Topic:
HANDICAPPED; MOTOR VEHICLE DEPARTMENT; PARKING FACILITIES; LEGISLATION; PERMITS;
Location:
HANDICAPPED; PARKING;

OLR Research Report


January 18, 2007

 

2007-R-0007

HANDICAPPED PARKING LAWS

By: George Coppolo, Chief Attorney

You asked for information about Connecticut's handicapped parking permit law and how it compares with laws in other states.

SUMMARY

The law requires the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles to issue special handicapped license plates and removable windshield placards to any:

1. person who is blind,

2. person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk;

3. parent or guardian of any blind person or person with disabilities who is under 18 years of age at the time of application; and

4. any organization that meets criteria established by the motor vehicle commissioner and certifies to the commissioner's satisfaction that the vehicle for which a plate or placard is requested is primarily used to transport blind persons or persons with disabilities which limit or impair their ability to walk.

Applications must include certification of disability from designated medical professionals or from a member of the handicapped driver training unit established by law. The commissioner may suspend or revoke any plate or placard for misuse.

A violation of the handicapped parking law is an infraction punishable by a fine of $131. Only those motor vehicles displaying a plate or placard are authorized to park in handicapped parking spaces except that any ambulance, which is transporting a patient, may park in such area for up to 15 minutes while assisting the patient. Any motor vehicle parked in violation for the third or subsequent time may being towed and impounded until payment of any fines incurred is received.

According to Nancy Dumais of the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) as of January 3, 2007 there were 342,914 active handicapped parking placards in Connecticut (3,842 of these were temporary) and 7,119 handicapped parking plates. She reported that approximately 44,000 people were issued two placards; the rest were issued one. She also noted that PA 06-130 allows the DMV commissioner to limit handicapped parking placards to one per applicant, which the department is currently considering. This will only apply to newly issued placards.

We have asked the appropriate agencies in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island for the number of active placards they have and will forward this information to you as soon as we receive it. We have also enclosed a copy of an OLR Report prepared in 2002 that contains statistics of placards issued by each state for a six-year period (2002-R-0067).

Dumais noted that DMV has started to be more proactive in its enforcement efforts. For example DMV is contacting all placard and license plate holders to remind them of their legal duties and warning them that misusing the placards or plates can result in suspension as well as fines. She also indicated that DMV is now checking on a monthly basis with the Department of Health to cross check the names of recently deceased people with the names of placard and plate owners. When this reveals that a placard or plate holder is deceased, DMV invalidates the placard and sends a notice to the deceased person's address. She informed us that local and state police can easily access DMV's handicapped parking data base, which indicates whether a placard or plate is valid and provides identifying information about the placard or plate owner including his name, and age. Thus, police can easily enforce the law when investigating a complaint of a possible violation.

PA 00-169 eliminated the requirement that permanent placards be renewed every five years and that a $5 application and renewal fee be charged. The fee had been successfully challenged in federal court in Connecticut and in almost all other states as a violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Without the fee for processing renewals, the DMV recommended that these placards be made permanent. The permanent placards began replacing the dated placards in June 2000.

Connecticut appears to be one of only four states that have permanent handicapped parking placards. Most states issue placards that expire after four or five years. Several expire after two or three years and a few have a longer duration.

In an apparent attempt to reduce misuse and to assist enforcement efforts many of the states issue placards that indicate the expiration date, and others include such information as the applicant's name, and license or identification number. Some states do more. For example, Virginia includes the covered person's name, age, and sex; a misuse hotline; and a warning of possible penalties. At least one state, Iowa, changes the shape and color of the placard every four years.

The standards for issuing the placard are similar in most states to those used in Connecticut. Some issue placards for additional disabilities such as Maine, which issues placards to applicants who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Most states impose fines for violations. Some also have penalties that include possible prison time, the towing of vehicles that are illegally parked, the suspension or revocation of placards for misuse, and in at least one state the imposition of community service on violators.

CONNECTICUT LAW (CGS 14-253)

Eligibility for License Plates and Windshield Placards

The law requires the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles to accept applications and renewal applications for special license plates and removable windshield placards from

1. any person who is blind, as defined by law (CGS 1-1f);

2. any person with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, as defined in federal law (23 CFR Part 1235.2);

3. any parent or guardian of any blind person or person with disabilities who is under 18 years of age at the time of application; and

4. any organization that meets criteria established by the commissioner and certifies to the commissioner's satisfaction that the vehicle for which a plate or placard is requested is primarily used to transport blind persons or persons with disabilities which limit or impair their ability to walk.

Definitions

The law defines a “special license plate" as a license plate displaying the international symbol of access in a size identical to that of the letters or numerals on the plate and in a color that contrasts with the background color of the plate.

It defines a “removable windshield placard" as a two-sided, hanger-style placard which bears on both of its sides: (1) The international symbol of access in a height of three inches or more centered on such placard and colored white on a blue background; (2) a unique identification number; (3) a date of expiration; and (4) a statement indicating that the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles issued it.

It defines a “temporary removable windshield placard" as a placard that is the same as a removable windshield placard except that the international symbol of access appears on a red background.

Ability to Walk

Connecticut's law uses the federal criteria for defining limitation in ability to walk (23 CFR 1235. 2). It is important to note that these criteria can involve physician-certified limitations that are not outwardly visible. Specifically, under these criteria, someone qualifies if a physician determines that he:

1. cannot walk 200 feet without stopping to rest;

2. cannot walk without the use of, or assistance from, a cane, brace, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, wheelchair, or other assistive device;

3. is restricted by lung disease to such an extent that his forced respiratory volume or arterial oxygen tension is below certain limits;

4. uses portable oxygen;

5. has a cardiac condition that creates functional limitations falling within the American Heart Association's Class III or IV criteria; or

6. is "severely limited" in walking ability due to an arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic condition.

These criteria provide physician's with some level of discretion and, especially with respect to the first and last criteria, some subjectivity in their certifications. Someone could meet some of these criteria and not have an obvious, externally visible impediment. Anyone wanting to question whether someone validly meets these criteria would probably need to be aware of these possible conditions in order to provide the commissioner with the reliable evidence likely to result in a review of the person's credentials.

