Topic:
FINES; MOTOR VEHICLES; TRAFFIC REGULATIONS; TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS; TRUCKS;
Location:
TRAFFIC REGULATIONS; TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS;

OLR Research Report


February 28, 2008

 

2008-R-0027

SPEEDING FINE COMPARISON FOR CONNECTICUT, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, AND VIRGINIA

By: James J. Fazzalaro, Principal Analyst

You asked for a comparison of the fines for speeding for Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

SUMMARY

The speeding laws and fine structures in the four states differ considerably. In Connecticut, there are three laws that specify penalties for driving too fast: (1) traveling unreasonably fast, (2) speeding, and (3) reckless speeding. Each has its own set of penalties. The lowest penalty structure applies for traveling unreasonably fast, which is when someone exceeds the posted speed limit, but does not drive more than 55 miles per hour (mph). This usually occurs on local and smaller state roads. These are classified as infractions. Connecticut's speeding law applies when someone exceeds 55 mph. This can be either an infraction or a violation, with different penalty schedules, depending on someone's actual speed. Under the speeding law, a higher penalty applies to trucks than to cars. If someone exceeds 85 mph, the reckless driving law applies. This is a criminal violation that can include both a fine and a period of incarceration.

Fines in Connecticut can be as low as $35 for the infraction of driving from one to nine mph above the posted limit to as much as $200 for trucks driving from 81 to 85 mph. However, the fine is only part of what a person must pay. Several additional surcharges, fees, and assessments apply for speeding offenses, as well as for other types of traffic offenses. Although, for example, the fine for going one to nine mph above the posted limit is only $35, the amount someone must actually pay because of all the additional charges is $103. It can be even higher if the violation occurs in a designated highway construction, utility work, or school zone.

New York law provides for a three-tier basic fine structure according to the amount a violator exceeds the speed limit. New York is also the only one of the four states that applies a higher possible fine if someone has prior speeding convictions within an 18-month period. New York also has enhanced penalties for violations that occur in highway construction and maintenance zones and an even higher fine structure if they occur in a school zone.

Pennsylvania has a relatively simple fine structure. A violator pays a base fine of $35 or $42.50, if the speed limit exceeded was 65 mph. A violator must also pay $2 for each mile above the posted limit after five. There are also several other fees and assessments a violator must pay. Fines double in designated highway construction or maintenance zones.

Virginia law specifies a basic speeding fine of up $250, up to $250 with a higher minimum fine if the violation occurs in school zone, and up to $500 if it occurs in a designated highway work zone. On a local road designated as a “residence district” by required signs, a minimum $200 fine is mandatory. If a road is designated as a “highway safety corridor”, the fine is twice what otherwise applies. The actual fine up to the maximum is determined by the court, but a uniform schedule applies if a violator decides not to appear in court and mails in the fine. This is typically $5 for each mile above the posted limit under normal circumstances and higher if it is in a special zone. Virginia also charges a fixed $51 fee for processing costs and other purposes.

It is considered to be reckless driving to (1) exceed the posted speed limit by 20 mph or more or (2) drive over 80 mph regardless of the speed limit. In these instances the fine can be up to $2,500 plus an additional “road abuser fee” assessment of $1,050. However, the higher charge and fine for violations of driving 20 or more miles per hour above the speed limit has not been consistently applied in Virginia.

The remainder of this report explains the laws in the four states in more detail and provides some examples of the fines that would likely apply for some hypothetical speeding violations.

SPEEDING FINE STRUCTURES

Connecticut

Connecticut's speeding-related laws and the associated fine structure are complicated. Someone driving above legal speeds can be arrested under any of three statutes, depending on the circumstances. The three statutes are (1) traveling at an unreasonable speed, (2) speeding, and (3) reckless speeding.

