and such municipality. The commission may amend the model ordinance from time to time.

      (g) When the General Assembly is in session, the Governor shall have the authority to fill any vacancy on the commission, with the advice and consent of either house of the General Assembly. When the General Assembly is not in session any vacancy shall be filled pursuant to the provisions of section 4-19. A vacancy in the commission shall not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise all the powers of the commission and three members of the commission shall constitute a quorum.

      (h) The commission shall, subject to the provisions of chapter 67, employ such employees as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter. The commission may enter into such contractual agreements as may be necessary for the discharge of its duties, within the limits of its appropriated funds and in accordance with established procedures.

      (i) The Freedom of Information Commission shall not be construed to be a commission or board within the meaning of section 4-9a.

      (P.A. 75-342, S. 15, 19; P.A. 77-609, S. 7, 8; 77-614, S. 73, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 8, 127; 78-315, S. 3, 4; P.A. 79-560, S. 1, 39; 79-575, S. 1, 4; P.A. 86-390, S. 1, 2, 4; P.A. 87-496, S. 5, 110; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 89-251, S. 57, 203; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-347, S. 3, 5; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 97-47, S. 13; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-9, S. 27, 50; P.A. 00-136, S. 8, 10; P.A. 06-187, S. 69; P.A. 07-202, S. 13.)

      History: P.A. 77-609 increased the number of commission members to five, changed the terms of members to four years, provided that not more than three members belong to the same political party and added Subsecs. (e) and (f); P.A. 77-614 changed "public works commissioner" to "commissioner of administrative services"; P.A. 78-280 changed "court of common pleas for the county of Hartford" to "superior court for the judicial district of Hartford-New Britain"; P.A. 78-315 added Subsec. (i); P.A. 79-560 changed "fiscal and budgetary" purposes to "administrative" purposes; P.A. 79-575 changed per diem to $50, allowed for reimbursement for expenses and added Subsecs. (g) and (h); P.A. 86-390 deleted provision in Subsec. (a) placing commission within the office of the secretary of the state for administrative purposes only and deleted provision in Subsec. (c) requiring secretary of the state to provide secretarial assistance to the commission; P.A. 87-496 substituted public works commissioner for administrative services commissioner in Subsec. (c); P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 89-251 set the fee for documents at not less than $28 per item; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 91-347 inserted "and the office of information and technology with respect to access to and disclosure of computer-stored public records" in Subsec. (e), effective July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-47 amended Subsec. (d) by substituting "the Freedom of Information Act" for list of sections; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-9 amended Subsec. (e) by substituting "Department of Information Technology" for "Office of Information and Technology", effective July 1, 1997; Sec. 1-21j transferred to Sec. 1-205 in 1999; P.A. 00-136 inserted new Subsec. (f) re a model ordinance for a municipal freedom of information advisory board, and redesignated former Subsecs. (f) to (i), inclusive, as (g) to (j), respectively, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 06-187 amended Subsec. (b) to change rate of compensation for members from $50 to $200 per day for attendance at commission meetings or hearings, effective May 26, 2006; P.A. 07-202 deleted former Subsec. (i) which had required commission to make printed reports of its decisions available to the public and redesignated existing Subsec. (j) as Subsec. (i), effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 1-206. (Formerly Sec. 1-21i). Denial of access to public records or meetings. Appeals. Notice. Orders. Civil penalty. Service of process upon commission. Frivolous appeals. (a) Any denial of the right to inspect or copy records provided for under section 1-210 shall be made to the person requesting such right by the public agency official who has custody or control of the public record, in writing, within four business days of such request, except when the request is determined to be subject to subsections (b) and (c) of section 1-214, in which case such denial shall be made, in writing, within ten business days of such request. Failure to comply with a request to so inspect or copy such public record within the applicable number of business days shall be deemed to be a denial.

      (b) (1) Any person denied the right to inspect or copy records under section 1-210 or wrongfully denied the right to attend any meeting of a public agency or denied any other right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act may appeal therefrom to the Freedom of Information Commission, by filing a notice of appeal with said commission. A notice of appeal shall be filed not later than thirty days after such denial, except in the case of an unnoticed or secret meeting, in which case the appeal shall be filed not later than thirty days after the person filing the appeal receives notice in fact that such meeting was held. For purposes of this subsection, such notice of appeal shall be deemed to be filed on the date it is received by said commission or on the date it is postmarked, if received more than thirty days after the date of the denial from which such appeal is taken. Upon receipt of such notice, the commission shall serve upon all parties, by certified or registered mail, a copy of such notice together with any other notice or order of such commission. In the case of the denial of a request to inspect or copy records contained in a public employee's personnel or medical file or similar file under subsection (c) of section 1-214, the commission shall include with its notice or order an order requiring the public agency to notify any employee whose records are the subject of an appeal, and the employee's collective bargaining representative, if any, of the commission's proceedings and, if any such employee or collective bargaining representative has filed an objection under said subsection (c), the agency shall provide the required notice to such employee and collective bargaining representative by certified mail, return receipt requested or by hand delivery with a signed receipt. A public employee whose personnel or medical file or similar file is the subject of an appeal under this subsection may intervene as a party in the proceedings on the matter before the commission. Said commission shall, after due notice to the parties, hear and decide the appeal within one year after the filing of the notice of appeal. The commission shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54, establishing criteria for those appeals which shall be privileged in their assignment for hearing. Any such appeal shall be heard not later than thirty days after receipt of a notice of appeal and decided not later than sixty days after the hearing. If a notice of appeal concerns an announced agency decision to meet in executive session or an ongoing agency practice of meeting in executive sessions, for a stated purpose, the commission or a member or members of the commission designated by its chairperson shall serve notice upon the parties in accordance with this section and hold a preliminary hearing on the appeal not later than seventy-two hours after receipt of the notice, provided such notice shall be given to the parties at least forty-eight hours prior to such hearing. During such preliminary hearing, the commission shall take evidence and receive testimony from the parties. If after the preliminary hearing the commission finds probable cause to believe that the agency decision or practice is in violation of sections 1-200 and 1-225, the agency shall not meet in executive session for such purpose until the commission decides the appeal. If probable cause is found by the commission, it shall conduct a final hearing on the appeal and render its decision not later than five days after the completion of the preliminary hearing. Such decision shall specify the commission's findings of fact and conclusions of law.

