Topic:
CURRICULA; EDUCATION (GENERAL); SCHOOL BOARDS; SCHOOL DISTRICTS;
Location:
EDUCATION - (GENERAL);

OLR Research Report


April 29, 2008

 

2008-R-0292

HOME SCHOOLING IN CONNECTICUT AND OTHER STATES

By: Soncia Coleman, Associate Legislative Analyst

You asked for a comparison of Connecticut's regulation of home schooling with that of other states. This report updates an earlier OLR report (2002-R-0036).

SUMMARY

Connecticut's procedure for home instruction is embodied in a 1994 State Board of Education (SBE) policy. The procedure, which is published in an education commissioner's circular letter, is suggested rather than mandatory and is offered as a method for parents and school boards to ensure that home-schooled children receive an education that is “equivalent” to that offered in the public schools, as required by the state's compulsory education law.

According to a state-by-state compilation of state home schooling requirements published by the Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA), 29 states, including Connecticut, and the District of Columbia have one level of regulation for all types of home school operations, while 21 have varying requirements depending on the type of home school.

The most common state requirement on home schools, imposed by 43 states, including Connecticut, is that students receive instruction in specified subjects. Other common requirements are that parents notify local or state school authorities that they will be providing home instruction, that students attend for a minimum number of days per year, and that home schools keep certain records.

Twenty-two states impose minimum teacher qualifications for home instruction. But several apply them only to hired instructors acting as private tutors.

CONNECTICUT'S REGULATION OF HOME SCHOOLING

State Law

Connecticut law requires parents and others having control of any child aged five to 17 to send him or her to public school in the district where the child lives, unless they can demonstrate the child is receiving “equivalent instruction” somewhere else. If the child is five, a parent may sign a form at the local school district office that he is holding the child out of school until age six or, if the child is six, until age seven. A parent of a child who is age 16 or 17 may consent to the child's withdrawal from school before graduation by appearing at the school office and signing a withdrawal form.

Parents must instruct their children or have them instructed in reading, writing, spelling, English grammar, geography, arithmetic, and United States history and citizenship, including the study of federal, state, and local government (CGS 10-184). Local school boards must make sure that school age children living in their districts are taught “in accordance with the provisions of 10-184” ( 10-220(a)).

According to the SBE, children may be educated at home as long as their parents show they are receiving an education program equivalent to that specified in the law.

SBE Policy

The 1994 circular letter suggests procedures for parents and local school boards to follow when parents educate children at home. Under the suggested procedure, parents file a form with the local school superintendent stating their intention to teach their child at home and providing basic information about their educational program. The information on the form includes the teacher's name, the subjects to be taught, the days of instruction, and what the teacher's assessment methods will be. The notice remains in effect for one year. The school district makes sure the form is complete and retains it as part of its permanent records. School officials hold an annual portfolio review with parents to determine if they have given the legally required instruction.

The circular letter states that, if the suggested procedure is followed, the requirements of Sections 10-184 and 10-220(a) will be satisfied. By filing the form, the parent acknowledges full responsibility for the child's education according to the law. By receiving the form, the school district does not signify its approval of the content or effectiveness of the home instruction. The children of parents who refuse to file the form or to participate in the annual portfolio review may be declared truant.

Local boards must report the number of home-schooled children in their districts annually to the SDE along with other required education statistics.

HOME SCHOOLING REGULATION IN OTHER STATES

All states allow home schooling and all regulate it to some extent. Some states have different requirements depending on how the home schooling is delivered and some prescribe how a home school must be organized in order to be legal. In the twenty-one states that specify more than one legal home schooling option, requirements may apply only to some options. The summaries and tables in this report are taken from HSLDA's website. They cover requirements for attendance, subjects, teacher qualifications, notice, and student testing and evaluation.

Required Attendance

Thirty-eight states and the District of Columbia require home-schooled students to be taught for a minimum number of days or hours per year and some also require a minimum number of hours per day. However, it should be noted that in some states, these requirements may not apply to the “traditional” home school situation (see Table A). Connecticut is one of 12 states that have no specific attendance requirements (for any of the available home-school options, if applicable). The other 11 are: Arizona, Arkansas, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont. In Massachusetts, there are no requirements, but this information is considered in the home-school approval process and in Mississippi, the home-school establishes the requirements.