Application for Plate or Placard

The law requires that applications must be on a form the commissioner prescribes and include certification of disability from a licensed physician or advanced practice registered nurse, or of blindness from an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. In the case of persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, the application must also include certification from a licensed physician, an advanced practice registered nurse, or a member of the handicapped driver training unit established by law (see CGS 14-11b) that the applicant meets the definition of persons with disabilities which limit or impair the ability to walk, as defined in federal law..

Commissioner's Additional Authority

The law authorizes the commissioner, in his discretion, to accept the discharge papers of a disabled veteran, as defined by law ( see CGS 14-254), in lieu of such certification. The commissioner may require additional certification at any time. If a person who has been asked to submit additional certification fails to do so within 30 days, or if the commissioner determines that such additional certification is unfavorable to the applicant, the commissioner may refuse to issue or, if already issued, suspend or revoke such special license plate or removable windshield placard.

Temporary Disability Parking Permits

Temporary disability parking permits are provided for persons whose ability to walk is seriously but temporarily impaired. A temporary parking permit will be issued to the person whose hospital discharge plan requires the use of crutches, wheel chairs, or any other device intended as an aid or substitution for walking.

The temporary disability permit is for the exclusive use of the disabled person. It may be used in any vehicle in which the disabled person is riding. A temporary permit is valid for up to six months, requires proof of disability just like a permanent permit, and allows the same access to reserved parking spaces. There is a $5 fee charged for each temporary permit issued.

If an applicant has a temporary parking permit that is due to expire and he still has a qualifying disability, he must obtain a new medical certification before applying for another temporary parking permit.

Requirements for Obtaining a Permanent Disability Parking Permit

A disability parking permit must be applied for in the name of the disabled person or by the parent or guardian of the disabled person (age is not a factor where guardianship is concerned). A permit is issued to a person with a qualifying disability, and the permit may be used in any vehicle in which that person is riding. For example, a child with a qualifying disability may receive a permit to be used when he/she is riding as a passenger in any vehicle.

Permits may also be issued to a facility or an agency for vehicles they use primarily to transport people with qualifying disabilities. A special application must be completed by the head of the facility or agency, and must indicate the vehicle will be used at least 50% of the time for transporting eligible clients.

There is no fee for a permanent disability parking permit. The permit is for the exclusive use of the disabled person and may be used in any vehicle in which the disabled person is riding.

Special License Plate

Any person who is eligible to obtain a special license plate and has a motor vehicle registered in his name as a passenger vehicle, passenger and commercial vehicle, or motorcycle must be issued, upon approval of the application, number plates that bear letters or numerals or any combination thereof followed by the international access symbol.

Any person eligible to obtain a special license plates who transfers the expired registration of a motor vehicle owned by him and replaces his number plate with a special license plate is be exempt from payment of any fee for such transfer or replacement. Any special license plate must be returned to the commissioner upon the subsequent change of residence to another state or death of the person to whom such special license plate was issued.

Removable Windshield Placard

Any removable windshield placard must be displayed by hanging it from the front windshield rearview mirror when using a parking space reserved for persons with disabilities. If there is no rearview mirror, the placard must be displayed in clear view on the dashboard. Upon request and payment of a fee prescribed by the commissioner, one additional placard may be issued to applicants who do not have special license plates.

Legally Permissible and Impermissible Parking

Vehicles displaying a special license plate or a removable windshield placard are allowed to park in an area where parking is legally permissible, for an unlimited period of time without penalty, notwithstanding the period of time indicated as lawful by any (1) parking meter, or (2) sign erected and maintained according to law, provided the operator of or a passenger in such motor vehicle is a blind person or a person with disabilities. A removable windshield placard may not be displayed on any motor vehicle when it is not being operated by or carrying as a passenger the blind person or a person with disabilities to whom the removable windshield placard was issued. Vehicles bearing a special license plate may not use parking spaces reserved for persons with disabilities when such vehicles are not being operated by or carrying as a passenger the blind person or a person with disabilities to whom the special license plate was issued.

Required Handicapped Parking Spaces

The law requires the State Traffic Commission, on any state highway, or local traffic authority, on any highway or street under its control, to establish parking spaces in parking areas for 20 or more cars in which parking is prohibited to all motor vehicles except those displaying a special license plate or a removable windshield placard issued pursuant to this section. Parking spaces in which parking is prohibited to all motor vehicles except vehicles displaying such special plate or placard must be established in private parking areas for 200 or more cars according to the following schedule:

Total Number Of Parking Lot Spaces

Number of Special Parking Spaces Required

0 – 200

Exempt

201 - 1000

1.0%

1001 - 2000

10 plus 0.8% of spaces

2001 - 3000

18 plus 0.6% of spaces

3001 - 4000

24 plus 0.4% of spaces

4001 or more

28 plus 0.2% of spaces

All such spaces must be designated as reserved for exclusive use by handicapped persons and identified by the use of signs. Such parking spaces must be next to curb cuts or other unobstructed methods permitting sidewalk access to a blind or handicapped person and must be 15 feet wide, including three feet of cross hatch, or be parallel to a sidewalk. These provisions do not apply (1) if the State Building Code imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of the private parking area in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required or (2) if a municipal ordinance imposes more stringent requirements as to the size of existing private parking areas in which special parking spaces are required or as to the number of special parking spaces required.

Location and Identification of Parking Spaces

Parking spaces for passenger motor vehicles designated for the handicapped must be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and must be 15 feet wide including five feet of cross hatch. Parking spaces for passenger vans designated for the handicapped must be as near as possible to a building entrance or walkway and must be 16 feet wide including eight feet of cross hatch. Such spaces must be designated by above grade signs with white lettering against a blue background and bear the words “handicapped parking permit required" and "violators will be fined". The sign must also bear the international symbol of access. When a sign is replaced, repaired or erected it must indicate the minimum fine for a violation. Such indicator may be in the form of a notice affixed to it.

Public Parking Garage or Terminal

Any public parking garage or terminal, as defined in the State Building Code, constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 1985, and before October 1, 2004, must have nine feet six inches vertical clearance at a primary entrance and along the route to at least two parking spaces that conform with the requirements of state law, and which have nine feet six inches' vertical clearance unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to state law ( see CGS 29-269(b)).

