Topic:
STATE FUNDS; CHILD WELFARE; FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; STATISTICAL INFORMATION; FOSTER CARE; ADOPTION;
Location:
ADOPTION;

OLR Research Report


December 5, 2005

 

2005-R-0810

STATE-BY-STATE COMPARISON OF ADOPTION AND FOSTER CARE COSTS

By: Susan Price, Associate Attorney

Ryan F. O'Neil, Research Assistant

You asked how much states spend on their foster care and adoption assistance programs.

SUMMARY

Foster care and adoption programs are funded by a wide array of federal, state, local, and private sources. States vary significantly both in the amounts and proportion of government funds they use to pay for their programs. For example, while the average mix is 51% federal, 37% state, and 12% local, Indiana's program used only 30% federal funds; North Carolina, by contrast used about 78%.

This report describes the major funding streams and restrictions on how they can be used. Table 1 describes federal funding guidelines in general, while Table 2 provides a 50-state snapshot using data collected for state fiscal year 2002.

DEDICATED FEDERAL CHILD WELFARE FUNDS

Titles IV-E and IV-B of the Social Security Act authorize the largest federal programs dedicated for child welfare. Title IV-E, the largest funding stream, consists of the Foster Care and Adoption Assistance programs, which are open-ended entitlements, the Chafee Foster Care Independence Program, which is a capped entitlement; and a non-entitlement funding authorization for education and training vouchers to youth who have aged out of foster care.

Title IV-B authorizes discretionary and capped entitlement funding to the states and consists of two sub-parts – Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families. There are also several small discretionary grants targeted for child welfare, which are briefly discussed below.

Title IV-E

Purposes. The Foster Care Program reimburses states for maintenance payments provided to cover shelter, food, and clothing costs for eligible children in care; placement and administrative costs; and training for staff and foster and adoptive parents. The Adoption Assistance Program reimburses states for payments to adoptive parents of eligible special needs children; administrative costs; training for staff and adoptive parents; and nonrecurring expenses, such as court costs and attorneys fees associated with the adoption of special needs children.

The Chafee Foster Care Independence Program provides funding to states for services and programs to prepare youth in foster care (or those who have aged out of the system) to live independently. Its funding is capped at $140 million a year, and state allocations are based on each state's share of the nation's foster care population.

Eligibility Requirements. Not every foster child is eligible for Title IV-E. For example, 264,670 out of 540,563 (48.9%) of the children in the child welfare system were IV-E eligible during state fiscal year 2001.

States can claim expenses only for those with family incomes that would have met AFDC (cash welfare) standards in 1995. In addition, (1) the child's removal and foster care placement must be based on a voluntary placement agreement signed by his parents or a court finding that remaining in the home would be contrary to the child's welfare; (2) with some exceptions, reasonable efforts were made to avoid removing the child or to return him to the home; and (3) care and placement of the child are the state's responsibility.

Title IV-B

Two funding streams comprise Title IV-B: (1) the Child Welfare Services Program and (2) Promoting Safe and Stable Families. The former provides grants to states to prevent placement and reunify families, prevent abuse and neglect, and provide services to children in foster care or adoptive homes. Limited funds may be used for foster care maintenance payments, adoption assistance payments, and child day care. The Promoting Safe and Stable Families stream funds activities in four specific areas: (1) family preservation, (2) community-based family support programs, (3) time-limited reunification services, and (4) adoption promotion and support services.

Non-Dedicated Federal Funds

In addition to Title IV funding, states may use federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), Medicaid, and Social Security Disability (SSI) dollars for some services for child welfare clients. Many states use TANF, SSBG, and Medicaid to pay for foster care costs that are not allowable under Title IV-E, including the board and care of children ineligible for that program and therapeutic services for children in care. States can use TANF funds only for child welfare activities that (1) assist needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or with relatives; (2) end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; (3) prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; or (4) encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families (Social Security Act, Sec. 401(a)).

Table 1 below describes how the federal funds may be used.