Required Subjects

Forty-three states, including Connecticut, either require home-schooled students to be taught particular subjects or impose some other curricular requirements (see Table A). Seven states and the District of Columbia have no subject or curriculum requirements. The seven states are: Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Oregon.

Teacher Qualifications

Twenty-two states impose minimum educational requirements for at least some kinds of home-school teachers, such as hired private tutors or home-schools operating under the supervision of school authorities (see Table A). Many of these same states also allow home school options that require no special teaching qualifications, such as home schools in which parents teach their own children. In accordance with New York case law, a parent is deemed to meet the competency requirement if he or she complies with the home-schooling regulations.

Twenty-eight states, including Connecticut, require no special qualifications for any home-school teachers. The others are: Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska (unless teacher is employed by family), Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. The District of Columbia also imposes no requirements in this area.

Notice

Forty-one states and the District of Columbia require some notice when a parent intends to instruct a child at home (although some states may only require notice for certain home-school options and in others, it is a de facto part of the approval process). Some states require annual notice. The District of Columbia requires notice only if the child is being removed from public school, not if he never starts. States vary in whether the notice must go to the local superintendent or the state (see Table B). Nine states, including Connecticut, do not require notice for any available home-school option. The other eight are: Idaho, Illinois, Indiana (unless requested by the local superintendent), Missouri, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas.

Testing and Evaluation

Twenty-eight states require some or all home-schooled students to be tested or evaluated periodically (see Table C). Twenty-two states, including Connecticut, and the District of Columbia have no mandatory evaluation or testing. The other states are: Alabama, Arizona, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts (although testing can be a negotiated condition of approval), Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Table A: States With Attendance, Subject, or Teacher Qualification Requirements

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Alabama*

     

Private tutor

140 days per year, 3 hours per day between 8 am and 4 pm

Reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, English, geography, U.S. history, science, health, physical education, and Alabama history

Teacher certification

Alaska*

     

Private tutor

180 days

Comparable to public school

Teacher certification

State-approved correspondence course

None

School board-approved alternate educational experience

Arizona

None

Reading, grammar, math, social studies, and science

None

California

     

Qualify as private school

None

Same as public school and in English language

Capable of teaching

Private tutor

175 days/ 3 hours per day

Teacher certification

Independent study through public school

As prescribed by program

As prescribed by program

None

Independent study through private school

Capable of teaching

Colorado

     

Home school

172 days, average 4 hours/day

US Constitution, reading, writing, speaking, math, history, civics, literature, and science

None

Private school allowing home instruction

None

As prescribed by program

None

Private tutor

None

US Constitution, reading, writing, speaking, math, history, civics, literature, and science

Teacher certification

Connecticut

None

Reading, writing, spelling, English grammar, geography, arithmetic, U.S. history, and citizenship (including federal, state, and local government)

None

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Delaware

     

Home school as part of home school organization or association

180 days

Same as public schools

None

Home school providing instruction approved by state board of education and local superintendent

District of Columbia

During the period public schools are in session

None

None

Florida*

     

Private school corporation (legally incorporated group of home school families)

180 days

None

None

Georgia

180 days per year, 4.5 hours per day

Reading, language arts, math, social studies, and science

High school diploma or GED (for parent or private tutor)

Hawaii

     

Home school

None

Structured curriculum, based on educational objectives and child's needs; cumulative and sequential, provide range of up-to-date knowledge and needed skills; take child's interests, needs, and abilities into account

None

Superintendent -approved alternative education program

As prescribed in approval process

As prescribed in approval process

Bachelor's degree

Idaho

Same as public schools

Same as public schools

None

Illinois

None

Language arts, biological and physical science, math, social studies, fine arts, health and physical development, honesty, justice, kindness, and moral courage

None

Indiana

Same as public schools (generally 180 days per year)

None

None

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Iowa

     

Home school

148 days/year, 37 days/quarter

None

None

Home school supervised by licensed teacher

None for teaching parent, license for supervising teacher

Private tutor

Teaching license

Kansas

     

