CHAPTER 815t*
JUVENILE MATTERS

*Annotations to former Secs. 17-53 to 17-74:
Purpose and scope of act. 99 C. 75. Superior court's finding that minor, tried before it, was over sixteen cannot be attacked in habeas corpus proceedings. 100 C. 503. If the fact of the act is to make persons under sixteen incapable of crime, legislature has not transgressed its functions. 115 C. 593. Cited. 171 C. 630, 635.
Annotations to present chapter:
Cited. 189 C. 276, 289. Cited. 206 C. 346, 353. Sec. 46b-120 et seq. cited. Id. Cited. 210 C. 435, 443. Juvenile matters cited. Id. Cited. 211 C. 151, 157. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697.

Table of Contents

Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Definitions.
Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-302). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) "Juvenile matters" defined. Authority of court.
Sec. 46b-121a. Referral of juvenile matters to state referees.
Sec. 46b-121b. Handling of juvenile matters.
Secs. 46b-121c to 46b-121g.
Sec. 46b-121h. Goals of juvenile justice system.
Sec. 46b-121i. Duties and responsibilities of the Judicial Department in providing programs and services to the juvenile justice system.
Sec. 46b-121j. Programs and probation treatment services for juvenile offenders.
Sec. 46b-121k. Programs, services and facilities for juvenile offenders.
Sec. 46b-121l. Early intervention projects for juvenile offenders.
Sec. 46b-121m. Evaluation of the costs and benefits of programs serving juvenile offenders.
Sec. 46b-122. (Formerly Sec. 51-303). Juvenile matters separated from other court business if practicable. Exclusion of persons from hearing.
Sec. 46b-123. (Formerly Sec. 51-304). Appointment of staff for juvenile matters.
Sec. 46b-123a. Transfer of personnel to Division of Criminal Justice.
Sec. 46b-123b. Transfer of juvenile justice centers to Judicial Department.
Sec. 46b-124. (Formerly Sec. 51-305). Confidentiality of records of juvenile matters. Exceptions.
Sec. 46b-125. (Formerly Sec. 51-306). Juvenile probation officers and juvenile matters investigators. Rights in retirement system. Duties and authority.
Sec. 46b-126. (Formerly Sec. 51-307). Secure facilities for care and treatment of children.
Sec. 46b-127. (Formerly Sec. 51-308). Transfer of child charged with a felony to the regular criminal docket.
Sec. 46b-128. (Formerly Sec. 51-309). Investigation of delinquency complaint. Nonjudicial disposition. Petition of delinquency. Summoning of child and parent or guardian.
Sec. 46b-129. (Formerly Sec. 51-310). Commitment of child or youth. Petition for neglected, uncared-for, dependent child or youth. Hearing re temporary custody, order to appear or petition. Review of permanancy plan. Revocation of commitment.
Sec. 46b-129a. Examination by physician. Appointment of counsel and guardian ad litem.
Sec. 46b-130. (Formerly Sec. 51-311). Reimbursement for expense of care and maintenance. Assignment of right of support to Commissioner of Children and Families.
Sec. 46b-131. (Formerly Sec. 51-312). Custody of alleged delinquent child pending disposition. Bail.
Sec. 46b-132. (Formerly Sec. 51-313). Temporary detention places.
Sec. 46b-132a. Medical care of children in detention centers.
Sec. 46b-133. (Formerly Sec. 51-314). Arrest of child. Release or detention of arrested child. Alcohol or drug testing or treatment as condition of release. Admission of child to overpopulated juvenile detention center.
Sec. 46b-133a. Right to trial or dismissal upon nolle prosequi of delinquency charge. Erasure of records.
Sec. 46b-133b. Suspension of delinquency proceedings for treatment for alcohol or drug dependency.
Sec. 46b-133c. Serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution. Sentencing.
Sec. 46b-133d. Serious sexual offender prosecution. Sentencing.
Sec. 46b-133e. Suspension of delinquency proceedings for participation in school violence prevention program.
Sec. 46b-134. (Formerly Sec. 51-315). Investigation by probation officer prior to disposition of delinquency case. Physical, mental and diagnostic examination.
Sec. 46b-135. (Formerly Sec. 51-316). Right to counsel and cross-examination.
Sec. 46b-136. (Formerly Sec. 51-317). Appointment of attorney to represent child or youth and parent or guardian.
Sec. 46b-137. (Formerly Sec. 51-318). Admissibility of confession or other statement in juvenile proceedings.
Sec. 46b-138. (Formerly Sec. 51-319). Summoning of witnesses. Conversation privileged.
Sec. 46b-138a. Testimony of accused juvenile, parent or guardian in juvenile proceeding.
Sec. 46b-138b. Statement of victim or victim's representative at delinquency proceeding.
Sec. 46b-139. (Formerly Sec. 51-320). Expert medical witnesses; interpreter.
Sec. 46b-140. (Formerly Sec. 51-321). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Disposition upon conviction of child as delinquent.
Sec. 46b-140a. Modification of conditions of probation or suspended commitment. Violation of conditions.
Sec. 46b-141. (Formerly Sec. 51-322). Length of commitments. Extensions. Judicial review. Reopening and termination.
Sec. 46b-141a. Placement of delinquent child in alternative incarceration program.
Sec. 46b-141b. Probation treatment plan.
Sec. 46b-141c. Reimbursement of costs of probation supervision.
Sec. 46b-142. (Formerly Sec. 51-323). Venue of petitions. Appeal to Appellate Court.
Sec. 46b-143. (Formerly Sec. 51-324). Notice of appeal.
Sec. 46b-144. (Formerly Sec. 51-325). Religious faith. Service of commitment process.
Sec. 46b-145. (Formerly Sec. 51-326). Prohibition on prosecution of child before regular criminal docket. Exceptions.
Sec. 46b-146. (Formerly Sec. 51-327). Erasure of police and court records.
Sec. 46b-147. (Formerly Sec. 51-328). Proceedings inadmissible as evidence in criminal proceedings.
Sec. 46b-147a. Reports on cases of children charged with serious juvenile offenses.
Sec. 46b-148. (Formerly Sec. 51-329). Violation of valid court order by child of family with service needs.
Sec. 46b-149. Family with service needs. Complaint. Review by probation officer. Filing of petition. Hearing. Order.
Sec. 46b-149a. Duties of police officer re child of family with service needs.
Sec. 46b-149b. Immunity of police officer or municipal official from personal liability.
Sec. 46b-149c. Truancy and other family with service needs cases. Duties of judicial branch.
Sec. 46b-149d. Demonstration project to establish school and community-based truancy prevention initiative. Sites. Grant eligibility. Establishment of truancy or family with service needs docket. Duties of Office of Alternative Sanctions.
Sec. 46b-150. Emancipation of minor. Procedure.
Sec. 46b-150a. Investigation of petition for emancipation. Report. Appointment of counsel. Probate Court may order examination.
Sec. 46b-150b. Order of emancipation.
Sec. 46b-150c. Appeal.
Sec. 46b-150d. Effect of emancipation.
Sec. 46b-150e. Emancipation under common law.
Sec. 46b-150f. Youth in crisis. Petition. Court orders. Violations.
Sec. 46b-150g. Duties of police officer re youth in crisis.
Sec. 46b-151. (Formerly Sec. 17-75). Declaration of policy.
Sec. 46b-151a. (Formerly Sec. 17-76). Compact.
Sec. 46b-151b. (Formerly Sec. 17-76a). Amendment to compact concerning interstate rendition of juveniles alleged to be delinquent.
Sec. 46b-151c. (Formerly Sec. 17-77). Compact administrator.
Sec. 46b-151d. (Formerly Sec. 17-78). Supplementary agreements.
Sec. 46b-151e. (Formerly Sec. 17-79). Payments by state.
Sec. 46b-151f. (Formerly Sec. 17-80). Enforcement of compact.
Sec. 46b-151g. (Formerly Sec. 17-81). Additional procedure for return of juveniles.
Secs. 46b-152 to 46b-159.


PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 46b-120. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Definitions. The terms used in this chapter shall, in its interpretation and in the interpretation of other statutes, be defined as follows: (1) "Child" means any person under sixteen years of age and, for purposes of delinquency matters, "child" means any person (A) under sixteen years of age or, (B) sixteen years of age or older who, prior to attaining sixteen years of age, has violated any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, and, subsequent to attaining sixteen years of age, violates any order of the Superior Court or any condition of probation ordered by the Superior Court with respect to such delinquency proceeding; (2) "youth" means any person sixteen to eighteen years of age; (3) "abused" means that a child or youth (A) has had physical injury or injuries inflicted upon him other than by accidental means, or (B) has injuries which are at variance with the history given of them, or (C) is in a condition which is the result of maltreatment such as, but not limited to, malnutrition, sexual molestation or exploitation, deprivation of necessities, emotional maltreatment or cruel punishment; (4) a child may be found "mentally deficient" who, by reason of a deficiency of intelligence, which has existed from birth or from early age, requires, or will require, for his protection or for the protection of others, special care, supervision and control; (5) a child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has violated (A) any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (B) any order of the Superior Court or (C) conditions of probation as ordered by the court; (6) a child or youth may be found "dependent" whose home is a suitable one for him, save for the financial inability of his parents, parent, guardian or other person maintaining such home, to provide the specialized care his condition requires; (7) a "family with service needs" means a family which includes a child who (A) has without just cause run away from his parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode; (B) is beyond the control of his parent, parents, guardian or other custodian; (C) has engaged in indecent or immoral conduct; (D) is a truant or habitual truant or who, while in school, has been continuously and overtly defiant of school rules and regulations; or (E) is thirteen years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is thirteen years of age or older and not more than two years older or younger than such child; (8) a child or youth may be found "neglected" who (A) has been abandoned or (B) is being denied proper care and attention, physically, educationally, emotionally or morally or (C) is being permitted to live under conditions, circumstances or associations injurious to his well-being or (D) has been abused; (9) a child or youth may be found "uncared for" who is homeless or whose home cannot provide the specialized care which his physical, emotional or mental condition requires. For the purposes of this section the treatment of any child by an accredited Christian Science practitioner in lieu of treatment by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts, shall not of itself constitute neglect or maltreatment; (10) "delinquent act" means the violation of any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating the behavior of a child in a family with service needs, or the violation of any order of the Superior Court; (11) "serious juvenile offense" means (A) the violation by a child, including attempt or conspiracy to violate sections 21a-277, 21a-278, 29-33, 29-34, 29-35, 53-21, 53-80a, 53-202b, 53-202c, 53-390 to 53-392, inclusive, 53a-54a to 53a-57, inclusive, 53a-59 to 53a-60c, inclusive, 53a-70 to 53a-71, inclusive, 53a-72b, 53a-86, 53a-92 to 53a-94a, inclusive, 53a-95, 53a-101, 53a-102a, 53a-103a, 53a-111 to 53a-113, inclusive, subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-122, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-123, 53a-134, 53a-135, 53a-136a, 53a-166, 53a-167c, subsection (a) of section 53a- 174, 53a-196a, 53a-211, 53a-212, 53a-216 or 53a-217b, or (B) running away, without just cause, from any secure placement other than home while referred as a delinquent child to the Office of Alternative Sanctions or committed as a delinquent child to the Commissioner of Children and Families for a serious juvenile offense; (12) "serious juvenile offender" means any child convicted as delinquent for commission of a serious juvenile offense; (13) "serious juvenile repeat offender" means any child charged with the commission of any felony if such child has previously been convicted delinquent at any age for two violations of any provision of title 21a, 29, 53 or 53a which is designated as a felony; (14) "alcohol-dependent child" means any child who has a psychoactive substance dependence on alcohol as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"; (15) "drug-dependent child" means any child who has a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders". No child shall be classified as drug dependent who is dependent (A) upon a morphine-type substance as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical disorder other than drug dependence, or (B) upon amphetamine-type, ataractic, barbiturate-type, hallucinogenic or other stimulant and depressant substances as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical or psychological disorder, or both, other than drug dependence.
(1949 Rev., S. 2802; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 52; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 72, S. 14; P.A. 75- 602, S. 1, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 668, 681; P.A. 77-577, S. 4; P.A. 79-567, S. 1, 7; 79-581, S. 1; P.A. 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 85- 226, S. 1; P.A. 87-373, S. 13; P.A. 90-161, S. 1, 6; 90-240, S. 2, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 91-303, S. 11, 22; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-340, S. 16; P.A. 95-225, S. 9; P.A. 97-319, S. 18, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 1.)