The different speed-related offenses are penalized as either infractions or as violations where the statue specifies a fine range. For infractions, the judges of the Superior Court set the specific fine for each type of infraction within a general range of $35 to $90. For the statutorily specified fine ranges for violations, the judges use a uniform schedule that specifies an amount for a specific range of speeds. Besides the actual fine, speed-related offenses are subject by law to several surcharges, fees, and cost assessments that make the actual amounts considerably higher.

Fine Additives and Multipliers

Fines for speeding infractions and violations are only part of what an offender must pay. Several laws significantly add to the amount a person must actually pay. These either (1) add fees, surcharges, or costs for various purposes and uses or (2) multiply the amount of the base fine if the violation occurs in a designated highway construction zone, utility work zone, or school zone. These are summarized below. These apply to things other than speed-related offenses as well.

● A surcharge equal to 50% of the assessed fine. This extra amount goes to the Special Transportation Fund and is known as the “STF surcharge” (CGS 13b-68).

● An additional fee of $1 for every $8 of fine, or any fraction thereof, for the purpose of providing funds for state and municipal police training (CGS 51-56a(c)).

● A $15 cost must be imposed against anyone who pleads no contest to, or is convicted of, a speeding violation or speeding infraction (CGS 54-143(a) (Note—This cost applies to violations of CGS 14-219 but not to violations of CGS 14-218a).

● A $20 surcharge must be imposed on anyone who pleads no contest to, or is convicted of, any infraction, or certain violations. However, if the infraction carries a fine of $35 or more, the amount that must be paid is $35 (CGS 54-143a).

● Anyone convicted of speeding, reckless driving, or drunk driving must pay an additional $5 assessment, which is designated for use for traumatic brain injury prevention services. The assessment also applies to anyone who pleads no contest to a speeding charge and pays the fine by mail (CGS 14-295a).

● An additional fee of $10, which is paid to the municipality in which the offense occurred (CGS 51-56a(d)).

In addition to all of these special assessments, when certain offenses occur in a designated (1) state highway construction zone, (2) utility work zone, or (3) school zone, the violator must pay an additional amount equal to 100% of the assessed fine (CGS 14-212a, 212b). Table 1 illustrates how these additional fees and fine multipliers work for a typical speeding violation.

Table 1: Total amount Due from Fine, Fees, Assessments, and Other Charges for Typical Speeding Violation

Violation is for driving 70 mph in a 55 mph zone

Base Fine

$60*

Special Transportation Fund Surcharge

$30

Police Training Fee

$8

Court Cost Assessment

$15

Court Cost Surcharge

$35

Traumatic Brian Injury Fund Assessment

$5

Fee for Remittance to Municipality

$10

Total Amount Due

$163

*If this violation occurred in a construction zone, utility work zone, or school zone, another $60 assessment would be added making the total due $223. If the violation occurred in more than one such zone, a second $60 assessment would be added making the total amount due $283

Unreasonable Speed

Traveling at an unreasonable speed (CGS 14-218a) occurs when someone drives at a speed that is greater than reasonable considering the width, use, and traffic on a road; the intersection of other roads; and weather conditions. The State Traffic Commission-approved posted speed limit is generally used as the controlling speed. Someone who exceeds this limit but does not exceed 55 mph can be cited for the infraction of traveling unreasonably fast. The amount due for this infraction is determined by a sliding scale that increases according to the amount the violator exceeds the posted limit.

Another aspect of this law allows someone to be charged with “traveling too fast for conditions” when he or she is going less than the posted speed limit, but at a speed judged to be unreasonable because a special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians, other traffic, weather, or road conditions. Someone charged under this provision of the law must pay the total amount of $103.

Speeding

The speeding law (CGS 14-219) generally prohibits someone from driving on a road or in a parking area for 10 or more cars (1) at a speed that endangers the life of a vehicle occupant, but not someone outside the vehicle (2) at more than 55 mph on roads posted with a 55-mph speed limit, or (3) at more than 65 mph on roads with a 65-mph speed limit. The classifications within this prohibition depend on actual speed, road type, and whether or not the vehicle is a truck.