Non-accredited private home school

Substantially equivalent to public schools (186 days or 1,116 hours per year; 1,086 hours for 12th grade)

None

“Competent” teacher

Home school satellite of accredited private school

Prescribed by supervising private school

Prescribed by supervising private school

State board of education-approved religious exemption in high school grades

Prescribed during approval process

Prescribed during approval process

Prescribed during approval process

Kentucky

185 days per year or the equivalent of 175 six-hour days

Reading, writing, spelling, grammar, history, mathematics, and civics

None

Louisiana

     

Home school approved by board of education

180 days

At least equal to quality of instruction in public schools including Declaration of Independence and Federalist Papers

None

Home school operated as private school

Maine

     

Home school approved by local school board and state education commissioner

175 days

English, language arts, math, science, social studies, physical and health education, library skills, fine arts, Maine studies (in one grade between grade 6 and 12), and computer proficiency (in one grade between grade 7 and 12)

None

Home school operated as non-approved private school with at least two unrelated students

175 days or 875 hours

English (reading, writing, spelling, and grammar), math, science, American history, Maine history and geography, and government (including the privilege and responsibility of citizenship)

Competent as determined by the non-approved private school

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Maryland

     

Home school

Sufficient duration to implement instructional program

Same as public schools including English, math, science, social studies, art, music, health, and physical education

None

Supervised home instruction through church school or state-approved correspondence course

Prescribed by supervising program

Prescribed by supervising program

None

Massachusetts

None (900 hours at elementary and 990 at secondary level are expected)

Reading, writing, English language and grammar, geography, arithmetic, drawing, music, history, U.S. Constitution, duties of citizenship, health (including CPR), physical education, and good behavior

None

Michigan

     

Home education program

None

Reading, spelling, math, science, history, civics, literature, writing, and English grammar

None

Home school operated as nonpublic school

Comparable to public school

Teaching certificate unless claiming religious exemption

Minnesota

None

Reading, writing, literature, fine arts, math, science, history, geography, government, health, and physical education

(1) Hold a Minnesota teaching license in the field and grade taught, (2) directly supervised by a licensed teacher, (3) successfully complete a teacher competency exam, (4) provide instruction in a school that is accredited or recognized by the state board, or (5) hold a bachelor's degree. Additionally, there is no qualification requirement for a child in an unaccredited program that who takes an assessment

Mississippi

Number of days that home school requires for promotion from grade to grade

None

None

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Missouri

1,000 hours per year, at least 600 in required subjects, 400 of which must occur at the “regular home school location”

Reading, math, social studies, language arts, and science

None

Montana

720 hours per year in grades 1-3 and 1080 hours per year in grades 4-12

Same “basic instructional program” as public schools

None

Nebraska

1,032 hours per year for elementary; 1,080 for high school

Language arts, math, science, social studies, and health

None unless family employs a teacher

Nevada

None

English (reading, composition, and writing), math, science, and social studies (history, geography, economics, and government) as appropriate for the age and level of skill of the child, as determined by the parent

None

New Hampshire

None

Science, math, language, government, history, health, reading, writing, spelling, U.S. and New Hampshire constitutional history, and art and music appreciation

None

New Jersey

None

Instruction academically “equivalent” to that in the public schools

None

New Mexico

Same as public school

Reading, language arts, math, social studies, and science

High school diploma or equivalent

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

New York

Substantial equivalent of 180 days per year, 900 hours per year for grades 1-6, 990 for grades 7-12

K-12: patriotism, citizenship, substance abuse, traffic and fire safety

1-6: arithmetic, reading, spelling, writing, English, geography, US history, science, health, music, visual arts, physical education

7-8: English, history and geography, science, math, physical education, health, art, music, practical arts, library skills

at least once in first eight grades: United States and New York history and constitutions

9-12: English, social studies (including American history, participation in government, and economics), math, science, art or music, health, physical education, electives

Competent (parents are deemed competent if they follow the regulations)

North Carolina

Nine calendar months per year, excluding reasonable holidays and vacations

None (but standardized test must cover certain subjects)

High school diploma or GED

North Dakota

     

