CHAPTER 248
VEHICLE HIGHWAY USE

Table of Contents

Sec. 14-212. Definitions.
Sec. 14-213b. Operation prohibited when insurance coverage fails to meet minimum requirements. Penalty. Evidence of insurance coverage required to restore suspended license.
Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked. Penalty.
Sec. 14-215b. Operation after expiration of period of suspension and without obtaining reinstatement of license.
Sec. 14-222a. Negligent homicide with a motor vehicle.
Sec. 14-223a. Striking an officer with a motor vehicle. Penalties.
Sec. 14-224. Evasion of responsibility in operation of motor vehicles. Racing. Required removal of motor vehicle from traveled portion of highway.
Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug or while having an elevated blood alcohol content.
Sec. 14-227b. Implied consent to test operator's blood, breath or urine. Testing procedures. License suspension. Hearing.
Sec. 14-227g. Operation by person under twenty-one years of age while blood alcohol content exceeds two-hundredths of one per cent. Procedures. Penalties.
Sec. 14-227j. Court order prohibiting operation of motor vehicle not equipped with ignition interlock device.
Sec. 14-239. One-way streets. Rotaries or roundabouts.
Sec. 14-241. Turns.
Sec. 14-249. Stopping at grade crossings.
Sec. 14-250. Certain motor vehicles to stop at railroad crossing. Regulations. Penalty.
Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties.
Sec. 14-272b. Transport of dogs in pick-up trucks. Restrictions.
Sec. 14-283. Rights of emergency vehicles. Obstruction of.
Sec. 14-289j. Restrictions on the use and sale, lease or rental of mini-motorcycles.
Sec. 14-295a. Assessment for certain violations and payments of fines by mail.
Sec. 14-296aa. Use of hand-held mobile telephones and mobile electronic devices by motor vehicle operators and school bus drivers, prohibited or restricted, when. Penalties.

      Sec. 14-212. Definitions. Terms used in this chapter shall be construed as follows, unless another construction is clearly apparent from the language or context in which the term is used or unless the construction is inconsistent with the manifest intention of the General Assembly:

      (1) The following terms shall be construed as they are defined in section 14-1: "Authorized emergency vehicle", "commissioner", "driver", "fuels", "gross weight", "head lamp", "high-mileage vehicle", "highway", "light weight", "limited access highway", "maintenance vehicle", "motor bus", "motorcycle", "motor vehicle registration", "nonresident", "nonskid device", "number plate", "officer", "operator", "owner", "passenger motor vehicle", "passenger and commercial motor vehicle", "person", "pneumatic tires", "pole trailer", "registration", "registration number", "second offense", "semitrailer", "shoulder", "solid tires", "stop", "subsequent offense", "tail lamp", "tractor", "tractor-trailer unit", "trailer", "truck" and "vanpool vehicle";

      (2) "Carrier" means (A) any local or regional school district, any educational institution providing elementary or secondary education or any person, firm or corporation under contract to such district or institution engaged in the business of transporting school children; (B) any person, firm or corporation providing transportation for compensation exclusively to persons under the age of twenty-one years; or (C) any corporation, institution or nonprofit organization providing transportation as an ancillary service primarily to persons under the age of eighteen years;

      (3) "Curb" includes the boundary of the traveled portion of any highway, whether or not the boundary is marked by a curbstone;

      (4) "Intersection" means the area embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines of two or more highways which join one another at an angle, whether or not one of the highways crosses the other;

      (5) "Motor vehicle" includes all vehicles used on the public highways;

      (6) "Parking area" means lots, areas or other accommodations for the parking of motor vehicles off the street or highway and open to public use with or without charge;

      (7) "Rotary" or "roundabout" means a physical barrier legally placed or constructed at an intersection to cause traffic to move in a circuitous course;

      (8) "Student transportation vehicle" means any motor vehicle other than a registered school bus used by a carrier for the transportation of students, including children requiring special education; and

      (9) "Vehicle" is synonymous with "motor vehicle".

      (1949 Rev., S. 2488; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 16; P.A. 84-429, S. 38; P.A. 90-112, S. 3, 14; 90-263, S. 50, 74; P.A. 94-189, S. 31, 34; P.A. 05-210, S. 24.)

      History: 1965 act deleted provisions excepting rail or track vehicles and including all motor vehicle statutory definitions by reference and added "motor vehicle"; P.A. 84-429 substantially revised section, dividing section into Subsecs., applying definitions in Sec. 14-1 to terms added in Subdiv. (1) and added definitions in Subdivs. (2), (3), (5) and (6); P.A. 90-112 added definitions of "carrier" in Subdiv. (2) and "student transportation vehicle" in Subdiv. (8), renumbering remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 90-263 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete from list of terms "commercial motor vehicle" and "public service motor vehicle"; P.A. 94-189 redefined "carrier", effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 05-210 amended Subdiv. (7) by changing "Rotary traffic island" to "Rotary" or "roundabout", effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-213b. Operation prohibited when insurance coverage fails to meet minimum requirements. Penalty. Evidence of insurance coverage required to restore suspended license. (a) No owner of any private passenger motor vehicle or a vehicle with a combination or commercial registration, as defined in section 14-1, registered or required to be registered in this state may operate or permit the operation of such vehicle without the security required by section 38a-371 or with security insufficient to meet the minimum requirements of said section, or without any other security requirements imposed by law, as the case may be. Failure of the operator to produce an insurance identification card as required by section 14-217 shall constitute prima facie evidence that the owner has not maintained the security required by section 38a-371 and this section.

      (b) Any person convicted of violating any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, except that any owner of a motor vehicle with a commercial registration who knowingly violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section with respect to such vehicle shall be guilty of a class D felony.

      (c) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the registration, and the operator's license, if any, of an owner, for a first conviction of violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section for a period of one month and for a second or subsequent conviction for a period of six months. No operator's license which has been suspended pursuant to this subsection shall be restored until the owner has provided evidence to the commissioner that he maintains the security required by section 38a-371 or any other security requirements imposed by law for each motor vehicle registered in his name.

      (P.A. 81-217, S. 5; P.A. 94-243, S. 3; P.A. 97-226, S. 2; P.A. 04-199, S. 2; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 1.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In 1993 an obsolete reference to Subsec. (c) of Sec. 14-117 was deleted editorially by the Revisors since Sec. 14-117 is repealed and a reference in Subsec. (c) to "sections 14-12b to 14-12e, inclusive," was changed editorially by the Revisors to "sections 14-12b and 14-12c" to reflect the repeal of sections 14-12d and 14-12e by P.A. 93-298, S. 10); P.A. 94-243 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to apply to vehicles with commercial registrations; P.A. 97-226 amended (1) Subsecs. (a) and (c) to apply provisions to vehicles with combination registrations and to eliminate reference to "subdivision (12) of" before Sec. 14-1, (2) Subsec. (a) to apply to vehicles required to be registered and (3) Subsec. (c) to prohibit restoration of an operator's license which has been suspended pursuant to Subsec. until owner provides evidence of insurance coverage; P.A. 04-199 amended Subsec. (c) to eliminate provisions re no new registration shall be issued or restored after suspension of registration under subsection until owner has filed proof of financial responsibility under Sec. 14-112 and re maintenance of financial responsibility filing, effective July 1, 2004; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) to prohibit operation "without any other security requirements imposed by law, as the case may be", amended Subsec. (b) to specify exception that any owner of a motor vehicle with a commercial registration who knowingly violates Subsec. (a) with respect to such vehicle shall be guilty of a class D felony, and amended Subsec. (c) to prohibit restoration of a suspended operator's license until the owner has provided commissioner evidence that he maintains any other security requirements imposed by law, effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 14-215. Operation while registration or license is refused, suspended or revoked. Penalty. (a) No person to whom an operator's license has been refused, or, except as provided in section 14-215a, whose operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state has been suspended or revoked, shall operate any motor vehicle during the period of such refusal, suspension or revocation. No person shall operate or cause to be operated any motor vehicle, the registration of which has been refused, suspended or revoked, or any motor vehicle, the right to operate which has been suspended or revoked.

      (b) (1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall, for a first offense, be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars or more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than ninety days, or be both fined and imprisoned, and, for any subsequent offense, shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars or more than six hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than one year, or be both fined and imprisoned.

      (2) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in addition to the penalty prescribed under subdivision (1) of this subsection, any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section who (A) has, prior to the commission of the present violation, committed a violation of subsection (a) of this section or section 14-36 shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or sentenced to perform not more than one hundred hours of community service, or (B) has, prior to the commission of the present violation, committed two or more violations of subsection (a) of this section or section 14-36, or any combination thereof, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of ninety days which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner.

      (c) Any person who operates any motor vehicle during the period such person's operator's license or right to operate a motor vehicle in this state is under suspension or revocation on account of a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or pursuant to section 14-227b, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than one year, and, in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court, thirty consecutive days of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced in any manner. The court shall specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or the absence thereof.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2420; 1957, P.A. 421; P.A. 82-258; P.A. 83-534, S. 3; P.A. 85-387, S. 2; P.A. 89-314, S. 3, 5; P.A. 97-291, S. 4, 5; P.A. 03-233, S. 2; P.A. 04-257, S. 100; P.A. 05-215, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 82-258 increased the minimum penalty for a first offense from one hundred to one hundred fifty dollars, and increased the maximum penalty for a subsequent offense from five hundred to six hundred dollars and from three months to one year imprisonment; P.A. 83-534 added Subsec. (c) re increased penalties when the reason for the suspension or revocation was operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence, refusal to submit to a blood alcohol test or manslaughter or assault with a motor vehicle while intoxicated; P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (c) to increase from five to thirty days the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (c) to replace reference to a suspension or revocation "on account of a violation of subsection (d) or (f) of section 14-227b" with "pursuant to section 14-227b" and to specify that the period of imprisonment which may not be suspended or reduced is thirty "consecutive" days; P.A. 97-291 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the nonsuspendable sentence of thirty consecutive days is imposed in the absence of any mitigating circumstances as determined by the court and to require the court to specifically state in writing for the record the mitigating circumstances, or absence thereof, effective July 8, 1997; P.A. 03-233 amended Subsec. (a) to add "except as provided in section 14-215a"; P.A. 04-257 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-215 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdiv. (2) re additional penalties for persons who have one or more prior violations of Subsec. (a) or Sec. 14-36.