Speeding is punished as an infraction when someone drives (1) 56 to 70 mph on a 55-mph posted limited access highway, (2) 66 to 70 mph on a 65-mph posted limited access highway, and (3) 56 to 60 mph on any other type of road.

Speeding becomes a violation when a person drives (1) from 71 to 85 mph on a limited access highway (no matter what the posted limit), (2) from 61 to 85 mph on any other type of road, or (3) at a speed that endangers a vehicle occupant. The statutorily specified fine for a speeding violation is $100-$150 but the additional surcharges and fees make the total amounts due significantly more (see Table 2). A speeding truck is fined at a higher rate than a car.

While fines are still specified by law as $100 to $150, the amounts for speeding violations by cars on non-limited access highways for going 61 to 85 mph are not preset because, unlike other speeding offenses, they are not subject to processing by the Centralized Infractions Bureau. Thus violators must appear in court and the court determines the amount that must be paid.

The amount due for driving at a speed that endangers a vehicle occupant is a uniform $213, which can become $313 or $413 if the speed zone multipliers come into play.

Reckless Speed

Anyone driving at more than 85 mph on any road must be prosecuted under the reckless driving law instead of the speeding law (CGS 14-222). This offense also includes driving at any speed that endangers the life of anyone other than the driver or another vehicle occupant. The penalties for reckless speeding include a fine of $100-$300, imprisonment for up to 30 days, or both, for a first offense and a fine of up to $600, imprisonment for up to one year, or both, for a subsequent offense. Fines are subject to the surcharges and other fees described above so the actual amounts that must be paid are considerably higher.

Table 2 shows the range of possible fines that apply for the various types of speed-related offenses that can occur under Connecticut law.

Table 2: Connecticut Fine Structure for Various Types of Speed Related Offenses

Speed-Related Offense

Total Amount Due

Traveling Unreasonably Fast

(CGS 14-218a)—Infraction

Above Posted Limit but not over 55 mph

Base fine ranges from $35 to $90 according to amount over speed limit

Normal circumstances

$103 to $191

Special Zone

$138 to $281

Multiple Special Zones

$173 to $371

Traveling Too Fast for Conditions

(CGS 14-218a)—Infraction

Speed is below posted limit but not appropriate for circumstances

$103

Speeding Infraction (does not apply to trucks)

(CGS 14-219(b)—Infraction

56 mph through 70 mph on limited access highway

56 through 60 mph on all other highways

Normal circumstances

$123 to $211

Special Zone

$158 to $301

Multiple Special Zones

$193 to $319

Speeding Violation (does not apply to trucks)

(CGS . 14-219(c)(1)

71 mph to 85 mph

71 mph to 75 mph

$213 ($313 in Special Zone)

76 mph to 80 mph

$254 ($379 in Special Zone)

81 mph to 85 mph

$294 ($444 in Special Zone)

Driving to Endanger Occupant (does not apply to trucks)

(CGS 14-219 (a)(1)

Normal Circumstances

$213

Special Zone

$313

Multiple Special Zones

$413

Speeding Violation—Trucks Only

(CGS . 14-219(b)(1) an (2);

Over 55 mph but not over 70 mph

56 mph to 60 mph

$213

($313 or $413 in Special Zone(s))

61 mph to 65 mph

$245

($365 or $485 in Special Zone(s))

66 mph to 70 mph

$278

($418 or $558 in Special Zone(s))

Speeding Violation—Trucks Only

(CGS 14-219(c)(1);

Over 70 mph but not over 85 mph

71 mph to 75 mph

$310

($470 or $630 in Special Zone(s))

76 mph to 80 mph

$343

($525 or $703 in Special Zone(s))

81 mph to 85 mph

$375

($575 or $775 in Special Zone(s))

Driving to Endanger Occupant

(Trucks Only)

CGS 14-219(a)(1)