*Note: On and after July 1, 2001, this section, as amended by section 1 of public act 00-177, is to read as follows:
"Sec. 46b-120. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). Definitions. The terms used in this chapter shall, in its interpretation and in the interpretation of other statutes, be defined as follows: (1) "Child" means any person under sixteen years of age and, for purposes of delinquency matters, "child" means any person (A) under sixteen years of age or, (B) sixteen years of age or older who, prior to attaining sixteen years of age, has violated any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, and, subsequent to attaining sixteen years of age, violates any order of the Superior Court or any condition of probation ordered by the Superior Court with respect to such delinquency proceeding; (2) "youth" means any person sixteen to eighteen years of age; (3) "youth in crisis" means any person sixteen to seventeen years of age who, within the last two years, (A) has without just cause run away from the parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode; (B) is beyond the control of parents, guardian or other custodian; or (C) has four unexcused absences from school in any one month or ten unexcused absences in any school year; (4) "abused" means that a child or youth (A) has been inflicted with physical injury or injuries other than by accidental means, or (B) has injuries which are at variance with the history given of them, or (C) is in a condition which is the result of maltreatment such as, but not limited to, malnutrition, sexual molestation or exploitation, deprivation of necessities, emotional maltreatment or cruel punishment; (5) a child may be found "mentally deficient" who, by reason of a deficiency of intelligence, which has existed from birth or from early age, requires, or will require, for his protection or for the protection of others, special care, supervision and control; (6) a child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has violated (A) any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (B) any order of the Superior Court, or (C) conditions of probation as ordered by the court; (7) a child or youth may be found "dependent" whose home is a suitable one for the child or youth, save for the financial inability of parents, parent, guardian or other person maintaining such home, to provide the specialized care the condition of the child or youth requires; (8) a "family with service needs" means a family which includes a child who (A) has without just cause run away from the parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode; (B) is beyond the control of parent, parents, guardian or other custodian; (C) has engaged in indecent or immoral conduct; (D) is a truant or habitual truant or who, while in school, has been continuously and overtly defiant of school rules and regulations; or (E) is thirteen years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is thirteen years of age or older and not more than two years older or younger than such child; (9) a child or youth may be found "neglected" who (A) has been abandoned or (B) is being denied proper care and attention, physically, educationally, emotionally or morally or (C) is being permitted to live under conditions, circumstances or associations injurious to the well- being of the child or youth or (D) has been abused; (10) a child or youth may be found "uncared for" who is homeless or whose home cannot provide the specialized care which the physical, emotional or mental condition of the child requires. For the purposes of this section the treatment of any child by an accredited Christian Science practitioner in lieu of treatment by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts, shall not of itself constitute neglect or maltreatment; (11) "delinquent act" means the violation of any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, other than an ordinance regulating the behavior of a child in a family with service needs, or the violation of any order of the Superior Court; (12) "serious juvenile offense" means (A) the violation by a child, including attempt or conspiracy to violate sections 21a-277, 21a-278, 29-33, 29-34, 29-35, 53-21, 53-80a, 53-202b, 53-202c, 53-390 to 53-392, inclusive, 53a-54a to 53a-57, inclusive, 53a-59 to 53a-60c, inclusive, 53a-70 to 53a-71, inclusive, 53a-72b, 53a-86, 53a-92 to 53a-94a, inclusive, 53a-95, 53a-101, 53a-102a, 53a-103a, 53a-111 to 53a-113, inclusive, subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-122, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-123, 53a-134, 53a-135, 53a-136a, 53a-166, 53a-167c, subsection (a) of section 53a- 174, 53a-196a, 53a-211, 53a-212, 53a-216 or 53a-217b, or (B) running away, without just cause, from any secure placement other than home while referred as a delinquent child to the Office of Alternative Sanctions or committed as a delinquent child to the Commissioner of Children and Families for a serious juvenile offense; (13) "serious juvenile offender" means any child convicted as delinquent for commission of a serious juvenile offense; (14) "serious juvenile repeat offender" means any child charged with the commission of any felony if such child has previously been convicted delinquent at any age for two violations of any provision of title 21a, 29, 53 or 53a which is designated as a felony; (15) "alcohol-dependent child" means any child who has a psychoactive substance dependence on alcohol as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"; (16) "drug-dependent child" means any child who has a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders". No child shall be classified as drug dependent who is dependent (A) upon a morphine-type substance as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical disorder other than drug dependence, or (B) upon amphetamine-type, ataractic, barbiturate-type, hallucinogenic or other stimulant and depressant substances as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical or psychological disorder, or both, other than drug dependence."
(1949 Rev., S. 2802; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 52; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 72, S. 14; P.A. 75- 602, S. 1, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 668, 681; P.A. 77-577, S. 4; P.A. 79-567, S. 1, 7; 79-581, S. 1; P.A. 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 85- 226, S. 1; P.A. 87-373, S. 13; P.A. 90-161, S. 1, 6; 90-240, S. 2, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 91-303, S. 11, 22; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-340, S. 16; P.A. 95-225, S. 9; P.A. 97-319, S. 18, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 1; P.A. 00-177, S. 1, 5.)
History: 1959 act amended definition of child and substituted circuit court for town, city, police or borough courts; 1967 act changed definition of dependent child's home from "poverty" to "financial instability" for "specialized care" and redefined child; 1969 act redefined "delinquent" child, substituted "financial inability" for "financial instability" in definition of "dependent" child, substituted educational and emotional deprivation for mental neglect in definition of "neglected" child and deleted reference to living under evil associations of home conditions and redefined "uncared for" child to delete reference to child whose home is unsuitable or who cannot support himself legally or without subjecting himself to conditions prejudicial to normal development; 1971 act redefined "child" to omit those between sixteen and eighteen years old who have been transferred from circuit court to superior court jurisdiction; P.A. 75-602 defined "youth", added reference to "neglected" youths and "uncared for" youths and redefined "uncared for" to include reference to home which cannot perform specialized care needed and to specify that treatment by Christian Science practitioner does not constitute neglect or maltreatment; P.A. 76-436 replaced reference to juvenile court with reference to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-577 defined "abused" and added reference to abused child in definition of "neglected" child; P.A. 79-567 defined "family with service needs" and amended definition of "delinquent" child accordingly; P.A. 79-581 defined "serious juvenile offense" and "serious juvenile offender"; Sec. 17-53 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51- 301 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-120 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-53; P.A. 80-401 changed effective date of P.A. 79-567 from July 1, 1980 to July 1, 1981; P.A. 85-226 amended definition of "delinquent" by deleting exception for order entered in matter relating to a family with service needs; P.A. 87-373 redefined "serious juvenile offense" to include a violation of Sec. 21a-277 or 21a-278; P.A. 90-161 added definitions re "alcohol-dependent child" and "drug-dependent child"; P.A. 90-240 substituted "mentally deficient" for "defective", deleted the phrase "defect of intelligence" and substituted "truant or habitual truant", as defined, for "habitually truant"; P.A. 90-325 changed effective date of P.A. 90-240 from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 91-303 removed a cite to Sec. 10-198a for the definition of truant and habitual truant; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1 amended definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include a violation of Sec. 53a-217b; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3 amended definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include violations of Secs. 29-35, 53a-94a, 53a-102a, 53a-103a, 53a-212 and 53a-216; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-340 amended definition of "family with service needs" to add Subdiv. (E) re a child who is thirteen years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person within a certain age range; P.A. 95-225 inserted Subdiv. indicators, revising Subpara. indicators accordingly for statutory consistency, added definition of "delinquent act", amended the definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include violations of Secs. 29-33, 29-34, 53-21, 53-202b and 53-202c and include running away from any secure placement other than home while "referred as a delinquent child to the Office of Alternative Sanctions", amended the definition of "serious juvenile offender" to replace "adjudicated a delinquent child" with "convicted as delinquent" and added definition of "serious juvenile repeat offender"; P.A. 97-319 redefined "abused" to include exploitation of a child or youth, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-256 amended the definition of "child" in Subdiv. (1) to add definition of child for purposes of delinquency matters, amended the definition of a child found "delinquent" in Subdiv. (5) to replace "found" with "convicted as" and to include a child who has violated conditions of probation ordered by the court and amended the definition of "serious juvenile offense" in Subdiv. (11) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-136a; P.A. 00-177 added new Subdiv. (3) defining "youth in crisis", renumbered Subdivs. (3) to (15), inclusive, as (4) to (16), and made changes throughout section for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001.
Annotations to former section 17-53:
Cited. 154 C. 644, 648; 158 C. 439.
"Uncared for" is not limited to "uncared for by each living biological parent," but can include being cared for by close relative with the consent of biological parent. 33 CS 100.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 187 C. 431, 434. Cited. 189 C. 276, 282. Cited. 195 C. 303, 304. Cited. Id., 344, 349. Cited. 199 C. 693, 695, 714, 716. Cited. 204 C. 630, 631, 634−636, 638. Cited. 206 C. 323, 324. Cited. Id., 346, 347, 357. Cited. 207 C. 270, 273. Cited. Id., 725, 726, 733. Cited. 211 C. 151, 153, 154, 157, 162. Cited. Id., 289, 290. Cited. 214 C. 454, 457. Cited. 215 C. 277, 278. Cited. Id., 739, 746, 748, 749. Cited. 221 C. 903. Cited. 223 C. 492, 498, 515. Cited. 229 C. 691, 694, 699, 701. Cited. 237 C. 364, 368. Cited. 240 C. 743.
Cited. 1 CA 378, 379. Cited. 2 CA 705, 706. Cited. 3 CA 158, 159. Cited. Id., 194, 195. Cited. 9 CA 98, 109. Cited. 10 CA 428, 433−436, 438. Cited. 11 CA 507, 508. Cited. 18 CA 806. Cited. 23 CA 410, 418. Where statutory requirements are met, a mother's prenatal conduct can be basis of a finding of neglect or termination of parental rights. 25 CA 586, 588− 590, 592, 593; judgment reversed, see 223 C. 492 et seq. Cited. 29 CA 600, 612, 613. Cited. 32 CA 759, 760. Cited. 36 CA 146, 147, 149. Cited. 40 CA 216. Cited. 45 CA 606. Cited. 46 CA 545. Cited. 47 CA 64. Discussed: It is not a constitutional right, but rather a statutory right, to be considered a juvenile. 51 CA 117.
Cited. 35 CS 241, 242. Cited. 39 CS 490, 491. Cited. 41 CS 23, 28. Cited. Id., 505, 509. Cited. 42 CS 562. Cited. 43 CS 108, 124. Cited. Id., 211, 212. Cited. Id., 367, 368, 370.
Former Subdiv. (c):
Subpara. (1) cited. 199 C. 693, 714. Cited. 210 C. 435, 436.
Former Subdiv. (ii):
Cited. 39 CS 514, 516.
Former Subdiv. (iii):
Cited. 39 CS 514, 516.
Subdiv. (1):
Cited. 240 C. 727.