Each public parking garage or terminal constructed under a building permit application filed on or after October 1, 2004, must have eight feet two inches' vertical clearance at a primary entrance and along the route to at least two parking spaces for passenger vans which conform with the requirements of state law and which have eight feet two inches' vertical clearance unless an exemption has been granted.

Suspension or Revocation of a Plate or Placard

The commissioner may suspend or revoke any plate or placard issued pursuant to this section when, after affording the person to whom such plate or placard was issued an opportunity for an administrative hearing, the commissioner or his representative determines that he has used or permitted the use of such plate or placard in a manner that violates the provisions of this section.

Plate or Placard Must be Displayed

The law specifies that it does not allow a blind person or a person with disabilities who is a state resident to park in a public or private area reserved for the exclusive use of handicapped persons if he does not display upon or within his vehicle his plate or placard.

Penalties for Violators

A violation of the handicapped parking law is an infraction. The fine with added fees is $131.

Only those motor vehicles displaying a plate or placard are authorized to park in public or private areas reserved for exclusive use by blind persons or persons with disabilities, except that any ambulance, which is transporting a patient may park in such area for up to 15 minutes while assisting such patient. Any motor vehicle parked in violation of the provisions of this subsection for the third or subsequent time is subject to being towed from such designated area. Such vehicle must be impounded until payment of any fines incurred is received.

Regulations

The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles must adopt regulations to implement the law and to establish a uniform system for the issuance, renewal, and regulation of special license plates, removable windshield placards, and temporary removable windshield placards. Such plates and placards shall be used only by persons to whom such plates and placards are issued.

HANDICAPPED PARKING LAW VIOLATIONS

The four principle ways of violating Connecticut's law are 1) the unauthorized display of a placard, 2) unauthorized parking in a handicapped parking space, 3) the failure to return a license plate when the person for whom the plate was issue either dies or moves out of state, and 4) the failure to provide the required spaces. Following in Tables I and 2 are the number and disposition of cases involving alleged violations for July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, and from July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005. This information was provided by Greg Pac of the Judicial Department.

Table 1 Handicapped Parking Offenses

July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006

Offense

Total

Guilty

Centralized Infractions Bureau

Bond Forfeiture

Suspension

Nolle

Illegally Parking in a Designated Handicapped Parking Space

703

118

283

59

29

214

Unauthorized Display of Parking Placard or Special Plate

111

14

61

2

13

21

Failure to Return Plate When Required

2

0

2

0

0

0

Failure to Provide Proper Parking Facilities for People With Qualifying Disabilities

1

0

2

0

0

1

Table 2: Handicapped Parking Offenses

July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005

Offense

Total

Guilty

Centralized Infractions Bureau

Bond Forfeiture

Suspension

Nolle

Illegally Parking in a Designated Handicapped Parking Space CGS 14-253

766

117

317

61

45

226

Unauthorized Display of Parking Placard or Special Plate

CGS 14-253*

84

14

29

3

3

35

Failure to Return Plate When Required

CGS 14-253**

5

0

3

0

0

2

Failure to Provide Proper Parking Facilities for People With Qualifying Disabilities

CGS 14- 253***

5

1

1

0

0

3

Information about enforcement activity can be found in an earlier OLR report, which is enclosed (OLR Report 2002-R-0067).

DURATION OF HANDICAPPED PARKING PLACARDS IN OTHER STATES

Following in Table 3 is a state-by-state comparison of the duration of handicapped parking placards issued in other states. Only four states, including Connecticut, issue permanent placards. Placards in most states expire after two, three, four, or five years.

Table 3: Duration of Handicapped Parking Placards

2 years

3 years

4 years

5 years

6 years

8 years

10 years

Permanent

Arkansas

Colorado

Florida

Alabama

Minnesota

Oregon

Nevada*

Connecticut

California

Delaware

Georgia

Alaska

New Mexico

   

Idaho

Kentucky

Kansas

Hawaii

Arizona

     

Iowa

Louisiana

Montana

Indiana

New Hampshire

     

New Jersey

Massachusetts

Nebraska

Maine

New York

       

Mississippi

Rhode Island

Michigan

North Carolina

       

Missouri

 

Maryland

Ohio

       

Tennessee

 

South Carolina

Oklahoma

       

Utah

 

Texas

Pennsylvania

       
   

Vermont

South Dakota

       
   

Wisconsin

Virginia

       
   

Wyoming

Washington

       
     

West Virginia

       

In Nevada all handicapped parking placards are scheduled to expire in 2010; in Illinois, all placards expire in 2009; and in North Dakota they expire in 2010.

STATE COMPARISON IN TABLE FORM

The following table is based a table we found prepared by an organization know as HANDIPLATE (www.handiplate.com) Also see http://www.handiplate.com/The%20chart%20of%20comparison.xls, but we updated it and made changes where appropriate.

Table 4: State Comparison of Handicapped Parking Laws

State

Statute Number

Criteria for Determining Disability

Placard Design

Duration

Parking Space Provisions

Enforcement/ Penalties

Alabama

32-6-230 to

32-6-234

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access issued by the Commissioner of Revenue.

5 years

Complies with ANSI Standards.

Any person that uses removable windshield placard when not entitled to it - Class B misdemeanor; Any person that misuses or abuses the parking privileges using expired removable windshield placard - Class C misdemeanor; Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of minimum fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; two hundred ($200) and a minimum of 40 hours of the community service for the second offense; and five hundred ($500) and a minimum of 40 hours community service for the third and any subsequent offense.

Alaska

28.10.495

28.35.235

28.10.181

Unable to walk as defined in 23 C.F.R. 1235.2

(the same as stated above).

Specially designed registration plate that displays the standard symbol of disability (the wheelchair logo) of Motor Vehicles.

5 years

Complies with ANSI Standards.

 Up to $500 fine and possible revocation if placards are misused. Not less than $125 fine for improperly parking in a handicapped space; However, a person who violates this section and who was, at the time of the violation, operating a vehicle displaying a special license plate issued under AS 28.10.181(d) or a special permit issued under AS 28.10.495 (a) shall, upon conviction, pay a fine of $250 or, if the person has been previously convicted under this section, pay a fine of $500.