Normal Circumstances

$294

Special Zone

$444

Multiple Special Zones

$594

Reckless Speed

(CGS 14-222)

Driving Over 85 mph

Driving at a speed that endangers the life of a person other than the driver himself

First Offense

*$100 to $300 fine, up to 30 days imprisonment, or both

Subsequent Offense

Up to $600 fine, up to one year imprisonment, or both

*Reckless driving is subject to all of the same surcharges, fees, and assessments as other speeding offenses so the actual amount due is considerably more than the amounts shown here

New York

New York law prohibits someone from driving at a speed greater than what is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the existing actual and potential hazards (Vehicle & Traffic Law, Sec. 1180). This is similar to Connecticut's prohibition on traveling

unreasonably fast for conditions (CGS 14-218a). Unlike Connecticut, the fine for speed violations increases for repeat offenses that occur within a period of 18 months.

Fine ranges are set based on three categories according to how much faster than the speed limit the violator was driving (e.g., up to 10 miles per hour, 11 to 30 miles per hour, more than 30 miles per hour). In any case where a driver commits a second speeding offense (no matter what type) within an 18-month period, the law allows the court to add an additional $150 to the maximum fine. A third or subsequent speeding offense within the same 18-month period can result in the addition of $375 to the maximum fine.

Unlike Connecticut, New York law also provides for a possible term of imprisonment for speeding violations of more than 10 miles per hour above the posted limit.

Higher fine ranges apply if the violation occurs in (1) an established highway construction or maintenance zone or (2) a school speed zone. For construction zones, the minimum fine is twice as high but the maximum remains the same. For school zones, the fine range doubles. The enhanced fine for speeding in a school zone applies on a school day between 7 a.m. and 6 p.m.

Table 3 below shows the penalties for various speeding situations specified in the New York law.

Table 3: Summary of New York Speeding Penalties

Normal Circumstances

Minimum Fine

Maximum Fine

Imprisonment

1 to 10 mph over limit

$45

$150

None

11 to 30 mph over the limit

$90

$300

Up to 15 days

More than 30 mph over the limit

$180

$600

Up to 30 days

Table 3: Continued

Construction zone

Minimum Fine

Maximum Fine

Imprisonment

1 to 10 mph over limit

$90

$150

None

11 to 30 mph over the limit

$180

$300

Up to 30

More than 30 mph over the limit

$360

$600

Up to 30

School Zone

Minimum Fine

Maximum Fine

Imprisonment

1 to 10 mph over limit

$90

$300

None

11 to 30 mph over the limit

$180

$600

Up to 15 days

More than 30 mph over the limit

$360

$1,200

Up to 30 days

Special Speed Laws

Minimum Fine

Maximum Fine

Imprisonment

1. Speed greater than reasonable and prudent for conditions

2. Failure to reduce speed appropriately for traffic hazard

$45

$150

Up to 15 days

Repeat Offense

(Any speeding within the same 18 month period as a prior offense)

Minimum Fine

Maximum Fine

Imprisonment

2nd Offense

Same minimum

+ $150

Up to 30 days

3rd or Subsequent Offense

Same minimum

+ $375

Up to 30 days

The court determines the actual fine assessed within these ranges.

Pennsylvania

The fine structure for speeding in Pennsylvania is relatively simple. For exceeding a posted 65 miles per hour speed limit, the base fine is $42.50 plus $2 for each mile per hour over the limit in excess of five. For exceeding any other posted speed limit, the base fine is $35 plus $2 for each mile per hour above the limit over five. Fines for offenses that occur in construction or maintenance zones are doubled. Like Connecticut, fines do not escalate for repeat offenses.

However, several additional fees and surcharges are assessed besides the fine for speeding violations. They are shown below.