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      Sec. 14-215b. Operation after expiration of period of suspension and without obtaining reinstatement of license. Any person whose motor vehicle operator's license has been suspended who operates a motor vehicle after the expiration of such period of suspension without obtaining the reinstatement of such license shall (1) during the first sixty days after such expiration, be deemed to have failed to renew such license and be subject to the penalty for failure to renew a motor vehicle operator's license under subsection (c) of section 14-41, and (2) after said sixty-day period, be subject to the penalty for operating a motor vehicle without a license under section 14-36. Any operator so charged shall not be prosecuted under section 14-215 for the same act constituting a violation under this section.

      (P. A. 05-215, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 14-222a. Negligent homicide with a motor vehicle.

      Since motor vehicle violations are specifically excluded from definition of an offense, and, therefore, from definition of a crime, negligent homicide with a motor vehicle is not a crime to which youthful offender status may be applied. 49 CS 170.

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      Sec. 14-223a. Striking an officer with a motor vehicle. Penalties. Any operator of a motor vehicle who strikes any officer, as defined in section 14-1, or any fire police officer, appointed in accordance with section 7-313a, with such motor vehicle while such officer or fire police officer is engaged in traffic control or regulation, provided such officer is in uniform or prominently displaying the badge of his office and such fire police officer is in compliance with the provisions of section 7-313a, (1) shall be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars or more than two hundred dollars, and (2) for a subsequent offense, shall be fined not more than two hundred fifty dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

      (P.A. 04-250, S. 4; P.A. 05-152, S. 1; 05-288, S. 60.)

      History: P.A. 05-152 deleted provision re operator deemed to have committed an infraction and made technical changes; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes, effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-224. Evasion of responsibility in operation of motor vehicles. Racing. Required removal of motor vehicle from traveled portion of highway.

      Subsec. (b):

      Whether defendant has knowledge that an accident caused injury or damage is irrelevant to crime of evading responsibility; rather, it is a mandatory stop, ascertain and assist statute which provides criminal penalties for the failure to do so. After proving that defendant was knowingly involved in an accident, further proof that defendant failed to stop at the scene would be sufficient to support conviction under statute. 88 CA 90.

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      Sec. 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. (a) Operation while under the influence or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both. A person commits the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both if such person operates a motor vehicle on a public highway of this state or on any road of a district organized under the provisions of chapter 105, a purpose of which is the construction and maintenance of roads and sidewalks, or on any private road on which a speed limit has been established in accordance with the provisions of section 14-218a, or in any parking area for ten or more cars or on any school property (1) while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both, or (2) while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content. For the purposes of this section, "elevated blood alcohol content" means a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.

      (b) Admissibility of chemical analysis. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in any criminal prosecution for violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's breath, blood or urine shall be admissible and competent provided: (1) The defendant was afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and consented to the taking of the test upon which such analysis is made; (2) a true copy of the report of the test result was mailed to or personally delivered to the defendant within twenty-four hours or by the end of the next regular business day, after such result was known, whichever is later; (3) the test was performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Public Safety and was performed in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (4) the device used for such test was checked for accuracy in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (5) an additional chemical test of the same type was performed at least thirty minutes after the initial test was performed or, if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, an additional chemical test of a different type was performed to detect the presence of a drug or drugs other than or in addition to alcohol, provided the results of the initial test shall not be inadmissible under this subsection if reasonable efforts were made to have such additional test performed in accordance with the conditions set forth in this subsection and such additional test was not performed or was not performed within a reasonable time, or the results of such additional test are not admissible for failure to meet a condition set forth in this subsection; and (6) evidence is presented that the test was commenced within two hours of operation. In any prosecution under this section it shall be a rebuttable presumption that the results of such chemical analysis establish the ratio of alcohol in the blood of the defendant at the time of the alleged offense, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such defendant is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and the analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense.

      (c) Evidence of blood alcohol content. In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, reliable evidence respecting the amount of alcohol in the defendant's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant's blood, breath or urine, otherwise admissible under subsection (b) of this section, shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant.

      (d) Testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine. The Commissioner of Public Safety shall ascertain the reliability of each method and type of device offered for chemical testing and analysis purposes of blood, of breath and of urine and certify those methods and types which said commissioner finds suitable for use in testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine, respectively, in this state. The Commissioner of Public Safety shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples as said commissioner finds necessary to protect the health and safety of persons who submit to chemical tests and to insure reasonable accuracy in testing results. Such regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because such officer terminates such officer's employment with the law enforcement agency for which certification was originally issued and commences employment with another such agency.

      (e) Evidence of refusal to submit to test. In any criminal prosecution for a violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence that the defendant refused to submit to a blood, breath or urine test requested in accordance with section 14-227b shall be admissible provided the requirements of subsection (b) of said section have been satisfied. If a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section is tried to a jury, the court shall instruct the jury as to any inference that may or may not be drawn from the defendant's refusal to submit to a blood, breath or urine test.

      (f) Reduction, nolle or dismissal prohibited. If a person is charged with a violation of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the charge may not be reduced, nolled or dismissed unless the prosecuting authority states in open court such prosecutor's reasons for the reduction, nolle or dismissal.

      (g) Penalties for operation while under the influence. Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall: (1) For conviction of a first violation, (A) be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars, and (B) be (i) imprisoned not more than six months, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, or (ii) imprisoned not more than six months, with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely and a period of probation imposed requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for one year; (2) for conviction of a second violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than one thousand dollars or more than four thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than two years, one hundred twenty consecutive days of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) (i) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for three years or until the date of such person's twenty-first birthday, whichever is longer, or (ii) if such person has been convicted of a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section on account of being under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for one year and be prohibited for the two-year period following completion of such period of suspension from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j; and (3) for conviction of a third and subsequent violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than two thousand dollars or more than eight thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than three years, one year of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person's motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege permanently revoked upon such third offense. For purposes of the imposition of penalties for a second or third and subsequent offense pursuant to this subsection, a conviction under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section in effect on October 1, 1981, or as amended thereafter, a conviction under the provisions of either subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section, a conviction under the provisions of section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d, shall constitute a prior conviction for the same offense.

      (h) Suspension of operator's license or nonresident operating privilege. (1) Each court shall report each conviction under subsection (a) of this section to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of section 14-141. The commissioner shall suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of the person reported as convicted for the period of time required by subsection (g) of this section. The commissioner shall determine the period of time required by said subsection (g) based on the number of convictions such person has had within the specified time period according to such person's driving history record, notwithstanding the sentence imposed by the court for such conviction. (2) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who is under eighteen years of age shall be suspended by the commissioner for the period of time set forth in subsection (g) of this section, or until such person attains the age of eighteen years, whichever period is longer. (3) The motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who, at the time of the offense, was operating a motor vehicle in accordance with a special operator's permit issued pursuant to section 14-37a shall be suspended by the commissioner for twice the period of time set forth in subsection (g) of this section. (4) If an appeal of any conviction under subsection (a) of this section is taken, the suspension of the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege by the commissioner, in accordance with this subsection, shall be stayed during the pendency of such appeal.

      (i) Installation of ignition interlock device. (1) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall permit a person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C)(ii) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section to operate a motor vehicle if (A) such person has served not less than one year of such suspension, and (B) such person has installed an approved ignition interlock device in each motor vehicle owned or to be operated by such person. No person whose license is suspended by the commissioner for any other reason shall be eligible to operate a motor vehicle equipped with an approved ignition interlock device. (2) All costs of installing and maintaining an ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person required to install such device. (3) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this subsection. The regulations shall establish procedures for the approval of ignition interlock devices, for the proper calibration and maintenance of such devices and for the installation of such devices by any firm approved and authorized by the commissioner. (4) The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to authorize the continued operation of a motor vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device by any person whose operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is withdrawn, suspended or revoked for any other reason. (5) The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C)(ii) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section on or after September 1, 2003.

      (j) Participation in alcohol education and treatment program. In addition to any fine or sentence imposed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, the court may order such person to participate in an alcohol education and treatment program.

      (k) Seizure and admissibility of medical records of injured operator. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the blood or urine of an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who has suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, which evidence is derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by such person after such accident at the scene of the accident, while en route to a hospital or at a hospital, shall be competent evidence to establish probable cause for the arrest by warrant of such person for a violation of subsection (a) of this section and shall be admissible and competent in any subsequent prosecution thereof if: (1) The blood sample was taken or the urine sample was provided for the diagnosis and treatment of such injury; (2) if a blood sample was taken, the blood sample was taken in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (3) a police officer has demonstrated to the satisfaction of a judge of the Superior Court that such officer has reason to believe that such person was operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both and that the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample constitutes evidence of the commission of the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both in violation of subsection (a) of this section; and (4) such judge has issued a search warrant in accordance with section 54-33a authorizing the seizure of the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample. Such search warrant may also authorize the seizure of the medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury.

      (l) Participation in victim impact panel program. If the court sentences a person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section to a period of probation, the court may require as a condition of such probation that such person participate in a victim impact panel program approved by the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Department. Such victim impact panel program shall provide a nonconfrontational forum for the victims of alcohol-related or drug-related offenses and offenders to share experiences on the impact of alcohol-related or drug-related incidents in their lives. Such victim impact panel program shall be conducted by a nonprofit organization that advocates on behalf of victims of accidents caused by persons who operated a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both. Such organization may assess a participation fee of not more than twenty-five dollars on any person required by the court to participate in such program.

      (1963, P.A. 616, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 219; 1967, P.A. 612, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 450, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 318; 741; P.A. 73-253, S. 4; P.A. 75-308, S. 1; P.A. 76-6, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-340, S. 8; 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 80-438, S. 2, 3; P.A. 81-144, S. 1, 2; 81-446, S. 2; P.A. 82-408, S. 2; P.A. 83-63, S. 1-3; 83-534, S. 1; 83-571, S. 4; P.A. 84-198, S. 3, 7; 84-429, S. 40; 84-546, S. 43, 173; P.A. 85-387, S. 1; 85-596, S. 1; P.A. 86-345; P.A. 88-85; 88-302; P.A. 89-110, S. 4; 89-314, S. 2, 5; P.A. 90-230, S. 21, 101; P.A. 91-407, S. 9, 42; P.A. 93-271, S. 2, 3; 93-302, S. 1-3; 93-371, S. 2, 4, 5; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-60; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 18, 130; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-314, S. 1; P.A. 99-218, S. 3, 4, 16; 99-255, S. 1; P.A. 00-196, S. 49, 50; P.A. 01-201, S. 1; P.A. 02-70, S. 69; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 108; P.A. 03-265, S. 1; 03-278, S. 47; P.A. 04-199, S. 31; 04-257, S. 101; P.A. 05-218, S. 28; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 111.)