Home school

175 days, 4 hours/day

English language arts, including reading, composition, creative writing, English grammar, and spelling; math; social studies, including US Constitution and history, geography, and government; science, including agriculture; physical education; and health, including physiology, hygiene, disease control, and nature and effects of alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics

(1) Teaching certificate, (2) bachelor's degree, (3) high school diploma or GED and be monitored by a certified teacher for first two years of home instruction (monitoring must continue if student scores below 50th percentile on required standardized achievement test), or (4) meet or exceed the cut-off score of the national teacher exam

Home school operating as county- and state- approved private school

Same as public schools

Teacher certification

Ohio

900 hours per year

Language arts, geography, US and Ohio history, government, math, health, physical education, fine arts, first aid, science, first aid, safety, and fire prevention

High school diploma, GED, test scores showing high school equivalence, or work under a person with a bachelor's degree until child's test scores show proficiency or parent earns diploma or GED

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Oklahoma

180 days

Reading, writing, math, science, citizenship, U.S. Constitution, health, safety, physical education, and conservation

None

Pennsylvania

     

Home education program

180 days; 900 hours at elementary level, 990 for high school level

Elementary: English, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, science, geography, U.S. and Pennsylvania history, civics, safety, fire prevention, health and physiology, physical education, music, and art

Secondary: English; literature; speech and composition; biology; chemistry; geography; civics; economics; world, U.S., and Pennsylvania history; foreign language; general math, statistics, algebra, and geometry; art; music; physical education; health and physiology; and safety and fire prevention

High school diploma or equivalent

Private tutor teaching children in same family, providing a majority of instruction, and receiving pay or other consideration

Teacher certification

Home school operated as satellite or extension of church or religious day school

None

Rhode Island

“Substantially equal” to public schools

Reading, writing, English, geography, arithmetic, U.S. History, Rhode Island history (in fourth grade), Rhode Island government (fourth grade and high school), Rhode Island constitution and U.S. government and constitution (high school), health and physical education (grades one through 12, to average 20 minutes per school day)

None

South Carolina

     

Home school approved by local school board

180 days; 4.5 hours/day

Reading, writing, math, science, social studies and, in grades 7-12, composition and literature

High school diploma, GED, or bachelor's degree

Home school that is a member of the S.C. Assn. of Independent Home Schools

180 days

High school diploma or GED

Home school that is a member of a home school association with at least 50 members

South Dakota

Equivalent to public schools (generally a 9-month regular term)

Language arts and math

None

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

Tennessee

     

Home school

180 days, 4 hours/day

Grades K-8: None

Grades 9-12: College preparatory courses required for admission to state-operated four-year colleges or general studies courses as required by the state for high school graduation

Grades K-8: High school diploma or GED

Grades 9-12: College degree or exemption from education commissioner

Home school associated with church-related school

180 days

As prescribed by the church school

Grades K-8: None

Grades 9-12: High school diploma or GED

Satellite campus of church-related school

None

Texas

None

Reading, spelling, grammar, math, and good citizenship

None

Utah*

     

Home school approved by local school board

Same as public schools

Same as public school core curriculum

Local school board may consider teacher's ability in approval

Vermont

None

Reading, writing, math, citizenship, history, U.S. and Vermont government, physical education, health, English, American and other literature, science, and fine arts

None

Virginia*

     

Home school

Same as public schools (180 days)

If operating under teacher qualification #4, math and language arts. Otherwise, none.

1) High school diploma, (2) teaching certificate, (3) use an approved correspondence course, (4) submit evidence that parent can teach, or (5)use curriculum that includes state objectives for math and language arts

Home school not operating under religious exemption

None

None

Private tutor

 

None

Teacher certification

Washington

     

Home school

180 days or in grades 1-12, an annual average total instructional offering of 1,000 hours

Occupational education, science, math, language, social studies, history, health, reading, writing, spelling, music, and art appreciation

(1) Be supervised by certified teacher, (2) have 45 college credit hours, (3) completed a course in home education, or (4) be deemed qualified by local superintendent

Extension program of an approved private school designed for parents to teach their children at home