● $28 fee for administrative processing of the speeding citation

● $10 assessment for the Emergency Medical Services Fund which provides funding for ambulance and volunteer firefighting organizations

● $1.50 assessment for upgrading the judicial computer system used by the courts to track cases

● $30-$50 surcharge for the Catastrophic Loss Trust Fund

The Catastrophic Loss Trust Fund was set up by the legislature in 1984 to provide funds to help people who were seriously hurt in traffic accidents defray their medical costs. The fund's authority was repealed in 1989, but about 750 people who were hurt before the repeal continue to receive benefits from the fund. The speeding ticket surcharge provides funding to help defray these costs. The size of the surcharge depends on the speed by which the violator exceeded the speed limit. The surcharge is $30 for those exceeding the posted limit by six to 15 miles per hour, $40 for those exceeding the limit by 16 to 25 miles per hour, and $50 for those exceeding the limit by 26 miles per hour or more.

Virginia

In Virginia, speeding is considered a traffic infraction punishable by a fine of up to $250 (Va. Code 46.2-113). If the violation occurs in a designated school crossing zone the maximum fine is also $250, but the fine assessed is usually more than under normal conditions (Va. Code 46.2-873). If speeding occurs in a designated highway work zone or a designated highway safety corridor, the maximum fine is $500 (Va. Code 46.2-878.1; 46.2-947).

Virginia law also provides for a special penalty for speeding that occurs in local areas designated by appropriate signing as residence districts. Speeding in a residence district results in a mandatory $200 fine, no portion of which can be suspended unless the court orders 20 hours of community service (Va. Code 878.2). In addition to this fine, municipalities meeting certain criteria can assess a civil penalty of $100 for exceeding the speed limit in a designated residential area by more than a specified amount.

Someone driving (1) 20 miles per hour or more above any posted speed limit, or (2) over 80 miles per hour, regardless of the speed limit, can be charged with reckless driving under Virginia law rather speeding. Reckless driving is a misdemeanor with a penalty of up to $2,500, up to one year imprisonment, or both (Va. Code 46.2-862).

If a violator chooses not to make a court appearance and mail in a speeding fine, Virginia law requires the Supreme Court to establish a uniform fine schedule that must apply. This is known as fine “prepayment.” Otherwise, the court determines the actual fine up to the maximum the law provides for the particular circumstances. For normal speeding infractions, the uniform schedule specifies a fine of $5 for each mile above the posted speed limit. For school crossing and highway work zones, this is $6 for each mile above the limit. For speeding in a residential district, the uniform fine is $7 per mile over the limit in addition to the mandatory $200 fine (Va. Code 16.1-69.40:1 and 46.2-878.3 and Supreme Court Rule 3B:2). Certain higher hazard roads can be designated under Virginia law as “Highway Safety Corridors.” When speeding occurs in a designated highway safety corridor the fine must be twice what would otherwise apply under the uniform fine schedule for prepayment of fines (Va. Code 46.2-947).

Virginia law also requires payment of a fixed fee of $51 for all traffic infractions tried in district court. Just over 75% of this fee goes to the state's general fund as a processing fee. The remainder is split according to a formula among five special funds. These funds are the Virginia Crime Victim-Witness Fund, the Regional Criminal Justice Training Academies Fund, the Courthouse Construction and Maintenance Fund, the Intensified Drug Enforcement Jurisdiction Fund, and the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Victim Fund (Code of Va., 16.1-69.48.1). A separate law authorizes a county or city to assess a $10 fee for costs for a traffic case heard in its district or circuit court.

Beginning in July 2007, Virginia began to enforce a new law that establishes special “abusive driving” fees for violations of certain of its traffic laws. These fees apply only to Virginia –licensed drivers. Essentially, someone is charged an additional fee whenever he is convicted of a specified offense. The fee is paid in three annual installments with the first collected at the time of conviction. The abusive driving fee ranges from $750 for driving with a suspended license to as much as $3,000 for certain vehicle-related felonies. Reckless driving is subject to a $1,050 civil remedial fee, but speeding infractions are not subject to the fee. Thus, whether someone is charged

with a speeding infraction or a reckless driving misdemeanor for driving 20 miles per hour over the speed limit has a significant effect on the amount of the fine that must be paid.