Table 1: Uses of Federal Funds

Funding Source/ 2002 Expenditures

Eligibility

Services

Funding Level

Title IV-B

Child Welfare

$265 million

Promoting

Safe and Stable Families

$283 million

Title IV-E Foster Care

Maintenance

$1.7 billion

Administration

$1.7 billion

Training

$154 million

Title IV-E Adoption Assistance

Special Needs Adoption Payments

$978 million

Administration

$239 million

Training

$39 million

Nonrecurring Expenses

(included in “Special Needs Adoption Payments” above)

Title IV-E Chafee Foster Care Independence Program

$132 million

Title IV-E Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS)

$130 million

TANF

$2.7 billion

SSBG

$875 million

Medicaid

$1.1 billion

SSI

$72 million

No eligibility criteria

No eligibility criteria

Certain very low income children (income and assets no more than those allowed under 1995 AFDC program

Expenses associated with Title IV-E eligible children in foster care and proportional administrative expenses for the protective services population

Cost of training proportional to number of children eligible for IV-E

Special needs children eligible for AFDC or Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Expenses associated with children eligible for Title IV-E adoption assistance

Cost of training proportional to number of children eligible for IV-E

Special needs children

Youth (no minimum age) likely to remain in foster care until age 18; youth age 18-21 who have aged out of foster care

Not applicable

Needy families with children (as defined by state law); no need requirement for services to prevent or reduce pregnancy or encourage family formation

Varies by state

Varies by state, but all IV-E eligible children are eligible; non-IV-E foster and adoptive children are eligible at state option, as are former foster youth age 18-21

Low-income children and adults who are aged, blind, or disabled

Abuse and neglect prevention, family reunification, adoption, and ensuring adequate foster care

Family support to avert foster care, time-limited family reunification services, and adoption promotion

Payments to foster parents to cover basic maintenance and parental visits

Placement services, case management, eligibility determinations, licensing and recruiting foster parents

Training agency staff and foster parents

Payments to adoptive parents, not exceeding comparable foster care rates, to cover basic maintenance costs, including food, shelter, daily supervision, school supplies, insurance, and incidentals

Child placement and other administrative activities

Training of agency staff and adoptive parents (not private contractors)

Reasonable and necessary adoption fees, court costs, attorney fees, and related expenses

Basic living skills training, education, employment initiatives, substance abuse prevention, and preventive health services

Development of automated child welfare information systems

Child welfare services must meet one of the four purposes of the program (see text above) or have been in the state's AFDC plan immediately prior to 1996 welfare reform

Discretionary funds for direct social services, as well as administration, training, and case management

Targeted case management and rehabilitative services

Food, clothing, and shelter and some nonmedical disability-related costs

Nonentitlement capped at $292 million in 2002.

25% state match required.

State entitlement capped at $375 million in 2002. 25 % state match required.

Open-ended entitlement with federal match equal to state Medicaid matching rate

Open-ended entitlement with 50% federal match

Open-ended entitlement with 75% federal match

Open-ended entitlement with federal match equal to state Medicaid matching rate

Open-ended entitlement with 50% federal match

Open-ended entitlement with 75% federal match

Open-ended entitlement with 50% federal match up to $2,000 per placement

State entitlement capped at $140 million in 2002; no more than 30% of funds may be used for housing youth age 18-21;

25% state match required

Open-ended entitlement with 50% match for ongoing operational costs

States' entitlement capped at $16.5 billion through 2002; no state match, but states must spend at least 75% of what they spent in 1994

Of the $1.7 billion appropriated in 2002, $875 million was spent on child welfare services

Open-ended entitlement with a variable federal matching rate, ranging from 50 to 83% depending on state's per capita income

Federally funded program with no state match

Source: The Urban Institute, “The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children (IV),” (2004).

STATE AND LOCAL SPENDING

The majority of state and local spending is on foster children ineligible for IV-E services, either due to family income or placements other than those permitted under federal programs. Other expenditures are necessary to meet the match federal programs impose on the states as a criterion for receiving the federal funds.