Arizona

28-882 to 28-886

28.2409

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

5 years

Outlined with paint and posted with a permanent sign located at least 3 feet above the grade that bears the internationally accepted symbol of access and the caption “reserved parking”.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of minimum of fifty ($50) dollars plus the placard or the special plates may be recalled.

Arkansas

27-15-312

27-15-302

27-15-315

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition.

Not given

2 years

Sign R7-8 or the blue and white international symbol of access with the appropriate regulatory language, such as “Handicapped Parking”, “Reserved for Handicapped” “Permit Required - Towing Enforced” etc.

Not given

California

22500 to 22526

A certificate signed by the physician or surgeon

A distinguishing placard

2 years

Sign consisting of profile

Any person that parks in the parking space

Colorado

42-3-121

42-4-1208

42-6-139

A physical impairment that substantially limits to move from place to place without the aid of a mechanical device or a physical impairment verified, in writing, by the director of the division of rehabilitation or a licensed physician.

A placard issued by the Commissioner of Revenue.

3 years

Each spcae will be marked with an official upright sign identifying such space as reserved for use by persons with disabilities.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - Class B traffic infraction and the maximum fine under it; Any person that parks a commercial carrier vehicle in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - Class B traffic infraction and twice the maximum penalty under it; Any person that misuses or abuses the parking privileges using what purports to be but is not a placard issued to a person with a disability - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $500. Any person that misuses or abuses the parking privileges using the placard when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor with twice the fine that would otherwise be imposed; Any person, to whom the placard was issued, that misuses such a placard, it may be revoked and reissuance denied subsequently.

Connecticut

14-253 to

14-254

Unable to walk and/or blind.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

Non-expiring

Adjacent to curb cuts permitting sidewalk access to a blind or handicapped person and fifteen feet wide with the sign bearing the words “Handicapped parking permit required” and “Violators will be fined” in white letters against a blue background.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - for the third or subsequent time will be subject to being towed from such designated area and fined.

Delaware

2134

2135

4183

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease to such an extent that the applicant's or household member's forced (respiratory) expiratory volume, one second, when measured by spirometry, is less than one liter or the arterial oxygen tension is less than sixty mm/hg. at room air or rest

d. Uses portable oxygen

e. Has a cardiac condition to the extent that the applicant's or household member's functional limitations are classified in severity as Class III or Class IV according to the standards set by the American Heart Association

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the permit number, the name of the issuing authority, the designation, the date of expiration and the International Symbol of Access issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

3 years

Outlined with paint and posted with a permanent sign located at least 3 feet above the grade that bears the internationally accepted Symbol of Access and the caption

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine not less than Mandatory fine of $100 for first offense or imprisonment not less than 10 nor more than 30 days or both for each subsequent like offense. Mandatory fine of $200 for second offense;

Florida

316.1964

316.1955

316.1958

316.1959

320.0848

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. The need to permanently use a wheelchair.

Removable placard displaying the applicant's license number or state identification card number and the International symbol of Access issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

4 years

Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a misdemeanor of the first degree and the permit may be confiscated. Any person that unlawfully displays the permit belonging to another while occupying a disabled parking space - a misdemeanor of the second degree and the permit may be confiscated.

Georgia

40-6-222 to

40-6-227

40-2-74

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. An impaired hearing.

Removable placard displaying the applicant's name and an identification number issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

4 years

Not given

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of not less than $100 but not more than $500 dollars and the vehicle may be towed away. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor and the vehicle may be towed away.

Hawaii

291-51 to

291-56

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic, condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the identification number, the date of expiration and the International Symbol of Access.

4 years

Each space will be marked with an official upright sign identifying such space as reserved for use by persons with disabilities by the use of words “Reserved Parking”, the International Symbol of Access, and the maximum fine for parking illegally in the space.

Any person who uses a placard that was not issued to that person or to any passengers occupying the vehicle while parked faces $260 fine and confiscation of placard.

Idaho

49-117

49-213

49-410

a. Unable to walk 200 feet unassisted by another,

b. Unable to walk 200 feet without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, prosthetic device, etc,

c. Unable to walk 200 feet due to neurological, orthopedic, respiratory, cardiac, arthritic disorder, blindness, or the loss of function or absence of limb.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

Non-expiring

Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - an infraction and a fine of fifty dollars ($50) for the first offense, fifty dollars ($50) and a loss of parking privileges for the registered owner for a period of one (1) year.

Illinois

5/3-616

5/11-301

5/11-301.1

5/11-1301.1

5/11-1301.2

5/11-1301.3

5/1-159.1

a. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

b. Restricted by lung disease,

c. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

d. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic

e. condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed.

None given - Secretary of State prescribes it by administrative rules.

All placards will expire in 2010

Each space will be marked with a R 7-8 sign adopted by the United States Department of Transportation and will exhibit words “$100 fine”. Each space will be at least 16 feet wide.

Any person in violation of the handicapped parking privileges - fine of $100 in addition to any costs or charges connected with the removal or storage of any motor vehicle but municipalities by ordinance may impose a fine up to $200.

Indiana

9-14-5-1 to

9-14-5-9

9-18-18-2

a. Temporary or permanent loss of the use of one or both legs,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic, condition.

Removable placard displaying the words “Parking Permit for Persons with Physical Disabilities” and an expiration date issued by the Bureau of Motor Vehicles.

4 years

Complies with Illinois Standards.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a Class C misdemeanor.

Iowa

321L.1 to

321L.6

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic, condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, an identification number, a date of expiration, the seal or other identification of the issuing authority, the signature of the person who has been issued the placard, the return address and telephone number of the department, and the statement indicating its use. The shape and color of the placard is to be changed every four years.

Non-expiring

Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of three hundred dollars. Any person that abuses the use of a wheelchair parking cone or interferes with the use of it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $20. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by the fine of $100.

Kansas

8-1,124 to

8-1,130a

a. Unable to walk 100 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition in its ability to walk at least 100 feet,

g. Severe visual impairment.