The various speeding fines are summarized in the table below.

Table 4: Summary of Virginia Speeding Related Penalties

Speeding Circumstance

Fine

Speeding Infraction (normal circumstances)

Up to $250

$5 per mile over limit if fine is prepaid without appearance

Speeding in designated school crossing zone

Up to $250

$6 per mile over limit if fine is prepaid without appearance

Speeding in designated highway work zone or highway safety corridor

Up to $500

$6 per mile over limit if fine is prepaid without appearance

Speeding in designated highway safety corridor

Up to $500

Prepaid fine must be double what would otherwise apply

Speeding in designated Residence District

$200 plus $7 per mile over limit

Municipality may assess an additional $100 civil penalty under certain conditions

Mandatory fee for traffic infractions

(applies to all of above)

$51

Possible Local Assessment

$10

Reckless Speed

20 mph or more above limit

Over 80 mph regardless of limit

Up to $2,500

Fine Prepayment not allowed; court appearance required

Abusive Driver Civil Remedial Fee for Reckless Driving

(VA resident only)

$1,050

(three installments)

Virginia's Joint Commission on Transportation Accountability released an interim review of the state's abusive driver fees in Virginia. One of the commission's findings was that state law with respect to exceeding the speed limit by 20 miles per hour or more was being inconsistently applied. More people who engaged in this conduct were being convicted of speeding than reckless driving as the law specified. For the period from FY 2005 through FY 2007, the commission found that for people convicted of driving 20 or more miles per hour above the posted speed limit during this period, an annual average of 30,931 were convicted of reckless driving while an annual average of 51,946 were being convicted of speed instead.

The commission speculated that one of the reasons for the inconsistent application of the speed related reckless driving provisions was a belief by law enforcement that for conduct to constitute reckless driving it must endanger life or property. Other possibilities were that judges sometimes amended reckless driving charges to speeding and the lesser charge was sometimes used to reduce administrative costs given the fact that the misdemeanor charge was more likely to be contested than the infraction (Interim Review of the Results of Abusive Driver Fees in Virginia and Other States, Joint Commission on Transportation Accountability, December 5, 2007, pp. 7-9).

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLES OF SPEEDING FINES

In order to understand how each state's law works, we have provided several examples of what the likely fines would be for speeding at certain speeds for certain speed limits in each of the four states. In Connecticut and Pennsylvania the fine is fairly easy to determine because the fines and other assessments are fixed according to a schedule. However, in New York and Virginia, the law specifies only a fine within a certain range, but the actual amount is set by the court. For example, going from 10 to 30 mph above the posted speed limit in New York falls within the range of $90 to $300. It would be reasonable to assume that someone going 10 mph above the limit would be more likely to be fined $90 than $300 and someone going 30 mph above the limit would be more likely to be fined $300 than $90, but we cannot be certain of this. If this rationale is accurate, someone going 15 mph above the limit would probably be fined around $145.

For purposes of comparison, Virginia fines have been estimated based on application of the Uniform Fine Schedule for prepayment of fines plus the automatic $51 additional fee. However, if fines are not prepaid and a court appearance is made, the judge may assess any fine up to the maximum specified by law as noted in Table 4. In this case, the fines would be higher than shown. Also, in instances involving speeds high enough to qualify as reckless driving under the Virginia law, these higher fines have been shown in the table even though, as noted above, they are not always applied in practice.