Supervised by certified teacher employed by private school

Table A: -Continued-

State

Attendance

Subjects

Teacher Qualifications

West Virginia

     

Home school

None

None, but must be assessed in certain subjects

High school diploma

Home school approved by local school board

Same as public school (180 days)

As required by board

Deemed qualified to teach by local superintendent and school board

Wisconsin

875 hours of instruction per year

Sequentially progressive curriculum of fundamental instruction in reading, language arts, math, social studies, science, and health. Curriculum need not “conflict with program's religious doctrine”

None

Wyoming

175 days per year (but statute is vague on application to home school)

Basic academic educational program providing sequentially progressive instruction in reading writing, math, civics, history, literature, and science

None

*These states have other legal options with no requirements.

Source: Home School Legal Defense Association

Table B: States with Notice or Record Requirements

State

Notice

Alabama

 

Church school

File a notice of enrollment and attendance with the local superintendent on a provided form (not required annually)

Private tutor

File a statement showing children to be instructed, the subjects taught and the period of instruction with the local superintendent

Alaska*

 

Qualify as a religious or church school

File a "Private School Enrollment Reporting Form" with the local superintendent by the first day of public school; also file a "Private and Denominational Schools Enrollment Report" and a "School Calendar" with the state department of education by October 15 each year

Arizona

File an affidavit with local superintendent within 30 days of start or end of home schooling

Arkansas

File written notice with superintendent by August 15th for fall, December 15th for spring semester, or 14 days before withdrawing student mid-semester. Thereafter, annually at beginning of school year

California*

 

Qualify as private school

Annual affidavit with county superintendent between October 1st and 15th

Independent study through public school

Part of enrollment process.

Colorado*

 

Home school

Notice of intent with local superintendent within 14 days before start of home school and annually thereafter

Table B: -Continued-

State

Notice

Delaware

 

Single- or multi-family home school

Must report attendance information to the Department of Education on or before July 31 each year

Home school providing instruction approved by state board of education and local superintendent

District of Columbia

None, unless the child is being removed from public school

Florida*

 

Home school

Notice of intent with local superintendent within 30 days of establishing

Georgia

Declaration of intent to superintendent within 30 days after beginning home schooling and by September 1st annually thereafter

Hawaii*

 

Home school

File prior notice with principal of public school child would otherwise attend; notify same principal within five days after ending home school

Iowa

File two copies of form with local school district by September 15th or within 14 days of withdrawing from school

Indiana

None unless specifically requested by state education superintendent

Kansas*

 

Home school operated as a nonaccredited private school

Register name and address of school with state board of education

Kentucky

Notice to local school board within two weeks of start of school year

Louisiana

 

Home school approved by board of education

Application and copy of child's birth certificate to board of education within 15 days after start of home school and annually thereafter

Home school operated as private school

Notify state education department within first 30 days of the start of the school year

Maine

 

Home school

File initial notice of intent within 10 days, each subsequent year file letter indicating whether child's home school will continue, and submit a copy to both the local school board and the commissioner of education

Home school as part of a non-approved private school

Annually by October 1, file letter with commissioner

Maryland

 

Home school

Notice to state education department at least 15 days before starting, verify annually whether program will continue and notify of any status changes

Supervised home instruction through church school or state-approved correspondence course

Massachusetts

Operation of home school requires advance approval by local school committee or superintendent, so no additional notice is required

Michigan*

 

Home school operated as nonpublic school

Submit statement of enrollment to local superintendent and Department of Education at start of each school year

Minnesota

File name, age, and address of each student with local superintendent by October 1 annually

Mississippi

File certificate of enrollment with district attendance officer by September 15th annually

Table B: -Continued-

State

Notice

Montana

File annual notice with county superintendent.

Nebraska

Annual notice of intent with state education commission by August 1st annually or 30 days before start of home school

Nevada

File a one-time notice with the local superintendent. The notice must include the name, age, and gender of the child; the name and address of the parent; a statement signed by the parent that he has legal control of the child and accepts responsibility for the child's education; and an educational plan.

New Hampshire

Within 30 days of withdrawing from public school or moving into the district, file a written notice of intent with private school principal, state education commissioner, or local superintendent

New Mexico

File notice of intent with state superintendent within 30 days of establishing and by April 1st of each subsequent year.