A white permanent placard with the blue background, and a white temporary placard with the red background displaying the International Symbol of Access to the physically disabled issued by the Department of Revenue.

3 years

Each space will be marked by vertically mounted signs bearing the International Symbol of Access. Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - unclassified misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $100. Any person that fails to return placards or identification cards upon the death of the person with disability - unclassified misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $50. Any person that uses an expired or revoked or suspended placard - an unclassified misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100 nor more $300. Any person that misuses or abuses the the placard issued to another person - unclassified misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $300. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - Class C misdemeanor.

Kentucky

186.042

186.0425

189.458

a. Unable to walk 200 feet or 61 meters without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic

g. condition,

h. Severe visual, audio, or physical impairment including partial paralysis, lower limb amputation, chronic heart condition, emphysema, arthritis, rheumatism, or debilitating condition which limits or impairs one's personal mobility or ability to walk.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, the date of expiration, a seal or other identification of the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, the placard identification number, and other information as required by the Cabinet.

2 years

None given

None given

Louisiana

47-463.4

47-1400

40-1742

40-1742.1

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

A hang tag displaying the International Symbol of Access issued by the Secretary of State.

2 years

Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that allows another to use its placard to illegally access handicapped parking privileges - handicapped parking privileges will be suspended for six months and fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars will be imposed or an imprisonment for not more than thrity days for the first offense, or both. On the second and subsequent offenses, the suspension will be for one year and a fine will be not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or an imprisonment of not more than thrity days, or both. Any disabled person that fails to carry a pictured identification card - a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or an imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both, will be imposed. Any person that misuses or abuses the the placard issued to another person - a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars or an imprisonment of not more than thrity days, or both, will be imposed. On the subsequent offenses, the fine will be not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or an imprisonment of not more than sixty days, or both. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars or imprisonment of not more than thirty days, or both, will be imposed; on subsequent offenses - a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisonment of not more than ninety days, or both, will be imposed. In addition to all fines, any parish or municipality may impose an additional twenty-five dollar fine for each violation. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of two hundred seventy-five dollars will be imposed for the first offense, and a fine of five hundred dollars for any subsequent offense. If the violator is other than an individual, a fine of five hundred dollars will be imposed. Any person that fails to return the plates within forty- five days of the death of the disabled person - a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

Maine

29-A S 521

29-A S 522

30-A S 3009

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, the date of expiration, a seal of the Secretary of State and the permit number. The placard must be blue with the white print.

4 years

Each space will be marked with a sign adjacent to and visible from each handicapped parking space displaying the International Symbol of Access. Complies with Maine Human Rights Act.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a forfeiture of not less than $100. Any person that misuses or abuses the the placard issued to another person - a traffic infraction punishable with a fine of $100, plus the placard will be suspended.

Maryland

13-616 to

13-616.2

21-1005

27-101

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. Requires the use of a wheelchair for mobility,

h. Lost, or lost the use of, a foot or leg,

i. Lost, or lost the use of, an arm or a hand,

j. A permanent impairment of both eyes,

k. A permanent disability which is so severe that the person would endure a hardship or be subject to a risk of injury if privileges denied.

Removable placard issued in the form, size, and design determined by the Motor Vehicle Administration.

4 years

Complies with Maryland Accessibility Code.

Any person in violation of any of the handicapped parking provisions - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $500 and its registration may be revoked.

Massachusetts

40-21-23

40-22A

40-22D

a. Blind,

b. Loss or a permanent loss of use of one or both feet or one or both hands,

c. Other standards of disability and handicap as determined by the medical advisory board.

Special parking identification plate bearing the International Symbol of Access of size and design as determined by the Motor Vehicle registrar.

2 years

Each space will be marked by the use of above grade signs with white lettering against blue background bearing the words “Handicapped Parking: Special Plate Required. Unauthorized Vehicles May be Removed at Owner's Expense”. Each space will be twelve feet wide or two eight-foot wide areas with four feet of cross hatch between them.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $300, as well as the vehicle will be removed. Any person that misuses or abuses the placard issued to another - a fine of $500-1000 and such a placard will be revoked.

Michigan

257.674

257.675

An obvious disability or a medical statement attesting

to one of the following:

a. Manage, manipulate, or insert coins, or obtain tickets or tokens in parking meters or ticket machines in parking lots or parking structures, due to the lack of fine motor control of both hands,

b. Reach above his or her head to a height of 42 inches from the ground, due to a lack of finger, hand, or upper extremity strength or mobility,

c. Approach a parking meter due to his or her use of a wheelchair or other device,

d. Walk more than 20 feet due to an orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular, or lung condition in which the degree of debilitation is so severe that it almost completely impedes the ability to walk,

e. Blindness accompanied by one of the above stated incapacities.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, disabled person's or chauffeur's license number or the number on his or her official state personal id card.

4 years

None given

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $500, or imprisonment of not more than 30 days, or both, plus the placard will be revoked or confiscated. Any person that copies or forges a certificate of identification, windshield placard, or free parking sticker or sells a copied or a forged certificate, placard, or sticker - an infraction punishable by a fine of $250.

Minnesota

168.021

169.041

169.345

169.346

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by respiratory disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. Has an arterial oxygen tension of less than 60mm/Hg on room air at rest,

h. Unable to walk without a significant risk of falling,

i. Has lost an arm or a leg and does not have or cannot use an artificial limb,

j. Has a disability that would be aggravated by walking 200 feet under normal environmental conditions to an extent that would be life threatening.

A permit and a special identifying certificate for the vehicle made of plastic or similar durable material bearing an expiration date issued by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles Registrar.

6 years

Every space is to be clearly marked by a permanent sign incorporating the International Symbol of Access in white on blue and indicating that violators are subject to a fine of up to $200.

Any person that misuses or abuses the the placard issued to another person - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $500. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100 and not more than $200. Any handicapped person that allows its placard to be used by a non-handicapped person - not entitled to be issued or to use another placard for 12 months after the date of the violation.

Mississippi

27-19-56

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, the identification number, the name of the person to whom the placard was issued, the expiration date and the seal of the state of Mississippi issued by the State Tax Commissioner.