Table 2 below shows how much states spend to earn federal matching dollars in Title IV-E programs.

State

Net Maintenance Payments [2]

Federal Assistance Matching Percentages

State Net Maintenance Payment

Child Placement Services and Administration

State contribution to Child Placement Services and Administration

SACWIS (operation and development)

State Contribution to SACWIS

Training

State Contribution to Training

Demonstrations [3]

Federal Total

State

Total

Combined Total

AL

6,507,161

70.45

9,236,566

14,618,219

29,236,438

3,124,669

6,249,338

2,562,604

3,416,805

0

26,812,653

48,139,148

74,951,801

AK

1,913,686

57.38

3,335,110

6,511,597

13,023,194

596,552

1,193,104

1,773

2,364

0

9,023,608

17,553,772

26,577,380

AZ

20,894,326

64.98

32,155,011

15,420,921

30,841,842

989,568

1,979,136

2,682,946

3,577,261

0

39,987,761

68,553,250

108,541,011

AR

12,854,952

72.64

17,696,795

11,654,634

23,309,268

932,967

1,865,934

7,241,169

9,654,892

0

32,683,722

52,526,889

85,210,611

CA

402,213,699

51.40

782,516,924

615,485,943

1,230,971,886

65,999,351

131,998,702

76,786,660

102,382,213

10,785,467

1,171,271,120

2,247,869,725

3,419,140,845

CO

13,391,878

50.00

26,783,756

28,337,609

56,675,218

4,537,856

9,075,712

861,675

1,148,900

232,896

47,361,914

93,683,586

141,045,500

CT

13,090,111

50.00

26,180,222

34,458,341

68,916,682

0

0

2,660,269

3,547,025

-33,830

50,174,891

98,643,929

148,818,820

DE

1,419,222

50.00

2,838,444

6,936,833

13,873,666

1,812,853

3,625,706

447,244

596,325

50,713

10,666,865

20,934,141

31,601,006

DC

15,840,750

70.00

22,629,643

8,984,393

17,968,786

255,261

510,522

0

0

0

25,080,404

41,108,951

66,189,355

FL

27,503,714

56.43

48,739,525

78,852,099

157,704,198

14,355,767

28,711,534

6,085,126

8,113,501

0

126,796,706

243,268,758

370,065,464

GA

28,631,456

59.00

48,527,892

29,389,502

58,779,004

-31,494

-62,988

3,643,191

4,857,588

0

61,632,655

112,101,496

173,734,151

HI

3,853,508

56.34

6,839,737

11,926,549

23,853,098

0

0

1,265,419

1,687,225

0

17,045,476

32,380,061

49,425,537

ID

1,866,335

71.02

2,627,901

3,277,786

6,555,572

390,020

780,040

156,919

209,225

0

5,691,060

10,172,738

15,863,798

IL

56,315,965

50.00

112,631,930

88,536,604

177,073,208

15,735,747

31,471,494

7,740,502

10,320,669

152,876,835

321,205,653

331,497,301

652,702,954

IN

25,880,981

62.04

41,716,604

13,968,129

27,936,258

3,104,489

6,208,978

351,494

468,659

3,569,525

46,874,618

76,330,498

123,205,116

IA

11,513,059

62.86

18,315,398

7,686,597

15,373,194

276,079

552,158

1,036,458

1,381,944

0

20,512,193

35,622,694

56,134,887

KS

5,003,426

60.20

8,311,339

21,473,067

42,946,134

0

0

1,887,476

2,516,635

0

28,363,969

53,774,108

82,138,077

KY

28,129,898

69.94

40,220,043

14,878,936

29,757,872

1,729,494

3,458,988