New York

File annual notice of intent with local superintendent by July 1st or within 14 days if home schooling starts mid-year; complete and submit Individualized Home Instruction Plan form provided by district

North Carolina

File notice of intent with state division of nonpublic education upon starting home school

North Dakota

 

Home school

Annual notice with local superintendent within 14 days before start of home school or within 14 days of establishing residency in the district. For developmentally disabled students, also file a copy of the child's diagnosis from a licensed psychologist along with an individualized education program developed and followed by the child's school district and parent or by a team selected and compensated by the parent.

Home school operating as county- and state- approved private school

Part of approval process

Ohio

Annual notice of intent to local superintendent (and to new district upon moving)

Oregon

Notify education service district in writing when home schooling starts

Pennsylvania

 

Home education program

Notarized affidavit with local superintendent before starting home school and by August 1st annually

Private tutor teaching children in same family, providing a majority of instruction, and receiving pay or other consideration

Copy of certification and criminal history record to local superintendent

Home school operated as satellite or extension of church or religious day school

School principal files notarized affidavit with state education department.

Rhode Island

Requirement for home school approval by local school board serves as notice.

South Dakota

Submit notarized application to local superintendent using form provided by state education department. If submitting an application for first time, include certified copy of child's birth certificate or affidavit notarized or witnessed by two or more witnesses, swearing that the child identified on the request for excuse is the same person appearing on the child's birth certificate.

Table B: -Continued-

State

Notice

Tennessee*

 

Home school

Notice to local superintendent by August 1st each year

Home school associated with church-related school

Grades 9-12: Register with local school district each year

Utah*

 

Home school

The parent must file an affidavit for each minor taught at home each year. The affidavit must contain a statement that the minor will be instructed in the subjects that the State Board of Education requires in public schools and that the minor will be instructed for the same length of time as minors are required by law to receive instruction in public schools.

Vermont

Written notice of enrollment with education commissioner any time after March 1st for following year

Virginia

 

Home school not operating under religious exemption law

File an annual notice of intent with local superintendent by August 15th; if starting mid-year, file notice as soon as practicable

Home school operating under the religious exemption

File a request to acknowledge the religious exemption with the local school board chairperson

Private tutor

Letter to local superintendent asking him to recognize that parent (tutor) has the required credentials (i.e., teacher certificate)

Washington*

 

Home school

Annual notice to superintendent by September 15th or within two weeks of the start of any public school quarter.

West Virginia

 

Home school

File notice with local superintendent two weeks ahead

Home school approved by local board

Part of approval process

Wisconsin

File statement of enrollment with state education department by October 15th annually.

Wyoming

Annually submit to local school board a curriculum showing basic education program is being provided

* These states have other legal options with no requirements.

Source: Home School Legal Defense Association

Table C: States Requiring Testing and Evaluation for Students Taught at Home

State

Testing

Alaska*

Qualify as a religious or other private school

Administer a standardized test in grades 4, 6, and 8

Arkansas

State-mandated norm-referenced tests given to public school students in grades 3 through 9

California*

Independent study programs

As prescribed by the program

Table C: -Continued-

State

Testing

Colorado*

Home schools

Administer standardized test for grade 3,5,7,9, and 11 or have the child evaluated by a “qualified person. . .selected by parent”

Private school that allows home instruction

As prescribed by program

Florida*

Home schools

Annually (1) administer any standardized test or state student assessment test (must be given by a certified teacher); (2) have the child evaluated by a certified teacher or licensed psychologist; or (3) have the child evaluated by another valid, mutually agreed-upon tool

Georgia

Administer and retain the results of a standardized test every three years beginning at the end of the 3rd grade

Hawaii

Home school

Administer a standardized test of the parent's choice in grades 3, 5, 8, and 10; submit to the local school principal an annual report of the child's progress consisting of (1) the standardized test results, (2) a written evaluation by a certified teacher, or (3) a written evaluation by the parent

Superintendent-approved alternative educational program

Participate in statewide public school testing program

Iowa

Home school

Complete by May 1 and submit to the local district by June 30 (1) test results from an acceptably administered standardized test or (2) a portfolio for review