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Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-302). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) "Juvenile matters" defined. Authority of court. (a) Juvenile matters in the civil session include all proceedings concerning uncared-for, neglected or dependent children and youth within this state, termination of parental rights of children committed to a state agency, matters concerning families with service needs, contested matters involving termination of parental rights or removal of guardian transferred from the Probate Court and the emancipation of minors, but does not include matters of guardianship and adoption or matters affecting property rights of any child or youth over which the Probate Court has jurisdiction, provided appeals from probate concerning adoption, termination of parental rights and removal of a parent as guardian shall be included. Juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children in the state and persons sixteen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment.
(b) In juvenile matters, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders directed to parents, including any person who acknowledges before said court paternity of a child born out of wedlock, guardians, custodians or other adult persons owing some legal duty to a child or youth therein, as it deems necessary or appropriate to secure the welfare, protection, proper care and suitable support of a child or youth subject to its jurisdiction or otherwise committed to or in the custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families. In addition, with respect to proceedings concerning delinquent children, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders as it deems necessary or appropriate to punish the child, deter the child from the commission of further delinquent acts, assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and provide restitution to any victim. Said court shall also have authority to grant and enforce injunctive relief, temporary or permanent in all proceedings concerning juvenile matters. If any order for the payment of money is issued by said court, including any order assessing costs issued under section 46b-134 or 46b- 136, the collection of such money shall be made by said court, except orders for support of children committed to any state agency or department, which orders shall be made payable to and collected by the Department of Administrative Services. Where the court after due diligence is unable to collect such moneys within six months, it shall refer such case to the Department of Administrative Services for collection as a delinquent account. In juvenile matters, the court shall have authority to make and enforce orders directed to persons liable hereunder on petition of said Department of Administrative Services made to said court in the same manner as is provided in section 17b-745, in accordance with the provisions of section 17b-81, 17b-223, subsection (b) of section 17b-179, section 17a-90, 46b-129 or 46b-130, and all of the provisions of section 17b- 745 shall be applicable to such proceedings. Any judge hearing a juvenile matter may make any other order in connection therewith within his authority to grant as a judge of the Superior Court and such order shall have the same force and effect as any other order of the Superior Court. In the enforcement of its orders, in connection with any juvenile matter, the court may issue process for the arrest of any person, compel attendance of witnesses and punish for contempt by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six months.
(1949 Rev., S. 2805; 1953, 1955, S. 1576d; 1969, P.A. 483; P.A. 75-171, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 3, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 14, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 41, 65; 77-614, S. 71, 610; P.A. 79-567, S. 2, 7; P.A. 80-70, S. 3; 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 82-472, S. 128, 183; P.A. 87-421, S. 9, 13; P.A. 89-219, S. 2, 10; 89-273, S. 1; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 10; 95-254, S. 2; P.A. 98-256, S. 10; P.A. 00-170, S. 33, 42.)

*Note: On and after July 1, 2001, this section, as amended by section 33 of public act 00-170, is further amended by section 2 of public act 00-177, to read as follows:
"Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-302). "Juvenile matters" defined. Authority of court. (a) Juvenile matters in the civil session include all proceedings concerning uncared-for, neglected or dependent children and youth within this state, termination of parental rights of children committed to a state agency, matters concerning families with service needs, contested matters involving termination of parental rights or removal of guardian transferred from the Probate Court, the emancipation of minors and youth in crisis, but does not include matters of guardianship and adoption or matters affecting property rights of any child, youth or youth in crisis over which the Probate Court has jurisdiction, provided appeals from probate concerning adoption, termination of parental rights and removal of a parent as guardian shall be included. Juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children in the state and persons sixteen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment.
(b) In juvenile matters, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders directed to parents, including any person who acknowledges before said court paternity of a child born out of wedlock, guardians, custodians or other adult persons owing some legal duty to a child, youth or youth in crisis therein, as it deems necessary or appropriate to secure the welfare, protection, proper care and suitable support of a child, youth or youth in crisis subject to its jurisdiction or otherwise committed to or in the custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families. In addition, with respect to proceedings concerning delinquent children, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders as it deems necessary or appropriate to punish the child, deter the child from the commission of further delinquent acts, assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and provide restitution to any victim. Said court shall also have authority to grant and enforce injunctive relief, temporary or permanent in all proceedings concerning juvenile matters. If any order for the payment of money is issued by said court, including any order assessing costs issued under section 46b-134 or 46b-136, the collection of such money shall be made by said court, except orders for support of children committed to any state agency or department, which orders shall be made payable to and collected by the Department of Administrative Services. Where the court after due diligence is unable to collect such moneys within six months, it shall refer such case to the Department of Administrative Services for collection as a delinquent account. In juvenile matters, the court shall have authority to make and enforce orders directed to persons liable hereunder on petition of said Department of Administrative Services made to said court in the same manner as is provided in section 17b-745, in accordance with the provisions of section 17b-81, 17b-223, subsection (b) of section 17b-179, section 17a-90, 46b-129 or 46b-130, and all of the provisions of section 17b-745 shall be applicable to such proceedings. Any judge hearing a juvenile matter may make any other order in connection therewith that a judge of the Superior Court is authorized to grant and such order shall have the same force and effect as any other order of the Superior Court. In the enforcement of its orders, in connection with any juvenile matter, the court may issue process for the arrest of any person, compel attendance of witnesses and punish for contempt by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six months."
(1949 Rev., S. 2805; 1953, 1955, S. 1576d; 1969, P.A. 483; P.A. 75-171, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 3, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 14, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 41, 65; 77-614, S. 71, 610; P.A. 79-567, S. 2, 7; P.A. 80-70, S. 3; 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 82-472, S. 128, 183; P.A. 87-421, S. 9, 13; P.A. 89-219, S. 2, 10; 89-273, S. 1; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 10; 95-254, S. 2; P.A. 98-256, S. 10; P.A. 00-170, S. 33, 42; 00-177, S. 2, 5.)
History: 1969 act added exception re collection of money under support order by central collections division of finance and control department for children committed to care of welfare commissioner and added provision re petitions to juvenile court made by central collections division; P.A. 75-171 referred to children committed to "any state agency or department" rather than specifically to welfare commissioner; P.A. 75-602 added references to youths, made specific reference to children and youths in custody of children and youth services commissioner and specified that court has power to grant and enforce injunctive relief; P.A. 76-436 amended section to transfer juvenile court's powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-576 included termination of parental rights of children committed to state agency and contested termination of parental rights transferred from probate court as juvenile matters; P.A. 77-614 replaced central collections division of finance and control department with department of administrative services; P.A. 79-567 specified that matters concerning families with service needs are to be considered as juvenile matters; Sec. 17-59 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-302 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-121 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-59; P.A. 80-70 updated sections referred to in provisions re petition to court; P.A. 80-401 changed effective date of P.A. 79-567 from July 1, 1980, to July 1, 1981; P.A. 82-472 replaced obsolete reference to "division" with "department of administrative services"; P.A. 87-421 removed a reference to Sec. 17-295a which was repealed by the same act; P.A. 89-219 added provision requiring the assessment of a fee of two hundred dollars whenever the services of the probation staff for juvenile matters is required; P.A. 89-273 included any order assessing costs issued under Sec. 46b-134 or 46b-136 among orders for the payment of money which the court is responsible for collecting on, required the court to refer any case where after due diligence it is unable to collect the moneys due within six months to the department of administrative services for collection as a delinquent account, and added provision re the authority of the court to enforce its orders through issuing process for the arrest of a person, compelling the attendance of witnesses and punishing for contempt, formerly Subsec. (a) of Sec. 46b-148; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 inserted Subsec. indicators, amended Subsec. (a) to provide that the matters specified constitute juvenile matters "in the civil session", delete proceedings concerning "delinquent children" from such matters, include proceedings concerning "the emancipation of minors" in such matters and add provision that juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children in the state and amended Subsec. (b) to add provision authorizing the court in proceedings concerning delinquent children to make and enforce orders to punish the child, deter the child from the commission of further delinquent acts, assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and provide restitution to any victim; P.A. 95-254 added provision including probate appeals re matters involving termination of parental rights, removal of parent as guardian and adoption; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that juvenile matters in the criminal session include proceedings concerning "persons sixteen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment"; P.A. 00-170 amended Subsec. (b) to delete a requirement that the court impose a fee for probation staff services, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-177 extended provisions of section to youth in crisis and made technical changes in Subsec. (b) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001.
Annotations to former sections 17-59 and 51-302:
If superior court could take jurisdiction of charge of rape against child under sixteen, proceedings must first be had in juvenile court. 115 C. 589. Cited. 158 C. 439. Cited. 171 C. 630, 643 (Dissent).
Superior court may not make orders for support prior to termination of juvenile court commitment. 19 CS 371. Possible for juvenile court, superior court and probate court to have concurrent jurisdiction concerning the proper custody of a child and fact that superior court originally awarded custody in a divorce action does not mean that it retains exclusive jurisdiction over custody of the child. 21 CS 73.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 195 C. 303, 304. Cited. Id., 344, 364−366. Cited. 199 C. 693, 695. Cited. 206 C. 323, 329. Cited. 211 C. 289− 291. Cited. 216 C. 563, 568, 580. Cited. 223 C. 384, 405. Cited. 224 C. 263, 282.
Cited. 1 CA 584, 589, 590. Cited. 13 CA 626, 628. Cited. 22 CA 656, 661. Cited. 36 CA 345, 351.
Section carefully contains some exceptions in grant of jurisdiction over children and youths to superior court; these exceptions do not include reservation of mental health commitment power to probate court. 35 CS 241 et seq. Probate court is without jurisdiction to entertain and determine matters involving the mental health commitment of children or youths since the superior court for juvenile matters has exclusive jurisdiction over such matters. Id. Cited. 43 CS 367, 368.