      History: 1965 act added district roads to Subsec. (a); 1967 act prohibited operation of vehicle while under influence of both liquor and intoxicating drug in Subsec. (a); 1969 act included in prohibition operation of vehicle on private roads with established speed limits; 1971 acts included in prohibition operation of vehicle in parking area for ten or more cars, reduced alcohol in blood level from fifteen-hundredths to ten-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol and clarified evidential aspect of test results in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (c) and increased minimum fine from one hundred to one hundred fifty dollars; P.A. 73-253 included in prohibition of Subsec. (a) operation of vehicle on school property; P.A. 75-308 amended Subsec. (b)(4) to require testing of device at beginning and end of workday rather than within thirty days of test and immediately after test administered; P.A. 76-6 included reference to amount of drug in system under Subsec. (b) and to urine tests under Subsecs. (b) and (d); P.A. 77-340 replaced reference to Sec. 14-219 in Subsec. (a) with reference to Sec. 14-218a; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner and department of health with commissioner and department of health services, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-438 allowed administering of test by emergency medical technician II; P.A. 81-144 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the department of health services to certify individuals other than health services department personnel to check test devices for accuracy; P.A. 81-446 added the requirements that two tests be performed, with the second test performed not less than thirty or more than forty minutes after the first test, and that evidence be presented which demonstrates that the test results accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense in Subsec. (b) and added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re participation in an alcohol education and treatment program in lieu of the two-day minimum mandatory sentence, and re violations charged to persons arrested for a second or subsequent violation of section, with a blood alcohol ratio of at least ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol at the time of the alleged offense; P.A. 82-408 eliminated two test requirement in Subsec. (b), added provision in Subsec. (e) re mandatory two day sentence if blood alcohol test indicates ratio of alcohol in blood was twenty-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol and changed two day minimum mandatory sentence for second offenders to thirty day sentence served by performing community service on fifteen weekends, such service to be approved by office of adult probation, amended Subsec. (f) by changing "in lieu of" to "in addition to" and eliminated consent and payment requirement for participation and added Subsec. (h) providing for twenty-four hour revocation of license by arresting police officer; P.A. 83-63 amended Subsec. (b) to allow test reports to be personally delivered to the defendant by the close of the next business day, if later than twenty-four hours and authorized the performance of such tests by persons recertified by persons certified by the commissioner of health services and amended Subsec. (d) to provide regulations for annual recertification of operators; P.A. 83-534 inserted a new Subsec. (b) re operation while impaired, amended Subsec. (c) to permit the test result to be "personally delivered" to the defendant within twenty-four hours "or by the end of the next regular business day", whichever is later, and to provide that the initial test results will not be excluded if the police made reasonable efforts to have an additional test performed but it was not performed within a reasonable time, amended Subsec. (d) to specify the blood alcohol content that constitutes impairment, inserted a new Subsec. (f) re the admissibility into evidence of a defendant's refusal to submit to a test, inserted a new Subsec. (g) re a prohibition on reducing, nolleing or dismissing the charge, inserted a new Subsec. (h) to replace former penalties for operation while under the influence with new penalties, inserted a new Subsec. (i) re the penalty for operating while impaired, inserted a new Subsec. (j) re the suspension of the operator's license of a person found guilty of operating while under the influence, and relettered the intervening and remaining subsections accordingly; P.A. 83-571 amended new Subsec. (h) to increase the period of license suspension provided in P.A. 83-534 from six months to one year for a first offense and from one year to two years for a second offense; P.A. 84-198 amended Subsec. (f) by replacing "the case" with "a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section"; P.A. 84-429 rephrased provisions and made other technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b); P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (i); P.A. 85-387 amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalty for a first violation by mandating a term of imprisonment, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced on any manner, or a term of one hundred hours of community service, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a second violation from forty-eight consecutive hours to ten days, to increase the minimum mandatory penalty for a third violation from thirty to one hundred twenty days, and to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within five years after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that person commits offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight", amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the defendant be afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and that the test be performed by or at the direction of a police officer, to make an additional test mandatory rather than optional, to insert "and the analysis thereof" in Subdiv. (6) and to delete the requirement that additional competent evidence be presented bearing on the question of whether or not the defendant was under the influence, amended Subsec. (d) to replace provisions concerning the weight to be given to evidence of certain percentages of blood-alcohol content with provision that in prosecution for violation of Subsec. (a)(1) such evidence shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant, and amended Subsec. (h) to provide that a conviction under either Subdiv. (1) or (2) of Subsec. (a) constitutes a prior offense; P.A. 86-345 added Subsec. (m) re the seizure, admissibility and competency of evidence derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from an injured operator at a hospital; P.A. 88-85 amended Subdiv. (4) of Subsec. (c) to require that the device be checked for accuracy immediately before and after the test was performed rather than at the beginning of each workday and no later than the end of each workday; P.A. 88-302 amended Subsec. (h) to provide that the performance of community service for conviction of a first violation is to be as a condition of probation imposed in connection with a sentence to a term of imprisonment of not more than six months with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely; P.A. 89-110 amended Subsec. (h) to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2) and to provide that for purposes of the penalty for a subsequent offense after a prior conviction for the same offense a conviction under Sec. 53a-56b or 53a-60d constitutes a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 89-314 amended Subsec. (h) to insert "consecutive" in Subdivs. (2) and (3) and deleted Subsec. (l) re the twenty-four-hour revocation by the arresting police officer of the license of a person with a blood alcohol concentration of ten-hundredths of one per cent or more, and relettered the remaining Subsec. accordingly; P.A. 90-230 made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 91-407 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (l) by adding "a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state" and made technical change in Subdiv. (3); P.A. 93-271 amended Subsec. (e) to provide that regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because he transfers from one law enforcement agency to another, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 93-302 amended Subsecs. (c) and (l) by adding phlebotomists to the list of persons qualified to take blood samples and added Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist"; P.A. 93-371 amended Subsec. (c) to require in Subdiv. (6) that evidence be presented "that the test was commenced within two hours of operation" rather than that evidence be presented "which demonstrates that the test results and analysis thereof accurately reflect the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense" and to add provision establishing a rebuttable presumption that the results of the chemical analysis indicate the blood alcohol ratio at the time of the alleged offense and requiring additional evidence be presented when the results of the additional test indicate a blood alcohol ratio of twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less and is higher than the results of the first test and amended Subsec. (j) to add Subdiv. (3) re the period of suspension for a person who, at the time of the offense, was operating under a special operator's permit issued pursuant to Sec. 14-37a, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-60 amended Subsec. (l) to authorize the taking of a blood sample "at the scene of the accident" or "while en route to the hospital" rather than only "at a hospital", to delete the requirement in Subdiv. (1) that the blood sample be taken "in the regular course of business of the hospital" and to make a technical change in Subdiv. (2); May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical change, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-314 amended Subdiv. (5) of Subsec. (c) to allow an additional chemical test of a different type to be performed if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, amended Subsec. (d) to eliminate reference to drugs, and amended Subdivs. (2) to (4), inclusive, of Subsec. (h) to provide that a second, third, fourth or subsequent violation is one which occurs within ten years, in lieu of five years, after a prior conviction for the same offense; P.A. 99-218 amended Subsecs. (c) and (e) by replacing the Department and Commissioner of Public Health with the Department and Commissioner of Public Safety and by making technical changes, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-255 amended Subsec. (a) to replace the prohibition in Subdiv. (2) of operating a motor vehicle "while the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight" with "while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content" and added definition of "elevated blood alcohol content", amended Subsec. (c) to require in Subdiv. (3) that the test be performed "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section", replacing provisions that required the test be performed by persons certified or recertified by the Department of Public Health or recertified by persons certified as instructors by the commissioner of said department and that required a blood test be taken by a physician, phlebotomist, qualified laboratory technician, emergency medical technician II or registered nurse, and to require in Subdiv. (4) that the device was checked for accuracy "in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "immediately before and after such test was performed by a person certified by the Department of Public Health", amended Subsec. (e) to make provisions applicable to methods and types of devices for the "analysis" of blood, breath and urine and to replace provision that required the Commissioner of Public Health to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, and the training, certification and annual recertification of operators of such devices" with provision that required the "Commissioner of Public Safety, in consultation with the Commissioner of Public Health" to adopt regulations "governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples", amended Subsec. (h) to increase the penalties for a second violation by increasing the fine from not less than five hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars to not less than one thousand dollars nor more than four thousand dollars, increasing the term of imprisonment from a maximum of one year with a nonsuspendable period of ten consecutive days to a maximum of two years with a nonsuspendable period of one hundred twenty consecutive days, adding the requirement that the person perform one hundred hours of community service as a condition of probation, and increasing the license suspension from two years to "three years or until the date of such person's twenty-first birthday, whichever is longer", to increase the penalties for a third and subsequent violation by deleting former Subdiv. (3) that had specified penalties for a third violation, renumbering former Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (3), amending said Subdiv. (3) to make the penalties applicable to a "third and subsequent violation" rather than a "fourth and subsequent violation" and add requirement that the person perform one hundred hours of community service as a condition of probation, and to add provision that "a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section or 53a-56b or 53a-60d" constitutes a prior conviction, amended Subsec. (i) to change the penalty from an infraction to a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, amended Subsec. (j) to replace provisions of Subdiv. (1) requiring that the suspension take effect immediately upon the expiration of the appeal period, providing that the suspension is stayed during the appeal and requiring the defendant to send his license or nonresident operating privilege to the department when the suspension takes effect, with new provisions requiring each court to report each conviction to the department and requiring the commissioner to suspend the license or nonresident operating privilege for the time period required by Subsec. (h), to add Subdiv. (4) requiring the license of a convicted person to indicate that such person is an at-risk operator and defining "at-risk operator" and to add Subdiv. (5) providing that the suspension by the commissioner is stayed during the pendency of an appeal of a conviction, amended Subsec. (l) to make provisions applicable to evidence from an analysis of a urine sample from the injured operator, to require in Subdiv. (2) that the blood sample was taken "in accordance with regulations adopted under subsection (e) of this section" rather than "by a person licensed to practice medicine in this state, a resident physician or intern in any hospital in this state, a phlebotomist, a qualified laboratory technician, an emergency medical technician II or a registered nurse", and to add provision that the search warrant may also authorize the seizure of medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury, deleted former Subsec. (m) defining "phlebotomist", and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsecs. (h) and (l); P.A. 01-201 added Subsec. (m) to authorize the court to require participation in a victim impact panel program as a condition of probation; P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (j) by adding provision in Subdiv. (1) to require the commissioner to determine the applicable suspension period based on the number of convictions on the person's driving history record, notwithstanding the sentence imposed by the court for such conviction, deleting former Subdiv. (4) re mandatory indication of "at-risk operator" on reverse side of operator's license and redesignating existing Subdiv. (5) as Subdiv. (4), effective July 1, 2002; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsec. (a) to reduce ratio of alcohol in blood from ten-hundredths to eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol in definition of "elevated blood alcohol content" and eliminated from such definition Subpara. (A) designator and provisions of Subpara. (B) "if such person has been convicted of a violation of this subsection, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is seven-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight", deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (i) re offense of operation while impaired and fine for violation, redesignated existing Subsecs. (c) to (h) as Subsecs. (b) to (g) and existing Subsecs. (j) to (m) as Subsecs. (h) to (k),amended redesignated Subsec. (d) to eliminate reference to Commissioner of Public Health in adopting regulations re chemical tests, and made technical changes throughout, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-265 amended Subsec. (g)(2)(C) to designate existing provision re duration of suspension as clause (i) and to add clause (ii) re license suspension of one year followed by a prohibition for two years on operating a motor vehicle unless the motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device if the person is convicted of a violation of Subsec. (a)(1) on account of being under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of Subsec. (a)(2); P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subsec. (g), effective July 9, 2003; P.A. 04-199 made a technical change in Subsec. (g), added new Subsec. (i) re installation of an ignition interlock device and redesignated existing Subsecs. (i) to (k) as new Subsecs. (j) to (l), respectively, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-257 made a technical change in Subsec. (g), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (i) by inserting "passenger" re motor vehicle and removing provision re no enrollment in treatment program or obtained waiver in Subdiv. (1), deleting former Subdiv. (2) re condition rendering person incapable of safely operating a motor vehicle, redesignating existing Subdivs. (3) to (6) as new Subdivs. (2) to (5) and, in new Subdiv. (4), inserting "for any other reason"; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (i)(1) by deleting the word "passenger" added by P.A. 05-218.