9,432,353

12,576,471

0

54,170,681

86,013,374

140,184,055

LA

22,355,413

70.30

31,800,018

23,793,603

47,587,206

703,251

1,406,502

5,998,406

7,997,875

0

52,850,673

88,791,601

141,642,274

ME

25,233,345

66.58

37,899,287

3,429,040

6,858,080

1,676,618

3,353,236

3,448,729

4,598,305

-364,022

33,423,710

52,708,908

86,132,618

MD

58,320,081

50.00

116,640,162

64,374,960

128,749,920

5,790,465

11,580,930

6,786,518

9,048,691

5,934,922

141,206,946

266,019,703

407,226,649

MA

31,330,039

50.00

62,660,078

24,206,179

48,412,358

-717,174

-1,434,348

0

0

0

54,819,044

109,638,088

164,457,132

MI

73,661,114

56.36

130,697,505

68,995,838

137,991,676

404,804

809,608

772,405

1,029,873

1,039,754

144,873,915

270,528,663

415,402,578

MN

22,634,258

50.00

45,268,516

33,882,375

67,764,750

6,706,450

13,412,900

11,254,576

15,006,101

0

74,477,659

141,452,267

215,929,926

MS

2,015,038

76.09

2,648,230

2,982,091

5,964,182

4,771,549

9,543,098

131,534

175,379

88,762

9,988,974

18,330,888

28,319,862

MO

24,900,065

61.06

40,779,668

35,833,790

71,667,580

383,305

766,610

5,993,052

7,990,736

0

67,110,212

121,204,594

188,314,806

MT

5,821,743

72.83

7,993,606

3,763,391

7,526,782

25,217

50,434

39,448

52,597

106,587

9,756,386

15,623,419

25,379,805

NE

11,955,428

59.55

20,076,285

7,065,678

14,131,356

91,370

182,740

2,853,150

3,804,200

0

21,965,626

38,194,581

60,160,207

NV

3,854,147

50.00

7,708,294

6,418,259

12,836,518

2,788,043

5,576,086

772,640

1,030,187

0

13,833,089

27,151,085

40,984,174

NH

5,077,968

50.00

10,155,936

4,830,262

9,660,524

499,832

999,664

1,279,298

1,705,731

112,968

11,800,328

22,521,855

34,322,183

NJ

32,553,577

50.00

65,107,154

40,589,881

81,179,762

113,956

227,912

3,833,196

5,110,928

0

77,090,610

151,625,756

228,716,366

NM

3,383,627

73.04

4,632,567

7,446,405

14,892,810

0

0

5,031,922

6,709,229

32,593

15,894,547

26,234,606

42,129,153

NY

296,058,821

50.00

592,117,642

161,251,697

322,503,394

11,754,680

23,509,360

10,560,977

14,081,303

0

479,626,175

952,211,699

1,431,837,874

NC

17,962,589

61.46

29,226,471

28,927,733

57,855,466

0

0

1,779,029

2,372,039

14,953,122

63,622,473

89,453,976

153,076,449

ND

4,959,357

69.87

7,097,978

7,473,996

14,947,992

-4,704

-9,408

676,720

902,293

0

13,105,369

22,938,855

36,044,224

OH

118,955,006

58.78

202,373,266

89,323,470

178,646,940

0

0

13,221,456

17,628,608

451,444

221,951,376

398,648,814

620,600,190

OK

15,317,644

70.43

21,748,749

7,767,556

15,535,112

1,416,586

2,833,172

4,665,330

6,220,440

0

29,167,116

46,337,473

75,504,589

OR

13,435,092

59.20

22,694,412

16,015,115

32,030,230

345,423

690,846

795,715

1,060,953

1,290,854

31,882,199

56,476,441

88,358,640

PA

189,695,986

54.65

347,110,679

139,008,103

278,016,206

1,457,005