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Sec. 46b-121a. Referral of juvenile matters to state referees. The Superior Court may refer any juvenile matter to a state referee who shall have been a judge of the Superior Court. Any hearing by such referee shall be conducted as provided in section 52-434. Such referee shall have and exercise the powers of the Superior Court in respect to trial, judgment and appeal in cases and matters referred pursuant to this section.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 29.)

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Sec. 46b-121b. Handling of juvenile matters. (a) The Division of Criminal Justice shall have charge of all proceedings concerning juvenile matters in the criminal session of the Superior Court and all proceedings concerning families with service needs in the civil session of the Superior Court.
(b) The Attorney General shall have charge of all proceedings concerning juvenile matters in the civil session of the Superior Court.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 45, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.
See Sec. 51-1d re transfer of duties of "Juvenile Detention Services Division" to Court Support Services Division.

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Secs. 46b-121c to 46b-121g. Reserved for future use.

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Sec. 46b-121h. Goals of juvenile justice system. It is the intent of the General Assembly that the juvenile justice system provide individualized supervision, care, accountability and treatment in a manner consistent with public safety to those juveniles who violate the law. The juvenile justice system shall also promote prevention efforts through the support of programs and services designed to meet the needs of juveniles charged with the commission of a delinquent act. The goals of the juvenile justice system shall be to:
(1) Hold juveniles accountable for their unlawful behavior;
(2) Provide secure and therapeutic confinement to those juveniles who present a danger to the community;
(3) Adequately protect the community and juveniles;
(4) Provide programs and services that are community-based and are provided in close proximity to the juvenile's community;
(5) Retain and support juveniles within their homes whenever possible and appropriate;
(6) Base probation treatment planning upon individual case management plans;
(7) Include the juvenile's family in the case management plan;
(8) Provide supervision and service coordination where appropriate and implement and monitor the case management plan in order to discourage reoffending;
(9) Provide follow-up and nonresidential postrelease services to juveniles who are returned to their families or communities;
(10) Promote the development and implementation of community-based programs designed to prevent unlawful behavior and to effectively minimize the depth and duration of the juvenile's involvement in the juvenile justice system.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 1, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-121i. Duties and responsibilities of the Judicial Department in providing programs and services to the juvenile justice system. (a) The Judicial Department shall:
(1) Coordinate programs and services of the juvenile justice system with other state and municipal agencies, boards and commissions;
(2) Develop and use intake and assessment procedures for the evaluation of juveniles;
(3) Provide case management for juveniles;
(4) Provide pretrial diversion and postconviction programs;
(5) Coordinate community-based services for juveniles and their families which promote appropriate reintegration of the juvenile with his family, school and community; and
(6) Provide other programs and services necessary to the juvenile justice system.
(b) In developing its programs, the Judicial Department shall:
(1) Develop risk and assessment instruments for use in determining the need for detention or other placement at the time a juvenile enters the system;
(2) Develop a case classification process to include the establishment of classification program levels and case management standards for each program level. A program level is based on the needs of the juvenile, his potential to be dangerous and his risk of offending further;
(3) Develop a purchase-of-care system, which will facilitate the development of a state-wide community-based continuum of care, with the involvement of the private sector and the local public sector. Care services may be purchased from private providers to provide a wider diversity of services. This system shall include accessing Title IV- E funds of the federal Social Security Act, as amended, new Medicaid funds and other funding sources to support eligible community-based services. Such services developed and purchased shall include, but not be limited to, evaluation services which shall be available on a geographically accessible basis across the state.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 2, 4, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-121j. Programs and probation treatment services for juvenile offenders. (a) The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall design and make available to the Judicial Department programs and probation treatment services for juvenile offenders. The programs and treatment services shall be based upon the individual or family assessment and evaluation process and case management plan.
(b) Probation treatment services shall address:
(1) Behavioral impairments and other emotional disturbances and other mental health or psychiatric disorders;
(2) Histories of physical or sexual abuse;
(3) Drug and alcohol addiction;
(4) Health and medical needs;
(5) Education, special education and related services.
(c) Available programs shall include:
(1) Individual, group and family counseling services and all other programs and services as appropriate with any case management plan related to subsection (b) of this section.
(2) The design and delivery of probation treatment programs following the requirements stated within Title XIX and Title IV-E of the federal Social Security Act, as amended, the Special Education Act and other funding guidelines, as appropriate. It is the intent of the General Assembly that these funding sources shall be utilized to support service needs of eligible juveniles.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 3, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-121k. Programs, services and facilities for juvenile offenders. (a) The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall be charged with the duty of developing constructive programs for the prevention and reduction of delinquency and crime among juvenile offenders. To that end, the director shall cooperate with other agencies to encourage the establishment of new programs and to provide a continuum of services for juvenile offenders who do not require secure placement. The programs shall be tailored to the type of juvenile including the juvenile's offense history, age, gender, mental health and chemical dependency problem, and other characteristics. The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall develop programs that provide: (1) Intensive general educational programs, with an individual educational plan for each juvenile; (2) specific educational components in the management of anger and nonviolent conflict resolution; (3) treatment for chemical dependency; (4) mental health screening, assessment and treatment; and (5) sexual offender treatment.
(b) The Office of Alternative Sanctions may contract to establish regional secure residential facilities and regional highly supervised residential and nonresidential facilities for juveniles referred by the court. Such facilities shall operate within contracted- for capacity limits. Such facilities shall be exempt from the licensing requirements of section 17a-145.
(c) The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall collaborate with private residential facilities providing residential programs and with community-based nonresidential postrelease programs.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 6, 52; P.A. 98-256, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (b) to replace "juveniles sentenced to probation by the court" with "juveniles referred by the court".

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Sec. 46b-121l. Early intervention projects for juvenile offenders. (a) The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall fund projects for a program of early intervention initiatives designed for juvenile offenders. The projects may include, but not be limited to, the following initiatives:
(1) A peer tutoring project designed for juvenile offenders required to perform community services;
(2) Specialized residential services for juvenile offenders on probation who have been expelled from school;
(3) Social services and counseling for female juvenile offenders;
(4) Training in cognitive skill building;
(5) A self-supporting entrepreneurship program; and
(6) A mentoring program designed to match juveniles with positive adult role models.
(b) The primary purpose of these projects shall be to provide a network of community services for juvenile offenders. The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall develop evaluation protocols designed to assess the impact of components of these projects on deterring juvenile crime in the communities where the projects operate. The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall report to the General Assembly not later than January 1, 1998, on the effectiveness of the program initiatives.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 7, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-121m. Evaluation of the costs and benefits of programs serving juvenile offenders. (a) The Chief Court Administrator shall enter into an agreement with the Connecticut Policy and Economic Council to evaluate the costs and benefits of programs serving juvenile offenders, whether offered by private providers or state or municipal agencies, to determine the cost-effectiveness of such programs in reducing recidivism.
(b) For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, there is established an advisory board to be composed of the Commissioner of Children and Families, the Commissioner of Correction and the Chief Court Administrator, or their designees, and the chairpersons and ranking members of the joint standing committees of the General Assembly on judiciary and human services.
(c) The evaluation shall identify the types of programs that are effective and not effective in reducing criminal offending in a cost-beneficial way. The evaluation shall use uniform data collection and a common methodological approach to compare programs serving juvenile offenders. The evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, a determination of the extent to which each program:
(1) Targets diverted and adjudicated juvenile offenders;
(2) Includes assessment methods to determine services, programs, and intervention strategies most likely to change behaviors and norms of juvenile offenders;
(3) Provides maximum structured supervision in the community using natural surveillance and community guardians such as employers, relatives, teachers, clergy and community mentors to the greatest extent possible;
(4) Promotes good work ethic values and educational skills and competencies necessary for the juvenile offender to function effectively and positively in the community;
(5) Maximizes the efficient delivery of treatment services aimed at reducing risk factors associated with the commission of juvenile offenses;
(6) Maximizes the reintegration of the juvenile offender into the community upon release from confinement;
(7) Maximizes the juvenile offender's opportunities to make full restitution to the victims and amends to the community;
(8) Supports and encourages increased court discretion in imposing community- based intervention strategies;
(9) Is compatible with research that shows which prevention and early intervention strategies work with juvenile offenders;
(10) Is outcome-based in that it describes what outcomes will be achieved or what outcomes have already been achieved;
(11) Includes an evaluation component; and
(12) Recognizes the diversity of local needs.
(d) Not later than January 1, 2001, the council shall submit a preliminary report on its activities to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly on judiciary and human services.
(P.A. 00-172.)