      Subsec. (g):

      Imposition of enhanced penalties for third time offense under subsection requires only third violation of Subsec. (a), and does not require previous conviction as second time offender. 90 CA 177.

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      Sec. 14-227b. Implied consent to test operator's blood, breath or urine. Testing procedures. License suspension. Hearing. (a) Any person who operates a motor vehicle in this state shall be deemed to have given such person's consent to a chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath or urine and, if such person is a minor, such person's parent or parents or guardian shall also be deemed to have given their consent.

      (b) If any such person, having been placed under arrest for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both, and thereafter, after being apprised of such person's constitutional rights, having been requested to submit to a blood, breath or urine test at the option of the police officer, having been afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of such test and having been informed that such person's license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this section if such person refuses to submit to such test or if such person submits to such test and the results of such test indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, and that evidence of any such refusal shall be admissible in accordance with subsection (e) of section 14-227a and may be used against such person in any criminal prosecution, refuses to submit to the designated test, the test shall not be given; provided, if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test, the police officer shall designate the breath or urine test as the test to be taken. The police officer shall make a notation upon the records of the police department that such officer informed the person that such person's license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended if such person refused to submit to such test or if such person submitted to such test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content.

      (c) If the person arrested refuses to submit to such test or analysis or submits to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, acting on behalf of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall immediately revoke and take possession of the motor vehicle operator's license or, if such person is a nonresident, suspend the nonresident operating privilege of such person, for a twenty-four-hour period. The police officer shall prepare a written report of the incident and shall mail the report and a copy of the results of any chemical test or analysis to the Department of Motor Vehicles within three business days. The report shall be made on a form approved by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement as provided in section 53a-157b by the arresting officer. If the person arrested refused to submit to such test or analysis, the report shall be endorsed by a third person who witnessed such refusal. The report shall set forth the grounds for the officer's belief that there was probable cause to arrest such person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both and shall state that such person had refused to submit to such test or analysis when requested by such police officer to do so or that such person submitted to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content.

      (d) If the person arrested submits to a blood or urine test at the request of the police officer, and the specimen requires laboratory analysis in order to obtain the test results, the police officer shall not take possession of the motor vehicle operator's license of such person or, except as provided in this subsection, follow the procedures subsequent to taking possession of the operator's license as set forth in subsection (c) of this section. If the test results indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, immediately upon receipt of the test results, shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner the written report required pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

      (e) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, upon receipt of such report, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend any license or nonresident operating privilege of such person effective as of a date certain, which date shall be not later than thirty days after the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer. Any person whose license or operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner to be held prior to the effective date of the suspension. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended as of a date certain and that such person is entitled to a hearing prior to the effective date of the suspension and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice.

      (2) If the person arrested (A) is involved in an accident resulting in a fatality, or (B) has previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under the provisions of section 14-227a during the ten-year period preceding the present arrest, upon receipt of such report, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend any license or nonresident operating privilege of such person effective as of the date specified in a notice of such suspension to such person. Any person whose license or operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended as of the date specified in such suspension notice, and that such person is entitled to a hearing and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice. Any suspension issued under this subdivision shall remain in effect until such suspension is affirmed or such license or operating privilege is reinstated in accordance with subsections (f) and (h) of this section.

      (f) If such person does not contact the department to schedule a hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) or (j) of this section.

      (g) If such person contacts the department to schedule a hearing, the department shall assign a date, time and place for the hearing, which date shall be prior to the effective date of the suspension, except that, with respect to a person whose license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (e) of this section, such hearing shall be scheduled not later than thirty days after such person contacts the department. At the request of such person or the hearing officer and upon a showing of good cause, the commissioner may grant one continuance for a period not to exceed fifteen days. The hearing shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Did the police officer have probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; (2) was such person placed under arrest; (3) did such person refuse to submit to such test or analysis or did such person submit to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (4) was such person operating the motor vehicle. In the hearing, the results of the test or analysis shall be sufficient to indicate the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person at the time of operation, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of operation. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases.

      (h) If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall reinstate such license or operating privilege. If, after such hearing, the commissioner does not find on any one of the said issues in the negative or if such person fails to appear at such hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) or (j) of this section. The commissioner shall render a decision at the conclusion of such hearing or send a notice of the decision by bulk certified mail to such person not later than thirty days or, if a continuance is granted, not later than forty-five days from the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer. The notice of such decision sent by certified mail to the address of such person as shown by the records of the commissioner shall be sufficient notice to such person that such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege is reinstated or suspended, as the case may be. Unless a continuance of the hearing is granted pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, if the commissioner fails to render a decision within thirty days from the date such person received notice of such person's arrest by the police officer, the commissioner shall reinstate such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege, provided notwithstanding such reinstatement the commissioner may render a decision not later than two days thereafter suspending such operator's license or nonresident operating privilege.

      (i) Except as provided in subsection (j) of this section, the commissioner shall suspend the operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person who did not contact the department to schedule a hearing, who failed to appear at a hearing or against whom, after a hearing, the commissioner held pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as of the effective date contained in the suspension notice or the date the commissioner renders a decision, whichever is later, for a period of: (1) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, ninety days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) one hundred twenty days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (C) six months if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis, (2) if such person has previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section, (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, nine months if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) ten months if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and (C) one year if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis, and (3) if such person has two or more times previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section, (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this subdivision, two years if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, (B) two and one-half years if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and (C) three years if such person refused to submit to such test or analysis.

      (j) The commissioner shall suspend the operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of a person under twenty-one years of age who did not contact the department to schedule a hearing, who failed to appear at a hearing or against whom, after a hearing, the commissioner held pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as of the effective date contained in the suspension notice or the date the commissioner renders a decision, whichever is later, for twice the appropriate period of time specified in subsection (i) of this section.

      (k) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) to (j), inclusive, of this section, any police officer who obtains the results of a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner a written report if such results indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, and if such person was arrested for violation of section 14-227a in connection with such accident. The report shall be made on a form approved by the commissioner containing such information as the commissioner prescribes, and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53a-157b, by the police officer. The commissioner may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, which shall be conducted in accordance with chapter 54, suspend the motor vehicle operator's license or nonresident operating privilege of such person for a period of up to ninety days, or, if such person has previously had such person's operator's license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under this section for a period of up to one year. Each hearing conducted under this subsection shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Whether the police officer had probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both; (2) whether such person was placed under arrest; (3) whether such person was operating the motor vehicle; (4) whether the results of the analysis of the blood of such person indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (5) whether the blood sample was obtained in accordance with conditions for admissibility and competence as evidence as set forth in subsection (j) of section 14-227a. If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall not impose a suspension. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases, as provided in section 52-260.

      (l) The provisions of this section shall apply with the same effect to the refusal by any person to submit to an additional chemical test as provided in subdivision (5) of subsection (b) of section 14-227a.

      (m) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person whose physical condition is such that, according to competent medical advice, such test would be inadvisable.

      (n) The state shall pay the reasonable charges of any physician who, at the request of a municipal police department, takes a blood sample for purposes of a test under the provisions of this section.

      (o) For the purposes of this section, "elevated blood alcohol content" means (1) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (2) if such person is under twenty-one years of age, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.

      (p) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (1963, P.A. 616, S. 2; February, 1965, P.A. 190; 1967, P.A. 656, S. 9; 721; P.A. 75-205; P.A. 80-438, S. 4; P.A. 81-446, S. 3; P.A. 82-403, S. 4; 82-408, S. 4; P.A. 83-534, S. 2; P.A. 85-596, S. 2; P.A. 89-314, S. 1, 5; P.A. 90-263, S. 73, 74; P.A. 93-371, S. 1, 5; P.A. 94-189, S. 14; P.A. 95-279, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-182, S. 20, 22; P.A. 99-255, S. 2; P.A. 02-70, S. 72; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 109; P.A. 03-278, S. 48, 49; P.A. 04-250, S. 1; P.A. 05-215, S. 6.)