2 years

Each space will be marked with a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access. Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $200 for each such violation; for a third and subsequent offense, the offender's driver's license will be suspended for ninety days. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $200.

Missouri

301.139

301.142 to

301.145

a. Unable to walk 50 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. Blind.

Removable windshield placard issued by the Director of Revenue that conforms to the size, color, and content specifications as set forth in the federal regulations published by the Department of Transportation.

2 years

Each space will be marked with a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access and an appropriate wording indicating that the space is reserved for the handicapped, and “$50 to $300 fine”.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - an infraction punishable by a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than three hundred dollars. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a class A misdemeanor. Punishable by a fine not to exceed $1,000 and/ or imprisonment not to exceed 1 year Any chiropractor that falsely certifies for the disability that is outside of his or her scope - a class B misdemeanor.

Montana

49-4-301to

49-4-307

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. Has a disability resulting from an acute sensitivity to automobile emissions or from another disease or physical condition that limits or impairs the person's mobility and that is documented by the licensed physician, the chiropractor, or the nurse as being comparable in severity to the other conditions listed.

A special license plate and a windshield card bearing the wheelchair as the symbol of a person with the disability.

3 years (permanent permits

issued before 1993 do not

require renewal)

Each space will be marked by a sign showing the International Symbol of Access indicating that the permit is required and stating the penalty for a violation. Complies with Montana Human Rights Commission Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100.

Nebraska

18-1736 to

18-1742

60-311.25

a. A severe visual or physical impairment which limits personal mobility,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by respiratory problems,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Permanent loss of all or substantially all the use of one or more limbs.

A permit of durable plastic and of a design, size, configuration, color and construction and with information as specified in the United States Department of Transportation in the Uniform System for Handicapped Parking, issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

3 years

Each space will be marked by blue paint on the curb or edge of the paved portion of street adjacent to the space, and a sign in conformance with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a handicapped parking infraction punishable with a fine of not more than $100 for the first offense, not more than $200 for a second offense, and not more than t$300 for a third or subsequent offense within a one-year period.

Nevada

428.384

484.407

484.408

484.4085

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

f. Visually impaired

A special parking windshield placard that contains International Symbol of Access that is white on a blue background, identification number, expiration date and the seal or other identification of the department issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

10 years

Each space will be marked by a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access with or without the words “Parking”, “Handicapped Parking”, “Handicapped Parking Only”, or “Reserved for the Handicapped”, or any other words, stating “Minimum fine of $100 for use by others” the bottom of which must not be less than 4 feet above the ground.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100 for the first offense, a fine of $250 and not less than 8 hours nor more than 50 hours of community service for the second offense, a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $1000, and not less than 25 hours nor more than 100 hours of community service for the third or subsequent offense.

New Hampshire

261.88

265.69

365.73-a

a. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

b. Restricted by lung disease,

c. Use of portable oxygen needed,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, the date of expiration, identification number, and a seal or other identification of the Department of Safety.

5 years

Each space will be marked with a sign affixed to a post or a building that states that the space is reserved for a person with a walking disability or displaying the International Symbol of Access.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of a minimum of $50.

New Jersey

39:4-8.1

39:4-197

39:4-198

39:4-201

39:4-204 to

39:4-208

A person who has lost of use of limbs as a consequence

paralysis, amputation, or other permanent disability or

who is permanently disabled as to be unable to ambulate

without the aid of an assisting device or whose mobility

is otherwise limited as certified by a physician,

podiatrist, or a chiropractic physician.

A placard of such size and design as determined by the director of consultation with the Division of Vocational Services in the Department of Human Services.

Non-expiring

Each space will be marked with a sign that conforms to the current standards prescribed by the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways and any other rules and regulations as adopted by the Department of Transportation.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of $100 for the first offense, and a fine of at least $100 and up to 90 days' community service or any combination thereof for the subsequent offenses.

New Mexico

31-19-1

66-3-16

66-3-16.1

a. Unable to walk 100 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed.

A special parking windshield placard that contains International Symbol of Access that is white on a blue background, identification number, expiration date and the seal or other identification of the department issued by the Division of Motor Vehicles.

6 years

None given

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $1000 or a term in prison of not more than one year, or both in the discretion of the judge. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $1000 or a term in prison of not more than one year, or both in the discretion of the judge. Any person that fails to surrender the parking placard on a demand of a law enforcement officer - a petty misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $500 or a term in prison of not more than 6 months, or both in the discretion of the judge.

New York

1203-a

1203-b

1203-c

1203-e

1809-b

404-a

a. Limited or not use of one or both lower limbs,

b. A neuro-muscular dysfunction which severely limits mobility,

c. A physical or mental impairment or condition which is other than those specified above, but is of such a nature as to impose unusual hardship in utilization of public transportation facilities and is certified by a licensed physician,

d. A blind person.

e. Inability to walk 200 feet without stopping

f. Restriction because of lung disease

A special license plate issued by the Commissioner.

5 years

Each space will be marked by a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access positioned from the parking space suface at a height of not less than five feet nor more than seven feet and may include the use of blue painted lines or markings.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $75 for the first offense and $75 to $150 for the second offense occurring within a period of two years within the same municipality. Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of not less than $250 nor more than $1000, and a permit will be revoked. Any person who knowingly dumps or shovels snow onto a handicapped parking place rendering it unusuable - a fine of $25 for the first offense, and not more than $100 for every offense thereafter.

North Carolina

20-37.5 to

20-37.6A

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

f. Use of portable oxygen needed,

g. A blind person or whose vision with glasses is so defective as to prevent the performance of ordinary activity for which eyesight is essential as certified by a licensed ophthalmologist, optometrist, or the Division of Services for the Blind.

A removable parking windshield placard that contains International Symbol of Access that is white on a blue background, identification number, expiration date and the seal or other identification of the department issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

5 years

Each space will be marked with the sign in conformance with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways published by the US Department of Transportation. A sign designating a parking space for handicapped persons must state maximum penalty for parking in the space in violation of law.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - an infraction punishable by a penalty of at least $100 but not more than $250. Any person that sells a distinguishing license plate, a removable windshield placard - Class 2 misdemeanor punishable by a fine but no imprisonment.