      (2) In any appeal to the Freedom of Information Commission under subdivision (1) of this subsection or subsection (c) of this section, the commission may confirm the action of the agency or order the agency to provide relief that the commission, in its discretion, believes appropriate to rectify the denial of any right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act. The commission may declare null and void any action taken at any meeting which a person was denied the right to attend and may require the production or copying of any public record. In addition, upon the finding that a denial of any right created by the Freedom of Information Act was without reasonable grounds and after the custodian or other official directly responsible for the denial has been given an opportunity to be heard at a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, the commission may, in its discretion, impose against the custodian or other official a civil penalty of not less than twenty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. If the commission finds that a person has taken an appeal under this subsection frivolously, without reasonable grounds and solely for the purpose of harassing the agency from which the appeal has been taken, after such person has been given an opportunity to be heard at a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, the commission may, in its discretion, impose against that person a civil penalty of not less than twenty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. The commission shall notify a person of a penalty levied against him pursuant to this subsection by written notice sent by certified or registered mail. If a person fails to pay the penalty within thirty days of receiving such notice, the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford shall, on application of the commission, issue an order requiring the person to pay the penalty imposed. If the executive director of the commission has reason to believe an appeal under subdivision (1) of this subsection or subsection (c) of this section (A) presents a claim beyond the commission's jurisdiction; (B) would perpetrate an injustice; or (C) would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process, the executive director shall not schedule the appeal for hearing without first seeking and obtaining leave of the commission. The commission shall provide due notice to the parties and review affidavits and written argument that the parties may submit and grant or deny such leave summarily at its next regular meeting. The commission shall grant such leave unless it finds that the appeal: (i) Does not present a claim within the commission's jurisdiction; (ii) would perpetrate an injustice; or (iii) would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process. Any party aggrieved by the commission's denial of such leave may apply to the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, within fifteen days of the commission meeting at which such leave was denied, for an order requiring the commission to hear such appeal.

      (3) In making the findings and determination under subdivision (2) of this subsection the commission shall consider the nature of any injustice or abuse of administrative process, including but not limited to: (A) The nature, content, language or subject matter of the request or the appeal; (B) the nature, content, language or subject matter of prior or contemporaneous requests or appeals by the person making the request or taking the appeal; and (C) the nature, content, language or subject matter of other verbal and written communications to any agency or any official of any agency from the person making the request or taking the appeal.

      (4) Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection to the contrary, in the case of an appeal to the commission of a denial by a public agency, the commission may, upon motion of such agency, confirm the action of the agency and dismiss the appeal without a hearing if it finds, after examining the notice of appeal and construing all allegations most favorably to the appellant, that (A) the agency has not violated the Freedom of Information Act, or (B) the agency has committed a technical violation of the Freedom of Information Act that constitutes a harmless error that does not infringe the appellant's rights under said act.

      (c) Any person who does not receive proper notice of any meeting of a public agency in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act may appeal under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section. A public agency of the state shall be presumed to have given timely and proper notice of any meeting as provided for in said Freedom of Information Act if notice is given in the Connecticut Law Journal or a Legislative Bulletin. A public agency of a political subdivision shall be presumed to have given proper notice of any meeting, if a notice is timely sent under the provisions of said Freedom of Information Act by first-class mail to the address indicated in the request of the person requesting the same. If such commission determines that notice was improper, it may, in its sound discretion, declare any or all actions taken at such meeting null and void.

      (d) Any party aggrieved by the decision of said commission may appeal therefrom, in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4-183, in any such appeal of a decision of the commission, the court may conduct an in camera review of the original or a certified copy of the records which are at issue in the appeal but were not included in the record of the commission's proceedings, admit the records into evidence and order the records to be sealed or inspected on such terms as the court deems fair and appropriate, during the appeal. The commission shall have standing to defend, prosecute or otherwise participate in any appeal of any of its decisions and to take an appeal from any judicial decision overturning or modifying a decision of the commission. If aggrievement is a jurisdictional prerequisite to the commission taking any such appeal, the commission shall be deemed to be aggrieved. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 3-125, legal counsel employed or retained by said commission shall represent said commission in all such appeals and in any other litigation affecting said commission. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of section 4-183 and section 52-64, all process shall be served upon said commission at its office. Any appeal taken pursuant to this section shall be privileged in respect to its assignment for trial over all other actions except writs of habeas corpus and actions brought by or on behalf of the state, including informations on the relation of private individuals. Nothing in this section shall deprive any party of any rights he may have had at common law prior to January 1, 1958. If the court finds that any appeal taken pursuant to this section or section 4-183 is frivolous or taken solely for the purpose of delay, it shall order the party responsible therefor to pay to the party injured by such frivolous or dilatory appeal costs or attorney's fees of not more than one thousand dollars. Such order shall be in addition to any other remedy or disciplinary action required or permitted by statute or by rules of court.