      History: 1965 act added provision re implied consent of parents or guardian of minor; 1967 acts required state to pay charges of physician who takes blood sample at police department's request, required arrested person to be informed of constitutional rights, required that three conditions be met for suspension or revocation of license rather than that single condition, i.e. that person was operating vehicle, be met and made provisions inapplicable if charge nolled or changed; P.A. 75-205 included reference to urine tests and to operation of vehicle under influence of drug or both drug and alcohol; P.A. 80-438 specified that judge rather than court or jury is responsible for making finding and added provision re finding in case where charge nolled or changed, allowed suspension or revocation for maximum of six months rather than upon terms and conditions of commissioner and deleted previous provision excluding nolled or changed charge; P.A. 81-446 added the provisions that the license of any person who refuses to submit to test shall be automatically suspended for ninety days, that police officer shall file a written report of such refusal, and that any person whose operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this section shall be entitled to an immediate hearing before the commissioner; P.A. 82-403 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing the provision that a license will be suspended "for a period of ninety days" with "in accordance with the provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of this section", amended Subsec. (c) by adding "resulting in erratic driving, a motor vehicle violation or a motor vehicle accident", amended Subsec. (d) by specifying its provisions concerned "a first" refusal, made Subsec. (e) a part of Subsec. (d) and added a new Subsec. (e) concerning the hearing procedure for license suspension upon a second or subsequent refusal and the period of such suspension; P.A. 82-408 added provisions re revocation of license for twenty-four hour period; P.A. 83-534 amended the section to make it applicable to a person arrested for operating a motor vehicle "while his ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor", amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the police officer to designate which test the arrested person shall take, to provide that if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test the police officer shall designate the breath or urine test, to require the police officer to inform the person that evidence of refusal to submit to a test will be admissible and may be used against him in a criminal prosecution and to require the police officer to make a record that he informed the person that refusal to take the test would cause suspension of his driver's license, amended Subsec. (d) to increase from ninety days to six months the period of license suspension upon a first refusal, and amended Subsec. (f) to change its applicability from a person who refuses to take a test for the "second or subsequent" time to a person whose license has previously been suspended for a refusal, who has previously been found guilty of operating under the influence or who has previously participated in the pretrial alcohol education system; P.A. 85-596 amended Subsec. (b) to add requirement of affording an operator a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and inserted a new Subsec. (g) re the applicability of the provisions of the section to a refusal to submit to an additional test and relettered the remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 89-314 extensively revised section by making the provisions applicable to any person who is arrested for manslaughter in the second degree with a motor vehicle or assault in the second degree with a motor vehicle and to any person who submits to a test or analysis where the results of such test or analysis indicate that at the time of the alleged offense the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, by amending Subsec. (c) to require the arresting police officer "acting on behalf of the commissioner of motor vehicles" to "take possession" of the license or "suspend" the nonresident operating privilege for twenty-four hours, issue a temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege valid for the period commencing twenty-four hours after issuance and ending thirty-five days after the date such person received notice of his arrest, prepare a report of the incident and mail the report together with a copy of the completed temporary license form, any operator's license and a copy of the results of any chemical test or analysis to the department of motor vehicles within three business days, and require that the report be made by the police officer before whom such refusal was made "or who administered or caused to be administered such test or analysis", by amending Subsec. (d) to replace provisions requiring the commissioner upon receipt of a report of a first refusal to suspend a license for six months with provisions requiring the commissioner upon receipt of a report to suspend the license "effective as of a date certain, which date shall be not later than thirty-five days after the date such person received notice of his arrest by the police officer" and to add provisions requiring the commissioner to send the person a suspension notice and specifying the contents of such notice, by deleting Subsec. (e) re police procedure when a license is revoked for twenty-four hours, by deleting Subsec. (f) re the scheduling of a hearing, the issues at the hearing and the suspension for one year for a refusal and three years for a subsequent refusal of the license or privilege of a person whose license or privilege had previously been suspended for a refusal, who had previously been found guilty of operating while under the influence or who had previously participated in the pretrial alcohol education system, by adding a new Subsec. (e) to require the commissioner to affirm the suspension if the person does not schedule a hearing, by adding a new Subsec. (f) re the scheduling and holding of the hearing, the granting of a continuance, the extension of the validity of the temporary license and the issues to be determined at the hearing, formerly part of Subsec. (d), by designating the last sentence of Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (g) and adding provisions re affirmation of the suspension contained in the suspension notice if the commissioner does not find on any one of the said issues in the negative or if the person fails to appear at the hearing, time periods for rendering a decision and sending notice of such decision, and the reinstatement of the license if the commissioner fails to timely render a decision, by adding a new Subsec. (h) re the suspension by the commissioner of the license or privilege, the revocation by the commissioner of the temporary license or privilege, and the periods of license suspension, by redesignating Subsecs. (g), (h) and (i) as Subsecs. (i), (j) and (k), respectively, and by adding Subsec. (l) re regulations; P.A. 90-263 amended Subsec. (f) to require that fees of witnesses summoned to appear at the hearing be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases; P.A. 93-371 eliminated the requirement that the test results indicate an elevated blood alcohol ratio "at the time of the alleged offense" by deleting that phrase where appearing, amended Subsec. (c) to require the test or analysis be commenced within two hours of the time of operation and require the report to be "subscribed" and sworn to under penalty of false statement by "the arresting officer" rather than by "the police officer before whom such refusal was made or who administered or caused to be administered such test or analysis", amended Subsec. (f) to authorize the granting of a continuance "at the request of such person or the hearing officer", provide in Subdiv. (3) that part of the issue to be determined is whether the test or analysis was commenced within two hours of the time of operation and added provision requiring evidence be presented that the test results and analysis thereof indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of operation when the additional test indicates the blood alcohol ratio is twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less and is higher than the results of the first test and amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the commissioner to send a notice of his decision by "bulk" certified mail and replace "Unless a continuance is granted to such person" with "Unless a continuance of the hearing is granted", effective July 1, 1993 (Revisor's note: Towards the end of Subsec. (f) the phrase "twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less or alcohol, by weight," was changed editorially by the Revisors to "twelve-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight," for consistency); P.A. 94-189 amended Subsec. (c) by decreasing the time period during which a temporary license or nonresident operating privilege is valid from thirty-five to thirty days after the date of receipt of notice of arrest, amended Subsec. (d) by changing the effective date of suspension from "not later than thirty-five" to "not later than thirty days" after the date of receipt of notice of arrest, amended Subsec. (f) by increasing the continuance period from "not to exceed ten days" to "not to exceed fifteen days", amended Subsec. (g) by decreasing the time period for rendering a decision or sending a notice of decision from thirty-five to thirty days and amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (h) by deleting "at the time of the alleged offense" before "the ratio of alcohol in the blood"; P.A. 95-279 amended Subsecs. (b), (c) and (f) to delete reference to manslaughter in the second degree with a motor vehicle or assault in the second degree with a motor vehicle, and amended Subsecs. (b) and (d) to make suspension of license discretionary rather than mandatory for refusal to submit to test or for submission to test and results indicating that ratio of alcohol in the blood of such operator was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or, in the case of Subsec. (d) upon receipt of report by commissioner, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 98-182 added a new Subsec. (d) re procedures for a police officer to take possession of a motor vehicle operator's license and added a new Subsec. (j) re submission of a chemical analysis of a blood sample of a motor vehicle operator and report to the commissioner, and hearing procedures re license suspension, effective January 1, 1999; P.A. 99-255 made provisions applicable when a person has "an elevated blood alcohol content" rather than when "the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was ten-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight", amended Subsec. (i) to revise Subdiv. (1) by adding new Subpara. (B) to provide for a suspension period of "one hundred twenty days, if such person submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person was sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight" and redesignating former Subpara. (B) as Subpara. (C), to revise Subdiv. (2) by replacing provision that specified a uniform suspension period of one year with provisions of Subparas. (A), (B) and (C) specifying a suspension period of nine months if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had an elevated blood alcohol content, ten months if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had a blood alcohol ratio of sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and one year if the person refused to submit to a test or analysis, respectively, and to revise Subdiv. (3) by replacing provision that specified a uniform suspension period of two years with provisions of Subparas. (A), (B) and (C) specifying a suspension period of two years if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had an elevated blood alcohol content, two and one-half years if the person submitted to a test or analysis and had a blood alcohol ratio of sixteen-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, and three years if the person refused to submit to a test or analysis, respectively, added new Subsec. (n) defining "elevated blood alcohol content", redesignating former Subsec. (n) as Subsec. (o), and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 02-70 amended Subsec. (c) to eliminate requirement that police officer issue a temporary operator's license or nonresident operating privilege and to eliminate requirement that police officer mail to Department of Motor Vehicles a copy of completed temporary license form and any operator's license taken into possession, effective July 1, 2002; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsecs. (b), (c), (g), and (j) to eliminate references to operating a motor vehicle while the person's ability is impaired by the consumption of intoxicating liquor, amended Subsec. (n) to reduce ratio of alcohol in blood from ten-hundredths to eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol in definition of "elevated blood alcohol content", eliminate from such definition former Subdiv. (2) providing "if such person has been convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is seven-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight" and redesignate existing Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (2), and made technical changes in Subsecs. (b), (j) and (k), effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subsecs. (g) and (i), effective July 9, 2003; P.A. 04-250 amended Subsec. (e) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1), making conforming changes therein, and adding Subdiv. (2) to permit commissioner to suspend license or operating privilege, upon notice and prior to hearing, of person arrested for operating motor vehicle under influence of alcohol or drugs if person involved in accident resulting in fatality or previously arrested under Sec. 14-227a during preceding ten-year period, amended Subsec. (g) to require hearing re license or operating privilege suspension not later than thirty days after person contacts department and made technical changes in Subsec. (o); P.A. 05-215 amended Subsecs. (f) and (h) re suspension period to add reference to Subsec. (j), amended Subsec. (i) to add exception for suspensions under Subsec. (j), added new Subsec. (j) re increased suspension period for a person under twenty-one years of age, redesignated existing Subsecs. (j) to (o) as Subsecs. (l) to (p), and amended Subsec. (k) to replace "subsections (b) to (i), inclusive" with "subsections (b) to (j), inclusive", effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 14-227g. Operation by person under twenty-one years of age while blood alcohol content exceeds two-hundredths of one per cent. Procedures. Penalties.

      Commissioner of Motor vehicles not limited to criminal prosecution where defendant is under twenty-one years of age and operated motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol but can also suspend license of such person. 86 CA 51.

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      Sec. 14-227j. Court order prohibiting operation of motor vehicle not equipped with ignition interlock device. (a) For the purposes of this section and section 14-227k: "Ignition interlock device" means a device installed in a motor vehicle that measures the blood alcohol content of the operator and disallows the mechanical operation of such motor vehicle until the blood alcohol content of such operator is less than twenty-five thousandths of one per cent.

      (b) Any person who has been arrested for a violation of subsection (a) of section 14-227a, section 53a-56b, or section 53a-60d, may be ordered by the court not to operate any motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device. Any such order may be made as a condition of such person's release on bail or as a condition of granting such person's application for participation in the pretrial alcohol education system under section 54-56g and may include any other terms and conditions as to duration, use, proof of installation or any other matter that the court determines to be appropriate or necessary.