North Dakota

39-01-15

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

b. Restricted by the respiratory disease,

c. Use of portable oxygen needed,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

A certificate must be nine and 1 and 1/2 inches in height and 3 inches in width and must bear internationally accepted Symbol of Access in white and blue, the date of expiration, and a registration number assigned by the Director.

All placards will expire in

2009

Complies with the ADA Guidelines. Each space must be indicated by the use of blue paint and a sign bearing the internationally accepted Symbol of Access and the statement that the unauthorized use of the space is a nonmoving violation with a fee of $100.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - an infraction punishable by a penalty of $100.

Ohio

4503.44

4511.69

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed,

g. A blind person.

A removable parking windshield placard bearing the expiration date issued by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles.

5 years

Each space will be marked by a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access and a fine applicable for the offense of parking not legally entitled vehicle in such a space. Complies with the ADA Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a vehicle will be towed and the placard revoked.

Oklahoma

47-15-111

47-15-112

47-11-1007

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Use of portable oxygen needed,

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

g. A legally blind person,

h. Missing one or more limbs.

A removable placard issued by the Department of Public Safety.

5 years

None given

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $100 plus any necessary and reasonable charges incurred by the landowner or other person in having a vehicle removed.

Oregon

811.602

811.605

811.606

811.615

811.617

811.620

811.625

811.635

a. A severe visual or physical impairment which limits personal mobility,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by respiratory problems,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Permanent loss of all or substantially all the use of one or more limbs.

A removable placard bearing the driver license or identification card number and the expiration date issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

8 years

None given

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a Class B traffic violation punishable by a fine of at least $190, plus any necessary and reasonable charges incurred by the landowner or other person in having a vehicle removed. Any person that parks blocking a parking space reserved for disabled persons - Class D traffic violation punishable by a fine of at least $50, plus any necessary and reasonable charges incurred by the landowner or any other person in having a vehicle removed. Any person that is nondisabled but uses parking permit issued to a disabled person - Class B traffic violation punishable by a fine of at least $190.

Pennsylvania

1338

3354

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed,

g. A blind person,

h. No full use of an arm or both arms,

i. Any person in loco parentis of a person specified above.

A removable windshield placard issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

5 years

Each space will be marked with a sign stating the penalty amount, and that vehicles in violation may be towed.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a summary offense punishable by a fine of not more than $100. Any that uses disabled parking placard to park for a period of 60 minutes in excess of the legal parking period permitted - a summary offense punishable by a fine of not more than $15. Any person that parks in the space designated for a disabled person upon a request by such, or misuses the privileges provided by the handicapped placard when not entitled to them - a summary offense punishable by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $200 and additional fine of $50.

Rhode Island

31-28-7

31-28-7.1

A disability which prevents or impedes walking including

but not limited to:

a. Unable to walk without the use of a wheelchair,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. An impairment caused by amputation, arthritis, blindness,

d. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition.

Removable windshield placard displaying the International Symbol of Access, the certificate number, the words “Rhode Island Disability Parking Permit” and the expiration date issued by the Registry of Motor Vehicles. Complies with the Uniform Parking System for Disabled Drivers standards.

3 years

Each space will be marked with a sign above ground level incorporating the International Symbol of Access of white on blue, and the words “Handicapped Parking”, “Disability Parking” or “Reserved Parking”.

Any person that is nondisabled but uses parking permit issued to a disabled person - a fine of $100 for each violation. Any disabled person that uses the placard after its expiration date - a fine of $100 and the placard will be revoked. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of $75 for the first offense, $150 for the second offense, and $300 for a third or subsequent offense.

South Carolina

56-3-1950

56-3-1960

56-3-1970

a. An obvious physical disability that impairs the ability to walk or requires the use of a wheelchair, braces, walkers or crutches,

b. Loss of use of one or both legs,

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. An impairment in mobility,

e. Determined by the Social Security Administration or the Veterans Administration to be totally and permanently disabled.

A removable windshield placard indicating the expiration date issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

4 years

None given

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $200 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days for each offense.

South Dakota

32-5-76

32-5-76.1

32-30-11.1

32-30-11.2

32-30-11.3

32-30-11.4

a. Cannot walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition

e. Uses portable oxygen

A portable certificate issued by the Secretary of state.

5 years

None given

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - Class 1 misdemeanor. Any person that fails to surrender the license plate as required - Class 2 misdemanor. Any person that is nondisabled but uses parking certificate issued to a disabled person - the department of commerce may revoke such a certificate. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Tennessee

55-8-160

55-21-102 to

55-21-104

55-21-108

a. Disabled by paraplegia, amputation of leg, foot or both hands, or is disabled by the loss of use of a leg, foot or both hands,

b. Disabled by any other condition as certified by a licensed physician in not being able to get around without great difficulty, including impairments that confine such person to a wheelchair or cause such a person to walk with difficulty and insecurity, such as required use of braces or crutches, arthirtics, spastics and those pulmonary or cardiac ills who may be semi ambulatory,

c. A person with a vision of not more than 20/200 without correcting glasses.

A removable placard bearing the expiration date, the International Symbol of Access and anything else as established by the Commissioner of Revenue.

2 years

Each space will be marked by a sign that indicates that such space is reserved for disabled and that unauthorized or improperly parked vehicles may be towed and the the driver fined, the name and the the phone number of the towing company or the owner of the property. Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that is nondisabled but uses parking permit issued to a disabled person - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100, and the permit will be confiscated. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a Class C misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100. Any person that unlawfully sells, copies, duplicates, manufactures, or assists in such - a Class A misdemeanor punishable by a fine of a minimum $100 and imprisonment for a time in the disrection of the court.

Texas

681.001

681.002

681.006

681.007

681.010

681.011

681.012

a. Mobility problems that substantially impair the person's ability to ambulate,

- Unable to walk without the use of a wheelchair,

- Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

- Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

- Restricted by lung disease,

- Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

- Use of portable oxygen required,

- Restricted by a cardiac condition,

- Has another debilitating condition that limits or impairs the person's ability to walk.

b. Visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correcting lenses,

c. Visual acuity of more than 20/200 but with a limited field of vision in which the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle of 20 degrees or less.