      (e) Within sixty days after the filing of a notice of appeal alleging violation of any right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act concerning records of the Department of Environmental Protection relating to the state's hazardous waste program under sections 22a-448 to 22a-454, inclusive, the Freedom of Information Commission shall, after notice to the parties, hear and decide the appeal. Failure by the commission to hear and decide the appeal within such sixty-day period shall constitute a final decision denying such appeal for purposes of this section and section 4-183. On appeal, the court may, in addition to any other powers conferred by law, order the disclosure of any such records withheld in violation of the Freedom of Information Act and may assess against the state reasonable attorney's fees and other litigation costs reasonably incurred in an appeal in which the complainant has prevailed against the Department of Environmental Protection.

      (P.A. 75-342, S. 14; P.A. 76-435, S. 25, 82; P.A. 77-403; 77-603, S. 2, 125; 77-609, S. 6, 8; P.A. 78-331, S. 57, 58; P.A. 81-431, S. 2, 3; P.A. 83-129, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 69, 96; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-31, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-112, S. 2, 3; 84-136; 84-311, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-408, S. 1, 4; P.A. 87-285, S. 2; 87-526, S. 4; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-317, S. 39, 107; 88-353, S. 2, 4; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; 90-307, S. 1, 5; P.A. 92-207, S. 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-191, S. 1, 4; P.A. 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 97-47, S. 10-12; P.A. 00-136, S. 6; P.A. 07-202, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 76-435 made technical changes; P.A. 77-403 changed "person" to "party"; P.A. 77-603 required that court appeals be made in accordance with Sec. 4-183; P.A. 77-609 changed provisions for appeals to freedom of information commission and provided that legal counsel represent the commission in court appeals; P.A. 78-331 made technical changes, reiterating amendments of P.A. 77-603; P.A. 81-431 added provisions in Subsec. (b) clarifying time of filing of notice of appeal and authorizing imposition of civil penalties for unreasonable denials, added a provision in Subsec. (d) re service of process upon the commission and deleted reference to commission's authority to impose fines for wilful and unreasonable denials; P.A. 83-129 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the commission to penalize those who bring frivolous appeals and amended Subsec. (d) by allowing the court to order those engaged in dilatory or frivolous appeals to pay the injured party's costs or attorney's fees; P.A. 83-587 made technical change in Subsec. (c); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-31 established an expedited hearing procedure for appeals involving executive sessions, effective July 1, 1984; P.A. 84-112 increased civil penalty for denial of right of access to records from $500 to $1,000; P.A. 84-136 provided for extended appeal period in the case of an unnoticed or secret meeting; P.A. 84-311 added provision re commission standing in appeals in Subsec. (d); P.A. 86-408 changed time limit for hearing and decision on appeal to one year after filing of notice and required that commission adopt regulations establishing criteria for privileged assignment for hearing for certain appeals which must be decided within 90 days after filing; P.A. 87-285 amended Subsec. (b) to require notice to the employee of any appeal to the commission regarding denial of access to his personnel or medical files, and to allow the employee to intervene as a party in the proceedings; P.A. 87-526 amended Subsec. (d) to allow court to conduct in camera review of records which are at issue in appeal but not included in record of commission's proceedings; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-317 amended references to Ch. 54 and Secs. 4-177 to 4-184 in Subsec. (b) to include new sections added to Ch. 54 and substituted "subsection (c) of section 4-183" for "subsection (b) of section 4-183" in Subsec. (d), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 88-353 added requirement in Subsec. (b) re notice to collective bargaining representative; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 90-307, S. 1, re appeals re records of environmental protection department relating to state hazardous waste program, was added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (e) in 1991; P.A. 92-207 amended Subsec. (a) to allow 10 days for the denial of the right to inspect and copy records and to require that denial be made in writing pursuant to Subsecs. (b) and (c) of Sec. 1-20a; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-191 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. designations, adding Subdiv. (2) provision regarding appeals which present a claim beyond the commission's jurisdiction, would perpetrate an injustice or would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process, adding Subdiv. (3) regarding considerations in determining injustice or abuse of administrative process, and adding Subdiv. (4) regarding dismissal without hearing, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-47 amended Subsecs. (b), (c) and (e) by substituting "the Freedom of Information Act" for list of sections; Sec. 1-21i transferred to Sec. 1-206 in 1999; P.A. 00-136 amended Subdiv. (b)(4) to insert Subpara. (A) designator and to add new language as Subpara. (B) re technical violations that constitute harmless error; P.A. 07-202 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to require commission to take evidence and receive testimony during the preliminary hearing, to require the decision to specify commission's findings of fact and conclusions of law and to make technical changes, effective July 10, 2007.