2,914,010

15,091,730

20,122,307

0

345,252,824

648,163,202

993,416,026

PR

13,435,698

50.00

26,871,396

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

13,435,698

26,871,396

40,307,094

RI

4,501,167

52.45

8,581,825

6,863,286

13,726,572

2,158,784

4,317,568

336,443

448,591

0

13,859,680

27,074,555

40,934,235

SC

12,464,415

69.34

17,975,793

17,162,958

34,325,916

2,350,180

4,700,360

3,353,688

4,471,584

0

35,331,241

61,473,653

96,804,894

SD

2,781,489

65.93

4,218,852

2,720,716

5,441,432

207,500

415,000

84,888

113,184

0

5,794,593

10,188,468

15,983,061

TN

15,543,551

63.64

24,424,184

6,769,456

13,538,912

2,253,423

4,506,846

-356,825

-475,767

0

24,209,605

41,994,176

66,203,781

TX

75,205,354

60.17

124,988,124

66,374,527

132,749,054

0

0

6,485,577

8,647,436

0

148,065,458

266,384,614

414,450,072

UT

3,078,789

70.00

4,398,270

14,200,750

28,401,500

834,607

1,669,214

1,975,024

2,633,365

0

20,089,170

37,102,349

57,191,519

VT

9,074,824

63.06

14,390,777

2,408,969

4,817,938

0

0

1,311,417

1,748,556

0

12,795,210

20,957,271

33,752,481

VA

27,219,581

51.45

52,904,919

47,463,399

94,926,798

1,451,781

2,903,562

5,091,709

6,788,945

0

81,226,470

157,524,225

238,750,695

WA

16,290,322

50.37

32,341,318

32,170,806

64,341,612

3,229,208

6,458,416

1,450,897

1,934,529

-10,000

53,131,233

105,075,876

158,207,109

WV

18,600,506

75.27

24,711,713

2,113,177

4,226,354

1,774,879

3,549,758

763,250

1,017,667

0

23,251,812

33,505,491

56,757,303

WI

26,117,466

58.57

44,591,883

45,931,332

91,862,664

5,269,992

10,539,984

2,725,514

3,634,019

0

80,044,304

150,628,550

230,672,854

WY

1,289,792

61.97

2,081,317

1,062,819

2,125,638

472,100

944,200

62,338

83,117

0

2,887,049

5,234,272

8,121,321

Total

1,881,907,419

 

 

2,035,019,376

4,070,038,752

172,018,309

344,036,618

243,113,029

324,150,705

191,118,590

4,523,176,723

4,738,226,075

9,261,402,798

Source: U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means, 2004 Green Book, Section 11, Table 11-8

[1]Amounts shown are for claims submitted by the States and do not reflect deferrals or disallowances. Actual outlays may vary.

[2] Net maintenance payments are the claimed maintenance payments minus those State child support collections that are used to make maintenance

payments.

[3]Demonstration projects must be cost neutral to the Federal government. These are expenditures that would otherwise be claimed under other

categories (such as maintenance or administrative costs) but were spent as a part of the State's demonstration project.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Matching rates:

Child placement services 50%

SACWIS 50%

Training 75%

Table 3 shows the number of foster-care children eligible under Title IV-E for state fiscal years 1999 to 2001, which was the most recent data available.