Table 5: Comparative Examples of Fines in the Four States for Certain Speeding Situations

Speed is 40

Limit is 25 mph

CT—$143 ($203 if in Special Zone)

NY—First Offense—$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$124.501

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$126

School or Construction Zone—$141

Residence Zone—$356

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Speed is 50

Limit is 25

CT—$191 ($281 if in Special Zone)

NY—First Offense—$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$154.50

VA—Up to $2,500 plus, if VA resident, abusive driver fee of $1,050 payable over three years2

Speed is 50

Limit is 35

CT—$143 ($203 if in Special Zone)

NY—First Offense—$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$124.50

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$126

School or Construction Zone—$141

Residence Zone—$356

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Table 5: Continued

Speed is 55

Limit is 45

CT—$110 ($150 if in Special Zone)

NY—First Offense—$45 to $150/$90 to $150 if in construction or maintenance/$90 to $300 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)--$45 to $300/$90 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$90 to $450 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$45 to $525/$90 to $525 of in construction or maintenance zone/$90 to $675 if in school zone

PA—$114.50

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$101

School or Construction Zone—$111

Residence Zone—$321

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Speed is 65

Limit is 50

CT—$163 (car)/$245 (truck)

$223 (car)/$365 (truck) if in Special Zone

NY—First Offense--$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)--$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)--$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$124.50

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$126

School or Construction Zone—$141

Residence Zone—$356

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Speed is 70

Limit is 55

CT—$163 (car)/$278 (truck)

$223 (car)/ $418 (truck) if in Special Zone

NY—First Offense--$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)--$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—124.50

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$126

School or Construction Zone—$141

Residence Zone—$356

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Table 5: Continued

Speed is 75

Limit is 55

CT—$213 (car)/$310 (truck)

$313 (car)/$470 (truck) if in Special Zone

NY—First Offense—$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)--$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$144.50

VA—Up to $2,500 plus, if VA resident, abusive driver fee of $1,050 payable over three years2

Speed is 75

Limit is 65

CT—$213 (car)/$310 (truck)

$313 (car)/$470 (truck) if in Special Zone

NY—First Offense--$45 to $150/$90 to $150 if in construction or maintenance/$90 to $300 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$45 to $300/$90 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$90 to $450 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$45 to $525/$90 to $525 of in construction or maintenance zone/$90 to $675 if in school zone

PA—$122

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$101

School or Construction Zone—$111

Residence Zone—$321

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Speed is 80

Limit is 65

CT—$254 (car)/$343 (truck)

$379 (car)/$523 (truck) in Special Zone

NY—First Offense--$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$132

VA—Likely fine if prepaid:

Normal—$126

School or Construction Zone—$141

Residence Zone—$356

Highway Safety Zone—Double fine plus $51 fee

Table 5: Continued

Speed is 85

Limit is 55

CT—$294 (car)/$375 (truck)

$444 (car)/$575 (truck) in Special Zone

NY—First Offense--$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$174.50

VA—Up to $2,500 plus, if VA resident, abusive driver fee of $1,050 payable over three years2

Speed is 85

Limit is 65

CT—$294 (car)/$375 (truck)

$444 (car)/$575 (truck)

NY—First Offense—$90 to $300/$180 to $300 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $600 if in school zone

Second Offense (18 months)—$90 to $450/$180 to $450 if in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $750 if in school zone

Subsequent Offense (18 months)—$90 to $675/$180 to $675 of in construction or maintenance zone/$180 to $975 if in school zone

PA—$152

VA—Up to $2,500 plus, if VA resident, abusive driver fee of $1,050 payable over three years2

1 Fine amounts shown for Pennsylvania are aggregate of base fine plus statutory additives and assessments. Thus, for example, the fine of $124.50 represents the following: $35 base fine, $20 for miles above speed limit, $28 for administrative processing, $10 surcharge for emergency services fund, $1.50 for computer upgrade fee, $30 surcharge for Catastrophic Loss Trust Fund

2 Fines shown in table reflect the requirements of the law, which classifies exceeding the speed limit by 20 mph or more or going over 80 mph, regardless of the speed limit, as reckless driving rather than speeding. However, in practice many violators are charged or prosecuted for speeding rather than reckless driving and thus are subject to the lower $250 maximum fine rather than the $2,500 maximum fine, plus the $1,050 abusive driver fee.

JF:dw