A removable windshield placard bearing an International Symbol of Access at least 3 inches in height, an identification number, an expriation date, the seal or other identification of the department issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

4 years

Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it, or parks a vehicle so to block the disabled parking space, or lends a disabled parking placard issued to the person - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $250 nor more than $500 for the first offense, not less than $300 nor more than $600 for the second offense, not less than $300 nor more than $600 and not less than 10 nor more than 20 hours of community service for the third offense, not less than $500 nor more than $1000 and not less than 20 nor more than 50 hours of community service for the fourth offense, $1000 and 50 hours of community service for any subsequent offense.

Utah

41-1a-408

41-1a-414

a. Cannot walk more than 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc

b. Restricted by lung disease

c. Uses portable oxygen

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition

e. Severely limited in ability to walk, due to an arthritic, neurological, or orthopedic condition

Removable windshield placard displaying an identification number, an expiration date, and the seal or other identifying mark of the division.

2 years

Each space will be marked with a sign above ground level displaying the International Symbol of Access and a clearly marked access aisle.

Parking in a space reserved for disabled individuals without displaying your disabled placard or plates. A conviction of this offense could result in fines from $100 to $500. Parking in a space designated for the disabled unless you are transporting the person to whom the disabled placard or plates have been issued. A conviction of this offense could result in fines of up to $500 and/or the revocation of your disabled parking privileges, requiring you to surrender your placard or plates.

Vermont

23-304a

23-1749

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Blind

e. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

f. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

A removable two-sided, hanger style windshield placard bearing the International Symbol of Access, which is at least 3 inches in height, is white on a blue shield, an identification number, a date of expiration and the seal or other identification of the issuing authority.

4 years

None given.

Any person violating handicapped parking ordinance - a fine of not more than $25 for each offense.

Virginia

36-99.11

46.2-1240

46.2-1242

46.2-1245

46.2-1246

46.2-1247

46.2-1248

46.2-1250

46.2-1251

46.2-1252

46.2-1253

46.2-1255

46.2-1256

46.2-1258

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Has some debilitating condition that, in the view of a licensed physician, limits or impairs his ability to walk.

A removable two-sided placard bearing the International Symbol of Access at least 3 inches in height in a white on a blue background, the name, age, and sex of the person to whom issued, an identification number, an expiration date, a misuse hotline number, a warning of the penalties for placard misuse, and the seal or other identification symbol of the issuing authority.

5 years

Each space will be marked by above grade sign in conformance with the Uniform Statewide Buliding Code with the language such as “PENALTY, $100-$500 Fine, TOW- AWAY ZONE”, and a sign or symbol painted or otherwise displayed on the pavement of a parking space.

Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $500. Any person that creates a counterfeit or unauthorized replica of a disabled parking license plate, removable windhshield placard, or attempts to use a disabled parking license place or a placard when not entitled to it, who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit, or attempts to sell the placard - a Class 2 misdemeanor. Any person who knowingly provides to another person without sale or exchange of consideration any valid, altered or counterfeit disabled parking license plate, a removable windshield placard - a Class 3 misdemeanor. For any of the above state violations - a placard may be revoked.

Washington

46.16.381

46.61.581

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Has a disability resulting from an acute sensitivity to automobile emissions which limits or impairs the ability to walk.

A removable windshield placard bearing the International Symbol of Access, an individual serial number along with a special identification card bearing the name and date of birth of the person to whom the placard is issued, and the placard's serial number.

5 years

Each space will be marked by a vertical sign, between 36-84 inches off the ground, with the International Symbol of Access, whose colors are white on a blue background and the notice “State disabled parking permit required”.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a gross misdemeanor punishable by a term in jail of up to one year or a fine of up to $5,000, or both. Any person that uses the placard when not entitled to it, blocks the access to the disabled parking, parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a traffic infraction punishable by a fine of $250. For any second or subsequent violations - in addition to the monetary fine, the violator must complete a minimum of 40 hours of community service for a nonprofit organization that serves the disabled community or persons having disabling diseases or any other community service that may sensitize the violator to the needs and obstacles faced by persons who have disabilities.

West Virginia

17C-13-6

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic

f. condition,

g. Use of portable oxygen needed.

A removable two-sided hanger style windshield placard bearing the International Symbol of Access, an identification number, an expiration date, and the seal or other identifying symbol of the issuing authority.

5 years

Each space will be marked by a vertical sign bearing the International Symbol of Access, and the words “$100 fine”. Complies with ADA Standards.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100.

Wisconsin

341.625

343.51

343.52

346.503

346.504

346.505

349.145

85.103

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed

A special identification card bearing personal identifiers (such as name, social security number, telephone number, street address, post-office box number or a 9-digit extended zip code) and an expiration date, or a special license plate.

4 years

Each space will be marked by an official traffic sign that includes the International Symbol for barrier- free environments and a statement to inform the public that the parking space is reserved for vehicles designated for disabled. Parking spaces must be at least 12 feet wide.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of not less than $200 nor more than $500. Any person that lends to another its special identification card - a fine of not more than $200.

Wyoming

31-2-213

31-5-501

31-5-502

a. Unable to walk 200 feet without stopping to rest,

b. Unable to walk without the use of a brace, cane, crutch, another person, prosthetic device, etc.

c. Restricted by lung disease,

d. Restricted by a cardiac condition,

e. Restricted by arthritic, neurological, orthopedic condition,

f. Use of portable oxygen needed.

g. Severe visual or audio impairment that limits the person's mobility.

A removable two-sided hanger style windshield placard bearing the International Symbol of Access, an identification number, an expiration date, and the seal or other identifying symbol of the issuing authority.

4 years

Each space will be marked by a sign bearing the International Symbol of Access, be no less than 12 inches by 18 inches in size and be placed above ground level so as to be visible at all times and not be obscured by a vehicle parked in that space.

Any person that is not handicapped who intentionally and falsely represents itself in order to get such a permit - a fine of not more than $100 for the first offense, and not more than $250 and the suspension of the handicapped parking permit for any subsequent offense. Any person that parks in the parking space designated for persons with disabilities when not entitled to it - a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $50.

GC/ZS:ro