      (c) All costs of installing and maintaining an ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person who is the subject of an order made pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) No ignition interlock device shall be installed pursuant to an order of the court under subsection (b) of this section unless such device has been approved under the regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-227a.

      (e) No provision of this section shall be construed to authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose motor vehicle operator's license has been refused, suspended or revoked, or who does not hold a valid motor vehicle operator's license. A court shall inform the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of each order made by it pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. If any person who has been ordered not to operate a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with an ignition interlock device is the holder of a special permit to operate a motor vehicle for employment purposes, issued by the commissioner under the provisions of section 14-37a, strict compliance with the terms of the order shall be deemed a condition to hold such permit, and any failure to comply with such order shall be sufficient cause for immediate revocation of the permit by the commissioner.

      (P.A. 03-265, S. 2; P.A. 04-199, S. 32; P.A. 05-218, S. 29; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 112.)

      History: P.A. 04-199 deleted provisions re approval and use of immobilization devices on vehicles owned, leased or operated by persons arrested for specified violations and made conforming changes throughout; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "passenger" re motor vehicle; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "passenger" added by P.A. 05-218, effective June 30, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-239. One-way streets. Rotaries or roundabouts. (a) The State Traffic Commission may designate any state highway and local traffic authorities may designate streets and highways under their jurisdiction for one-way traffic and shall erect signs, devices or markings conforming to State Traffic Commission standards giving notice thereof. Upon any highway so designated a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction indicated.

      (b) A vehicle passing around a rotary or roundabout shall have the right of way over entering vehicles and shall be driven only to the right of such rotary or roundabout, unless otherwise directed by signs.

      (c) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.

      (1955, S. 1391d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 23; P.A. 75-577, S. 83, 126; P.A. 05-210, S. 25.)

      History: 1965 act deleted obsolete reference to state aid highways and added provisions re local traffic authorities and traffic commission standards in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (c); P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing "rotary traffic island" with "rotary or roundabout", specifying vehicles within rotary have right-of-way over entering vehicles and deleting "or unless the length of the vehicle makes such movement impracticable", effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-241. Turns. (a) Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the highway.

      (b) At any intersection where traffic is permitted to move in both directions on each highway entering the intersection, an approach for a left turn shall be made in that portion of the right half of the highway nearest the center line thereof and by passing to the right of such center line where it enters the intersection, and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the center line of the highway being entered.

      (c) At any intersection where traffic is restricted to one direction on one or more of the highways, the driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach the intersection in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle, and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection, as nearly as practicable, in the left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in such direction upon the highway being entered.

      (d) "Deceleration lane" means an added outside lane of a highway laned for traffic which immediately precedes an exit road from such highway, and "acceleration lane" means an added outside lane of a highway laned for traffic which immediately follows an entrance road into such highway. Where deceleration and acceleration lanes exist, all turns made to leave or enter the highway shall be made from or into such lanes.

      (e) On any state highway the State Traffic Commission, and, on highways under their jurisdiction, local traffic authorities, may cause rotaries or roundabouts, signs or other devices conforming to the manual on uniform traffic control devices to be placed within or adjacent to intersections and thereby direct that a different course from that specified in this section be traveled by vehicles turning at an intersection, and when rotaries or roundabouts, signs or other devices are so placed, no driver shall turn a vehicle otherwise than as directed thereby.

      (f) Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction.

      (1955, S. 1393d; February, 1965, P.A. 448, S. 24; P.A. 75-577, S. 85, 126; P.A. 05-210, S. 26.)

      History: 1965 act deleted reference to state aid highway and added references to local traffic authorities and the manual on uniform traffic control devices in Subsec. (e); P.A. 75-577 added Subsec. (f); P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (e) by substituting "rotaries or roundabouts" for "rotary traffic islands", effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-249. Stopping at grade crossings. (a) An operator of a motor vehicle shall bring his or her motor vehicle to a full stop at a railroad grade crossing when warned of an approaching locomotive or a train by a law enforcement officer or flashing lights erected at such grade crossing pursuant to an order of the Commissioner of Transportation and shall refrain from passing over such crossing until the approaching locomotive or train has passed such crossing.

      (b) An operator of a commercial motor vehicle shall refrain from passing over such grade crossing, regardless of whether flashing lights are erected or are operable at such grade crossing, unless all tracks are clear.

      (c) An operator of a commercial motor vehicle shall, upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, drive such motor vehicle at a rate of speed that will enable such motor vehicle to be stopped when required by the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section or section 14-250.

      (d) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.

      (1955, S. 1401d; P.A. 75-486, S. 42, 69; 75-577, S. 94, 126; P.A. 77-614, S. 571, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; 78-372, S. 4, 5, 7; P.A. 87-449, S. 1; P.A. 05-218, S. 38.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 75-577 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine with statement that violation of section is an infraction and made technical grammatical change; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced public utilities control authority with commissioner of transportation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-372 expanded provisions by making failure "to refrain from passing over such crossing until the approaching locomotive or train shall have passed such crossing" an infraction; P.A. 87-449 increased penalty from an infraction to a one-hundred-fifty-dollar fine; P.A. 05-218 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and amended same by making technical changes, adding "law enforcement officer" and deleting penalty provision, added Subsec. (b) requiring operator of a commercial vehicle to refrain from passing over grade crossing unless all tracks are clear, added Subsec. (c) requiring operator of a commercial motor vehicle, upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, to drive at a speed that will enable motor vehicle to be stopped when required and added Subsec. (d) specifying that violation of section is infraction, effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-250. Certain motor vehicles to stop at railroad crossing. Regulations. Penalty. (a) The operator of each commercial motor vehicle transporting passengers, service bus or motor vehicle used for the transportation of school children and the operator of each commercial motor vehicle with a cargo tank or carrying hazardous materials, as defined in section 14-1, whether loaded or empty, before crossing at grade any track or tracks of a railroad, shall stop such vehicle not less than fifteen feet or more than fifty feet from the nearest rail of such track, and, while so stopped, shall listen and look in each direction along such track or tracks for approaching locomotives or trains before crossing such track or tracks; and such operator shall not, in any event, cross such track or tracks when warned by automatic signal, crossing gates, flagman, law enforcement officer or otherwise of the approach of a railroad locomotive or train.

      (b) The operator of any commercial motor vehicle shall not attempt to cross a railroad grade crossing if such vehicle cannot be driven completely through such crossing, without shifting gears, on account of insufficient undercarriage clearance.

      (c) The operator of any commercial motor vehicle shall not attempt to cross a railroad grade crossing if such vehicle does not have sufficient space to drive completely through such crossing and to clear the tracks without stopping.

      (d) The commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section, including exemptions for certain crossings and vehicles that are allowed by the provisions of 49 CFR 392.10.

      (e) Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not less than one hundred fifty dollars or more than two hundred fifty dollars. Violation of any provision of subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall be an infraction.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2418; P.A. 76-381, S. 13; P.A. 87-449, S. 2; P.A. 90-263, S. 24, 74; P.A. 94-189, S. 15; P.A. 04-217, S. 17; P.A. 05-218, S. 39; 05-288, S. 61, 62.)

      History: P.A. 76-381 replaced provision for one hundred dollar maximum fine and/or thirty days' maximum imprisonment with statement that violation of provisions is an infraction; P.A. 87-449 changed penalty from an infraction to a fine ranging from one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty dollars; P.A. 90-263 deleted reference to public service motor vehicle, inserting commercial motor vehicle transporting passengers, taxicab, motor vehicle in livery service, motor bus and service bus in lieu thereof and substituted commercial motor vehicle carrying "hazardous materials as defined in section 14-1" for explosive substances or poisonous or compressed inflammable gases as cargo or used for the transportation of inflammable or corrosive liquids in bulk; P.A. 94-189 removed operators of taxicabs and motor vehicles in livery service from provisions of section; P.A. 04-217 designated existing provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (d) and amended Subsec. (a) to delete "motor bus", to include a motor vehicle with a cargo tank, to change requirement to stop vehicle not less than ten feet from nearest rail of railroad track to not less than fifteen feet and to include warning by law enforcement officer in requirement for operator to stop when warned and added new Subsec. (b) prohibiting operator from crossing railroad crossing if vehicle cannot be driven completely through crossing and new Subsec. (c) authorizing commissioner to adopt regulations to implement provisions of section, effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 05-218 amended Subsec. (b) by inserting "commercial" re motor vehicle, deleting reference to Subsec. (a) and substituting "insufficient undercarriage clearance" for "its width or the clearance of its undercarriage", added new Subsec. (c) requiring that commercial motor vehicle not attempt to cross railroad grade crossing if it does not have sufficient space to drive through and clear tracks without stopping, redesignated existing Subsecs. (c) and (d) as Subsecs. (d) and (e), respectively, amended new Subsec. (d) by inserting "and vehicles" and amended new Subsec. (e) by applying previously existing penalty to Subsec. (a) violations and making violations of Subsec. (b) or (c) an infraction, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (d), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-270. Permits for nonconforming vehicles. Regulations. Penalties. (a) The Commissioner of Transportation or other authority having charge of the repair or maintenance of any highway or bridge is authorized to grant permits for transporting vehicles or combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load, or other objects not conforming to the provisions of sections 14-98, 14-262, 14-264, 14-267a and 14-269 but, in the case of motor vehicles, only the Commissioner of Transportation shall be authorized to issue such permits. Such permits shall be written, and may limit the highways or bridges which may be used, the time of such use and the maximum rate of speed at which such vehicles or objects may be operated, and may contain any other condition considered necessary by the authority granting the same, provided the Department of Transportation shall not suffer any loss of revenue granted or to be granted from any agency or department of the federal government for the federal interstate highway system or any other highway system.

      (b) Any permit issued in respect to any vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer on account of its excessive weight shall be limited to the gross weight shown or to be shown on the registration certificate. A permit granted under this section for a vehicle or load, greater than twelve feet, but no greater than thirteen feet six inches in width and traveling on undivided highways, shall require a single escort motor vehicle to precede such vehicle or load. No escort motor vehicle shall be required to follow such vehicle or load on such highways.

      (c) Any permit issued under this section or a legible copy or facsimile shall be retained in the possession of the operator of the vehicle or combination of vehicles or vehicle and trailer for which such permit was issued, except that a telegraphic confirmation of the existence of such permit or the use of the special number plates described in section 14-24 and any regulations adopted thereunder shall be sufficient to fulfill the requirements of this section.