Table 3: Title IV-E and Total Foster Care Caseload, by State,

State Fiscal Year 1999 to 2001

State

1999

2000

2001

IV-E

Total

IV-E

Total

IV-E

Total

Alabama

1,305

5,511

1,441

5,621

1,647

5,859

Alaska

487

2,248

409

2,193

392

1,993

Arizona

3,634

7,034

3,098

6,475

3,090

6,234

Arkansas

1,624

2,919

2,705

3,045

2,739

2,959

California

78,222

117,937

74,469

112,807

65,960

107,168

Colorado

2,653

7,639

2,552

7,533

2,673

7,138

Connecticut

4,528

7,487

3,292

6,996

2,788

7,440

Delaware

378

1,193

410

1,098

405

1,023

DC

1,297

3,466

1,960

3,054

1,619

3,339

Florida

8,842

34,292

9,395

36,608

6,852

32,477

Georgia

4,209

11,991

4,191

11,204

4,658

12,414

Hawaii

1,101

2,205

1,126

2,401

1,195

2,584

Idaho

510

959

568

1,015

491

1,114

Illinois

28,592

38,975

23,289

32,079

20,210

28,460

Indiana

3,963

8,933

3,293

7,482

2,589

8,383

Iowa

2,810

4,854

2,796

5,068

2,281

5,202

Kansas

2,356

6,774

2,252

6,569

2,270

6,409

Kentucky

3,019

5,942

3,161

6,017

3,248

6,141

Louisiana

2,908

5,581

2,555

5,406

2,547

5,024

Maine

2,013

3,154

2,453

3,191

2,484

3,226

Maryland

5,091

13,455

5,764

13,113

5,612

12,564

Massachusetts

7,340

11,169

3,935

11,619

4,399

11,568

Michigan

9,338

20,300

9,923

20,034

9,313

20,896

Minnesota

4,115

8,996

4,069

8,530

3,873

8,167

Mississippi

1,000

3,196

1,034

3,292

839

3,261

Missouri

5,621

12,577

5,695

13,181

5,770

13,349

Montana

950

2,156

940

2,180

737

2,008

Nebraska

1,477

5,146

1,643

5,674

1,211

6,254

Nevada

1,345

NA

1,335

1,615

983

1,789

New Hampshire

625

1,385

791

1,311

563

1,288

New Jersey

6,124

9,494

6,238

9,794

6,366

10,666

New Mexico

1,183

1,941

1,505

1,912

1,289

1,757

New York

38,049

51,159

33,529

47,118

28,916

43,365

North Carolina

4,854

11,339

4,118

10,847

3,864

10,130

North Dakota

486

1,143

492

1,129

454

1,167

Ohio

4,936

20,078

5,074

20,365

4,725

21,584

Oklahoma

4,039

8,173

5,111

8,406

5,201

8,674

Oregon

3,193

9,278

3,715

9,193

3,490

8,966

Pennsylvania

15,054

22,690

12,548

21,631

11,334

21,237

Puerto Rico

5,110

7,760

5,613

NA

5,438

8,476

Rhode Island

629

2,621

743

2,302

751

2,414

South Carolina

1,146

4,545

1,339

4,525

1,587

4,774

South Dakota

340

1,101

413

1,215

463

1,367

Tennessee

6,327

10,796

6,290

10,144

6,078

9,679

Texas

6,757

16,326

7,123

18,190

7,609

19,739

Utah

730

2,273

763

1,805

797

1,957

Vermont

1,151

1,445

1,159

1,318

997

1,360

Virginia

3,260

6,778

3,327

6,789

3,251

6,866

Washington

2,603

8,688

2,694

8,945

3,127

9,101

West Virginia

823

3,169

855

3,388

881

3,298

Wisconsin

4,037

5,853

4,329

6,697

4,311

7,290

Wyoming

242

774

311

815

309

965

Total

302,422

564,898

287,824

542,939

264,670

540,563

Source: U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means, 2004 Green Book, Section 11, Table 11-7

1 Based upon the average monthly caseload of Title IV-E foster care children.

2 Based upon the number of foster children in care on September 30 of the fiscal year.

Note-NA indicates that insufficient data was provided and is not included in the totals.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on information received from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Table 4 shows the total spent in each state in state fiscal year 2002 on foster care and adoption services, by federal, state, and local governments.

Table 4: Federal, State, and Local Spending on Foster Care and Adoption Services in

State Fiscal Year 2002

State

Total spending

Federal Spending

Title IV-E

Title IV-B

TANF

SSBG

Medicaid

SSI

State

Local Spending

AK

271,997,873

175,368,538

31,059,893

11,609,116

21,295,594

35,242,743

75,492,004

95,051,494

1,577,841

AZ

82,246,655

31,219,555

14,752,952

1,166,500

0

8,258,500

5,588,047

790,956

51,027,100

0

AR

263,162,613

159,312,366

56,923,703

12,192,407

40,021,765

47,894,544

309,200

103,850,247

0

CA

68,005,126

45,108,952

35,183,839

5,493,814

1,700,000

1,986,770

109,305

0

22,896,174

CO

3,969,123,381

1,795,256,381

1,271,781,000

75,082,107

235,752,000

161,672,000

32,880,000

1,274,885,000

898,982,000

CT

369,968,558

174,491,524

64,105,711

6,330,460

11,435,984

24,558,370

66,766,205

133,791,121

61,685,913

DE

139,672,616

68,367,027

 