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      Sec. 1-210. (Formerly Sec. 1-19). Access to public records. Exempt records. (a) Except as otherwise provided by any federal law or state statute, all records maintained or kept on file by any public agency, whether or not such records are required by any law or by any rule or regulation, shall be public records and every person shall have the right to (1) inspect such records promptly during regular office or business hours, (2) copy such records in accordance with subsection (g) of section 1-212, or (3) receive a copy of such records in accordance with section 1-212. Any agency rule or regulation, or part thereof, that conflicts with the provisions of this subsection or diminishes or curtails in any way the rights granted by this subsection shall be void. Each such agency shall keep and maintain all public records in its custody at its regular office or place of business in an accessible place and, if there is no such office or place of business, the public records pertaining to such agency shall be kept in the office of the clerk of the political subdivision in which such public agency is located or of the Secretary of the State, as the case may be. Any certified record hereunder attested as a true copy by the clerk, chief or deputy of such agency or by such other person designated or empowered by law to so act, shall be competent evidence in any court of this state of the facts contained therein. Each such agency shall make, keep and maintain a record of the proceedings of its meetings.

      (b) Nothing in the Freedom of Information Act shall be construed to require disclosure of:

      (1) Preliminary drafts or notes provided the public agency has determined that the public interest in withholding such documents clearly outweighs the public interest in disclosure;

      (2) Personnel or medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of personal privacy;

      (3) Records of law enforcement agencies not otherwise available to the public which records were compiled in connection with the detection or investigation of crime, if the disclosure of said records would not be in the public interest because it would result in the disclosure of (A) the identity of informants not otherwise known or the identity of witnesses not otherwise known whose safety would be endangered or who would be subject to threat or intimidation if their identity was made known, (B) signed statements of witnesses, (C) information to be used in a prospective law enforcement action if prejudicial to such action, (D) investigatory techniques not otherwise known to the general public, (E) arrest records of a juvenile, which shall also include any investigatory files, concerning the arrest of such juvenile, compiled for law enforcement purposes, (F) the name and address of the victim of a sexual assault under section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b or 53a-73a, or injury or risk of injury, or impairing of morals under section 53-21, or of an attempt thereof, or (G) uncorroborated allegations subject to destruction pursuant to section 1-216;

      (4) Records pertaining to strategy and negotiations with respect to pending claims or pending litigation to which the public agency is a party until such litigation or claim has been finally adjudicated or otherwise settled;

      (5) (A) Trade secrets, which for purposes of the Freedom of Information Act, are defined as information, including formulas, patterns, compilations, programs, devices, methods, techniques, processes, drawings, cost data, customer lists, film or television scripts or detailed production budgets that (i) derive independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain economic value from their disclosure or use, and (ii) are the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain secrecy; and

      (B) Commercial or financial information given in confidence, not required by statute;

      (6) Test questions, scoring keys and other examination data used to administer a licensing examination, examination for employment or academic examinations;

      (7) The contents of real estate appraisals, engineering or feasibility estimates and evaluations made for or by an agency relative to the acquisition of property or to prospective public supply and construction contracts, until such time as all of the property has been acquired or all proceedings or transactions have been terminated or abandoned, provided the law of eminent domain shall not be affected by this provision;

      (8) Statements of personal worth or personal financial data required by a licensing agency and filed by an applicant with such licensing agency to establish the applicant's personal qualification for the license, certificate or permit applied for;

      (9) Records, reports and statements of strategy or negotiations with respect to collective bargaining;

      (10) Records, tax returns, reports and statements exempted by federal law or state statutes or communications privileged by the attorney-client relationship;

      (11) Names or addresses of students enrolled in any public school or college without the consent of each student whose name or address is to be disclosed who is eighteen years of age or older and a parent or guardian of each such student who is younger than eighteen years of age, provided this subdivision shall not be construed as prohibiting the disclosure of the names or addresses of students enrolled in any public school in a regional school district to the board of selectmen or town board of finance, as the case may be, of the town wherein the student resides for the purpose of verifying tuition payments made to such school;

      (12) Any information obtained by the use of illegal means;

      (13) Records of an investigation or the name of an employee providing information under the provisions of section 4-61dd;

      (14) Adoption records and information provided for in sections 45a-746, 45a-750 and 45a-751;

      (15) Any page of a primary petition, nominating petition, referendum petition or petition for a town meeting submitted under any provision of the general statutes or of any special act, municipal charter or ordinance, until the required processing and certification of such page has been completed by the official or officials charged with such duty after which time disclosure of such page shall be required;

      (16) Records of complaints, including information compiled in the investigation thereof, brought to a municipal health authority pursuant to chapter 368e or a district department of health pursuant to chapter 368f, until such time as the investigation is concluded or thirty days from the date of receipt of the complaint, whichever occurs first;

      (17) Educational records which are not subject to disclosure under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 20 USC 1232g;

      (18) Records, the disclosure of which the Commissioner of Correction, or as it applies to Whiting Forensic Division facilities of the Connecticut Valley Hospital, the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, has reasonable grounds to believe may result in a safety risk, including the risk of harm to any person or the risk of an escape from, or a disorder in, a correctional institution or facility under the supervision of the Department of Correction or Whiting Forensic Division facilities. Such records shall include, but are not limited to:

      (A) Security manuals, including emergency plans contained or referred to in such security manuals;

      (B) Engineering and architectural drawings of correctional institutions or facilities or Whiting Forensic Division facilities;

      (C) Operational specifications of security systems utilized by the Department of Correction at any correctional institution or facility or Whiting Forensic Division facilities, except that a general description of any such security system and the cost and quality of such system may be disclosed;