      (d) (1) The owner or lessee of any vehicle may pay either a fee of twenty-three dollars for each permit issued for such vehicle under this section or a fee as described in subdivision (3) of this subsection for such vehicle, payable to the Department of Transportation. (2) An additional transmittal fee of three dollars shall be charged for each permit issued under this section and transmitted via transceiver or facsimile equipment. (3) The commissioner may issue an annual permit for any vehicle transporting (A) a divisible load, (B) an overweight or oversized-overweight indivisible load, or (C) an oversize indivisible load. The owner or lessee shall pay an annual fee of seven dollars per thousand pounds or fraction thereof for each such vehicle. A permit may be issued in any increment up to one year, provided the owner or lessee shall pay a fee of one-tenth of the annual fee for such vehicle for each month or fraction thereof. (4) The annual permit fee for any vehicle transporting an oversize indivisible load shall not be less than five hundred dollars. (5) The commissioner may issue permits for divisible loads in the aggregate not exceeding fifty-three feet in length.

      (e) The Commissioner of Transportation shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 prescribing standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with divisible or indivisible loads not conforming to the provisions of section 14-267a.

      (f) The provisions of subsection (d) of this section shall not apply to the federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments.

      (g) Any person who violates the provisions of any permit issued under this section or fails to obtain such a permit, when operating a commercial motor vehicle under the provisions of section 14-163c, shall be subject to the following penalties:

      (1) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the weight specified in such permit shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the permitted weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;

      (2) A person who fails to obtain a permit issued under section 14-262 or 14-264 and who is operating a vehicle at a weight that exceeds the statutory limit for weight shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory limit for weight from the actual vehicle weight and the rate of the fine shall be fifteen dollars per one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of such excess weight;

      (3) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the length specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;

      (4) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the width specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of three hundred dollars;

      (5) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section that exceeds the height specified in such permit shall be subject to a minimum fine of one thousand dollars;

      (6) A person operating a vehicle with a permit issued under this section on routes not specified in such permit, shall be fined (A) one thousand five hundred dollars for each violation of the statutory limit for length, width, height or weight, and (B) shall be subject to a penalty calculated by subtracting the statutory weight limit of subsection (b) of section 14-267a from the actual vehicle weight and such weight difference shall be fined at the rate provided for in subparagraph (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of section 14-267a; or

      (7) A person (A) operating a vehicle with an indivisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to obtain a permit, or (B) operating a vehicle with a divisible load and violating one or more of the provisions of subdivisions (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subsection shall be required to be off loaded to the permit limit.

      (h) (1) If the origin, destination, load description, tractor registration, trailer registration, hours of travel, number of escorts, signs or flags of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or required by regulations adopted pursuant to this section, a minimum fine of two hundred dollars shall be assessed for each such violation.

      (2) If the days of travel of a vehicle with a permit issued under this section differ from those stated on such permit or the vehicle is operated under a false or fraudulent permit, a minimum fine of one thousand five hundred dollars shall be assessed for such violation in addition to any other penalties assessed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2497; 1951, 1955, S. 1378d; 1957, P.A. 514; 1959, P.A. 467; 1961, P.A. 361; 1963, P.A. 420; 1969, P.A. 354, S. 5; 768, S. 150; P.A. 79-188, S. 8, 10; P.A. 80-71, S. 27, 30; Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 3, 4; P.A. 84-516, S. 5, 7; P.A. 92-177, S. 11, 12; P.A. 94-188, S. 12; P.A. 98-196, S. 1; P.A. 99-181, S. 19, 20, 40; P.A. 00-169, S. 12; P.A. 04-143, S. 9; P.A. 05-210, S. 32.)

      History: Public acts of 1959, 1961 and 1963 each extended effective period of permits in effect April 30, 1947; 1969 acts added Subsecs. (b) to (d), deleted provisions re extensions of permits, made provisions applicable to "combinations of vehicles or vehicles and load", deleted requirement for written application, added reference to Secs. 14-98, 14-262, 14-264 and 14-265 and replaced highway commissioner and department with commissioner and department of transportation; P.A. 79-188 replaced reference to repealed Sec. 14-268 with reference to Sec. 14-267a; P.A. 80-71 inserted new Subsec. (d) re fees and relettered former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e); Oct. Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 inserted new Subsec. (e) requiring transportation commissioner to adopt regulations re standards for issuance of permits for vehicles with loads not conforming to provisions of Sec. 14-267a, relettering former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f); P.A. 84-516 applied penalties in Sec. 14-267a to permit violations, in Subsec. (f), where previously violators were "deemed to have no permit"; P.A. 92-177 amended (1) Subsec. (a) to add reference to Sec. 14-269 and to delete reference to Sec. 14-265, (2) Subsec. (c) to add phrase "and any regulations adopted thereunder" after Sec. 14-24, (3) Subsec. (d)(1) to increase permit fee from fifteen to twenty-three dollars and to substitute a fee as described in Subdiv. (3) for an annual fee in amount equal to thirty per cent of registration fee for such vehicle, (4) Subsec. (d)(2) to eliminate requirement that owner of out-of-state vehicle pay fifteen-dollar fee per permit and to increase additional fee from two to three dollars, designating it as an additional transmittal fee, (5) Subsec. (d) to add new Subdiv. (3), authorizing commissioner to issue annual permits for vehicles transporting various loads and requiring owner or lessee to pay annual fee for each such vehicle, and to add Subdiv. (4), requiring that annual permit fee for vehicle transporting oversize indivisible load be a minimum of five hundred dollars, (6) Subsec. (e) to delete obsolete phrase; P.A. 94-188 inserted a new Subsec. (f) re inapplicability of Subsec. (d) to federal government, the state, municipalities or fire departments, and relettered the remaining Subsec.; P.A. 98-196 amended Subsec. (g) by replacing penalties under Subsec. (f) of Sec. 14-267a with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive; P.A. 99-181 amended Subsec. (g) by making provisions applicable to a person who fails to obtain a permit, by adding new Subpara. (2) re penalty for exceeding the statutory limit for weight, by adding new Subpara. (4) re penalty for exceeding width specified in permit, by adding new Subpara. (7) re requirements for permit on off loading, by changing the formula for the penalty for a person operating a vehicle on a route not specified in the vehicle's permit in Subpara. (6) (formerly (4)) and by renumbering existing Subparas. and making other technical changes and added Subsec. (h), effective June 23, 1999; P.A. 00-169 amended Subsec. (c) to allow a permit issued to be retained in the form of a "legible copy or facsimile" in the possession of the vehicle operator; P.A. 04-143 amended Subsec. (d) to add Subdiv. (5) permitting commissioner to issue permits for divisible loads in the aggregate not exceeding fifty-three feet in length; P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re permit granted for vehicle or load greater than twelve feet but no greater than thirteen feet six inches in width shall require a leading escort vehicle on undivided highways, but need not have a following escort vehicle, and made a technical change in Subsec. (d)(1) (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (b), a reference to "greater that" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "greater than", for accuracy).

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      Sec. 14-272b. Transport of dogs in pick-up trucks. Restrictions. No person operating a pick-up truck, as defined in section 14-1, on a public highway of this state shall transport a dog in the open rearward compartment of the pick-up truck unless the dog is secured in a cage or other container or otherwise protected or secured in such a manner as to prevent the dog from being thrown or falling or jumping from the pick-up truck.

      (P.A. 05-218, S. 18.)

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      Sec. 14-283. Rights of emergency vehicles. Obstruction of. (a) "Emergency vehicle", as used in this section, means any ambulance or vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization responding to an emergency call, any vehicle used by a fire department or by any officer of a fire department while on the way to a fire or while responding to an emergency call but not while returning from a fire or emergency call, any state or local police vehicle operated by a police officer or inspector of the Department of Motor Vehicles answering an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators or any Department of Correction vehicle operated by a Department of Correction officer while in the course of such officer's employment and while responding to an emergency call.

      (b) The operator of any emergency vehicle may (1) park or stand such vehicle, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter, (2) proceed past any red light or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down or stopping to the extent necessary for the safe operation of such vehicle, (3) exceed the posted speed limits or other speed limits imposed by or pursuant to section 14-218a or 14-219 as long as such operator does not endanger life or property by so doing, and (4) disregard statutes, ordinances or regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specific directions.

      (c) The exemptions herein granted shall apply only when an emergency vehicle is making use of an audible warning signal device, including but not limited to a siren, whistle or bell which meets the requirements of subsection (f) of section 14-80, and visible flashing or revolving lights which meet the requirements of sections 14-96p and 14-96q, and to any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not relieve the operator of an emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property.

      (e) Upon the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle making use of such an audible warning signal device and such visible flashing or revolving lights or of any state or local police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible warning signal device only, the operator of every other vehicle in the immediate vicinity shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in such position until the emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise directed by a state or local police officer or a firefighter.

      (f) Any officer of a fire department may remove, or cause to be removed, any vehicle upon any public or private way which obstructs or retards any fire department, or any officer thereof, in controlling or extinguishing any fire.

      (g) Any person who wilfully or negligently obstructs or retards any ambulance or vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization while answering any emergency call or taking a patient to a hospital, or any vehicle used by a fire department or any officer or member of a fire department while on the way to a fire, or while responding to an emergency call, or any vehicle used by the state police or any local police department, or any officer of the Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety or any local police department while on the way to an emergency call or in the pursuit of fleeing law violators, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than seven days, or both.

      (h) Nothing in this section shall be construed as permitting the use of a siren upon any motor vehicle other than an emergency vehicle, as defined in subsection (a) of this section, or a rescue service vehicle which is registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to section 19a-181.

      (i) A police officer may issue a written warning or a summons to the owner of a vehicle based upon an affidavit signed by the operator of an emergency vehicle specifying (1) the license plate number, color and type of any vehicle observed violating any provision of subsection (e) or (g) of this section, and (2) the date, approximate time and location of such violation.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2424; 1957, P.A. 542, S. 1, 2; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 7; 1963, P.A. 112; 1969, P.A. 452, S. 7; 1971, P.A. 538; P.A. 77-340, S. 9; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-3; P.A. 80-483, S. 64, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 66; P.A. 85-217, S. 3; P.A. 00-169, S. 11; P.A. 01-59; 01-192, S. 2; P.A. 05-288, S. 238, 239.)