Home school supervised by licensed teacher

Meet with supervising teacher at least twice per quarter (one meeting may be by phone)

Kansas*

Home school satellite of accredited private school

As prescribed by the supervising private school

State board of education-approved religious exemption in high school grades

As prescribed in the approval process

Louisiana*

Home school approved by board of education

Submit with renewal application documentation that program is at least equal to that offered in public school

Maine

Home school

Annually, (1) administer a standardized test, (2) take a local test, or (3) have the child's progress reviewed by a certified teacher, a superintendent-selected local advisory board, or a home school support group that includes a certified teacher

Home school as part of a non-approved private school that teaches at least two unrelated students.

Must give parents four progress reports annually

Table C: -Continued

State

Testing

Maryland*

Supervised home instruction through church school or state-approved correspondence course

As prescribed by the supervising program

Massachusetts

Not required by state law, but may be a negotiated condition of approval

Minnesota

Administer an annual standardized test agreed to by the local superintendent

New Hampshire

By July 1, file (1) the results from a standardized test or from a state student assessment test used by the local district, (2) a written evaluation by a certified teacher, or (3) results from another measure agreeable to the school board

New York

Annual assessment must be filed with local superintendent by June 30th. Must be from a standardized test every other year for grades 4-8 and every year for grades 9-12. Student must score above the 33rd percentile or the program can be placed on probation. For other years, the requirement may be met by a standardized test or a written narrative evaluation prepared by (1) a certified teacher, (2) home instruction peer review panel, or (3) other person chosen by the parent with the superintendent's consent.

North Carolina

Annual standardized test that measures achievement in English, grammar, reading, spelling, and math. Results must be available for inspection

North Dakota

Standardized achievement test in grades 4, 6, 8 and 10. Test must be administered by a certified teacher and results supplied to the superintendent. A composite score below the 30th percentile requires a professional assessment for learning problems and a plan of remediation submitted to the superintendent.

Ohio

Annual standardized test, written narrative showing satisfactory academic progress, or an approved alternative assessment

Oregon

Participate in an approved comprehensive test in grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 administered by a qualified neutral person. If the child was withdrawn from public school, the first examination must be administered at least 18 months after the date the child was withdrawn from public school. If the child never attended public or private school, the first examination must be administered to the child prior to the end of grade 3.

Pennsylvania*

Home school

Administer standardized test in grades 3, 5, and 8 and submit results as part of a portfolio

Rhode Island

Annual assessment may be required. Preference of parent as to type of assessment must be honored.

South Carolina*

Home school approved by local school board

Participate in the annual statewide testing program and the Basic Skills Assessment Program

South Dakota

Standardized test administered in same grade levels tested under state testing program (grades 2, 4, 8, and 11). Results must show satisfactory progress.

Tennessee

Home school

Standardized tests in grades 5, 7, and 9. Must be given by education commissioner, his designee, or a professional testing service approved by local school board.

Home school associated with church-related school

Administer the same annual standardized achievement test or Sanders Model assessment used by the local school district for grades 9-12

Satellite campus of church-related school

As prescribed by church-related school

Vermont

Submit (1) an annual assessment from a certified Vermont teacher, (2) a report from a commercial curriculum publisher together with a portfolio, or (3) the results of an acceptably administered standardized test

Table C: -Continued

State

Testing

Virginia*

Home school not operating under religious exemption statute

For those six years or older on September 30th, administer a standardized test or have child otherwise evaluated every year; submit results to local superintendent by August 1st

Washington

Home school

Annual state-approved standardized test administered by qualified person or have the child evaluated by a certified teacher currently working in education

Extension program of an approved private school designed for parents to teach their children at home

Progress must be evaluated by a certified teacher employed by the approved private school

West Virginia

Home school

Annually (1) administer standardized test, (2) have portfolio evaluated by a certified teacher, (3) assess progress by another agreeable means, or (4) participate in a state testing program

Home school approved by local school board

As prescribed in the approval process

*These states have other legal options with no requirements.

Source: Home School Legal Defense Association

SC:ts