      (D) Training manuals prepared for correctional institutions and facilities or Whiting Forensic Division facilities that describe, in any manner, security procedures, emergency plans or security equipment;

      (E) Internal security audits of correctional institutions and facilities or Whiting Forensic Division facilities;

      (F) Minutes or recordings of staff meetings of the Department of Correction or Whiting Forensic Division facilities, or portions of such minutes or recordings, that contain or reveal information relating to security or other records otherwise exempt from disclosure under this subdivision;

      (G) Logs or other documents that contain information on the movement or assignment of inmates or staff at correctional institutions or facilities; and

      (H) Records that contain information on contacts between inmates, as defined in section 18-84, and law enforcement officers;

      (19) Records when there are reasonable grounds to believe disclosure may result in a safety risk, including the risk of harm to any person, any government-owned or leased institution or facility or any fixture or appurtenance and equipment attached to, or contained in, such institution or facility, except that such records shall be disclosed to a law enforcement agency upon the request of the law enforcement agency. Such reasonable grounds shall be determined (A) (i) by the Commissioner of Public Works, after consultation with the chief executive officer of an executive branch state agency, with respect to records concerning such agency; and (ii) by the Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, after consultation with the chief executive officer of a municipal, district or regional agency, with respect to records concerning such agency; (B) by the Chief Court Administrator with respect to records concerning the Judicial Department; and (C) by the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management, with respect to records concerning the Legislative Department. As used in this section, "government-owned or leased institution or facility" includes, but is not limited to, an institution or facility owned or leased by a public service company, as defined in section 16-1, a certified telecommunications provider, as defined in section 16-1, a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, or a municipal utility that furnishes electric, gas or water service, but does not include an institution or facility owned or leased by the federal government, and "chief executive officer" includes, but is not limited to, an agency head, department head, executive director or chief executive officer. Such records include, but are not limited to:

      (i) Security manuals or reports;

      (ii) Engineering and architectural drawings of government-owned or leased institutions or facilities;

      (iii) Operational specifications of security systems utilized at any government-owned or leased institution or facility, except that a general description of any such security system and the cost and quality of such system, may be disclosed;

      (iv) Training manuals prepared for government-owned or leased institutions or facilities that describe, in any manner, security procedures, emergency plans or security equipment;

      (v) Internal security audits of government-owned or leased institutions or facilities;

      (vi) Minutes or records of meetings, or portions of such minutes or records, that contain or reveal information relating to security or other records otherwise exempt from disclosure under this subdivision;

      (vii) Logs or other documents that contain information on the movement or assignment of security personnel;

      (viii) Emergency plans and emergency preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation plans, including plans provided by a person to a state agency or a local emergency management agency or official; and

      (ix) With respect to a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, that provides water service: Vulnerability assessments and risk management plans, operational plans, portions of water supply plans submitted pursuant to section 25-32d that contain or reveal information the disclosure of which may result in a security risk to a water company, inspection reports, technical specifications and other materials that depict or specifically describe critical water company operating facilities, collection and distribution systems or sources of supply;

      (20) Records of standards, procedures, processes, software and codes, not otherwise available to the public, the disclosure of which would compromise the security or integrity of an information technology system;

      (21) The residential, work or school address of any participant in the address confidentiality program established pursuant to sections 54-240 to 54-240o, inclusive;

      (22) The electronic mail address of any person that is obtained by the Department of Transportation in connection with the implementation or administration of any plan to inform individuals about significant highway or railway incidents;

      (23) The name or address of any minor enrolled in any parks and recreation program administered or sponsored by any public agency;

      (24) Responses to any request for proposals or bid solicitation issued by a public agency or any record or file made by a public agency in connection with the contract award process, until such contract is executed or negotiations for the award of such contract have ended, whichever occurs earlier, provided the chief executive officer of such public agency certifies that the public interest in the disclosure of such responses, record or file is outweighed by the public interest in the confidentiality of such responses, record or file.

      (c) Whenever a public agency receives a request from any person confined in a correctional institution or facility or a Whiting Forensic Division facility, for disclosure of any public record under the Freedom of Information Act, the public agency shall promptly notify the Commissioner of Correction or the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services in the case of a person confined in a Whiting Forensic Division facility of such request, in the manner prescribed by the commissioner, before complying with the request as required by the Freedom of Information Act. If the commissioner believes the requested record is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subdivision (18) of subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner may withhold such record from such person when the record is delivered to the person's correctional institution or facility or Whiting Forensic Division facility.