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Sec. 46b-122. (Formerly Sec. 51-303). Juvenile matters separated from other court business if practicable. Exclusion of persons from hearing. All matters which are juvenile matters, as defined in section 46b-121, shall be kept separate and apart from all other business of the Superior Court as far as is practicable, except matters transferred under the provisions of section 46b-127, which matters shall be transferred to the regular criminal docket of said Superior Court. Any judge hearing a juvenile matter shall, during such hearing, exclude from the room in which such hearing is held any person whose presence is, in the court's opinion, not necessary, except that in delinquency proceedings any victim of the delinquent act, the parents or guardian of such victim and any victim advocate appointed pursuant to section 54-221 shall not be excluded unless the judge specifically orders otherwise.
(P.A. 76-436, S. 8, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 42, 65; P.A. 78-379, S. 10, 27; P.A. 95-225, S. 11.)
History: P.A. 77-576 deleted requirement that juvenile matters be dealt with in facilities separate from other superior court business and authorized hearing of family matters in same facilities as juvenile matters but at separate times to protect confidentiality; P.A. 78-379 deleted provision which authorized hearing of family matters in same facilities as juvenile matters and added provisions which authorized judge to exclude from hearing room persons whose presence is unnecessary and prohibited use of room regularly used for criminal business for hearing of juvenile matter; Sec. 51-303 transferred to Sec. 46b-122 in 1979 and other sections referred to in provisions revised where necessary to reflect their transfer; P.A. 95-225 deleted reference to matters transferred under Sec. "46b-126", reflecting elimination of transfer provisions from Sec. 46b-126 by same public act, added provision prohibiting exclusion in delinquency proceedings of any victim of the delinquent act, the parents or guardian of the victim and any victim advocate unless the judge specifically orders otherwise, deleted prohibition on hearing a juvenile matter in a room regularly used for the transaction of criminal business and deleted obsolete provisions re transfer of matters from the juvenile court.
Cited. 195 C. 303, 310. Cited. Id., 344, 363. Cited. 206 C. 323, 329, 332. Cited. Id., 346, 360, 361. Cited. 211 C. 151, 157. Cited. 214 C. 454, 460. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697. Cited. 237 C. 364, 374.
Cited. 43 CS 38, 40. Cited. Id., 367.

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Sec. 46b-123. (Formerly Sec. 51-304). Appointment of staff for juvenile matters. The judges of the Superior Court, or in the discretion of the Chief Court Administrator, a committee of said judges designated by the Chief Court Administrator, shall appoint such probation officers, probation aides, clerks, detention personnel, clerical assistants and other personnel, including supervisory staff, as they deem necessary for the treatment and handling of juvenile matters within the venue districts established under section 46b-142. The Chief Court Administrator may assign, reassign and modify the assignments of such personnel and assign such duties within the Superior Court as he deems necessary for the efficient operation of the courts. Any person serving in any such capacity in the Juvenile Court on July 1, 1978, shall continue to serve in the Superior Court at the compensation he was receiving in the Juvenile Court under the compensation plan established pursuant to section 51-12, for the remainder of any term to which he was appointed. In no event shall the compensation of any such person be affected solely as a result of the transfer of jurisdiction in section 51-164s. Any of such appointees may be discharged by the appointing authority for cause and after hearing. The salaries of each of such officials shall be fixed by the judges, subject to the provisions of section 51-12.
(1949 Rev., S. 2821; 1957, P.A. 651, S. 17; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 4; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 2; P.A. 75-327; P.A. 76-436, S. 10a, 12, 681; P.A. 84-198, S. 4, 7.)
History: 1967 act authorized appointment of "other personnel" and provided for judges to act jointly; 1969 act deleted provisions which stated that records shall be open to inspection only by "persons having a proper interest therein and upon order of the court" and specified that records of juvenile courts established in 1921, 1927 and 1935 shall be included as records subject to provisions applicable to other juvenile records; P.A. 75-327 restated provisions re appointed personnel, adding executive assistant to chief clerk and director of juvenile probation services as state-wide officers and probation aides, clerk, detention personnel and supervisory staff on district level; P.A. 76-436 amended section to reflect transfer of duties from juvenile court to superior court and added provisions authorizing chief court administrator to modify assignments as necessary and specifying that persons transferred to superior court are to receive compensation at same level as received in juvenile court for the remainder of their appointed terms, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-57 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-304 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-123 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-57) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 84-198 deleted provisions for appointment of a chief clerk in charge of juvenile matters, an executive assistant to such chief clerk, a director of juvenile probation services and such other necessary office personnel, and deleted a provision that the judges or a committee appoint probation officers and other personnel "subject to the provisions of section 46b-125".
Annotations to former section 17-57:
Cited. 135 C. 413; id., 516.
The juvenile court is a court of record and as such can speak only through its record. To determine the issues litigated, the record and the memorandum of decision may be searched. 19 CS 428. Cited. 24 CS 358. Court will not allow a fishing expedition into records of the juvenile court. 26 CS 316, 319.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 181 C. 292, 294.
Cited. 43 CS 367, 371.