 

65,810,328

0

DC

51,369,725

20,549,252

13,349,993

1,471,840

0

2,625,835

257,004

247,793

30,820,473

FL

218,074,750

77,138,769

38,728,989

1,861,543

11,000,000

549,819

23,595,312

398,641

140,935,981

0

GA

766,109,440

436,772,421

183,180,612

34,901,034

137,595,047

63,728,431

3,978,767

9,570,004

328,774,382

562,637

HI

385,718,188

230,144,157

87,889,807

14,899,096

44,439,858

22,328,466

54,297,824

153,575,783

1,998,248

ID

80,423,767

37,028,343

25,105,189

2,260,300

2,000,000

6,575,717

43,395,424

IL

49,785,800

29,142,100

8,375,900

2,391,600

7,529,500

9,655,100

623,300

20,643,700

IN

1,373,409,026

738,430,027

392,190,791

28,056,959

167,560,847

88,692,123

36,339,907

13,555,100

634,978,999

0

IA

383,761,912

108,725,458

65,071,406

9,033,518

9,659,663

14,170,202

18,225,527

256,810,927

KS

317,371,621

141,224,971

44,871,784

4,970,904

23,006,716

17,214,525

47,345,909

3,084,336

176,146,650

KY

183,960,499

114,299,519

38,346,048

4,708,965

29,937,526

5,703,114

22,963,462

69,660,983

LA

331,951,216

127,241,464

67,052,988

10,177,838

28,250,423

15,527,036

0

3,216,495

204,709,752

0

ME

205,212,594

121,369,877

58,783,946

12,433,085

506,569

43,598,021

0

1,925,682

83,842,717

0

MD

143,503,838

4.53%

5.21%

9.05%

-3.85%

807,000

1,229,304

813,583

83,484,621

0

MA

431,512,479

21.02%

10.06%

-8.31%

61.70%

30,755,321

9,308,216

206,326,533

18,762,924

MI

634,846,929

249,648,754

89,789,754

7,362,802

0

83,526,851

60,681,838

4,397,642

385,198,175

0

MN

760,995,545

465,605,966

242,590,718

23,910,437

144,158,583

46,764,158

 

264,255,435

31,134,144

MS

621,865,000

226,856,439

93,335,925

8,060,164

4,650,000

20,421,359

69,116,749

134,224,268

260,784,293

MO

56,899,368

34,410,873

14,919,822

5,980,733

2,816,085

10,297,294

 

21,055,406

1,433,089

MT

487,278,630

302,682,132

85,593,591

12,893,294

26,638,161

25,748,485

30,711,483

4,423,521

184,434,091

162,407

NE

44,723,037

21,764,484

14,087,929

1,832,065

2,650,000

1,400,000

0

600,000

22,958,553

NV

143,945,744

27,797,428

3,590,060

0

 

0

30,090,267

1,944,853

80,523,136

0

NH

78,232,653

42,752,577

19,296,286

3,380,306

3,124,191

3,686,487

10,244,697

35,480,076

NJ

58,082,783

27,627,924

6,741,662

1,833,232

1,472,349

2,725,340

13,264,122

513,746

23,015,011

7,439,848

NM

460,389,862

189,600,334

87,405,658

13,523,675

8,340,000

47,920,000

28,511,958

1,009,085

270,789,528

0

NY

77,273,580

43,862,816

25,336,344

4,197,000

551,056

3,760,916

8,275,800

1,048,300

33,410,764

0

NC

2,552,961,000

1,386,157,000

631,433,000

14,229,000

515,395,000

222,000,000

0

704,094,000

462,710,000

ND

314,207,149

204,357,182

71,827,809

17,952,000

3,204,644

 