      (d) Whenever a public agency, except the Judicial Department or Legislative Department, receives a request from any person for disclosure of any records described in subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section under the Freedom of Information Act, the public agency shall promptly notify the Commissioner of Public Works or the Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, as applicable, of such request, in the manner prescribed by such commissioner, before complying with the request as required by the Freedom of Information Act and for information related to a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, the public agency shall promptly notify the water company before complying with the request as required by the Freedom of Information Act. If the commissioner, after consultation with the chief executive officer of the applicable agency or after consultation with the chief executive officer of the applicable water company for information related to a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, believes the requested record is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner may direct the agency to withhold such record from such person. In any appeal brought under the provisions of section 1-206 of the Freedom of Information Act for denial of access to records for any of the reasons described in subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, such appeal shall be against the chief executive officer of the executive branch state agency or the municipal, district or regional agency that issued the directive to withhold such record pursuant to subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, exclusively, or, in the case of records concerning Judicial Department facilities, the Chief Court Administrator or, in the case of records concerning the Legislative Department, the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions (1) and (16) of subsection (b) of this section, disclosure shall be required of:

      (1) Interagency or intra-agency memoranda or letters, advisory opinions, recommendations or any report comprising part of the process by which governmental decisions and policies are formulated, except disclosure shall not be required of a preliminary draft of a memorandum, prepared by a member of the staff of a public agency, which is subject to revision prior to submission to or discussion among the members of such agency;

      (2) All records of investigation conducted with respect to any tenement house, lodging house or boarding house as defined in section 19a-355, or any nursing home, residential care home or rest home, as defined in section 19a-490, by any municipal building department or housing code inspection department, any local or district health department, or any other department charged with the enforcement of ordinances or laws regulating the erection, construction, alteration, maintenance, sanitation, ventilation or occupancy of such buildings; and

      (3) The names of firms obtaining bid documents from any state agency.

      (1957, P.A. 428, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 260; 1967, P.A. 723, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 193; 1971, P.A. 193; P.A. 75-342, S. 2; P.A. 76-294; P.A. 77-609, S. 2, 8; P.A. 79-119; 79-324; 79-575, S. 2, 4; 79-599, S. 3; P.A. 80-483, S. 1, 186; P.A. 81-40, S. 2; 81-431, S. 1; 81-448, S. 2; P.A. 83-436; P.A. 84-112, S. 1; 84-311, S. 2, 3; P.A. 85-577, S. 22; P.A. 90-335, S. 1; P.A. 91-140, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-246, S. 14; P.A. 95-233; P.A. 96-130, S. 37; P.A. 97-47, S. 4; 97-112, S. 2; 97-293, S. 14, 26; P.A. 99-156, S. 1; P.A. 00-66, S. 5; 00-69, S. 3, 4; 00-134, S. 1; 00-136, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1, S. 20, 46; P.A. 01-26, S. 1; P.A. 02-133, S. 1, 2; 02-137, S. 2; P.A. 03-200, S. 17; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 104; P.A. 05-287, S. 26; P.A. 07-202, S. 12; 07-213, S. 22; 07-236, S. 5.)