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Sec. 46b-123a. Transfer of personnel to Division of Criminal Justice. All persons employed as court advocates, inspectors or investigators, and associated staff, by the Judicial Department on July 1, 1996, shall be transferred to the Division of Criminal Justice on said date.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 49, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-123b. Transfer of juvenile justice centers to Judicial Department. Juvenile justice centers within the Office of Policy and Management for administrative purposes shall, on and after July 1, 1996, or upon the cessation of receipt of federal funds, whichever is later, be within the Judicial Department.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 44, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-124. (Formerly Sec. 51-305). Confidentiality of records of juvenile matters. Exceptions. (a) All records of cases of juvenile matters, as defined in section 46b-121, except delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, and all records of appeals from probate brought to the superior court for juvenile matters pursuant to subsection (b) of section 45a-186, including studies and reports by probation officers, social agencies and clinics, shall be confidential and for the use of the court in juvenile matters, and open to inspection or disclosure to any third party, including bona fide researchers commissioned by a state agency, only upon order of the Superior Court, except that (1) the records concerning any matter transferred from a court of probate pursuant to section 45a-623 or subsection (g) of section 45a-715 or any appeal from probate to the superior court for juvenile matters pursuant to subsection (b) of section 45a-186 shall be available to the court of probate from which such matter was transferred or from which such appeal was taken, (2) such records shall be available to (A) the attorney representing the child or youth including the Division of Public Defender Services in any proceeding in which such records are relevant, (B) the parents or guardian of the child or youth until such time as the child or youth reaches the age of majority or becomes emancipated, (C) an adult adopted person in accordance with the provisions of sections 45a-736, 45a- 737 and 45a-743 to 45a-757, inclusive, (D) employees of the Division of Criminal Justice who in the performance of their duties require access to such records, (E) employees of the judicial branch who in the performance of their duties require access to such records, (F) another court under the provisions of subsection (d) of section 46b-115j, (G) the subject of the record, upon submission of satisfactory proof of the subject's identity, pursuant to guidelines prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator and provided the subject has reached the age of majority or has been emancipated, and (H) the Department of Children and Families. Any record or any part thereof forwarded by said court or any of its employees to any persons, governmental and private agencies, and institutions, shall not be disclosed, directly or indirectly, to any third party not specified in subsection (c) of this section save upon order of said court or except in the report required under section 54-76d or 54-91a.
(b) All records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, including court records, records of law enforcement agencies including fingerprints, photographs and physical descriptions, and medical, psychological, psychiatric and social welfare studies and reports by probation officers, public or private institutions, social agencies and clinics, shall be confidential and for the use of the court in juvenile matters and shall not be disclosed except as provided in this section.
(c) Records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings shall be available to (1) judicial branch employees who, in the performance of their duties, require access to such records, and (2) employees and authorized agents of state or federal agencies involved in (A) the delinquency proceedings, (B) the provision of services directly to the child, or (C) the design and delivery of treatment programs pursuant to section 46b-121j. Such employees and authorized agents include, but are not limited to, law enforcement officials, state and federal prosecutorial officials, school officials in accordance with section 10-233h, court officials including officials of both the regular criminal docket and the docket for juvenile matters, officials of the Division of Criminal Justice, the Division of Public Defender Services, the Department of Children and Families, the Office of Adult Probation, the Office of the Bail Commissioner, the Board of Parole and agencies under contract with the Office of Alternative Sanctions, and an advocate appointed pursuant to section 54-221 for a victim of a crime committed by the child. Such records shall also be available to (i) the attorney representing the child, including the Division of Public Defender Services, in any proceeding in which such records are relevant, (ii) the parents or guardian of the child, until such time as the subject of the record reaches the age of majority, (iii) the subject of the record, upon submission of satisfactory proof of the subject's identity, pursuant to guidelines prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator and provided the subject has reached the age of majority, (iv) law enforcement officials and prosecutorial officials conducting legitimate criminal investigations, and (v) a state or federal agency providing services related to the collection of moneys due or funding to support the service needs of eligible juveniles, provided such disclosure shall be limited to that information necessary for the collection of and application for such moneys. Such records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed, except that information contained in such records may be disclosed in connection with bail or sentencing reports in open court during criminal proceedings involving the subject of such information.
(d) The record of the case of a juvenile matter involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, may be disclosed upon order of the court to any person who has a legitimate interest in the information and is identified in such order. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed.
(e) The record of the case of a juvenile matter involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, shall be available to the victim of the crime committed by such child to the same extent as the record of the case of a defendant in a criminal proceeding in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court is available to a victim of the crime committed by such defendant. The court shall designate an official from whom such victim may request such information. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed.
(f) Information concerning a child who has escaped from a detention center or from a facility to which he has been committed by the court or for whom an arrest warrant has been issued with respect to the commission of a felony may be disclosed by law enforcement officials.
(g) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person employed by the Judicial Department from disclosing any such records, information or files in his possession to any person employed by the Division of Criminal Justice as a prosecutorial official, inspector or investigator who, in the performance of his duties, requests such records, information or files, nor shall such employee of said division be prohibited from disclosing any records, information or files in his possession to any such employee of the Judicial Department who, in the performance of his duties, requests such records, information or files.
(h) A state's attorney shall disclose to the defendant or his counsel in a criminal prosecution, without the necessity of a court order, exculpatory information and material contained in any record disclosed to such state's attorney pursuant to this section and may disclose, without a court order, information and material contained in any such record which could be the subject of a disclosure order.
(1969, P.A. 794, S. 3; P.A. 75-602, S. 2, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 13, 681; P.A. 77-246, S. 11; 77-486, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 78- 280, S. 92, 127; 78-318, S. 27; P.A. 79-456; P.A. 80-165, S. 1; P.A. 81-472, S. 82, 159; P.A. 82-140, S. 1; P.A. 93-48; P.A. 94-221, S. 15; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 10; P.A. 95-225, S. 12; 95-254, S. 3; 95-261, S. 1; P.A. 96-246, S. 35; P.A. 98-70, S. 1; P.A. 99-185, S. 35, 40.)
History: P.A. 75-602 added reference to youths; P.A. 76-436 replaced references to juvenile court with references to superior court and juvenile matters and added Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of complaint or information transferred from circuit to juvenile court before October 1, 1971, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-246 required that records be available to adult adopted persons; P.A. 77-486 added provisions requiring that records be available to judges and adult probation officers for consideration in sentencing or granting youthful offender status for person under twenty-one; P.A. 78-280 added exception re Sec. 54-76d or 54-109 in provision prohibiting disclosure to third party; P.A. 78-318 authorized disclosure to another court in custody proceedings; P.A. 79-456 required superior court order for disclosure of records to "bona fide researchers commissioned by a state agency"; Sec. 17-57a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-305 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-124 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-57a) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 80-165 authorized disclosure of information concerning disposition of criminal case to the victim of the crime if juvenile's identity is not revealed; P.A. 81-472 made technical corrections; P.A. 82-140 amended Subsec. (a) to permit disclosure of identity of child or youth to victim if the victim intends to bring a civil action for damages or if the child or youth is adjudicated delinquent; P.A. 93-48 added provision in Subsec. (a) re disclosure of records concerning adjudications re child abuse to state's attorney and added Subsec. (c) re disclosure of exculpatory information and material contained in disclosed record by state's attorney to defendant; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (4) re availability of information on the identity of a child arrested for a felony and the nature of the offense and Subdiv. (5) re the availability of information on the identity of a child adjudicated a delinquent as a result of a felony; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (4) re the availability to a state's attorney of records concerning adjudications involving certain firearm-related offenses, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to said Subdiv. (4); P.A. 95-225 substantially revised section by amending Subsec. (a) to add exception for proceedings concerning delinquent children, deleting former Subdivs. (2) to (6), inclusive, re specific exceptions to the prohibition on disclosure, deleting provision making delinquency records of any person who has not attained the age of twenty-one available to a judge and an adult probation officer in certain circumstances and provide that the prohibition on disclosure to a third party applies to a third party "not specified in subsection (c) of this section", deleting former Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of records transferred from the Circuit Court to the Juvenile Court prior to October 1, 1971, adding new Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of records of cases of juvenile matters involving proceedings concerning delinquent children, adding new Subsec. (c) re disclosure of delinquency records to certain individuals and agencies, adding Subsec. (d) re disclosure of delinquency records to persons with a legitimate interest therein upon order of the court, adding Subsec. (e) re availability of delinquency records to the victim of the crime, adding Subsec. (f) re disclosure of information concerning a child who has escaped or for whom an arrest warrant has been issued, adding Subsec. (g) re exchange of information between certain employees of the Judicial Department and the Division of Criminal Justice, and redesignating former Subsec. (c) re disclosure of information by a state's attorney to the defendant or his counsel as Subsec. (h) and amended said Subsec. to make technical changes; P.A. 95-254 amended Subsec. (a) by applying provisions to records of appeals from probate brought to Juvenile Court pursuant to Subsec. (b) of 45a- 186 and to add provision making such records available to court of probate from which such appeal was taken; P.A. 95- 261 would have amended Subsec. (a) specifying Office of Adult Probation and Office of the Bail Commission as agencies which may obtain delinquency records where previous availability was limited to adult probation officers, but failed to take effect, P.A. 95-225 having repealed language on which the changes relied; P.A. 96-246 added Subdiv. (3) to Subsec. (a) re psychological evaluations being available to Commissioner of Children and Families for purposes of diagnosing, caring for or treating child; P.A. 98-70 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "concerning delinquent children" and adding "delinquency" and by deleting former Subdiv. (3) and adding availability of records to attorney, including public defender, for child or youth, parents or guardian, employees of Division of Criminal Justice, employees of judicial branch, another court, the subject of the record, provided subject provides proof of identity and has reached the age of majority or is emancipated, and the Department of Children and Families; amended Subsec. (b) by deleting "concerning delinquent children" and adding "delinquency"; amended Subsec. (c) by providing availability of records re delinquency proceedings to judicial branch employees, employees and certain authorized agents of state or federal agencies, including Division of Public Defender Services, Office of Adult Probation, Office of Bail Commissioner, Board of Parole and agencies under contract with Office of Alternative Sanctions, to parent or guardian, to the subject of the record upon proof of identity and reaching age of majority and to a state or federal agency providing funding to support needs of eligible juveniles, and by adding provision re disclosure in connection with bail or sentencing reports; amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) by deleting "concerning a delinquent child" and adding "delinquency"; and amended Subsec. (g) by deleting "as a juvenile prosecutor, inspector or investigator"; P.A. 99-185 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by changing reference to section 46b-111 to Subsec. (d) of Sec. 46b-115j, effective July 1, 2000.
Annotation to former section 17-57a:
Cited. 33 CS 599.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 195 C. 303, 310. Cited. 211 C. 151, 160. Cited. 214 C. 454, 460, 463. History and policy discussed. 216 C. 563− 565, 567−584. Confidentiality statute cited. Id. Cited. 221 C. 447, 459. Cited. 227 C. 641, 643. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697. Cited. 235 C. 595, 606. Cited. 237 C. 364, 374.
Cited. 21 CA 654, 661. Cited. 36 CA 345, 351.
Cited. 36 CS 352, 355. Cited. 40 CS 316. Cited. 41 CS 23. Cited. Id., 145. Cited. Id., 229. Cited. Id., 505. Cited. 42 CS 562. Cited. 43 CS 38, 40. Cited. Id., 108. Cited. Id., 211. Cited. Id., 367. Cited. 44 CS 101. Cited. Id., 235. Cited. Id., 437. Cited. Id., 468. Cited. Id., 527. Cited. Id., 551.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 215 C. 739, 746. Cited. 216 C. 563, 578, 580.
Cited. 1 CA 584, 585, 589, 590. Cited. 45 CA 508.
Subsec. (d):
Victim not permitted to use actual documents released by juvenile court in civil action for damages but may use information in documents to uncover admissible evidence. 45 CS 315.
Subsec. (e):
Extent to which court may release juvenile records to victim of a delinquent act and whether child required to be adjudicated a delinquent before victim entitled to release of information. 45 CS 315.

