OLR Bill Analysis
AN ACT CONCERNING THE MEDICAL USE OF MARIJUANA
This bill allows the Department of Consumer Protection (DCP) to license physicians to prescribe, possess, and supply marijuana for the treatment of various debilitating conditions, rather than just glaucoma and the effects of chemotherapy.
It allows a physician to certify a patient’s use of marijuana after determining that an adult patient has a debilitating condition and could potentially benefit from the use of medical marijuana.
It allows people suffering from these conditions and their primary caregivers to possess the prescribed quantity of marijuana to treat the conditions.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2005, except for the provision establishing the Medical Marijuana Administration Account, which is effective July 1, 2005.
USE OF MARIJUANA FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES
By law, the DCP commissioner can license physicians to possess and supply marijuana for the treatment of glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy. The law explicitly allows people suffering from these conditions to possess the marijuana these physicians prescribe.
The bill extends the conditions of licensure to include the treatment of adults suffering from (1) cancer, HIV, AIDS, or the side effects of treatment for such conditions; (2) a chronic or debilitating disease or medical condition, or the effects of treatment for such conditions, that causes wasting syndrome, severe pain, severe nausea, seizures, or severe and persistent muscles spasms; or (3) any other medical condition that a physician or patient with a debilitating condition requests and the DPH approves through regulations. And just as with people with glaucoma or receiving chemotherapy, the bill allows people with the debilitating conditions listed above to possess marijuana, up to the amount permitted for medical use.
The bill allows a patient’s primary caregiver to possess the same amount. The caregiver must be at least age 18 and someone other than the patient’s doctor who assists the patient in his use of marijuana for medical purposes. If the patient lacks legal capacity, the caregiver must be his parent, guardian, or legal custodian. The bill limits patients to one caregiver at a time and caregivers to only one patient.
CERTIFICATION OF MARIJUANA USE
Under the bill, a physician may certify a patient’s use of marijuana only after he has determined that the patient is over 18 and has a debilitating condition (i. e. , the patient is a qualifying patient) and the potential benefits of medical marijuana would likely outweigh its health risks. The bill makes the certification valid for one year from the date it is signed.
The bill permits DCP to establish in regulations a form physicians must use to certify a patient’s medical use of marijuana. “Medical use” means the acquisition and distribution, possession, growth, use, or transportation of marijuana or marijuana paraphernalia to treat the symptoms or effects of a qualifying patient’s symptoms. “Acquisition and distribution” means the transfer of marijuana and marijuana paraphernalia from the primary caregiver to the qualifying patient.
The bill does not require health insurers to cover the medical use of marijuana.
The bill requires patient-recipients of the certification and their primary caregiver to register with DCP within five business days after they receive the certification. They must give the department information that sufficiently and personally identifies them and report any change in the information within five business days after it occurs.
The bill requires DCP to issue the patient and the primary caregiver a registration certificate that is valid for the same period as the written certification from the physician, up to one year. DCP may charge any reasonable registration fee, up to $ 25.
The bill makes registration information confidential and not subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act. But DCP can verify for any law enforcement agency that asks whether a patient or primary caregiver is registered and provide the agency with reasonable access to registry information for law enforcement purposes.
The bill permits DCP to establish registration procedures in regulations. It requires the department to establish in regulations a reasonable fee that helps it offset direct and indirect costs associated with administering the medical use of marijuana. Patients must pay the fee, which is in addition to any registration fee, when they register. The fees must be paid to the state treasurer and credited to the Medical Marijuana Administration Account.
MEDICAL MARIJUANA ADMINISTRATION ACCOUNT
The bill establishes a separate, nonlapsing Medical Marijuana Administration Account within the General Fund. The account consists of the fees DCP collects for medical marijuana registration and administration, investment earnings, and any other moneys the law requires to be deposited in it. The legislature can only appropriate money in the account for medical marijuana administration. Any money remaining in the account at the end of any fiscal year must be carried forward to the next year.