      History: 1963 act required that public records be kept in accessible place at regular office and at office of town clerk or secretary of the state if no regular office exists; 1967 act excluded certain records from definition of "public record" for disclosure purposes and required public agencies to keep records of proceedings; 1969 act provided that certified copies would be admitted as evidence in court proceedings; 1971 act required disclosure of records of investigations re tenement, lodging or boarding houses; P.A. 75-342 changed "town clerk" to "clerk of any political subdivision," rewrote provisions regarding exclusion of certain records from consideration as public records for disclosure purposes and specifically required disclosure of records of investigations re nursing or rest homes or homes for the aged; P.A. 76-294 clarified meaning of "arrest records of a juvenile"; P.A. 77-609 prohibited requiring disclosure of names and addresses of public school or college students; P.A. 79-119 replaced provision in Subsec. (a) which had allowed inspection or copying of records at reasonable time determined by their custodian with provision allowing inspection during office or business hours and copying as provided in Sec. 1-15; P.A. 79-324 clarified Subsec. (c); P.A. 79-575 provided exception to disclosure of students' names and addresses for use by towns in verifying tuition payments and prohibited requiring disclosure of information obtained illegally; P.A. 79-599 prohibited requiring disclosure of records or name of state employee providing information for "whistle blowing" investigation; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 81-40 amended Subsec. (b) to exclude adoption records and information provided for in Secs. 45-68e and 45-68i from disclosure requirements; P.A. 81-431 amended Subsec. (c) to specifically require disclosure of memoranda and other documents which constitute part of the process by which governmental decisions and policies are formulated with a limited exception for preliminary drafts of memoranda, rather than of "all records of investigation..." as previously provided; P.A. 81-448 protected from disclosure name and address of victim of sexual assault, injury or risk of injury or impairing or attempting to impair morals; P.A. 83-436 amended Subsec. (c) to require disclosure of names of firms obtaining bid documents from any state agency; P.A. 84-112 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that agency rules or regulations that conflict with that subsection or diminish rights granted by that subsection are void; P.A. 84-311 amended disclosure exemption for trade secrets in Subsec. (b) by eliminating limitation to information obtained from the public; P.A. 85-577 added Subsec. (b)(15) regarding pages of a primary petition, a nominating petition, a referendum petition or a petition for a town meeting; P.A. 90-335 added Subsec. (b)(3)(F) re uncorroborated allegations subject to destruction pursuant to Sec. 1-20; P.A. 91-140 substituted "pending claims or pending litigation" for "pending claims and litigation" in Subsec. (b); P.A. 94-246 amended Subsec. (b)(3)(A) to add provision re disclosure of "the identity of witnesses not otherwise known whose safety would be endangered or who would be subject to threat or intimidation if their identity was made known" and insert a new Subpara. (B) re disclosure of "signed statements of witnesses", relettering the remaining Subparas. accordingly; P.A. 95-233 added Subsec. (b)(16) re records of municipal health authorities and district departments of health complaints; P.A. 96-130 amended Subsec. (b)(14) by adding reference to Sec. 45a-751; P.A. 97-47 amended Subsec. (b) by substituting "the Freedom of Information Act" for list of sections; P.A. 97-112 substituted "residential care home" for "home for the aged" in Subsec. (c); P.A. 97-293 added Subsec. (b)(17) re educational records, effective July 1, 1997; Sec. 1-19 transferred to Sec. 1-210 in 1999; P.A. 99-156 added Subsec. (b)(18) re records that Commissioner of Correction believes may result in safety risk if disclosed and added new Subsec. (c) re requests for disclosure by persons confined in correctional institutions or facilities, relettering former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 00-66 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(18); P.A. 00-69 added Subsec. (b)(19) re certain records that may result in a safety risk, inserted new Subsec. (d) re requests under Subdiv. (b)(19) made to a public agency other than the Judicial Department, and redesignated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e), effective May 16, 2000; P.A. 00-134 amended Subsec. (b)(8) to substitute "the applicant's" for "his" and to add new Subdiv. (20) re records not otherwise available to the public, the disclosure of which would compromise the security or integrity of an information technology system; P.A. 00-136 redefined trade secrets in Subsec. (b)(5) and added Subpara. and clause designators in Subsec. (b)(5); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1 amended Subsec. (b)(18) and Subsec. (c) to add references to Whiting Forensic Division facilities of Connecticut Valley Hospital and to Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective June 21, 2000; P.A. 01-26 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(5)(A)(i); P.A. 02-133 amended Subsec. (b)(19) to provide that records be disclosed to a law enforcement agency upon request, substitute "government-owned" for "state-owned" re facilities, provide that reasonable grounds shall be determined by the Commissioner of Public Works after consultation with the chief executive officer of the agency, the Chief Court Administrator or the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management, insert new Subpara. designators "(A)" to "(C)", define "government-owned or leased institution or facility" and "chief executive officer", substitute "records include" for "records shall include" and "records" for "recordings", substitute clause designators "(i)" to "(vii)" for Subpara. designators "(A)" to "(G)", respectively, delete reference to emergency plans in clause (i) and add new clause (viii) re emergency plans and emergency recovery or response plans and amended Subsec. (d) to add provisions re the Legislative Department and to add "after consultation with the chief executive officer of the applicable agency" re the determination by the Commissioner of Public Works that a requested record is exempt from disclosure; P.A. 02-137 amended Subsec. (a) to designate existing provisions re right to inspect and receive copy as Subdivs. (1) and (3), add Subdiv. (2) re copying of records in accordance with Sec. 1-212(g), and delete "the provisions of" in Subdiv. (3); P.A. 03-200 added Subsec. (b)(21) re address of participant in address confidentiality program, effective January 1, 2004; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (b)(19) by inserting "a water company, as defined in section 25-32a," in definition of "government-owned or leased institution or facility" and adding new clause (ix) re water company materials and amended Subsec. (d) by adding provisions re information related to a water company, effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 05-287 added Subsec. (b)(22) re electronic mail addresses obtained by the Department of Transportation in connection with the administration of any plan to inform individuals about significant highway or railway incidents, effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 07-202 amended Subsec. (b)(19) to require Commissioner of Public Works to make reasonable grounds determinations concerning executive branch agencies and Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security to make such determinations concerning municipal, district or regional agencies, to delete provision re government-owned or leased institutions or facilities in clause (vii), to add provision re emergency preparedness and mitigation plans in clause (viii) and to make technical changes, and made conforming changes in Subsec. (d); P.A. 07-213 added Subsec. (b)(23) re name or address or minor enrolled in parks and recreation program and (24) re request for proposals or bid solicitation responses and contract award record or file; P.A. 07-236 amended Subsec. (b)(5)(A) to exclude from requirements of disclosure film or television scripts or detailed production budgets, effective July 6, 2007.

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      Sec. 1-225. (Formerly Sec. 1-21). Meetings of government agencies to be public. Recording of votes. Schedule and agenda of meetings to be filed and posted on web sites. Notice of special meetings. Executive sessions. (a) The meetings of all public agencies, except executive sessions, as defined in subdivision (6) of section 1-200, shall be open to the public. The votes of each member of any such public agency upon any issue before such public agency shall be reduced to writing and made available for public inspection within forty-eight hours and shall also be recorded in the minutes of the session at which taken, which minutes shall be available for public inspection within seven days of the session to which they refer.

      (b) Each such public agency of the state shall file not later than January thirty-first of each year in the office of the Secretary of the State the schedule of the regular meetings of such public agency for the ensuing year, except that such provision shall not apply to the General Assembly, either house thereof or to any committee thereof. Any other provision of the Freedom of Information Act notwithstanding, the General Assembly at the commencement of each regular session in the odd-numbered years, shall adopt, as part of its joint rules, rules to provide notice to the public of its regular, special, emergency or interim committee meetings. The chairperson or secretary of any such public agency of any political subdivision of the state shall file, not later than January thirty-first of each year, with the clerk of such subdivision the schedule of regular meetings of such public agency for the ensuing year, and no such meeting of any such public agency shall be held sooner than thirty days after such schedule has been filed. The chief executive officer of any multitown district or agency shall file, not later than January thirty-first of each year, with the clerk of each municipal member of such district or agency, the schedule of regular meetings of such public agency for the ensuing year, and no such meeting of any such public agency shall be held sooner than thirty days after such schedule has been filed.