      History: 1963 act included fire department vehicles responding to emergency calls; 1969 act increased fine from fifty to five hundred dollar maximum and imprisonment from seven days to one year maximum in Subsec. (c); 1971 act replaced previous provisions with new provisions re right-of-way granted to emergency vehicles; P.A. 77-340 added reference to Sec. 14-218a in Subsec. (b); P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 made state police department a division within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-3 replaced reference to ambulances and vehicles used by police and fire departments with reference to emergency vehicles and rescue service vehicles in Subsec. (h); P.A. 80-483 replaced reference to Sec. 14-96g with reference to Sec. 14-96q in Subsec. (c); P.A. 84-429 made technical changes for statutory consistency; P.A. 85-217 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g), including emergency medical service organization vehicles in the definition of "emergency vehicle" and imposing a fine on persons who obstruct such vehicles while answering emergency calls; P.A. 00-169 redefined "emergency vehicle" to include vehicles operated by inspectors of the Department of Motor Vehicles; P.A. 01-59 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "emergency vehicle" to include any Department of Correction vehicle operated by a Department of Correction officer while in the course of such officer's employment and while responding to an emergency call and amended Subsec. (b) to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality; P.A. 01-192 amended Subsec. (g) by changing the fine from fifty dollars to two hundred dollars, added Subsec. (i) re allowing a police officer to issue a written warning for violations of Subsec. (e) or (g) and made technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality in Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 05-288 amended Subsecs. (a) and (g) by replacing "emergency medical service organization vehicle" with "vehicle operated by a member of an emergency medical service organization" and made a technical change in Subsec. (g), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 14-289j. Restrictions on the use and sale, lease or rental of mini-motorcycles. (a) For the purposes of this section, "mini-motorcycle" means a vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, that (1) has not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, (2) is equipped with or is designed to have a seat on which the rider may sit, (3) is propelled by an engine having a piston displacement of 50 c.c. or less, (4) is capable of a speed in excess of twenty miles per hour, and (5) is not eligible to be registered as a motor vehicle under section 14-12.

      (b) No person shall operate a mini-motorcycle or ride as a passenger on a mini-motorcycle on any highway, public sidewalk or public property of this state. No owner of a mini-motorcycle shall permit a person to operate the owner's mini-motorcycle or to ride as a passenger on the owner's mini-motorcycle on any highway, public sidewalk or public property of this state.

      (c) Except on private property owned by the operator of a mini-motorcycle, no person shall operate a mini-motorcycle or ride as a passenger on a mini-motorcycle on any private property in this state unless such operator has in the operator's possession written permission from the owner of the private property to operate such mini-motorcycle and, as the case may be, to carry a passenger on such property.

      (d) Except on private property owned by the owner of the mini-motorcycle, no owner of a mini-motorcycle shall permit a person to operate the owner's mini-motorcycle or to ride as a passenger on the owner's mini-motorcycle on any private property in this state unless such operator has in the operator's possession written permission from the owner of the private property to operate such mini-motorcycle and, as the case may be, to carry a passenger on such property.

      (e) Any police officer who issues a summons for the alleged violation of subsection (b), (c) or (d) of this section shall cause the mini-motorcycle that was being operated to be impounded for a period of forty-eight hours after the issuance of such summons. The owner of such mini-motorcycle may reclaim such mini-motorcycle after the expiration of such forty-eight-hour period upon payment of all transportation and storage costs.

      (f) No person may offer for sale, lease or rent a mini-motorcycle unless such mini-motorcycle has a warning label that gives warning information about the safe and legal use of a mini-motorcycle and about the limitations on use and the possible consequences of use in violation of such limitations, set forth in subsections (b) to (e), inclusive, of this section. Such person, on sale, lease or rent of a mini-motorcycle, shall give a written clear and conspicuous statement, separate from the warning label, to the purchaser, lessee or renter of such mini-motorcycle containing such warning information. Advertisements for mini-motorcycles and oral communications of a person offering for sale, lease or rent a mini-motorcycle shall not contain information inconsistent with any information required in this section. Until regulations required in subsection (g) of this section are adopted, persons offering for sale, lease or rent of a mini-motorcycle shall display such warning information, advertise and make oral communications in a manner consistent with the provisions of this section. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to any person selling fewer than five used mini-motorcycles in one calendar year, provided any person claiming inapplicability of the provisions of this subsection shall have the burden of proving such inapplicability.

      (g) On or before January 1, 2006, the Department of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, that set forth the warning information required in this section and manner of display of such warning information, establish reasonable transportation and storage fees and otherwise implement the provisions of this section.

      (h) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a municipality from adopting more restrictive limitations on the use and sale, lease or rent of mini-motorcycles.

      (i) Violation of any provision of this section shall be an infraction.

      (P.A. 05-173, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 14-295a. Assessment for certain violations and payments of fines by mail. An assessment of five dollars shall be imposed against any person who is convicted of a violation of section 14-219, 14-222 or 14-227a or who pleads nolo contendere to a violation of section 14-219 and pays the fine by mail. Such assessment shall be in addition to any fee, cost or surcharge imposed pursuant to any other provision of the general statutes. All assessments collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the General Fund and credited to the brain injury prevention and services account established under section 14-295b.

      (P.A. 04-199, S. 39; P.A. 05-152, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 05-152 deleted provision re imposition of assessment for forfeiture of cash bond or guaranteed bail bond certificate.

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      Sec. 14-296aa. Use of hand-held mobile telephones and mobile electronic devices by motor vehicle operators and school bus drivers, prohibited or restricted, when. Penalties. (a) For purposes of this subsection and subsections (b), (c) and (d) of this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

      (1) "Mobile telephone" means a cellular, analog, wireless or digital telephone capable of sending or receiving telephone communications without an access line for service.

      (2) "Using" or "use" means holding a hand-held mobile telephone to, or in the immediate proximity of, the user's ear.

      (3) "Hand-held mobile telephone" means a mobile telephone with which a user engages in a call using at least one hand.

      (4) "Hands-free accessory" means an attachment, add-on, built-in feature, or addition to a mobile telephone, whether or not permanently installed in a motor vehicle, that, when used, allows the vehicle operator to maintain both hands on the steering wheel.

      (5) "Hands-free mobile telephone" means a hand-held mobile telephone that has an internal feature or function, or that is equipped with an attachment or addition, whether or not permanently part of such hand-held mobile telephone, by which a user engages in a call without the use of either hand, whether or not the use of either hand is necessary to activate, deactivate or initiate a function of such telephone.

      (6) "Engage in a call" means talking into or listening on a hand-held mobile telephone, but does not include holding a hand-held mobile telephone to activate, deactivate or initiate a function of such telephone.

      (7) "Immediate proximity" means the distance that permits the operator of a hand-held mobile telephone to hear telecommunications transmitted over such hand-held mobile telephone, but does not require physical contact with such operator's ear.

      (8) "Mobile electronic device" means any hand-held or other portable electronic equipment capable of providing data communication between two or more persons, including a text messaging device, a paging device, a personal digital assistant, a laptop computer, equipment that is capable of playing a video game or a digital video disk, or equipment on which digital photographs are taken or transmitted, or any combination thereof, but does not include any audio equipment or any equipment installed in a motor vehicle for the purpose of providing navigation, emergency assistance to the operator of such motor vehicle or video entertainment to the passengers in the rear seats of such motor vehicle.

      (b) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection and subsections (a), (c) and (d) of this section, no person shall operate a motor vehicle upon a highway, as defined in subsection (a) of section 14-1, while using a hand-held mobile telephone to engage in a call or while using a mobile electronic device while such vehicle is in motion. (2) An operator of a motor vehicle who holds a hand-held mobile telephone to, or in the immediate proximity of, his or her ear while such vehicle is in motion is presumed to be engaging in a call within the meaning of this section. The presumption established by this subdivision is rebuttable by evidence tending to show that the operator was not engaged in a call. (3) The provisions of this subsection and subsection (a) of this section shall not be construed as authorizing the seizure or forfeiture of a hand-held mobile telephone or a mobile electronic device, unless otherwise provided by law. (4) Subdivision (1) of this subsection does not apply to: (A) The use of a hand-held mobile telephone for the sole purpose of communicating with any of the following regarding an emergency situation: An emergency response operator; a hospital, physician's office or health clinic; an ambulance company; a fire department; or a police department, or (B) any of the following persons while in the performance of his or her official duties and within the scope of his or her employment: A peace officer, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 53a-3, a firefighter or an operator of an ambulance or authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in subsection (a) of section 14-1, or (C) the use of a hands-free mobile telephone.

      (c) No person shall use a hand-held mobile telephone or other electronic device, including those with hands-free accessories, or a mobile electronic device while operating a moving school bus that is carrying passengers, except that this subsection does not apply to (1) a school bus driver who places an emergency call to school officials, or (2) the use of a hand-held mobile telephone as provided in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of this section.

      (d) No person under eighteen years of age shall use any hand-held mobile telephone, including one with a hands-free accessory, or a mobile electronic device while operating a moving motor vehicle on a public highway except as provided in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of this section.

      (e) Except as provided in subsections (a) to (d), inclusive, of this section, no person shall engage in any activity not related to the actual operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that interferes with the safe operation of such vehicle on any highway, as defined in subsection (a) of section 14-1.

      (f) Any law enforcement officer who issues a summons for a violation of subsections (a), (b), (c), (d) or (i) of this section shall record, on any summons form issued in connection with the matter, the specific nature of any distracted driving behavior observed by such officer that contributed to the issuance of such summons.

      (g) Any person who violates subsection (a) or (b) of this section shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars, except that the fine shall be suspended for a first time violator who provides proof of acquisition of a hands-free accessory subsequent to the violation but prior to the imposition of a fine.

      (h) Any person who violates subsection (c) or (d) of this section shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars.

      (i) An operator of a motor vehicle who commits a moving violation, as defined in subsection (a) of section 14-111g, while engaged in any activity prohibited under subsection (e) of this section shall be fined one hundred dollars in addition to any penalty or fine imposed for the moving violation.

      (P.A. 05-159, S. 1-7; 05-220, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 05-220 amended Subsec. (a) to make definitions applicable to Subsecs. (c) and (d) and add new Subdiv. (8) defining "mobile electronic device", amended Subsec. (b) to add references to a mobile electronic device in Subdivs. (1) and (3) and delete exemption for "the operator of a taxi cab, tow truck or bus without passengers" in Subdiv. (4)(B) and amended Subsec. (c) to make prohibition applicable to the use of a mobile electronic device and make a technical change and amended Subsec. (d) to apply prohibition to a person under eighteen years of age rather than to a person who holds a learner's permit or any holder of a motor vehicle license subject to the requirements of Sec. 14-36(d) and make prohibition applicable to the use of a mobile electronic device.

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