PUNISHMENT FOR MARIJUANA CERTIFICATION, USE, AND POSSESSION
The bill prohibits any physician from being arrested, prosecuted, or otherwise punished, including being denied any right or privilege, or being disciplined by the Connecticut Medical Examining Board or any other professional licensing board, for writing a certification for marijuana if he:
1. diagnosed a qualifying patient with a debilitating condition;
2. explained the risks and benefits of using marijuana for medicinal purposes to any such patient or the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of any such patient who lacks legal capacity; and
3. based his written certification on his professional opinion after fully assessing the patient’s medical history and current medical condition in the course of a physician-patient relationship.
The bill prohibits qualifying patients from being arrested, prosecuted, denied any right or privilege, or otherwise punished for using marijuana if:
1. they are diagnosed with a debilitating condition;
2. their physician has issued a written certification for the patient’s medical use of marijuana after prescribing, or determining it is against the patients’ best interest to prescribe, prescription drugs to address the symptoms the marijuana is supposed to treat;
3. the combined amount possessed by the patient and his primary caregiver does not exceed five marijuana plants and one ounce of usable marijuana (see definition under Primary Caregiver); and
4. the marijuana is cultivated in a secure indoor facility.
The protection against punishment does not apply if a patient uses marijuana:
1. in a way that endangers another person's health or well-being; and
2. on a motor or school bus, in any moving vehicle, at work, on school grounds, or at a public park, beach, recreation or youth center, or any other public place; or
3. within the direct line of sight of anyone under age 18 or in any way that exposes that person to second-hand marijuana smoke, or both.
The bill prohibits registered, primary caregivers from being arrested, prosecuted, denied any right or privilege, or otherwise punished for acquiring, distributing, possessing, growing, or transporting a small amount of marijuana or marijuana paraphernalia for a qualifying patient. The amount of marijuana cannot exceed five plants and one ounce of usable marijuana (i. e. , dried marijuana leaves and flowers or preparation or mixture of flowers and leaves, minus the seeds, stalks, and roots).
The protection against punishment for distribution applies only when the drug or paraphernalia is transferred from the caregiver to the patient.
MEDICAL USE OF MARIJUANA AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
The bill permits patients and primary caregivers who comply with its requirements to assert that fact as an affirmative defense to (i. e. , a way to avoid) any state prosecution involving marijuana or marijuana paraphernalia. The bill prohibits anyone from being arrested or prosecuted solely for being present or in the vicinity as marijuana or marijuana paraphernalia is acquired, possessed, cultivated, used, distributed, or transported for medical use.
The bill requires law enforcement agencies to return marijuana, marijuana paraphernalia, or other property seized from a patient or primary caregiver who complies with its provisions immediately after a court determines that they were entitled to have it. Under the bill, entitlement is evidenced by a prosecutor's decision to dismiss the charges or not to prosecute, or the patient or caregiver’s acquittal.
The law absolves law enforcement officials of any responsibility for the care and maintenance of live marijuana plants seized as evidence.
The bill makes anyone who lies to a law enforcement officer about acquiring, possessing, cultivating, using, distributing, or transporting marijuana for medical use in order to avoid arrest or prosecution for a drug-related offense guilty of a class C misdemeanor, punishable by up to three months’ imprisonment, a $ 500 fine, or both. It makes anyone who lies to the officer about the issuance, contents, or validity of a (1) written certification for the medical use of marijuana or (2) document purporting to be a written certification guilty of a class A misdemeanor, punishable by up to one year in prison, a $ 2,000 fine, or both.
Marijuana is a Controlled Substance
Federal law classifies marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance. With one exception, the law prohibits anyone from knowingly or intentionally manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense Schedule I drugs. Licensed practitioners, including pharmacies, can use Schedule I substances in government-approved research projects. The penalty for violations varies depending on the amount of drugs involved (21 USCA §§ 812, 823, and 841 (a)(1)).
Joint Favorable Substitute