      (c) The agenda of the regular meetings of every public agency, except for the General Assembly, shall be available to the public and shall be filed, not less than twenty-four hours before the meetings to which they refer, (1) in such agency's regular office or place of business, and (2) in the office of the Secretary of the State for any such public agency of the state, in the office of the clerk of such subdivision for any public agency of a political subdivision of the state or in the office of the clerk of each municipal member of any multitown district or agency. For any such public agency of the state, such agenda shall be posted on the public agency's and the Secretary of the State's web sites. Upon the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of a public agency present and voting, any subsequent business not included in such filed agendas may be considered and acted upon at such meetings.

      (d) Notice of each special meeting of every public agency, except for the General Assembly, either house thereof or any committee thereof, shall be given not less than twenty-four hours prior to the time of such meeting by filing a notice of the time and place thereof in the office of the Secretary of the State for any such public agency of the state, in the office of the clerk of such subdivision for any public agency of a political subdivision of the state and in the office of the clerk of each municipal member for any multitown district or agency. The secretary or clerk shall cause any notice received under this section to be posted in his office. Such notice shall be given not less than twenty-four hours prior to the time of the special meeting; provided, in case of emergency, except for the General Assembly, either house thereof or any committee thereof, any such special meeting may be held without complying with the foregoing requirement for the filing of notice but a copy of the minutes of every such emergency special meeting adequately setting forth the nature of the emergency and the proceedings occurring at such meeting shall be filed with the Secretary of the State, the clerk of such political subdivision, or the clerk of each municipal member of such multitown district or agency, as the case may be, not later than seventy-two hours following the holding of such meeting. The notice shall specify the time and place of the special meeting and the business to be transacted. No other business shall be considered at such meetings by such public agency. In addition, such written notice shall be delivered to the usual place of abode of each member of the public agency so that the same is received prior to such special meeting. The requirement of delivery of such written notice may be dispensed with as to any member who at or prior to the time the meeting convenes files with the clerk or secretary of the public agency a written waiver of delivery of such notice. Such waiver may be given by telegram. The requirement of delivery of such written notice may also be dispensed with as to any member who is actually present at the meeting at the time it convenes. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any agency from adopting more stringent notice requirements.

      (e) No member of the public shall be required, as a condition to attendance at a meeting of any such body, to register the member's name, or furnish other information, or complete a questionnaire or otherwise fulfill any condition precedent to the member's attendance.

      (f) A public agency may hold an executive session, as defined in subdivision (6) of section 1-200, upon an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of such body present and voting, taken at a public meeting and stating the reasons for such executive session, as defined in section 1-200.

      (g) In determining the time within which or by when a notice, agenda, record of votes or minutes of a special meeting or an emergency special meeting are required to be filed under this section, Saturdays, Sundays, legal holidays and any day on which the office of the agency, the Secretary of the State or the clerk of the applicable political subdivision or the clerk of each municipal member of any multitown district or agency, as the case may be, is closed, shall be excluded.

      (1957, P.A. 468, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 723, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 499; P.A. 75-342, S. 6; P.A. 76-435, S. 63, 82; P.A. 77-609, S. 4, 8; P.A. 83-67, S. 2; 83-148; P.A. 84-546, S. 4, 173; P.A. 85-613, S. 3, 154; P.A. 97-47, S. 8; P.A. 99-71, S. 1; P.A. 00-66, S. 7; P.A. 07-213, S. 23.)

      History: 1967 act required filing schedules for meetings of public bodies with secretary of the state or clerks in political subdivisions of the state and made provisions regarding special meetings; 1971 act required that votes taken in closed executive sessions be available for public inspection and recorded in the minutes; P.A. 75-342 excluded the general assembly and its committees from provision requiring that schedule of meetings be filed, expanded provisions re special meetings and changed vote margin required to hold closed executive session from simple majority to two-thirds majority; P.A. 76-435 made technical changes; P.A. 77-609 required that the general assembly provide in its joint rules for giving notice of meetings, made provisions regarding agendas for regular public meetings and required that written notice of special meetings be sent to agency members; P.A. 83-67 required multitown districts and agencies to notify their member towns of the schedule of regular and special meetings and to file minutes of such meetings; P.A. 83-148 added a new Subsec. (b) which clarifies the method to be used in determining the time in which a notice or agenda is required to be given, deleting provisions in former language, now Subsec. (a), made redundant by its inclusion and adding provisions in Subsec. (a) requiring secretary or clerk to post notice in his office and requiring that notice be given at least 24 hours before time of special meeting; P.A. 84-546 amended Subsec. (b) to apply provisions to "offices of the clerk of each municipal member of any multitown district or agency"; P.A. 85-613 made technical changes, deleting reference to Sec. 2-45; P.A. 97-47 substituted "the Freedom of Information Act" for list of sections; Sec. 1-21 transferred to Sec. 1-225 in 1999; P.A. 99-71 amended Subsec. (b) by substituting "record of votes or minutes of a special meeting or an emergency special meeting are" for "or other information is" and repealing "given, made available, posted or" before "filed"; P.A. 00-66 divided former Subsec. (a) into multiple subsections, relettered former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (g) and made technical changes; P.A. 07-213 amended Subsec. (c) to revise agenda filing requirement and require the posting of agendas on the public agency's and the Secretary of the State's web sites for agencies of the state.

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