45,134,431

64,715,536

OH

32,237,497

25,271,693

9,957,507

1,173,690

7,495,328

1,508,077

5,137,091

0

5,599,471

1,366,333

OK

860,302,907

429,794,881

378,472,533

16,719,280

24,684,395

6,717,019

1,454,163

102,283,752

328,224,274

OR

195,095,580

125,228,618

47,498,021

6,201,997

13,054,004

21,189,667

29,062,178

3,725,123

69,866,962

0

PA

259,147,279

174,773,370

50,795,095

5,668,926

43,537,134

12,603,810

55,276,966

3,154,287

79,102,409

5,271,500

PR

1,281,310,642

614,835,766

319,357,487

21,633,000

260,529,023

10,040,179

3,276,077

471,845,003

194,629,873

RI

166,940,105

78,080,105

19,782,067

2,730,411

8,005,085

0

41,345,820

835,988

88,860,000

0

SC

239,800,000

170,276,000

40,649,000

10,889,000

12,859,000

15,221,000

83,512,000

1,800,000

69,524,000

SD

39,441,666

23,258,291

7,135,548

966,024

4,600,519

4,953,856

3,934,262

483,138

16,183,375

0

TN

425,944,946

187,333,669

38,297,764

8,616,865

0

30,910,598

102,962,485

4,823,345

238,611,277

0

TX

824,978,690

540,113,780

160,891,955

59,004,230

220,280,904

7,812,105

70,498,771

7,375,932

275,998,691

8,866,219

UT

120,228,300

57,838,300

24,704,200

4,697,100

0

7,363,800

18,931,900

644,900

62,390,000

VT

67,265,907

43,886,480

19,710,181

1,354,943

3,564,784

5,734,429

12,565,013

878,339

23,379,427

0

VA

335,031,670

71,311,559

8,929,335

89,568,077

 

47,476,209

0

0

78,312,044

38,476,874

WA

396,477,199

188,857,649

66,132,748

11,127,880

17,521,014

37,844,000

39,627,388

207,619,550

0

WV

154,448,327

89,537,723

32,740,679

5,588,947

36,761,140

14,070,262

 

64,910,604

0

WI

349,464,994

159,964,994

112,516,763

9,406,889

28,022,820

9,200,000

366,634

189,500,000

 

WY

30,087,462

15,278,008

3,825,606

1,077,777

4,203,536

3,052,507

2,498,677

214,483

14,809,454

0

Totals

22,156,246,128

11,304,449,369

5,553,276,701

548,962,485

2,296,778,863

1,305,492,045

1,102,120,905

71,784,472

8,206,201,882

2,645,594,880

Source: The Urban Institute, “The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children (IV),” pp. 42-43 (2004).

0 = state does not use funding stream; – = state uses funding stream but could not provide data.

Notes: U.S. spending totals are based on data from all 51 states. Changes are adjusted for inflation and based on sample sizes noted. Percent changes left blank could not be calculated because of missing or incomplete data or because the state did not use the funding source in SFY 2000 or SFY 2002.

a. Title IV-B represents subparts 1 and 2 combined.

b. TANF spending does not include TANF funds transferred to SSBG; these are included in SSBG spending. Therefore total TANF spending on child welfare services is underestimated, while total SSBG spending on child welfare services is overestimated.

Limitations: Connecticut was unable to provide SFY 2002 data; the data presented were taken from HHS with the corresponding state match. Florida SSBG funds in SFY 2000 may have included spending beyond child welfare. Iowa, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Texas included Survivor's Benefits with SSI in SFYs 2000 and 2002.

Michigan SSBG data are incomplete. South Carolina, South Dakota, and Tennessee included Survivor's Benefits with SSI in SFY 2002. Wisconsin's change in SSBG are unavailable owing to reporting issues in prior year.