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Sec. 46b-125. (Formerly Sec. 51-306). Juvenile probation officers and juvenile matters investigators. Rights in retirement system. Duties and authority. (a) All persons employed as full-time juvenile probation officers in service in this state on January 1, 1941, and appointed without examination in the first instance juvenile probation officers of this court, shall retain full rights in any pension system or retirement fund in which they participated or to which they contributed.
(b) Probation officers shall make such investigations and reports as the court directs or the law requires. They shall execute the orders of the court; and, for that purpose, such probation officers, and any other employees specifically designated by the court to assist the probation officers in the enforcement of such orders, shall have the authority of a state marshal. They shall preserve a record of all cases investigated or coming under their care, and shall keep informed concerning the conduct and condition of each person under supervision and report thereon to the court as it may direct. Any juvenile probation officer or juvenile matters investigator, authorized by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator, may arrest any juvenile on probation without a warrant or may deputize any other officer with power to arrest to do so by giving him a written statement setting forth that the juvenile has, in the judgment of the juvenile probation officer or juvenile matters investigator, violated the conditions of his probation. When executing such orders of the court, except when using deadly physical force, juvenile probation officers and juvenile matters investigators shall be deemed to be acting in the capacity of a peace officer, as defined in subdivision (9) of section 53a-3.
(1949 Rev., S. 2822; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 5; P.A. 77-614, S. 66, 610; P.A. 84-198, S. 5, 7; P.A. 93-391; P.A. 00-99, S. 90, 154.)
History: 1969 act specified that probation officers and other employees designated by court to assist them have authority of a deputy sheriff; P.A. 77-614 replaced personnel department with department of administrative services; Sec. 17-58 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-366 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-125 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-58; P.A. 84-198 deleted provision requiring appointment of all juvenile probation personnel from a list of persons certified by the department of administrative services as being qualified for such appointment; P.A. 93-391 inserted Subsec. indicators and amended Subsec. (b) to authorize any juvenile probation officer or juvenile matters investigator to arrest any juvenile on probation without a warrant or deputize another officer to do so and to specify when such officers and investigators are deemed to be acting in the capacity of a peace officer; P.A. 00-99 replaced reference in Subsec. (b) to deputy sheriff in each county of the state with state marshal, effective December 1, 2000.

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Sec. 46b-126. (Formerly Sec. 51-307). Secure facilities for care and treatment of children. There shall be established or designated by the Department of Children and Families a secure facility or facilities within the state devoted to the care and treatment of children, which children are under the jurisdiction of the Superior Court. A consideration for admission to such a facility shall be adjudication for a serious juvenile offense.
(1971, P.A. 170; P.A. 76-194, S. 4; 76-436, S. 17, 681; P.A. 77-326; 77-452, S. 23, 72; P.A. 79-581, S. 2; P.A. 83-402, S. 1; P.A. 84-252; P.A. 86-185, S. 1; P.A. 89-273, S. 2; P.A. 90-136, S. 1; 90-187, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95- 225, S. 39.)
History: P.A. 76-194 specified that superior court has exclusive jurisdiction upon transfer of case, that child is to be tried and sentenced, if convicted, as if he were sixteen and that if action dismissed or child found innocent, etc. he resumes juvenile status; P.A. 76-436 replaced references to juvenile court and superior court with references to juvenile and criminal dockets of superior court where necessary to reflect transfer of juvenile court duties to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-326 rearranged Subdiv. indicators but did not take effect; P.A. 77-452 made technical correction; P.A. 79- 581 entirely replaced previous provisions, broadening applicability of provisions from cases involving murder to those involving class A felonies or serious juvenile offenses; Sec. 17-60a temporarily transferred to Sec. 51-307 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-126 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-60a) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 83-402 authorized transfer of child to regular criminal docket for commission of offenses classified as Class B or C felonies, deleted requirement that court make investigation prior to transfer and revised provision re determination of child's danger to society in Subsec. (a); P.A. 84-252 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting phrase requiring that care be "by qualified medical experts"; P.A. 86-185 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision that a transfer order shall be a final judgment for purposes of appeal; P.A. 89-273 amended Subsec. (a) to add "Except as otherwise provided in section 46b-127" and to make the transfer hearing discretionary rather than mandatory; P.A. 90-136 amended Subsec. (a) to exclude from the discretionary transfer provisions of section any child referred for the commission of the class A felony of murder, to add provisions re the rights of the child and the procedure applicable at the transfer hearing, to grant credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to transfer, to authorize a child to plead guilty to a lesser offense and provide that a child who so pleads shall not resume his juvenile status re said offense, and to replace a reference to a finding of "innocent" with a finding of "not guilty"; P.A. 90-187 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision requiring a transferred child to be maintained in a facility for children and youth rather than in a correctional facility until he is sixteen years of age or sentenced, whichever occurs first, effective July 1, 1991; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 deleted former Subsec. (a) re the discretionary transfer of children charged with certain felonies to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court.
Annotations to former section 17-60a:
Juvenile court has power to transfer plaintiff based on finding of reasonable cause to believe that he was a participant in a felony and murder. 171 C. 683, 687. Removes juvenile status of juvenile upon such juvenile's transfer from jurisdiction of juvenile court. 173 C. 414. Cited. Id., 414−418. Cited. 182 C. 419, 420. Cited. 206 C. 346, 360. Cited. 207 C. 270, 275. Cited. 240 C. 743.
Annotations to present section:
Transfer order under statute not a final appealable judgment. 195 C. 303−306, 310, 313, 314. Cited. 204 C. 630, 633. Cited. 206 C. 323, 326, 330, 331. Cited. Id., 346, 350, 355−360, 362. Cited. 210 C. 435, 443. Cited. 211 C. 151, 158, 166. Cited. Id., 289, 296−299, 301, 304, 318. Cited. Id., 289, 298, 300. Cited. 214 C. 454, 460. Cited. 220 C. 162, 165. Cited. 221 C. 109, 112. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697, 701. Cited. 237 C. 364, 374. Cited. 240 C. 727.
The order denying a transfer under this section is not a final judgment or an order from which the state can appeal. 1 CA 378, 379, 383, 384. Cited. Id., 584, 585. Defendant took no direct appeal from the transfer order resulting in a waiver of such appeal at a later point. 51 CA 117.
Cited. 43 CS 367, 368, 370.

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Sec. 46b-127. (Formerly Sec. 51-308). Transfer of child charged with a felony to the regular criminal docket. (a) The court shall automatically transfer from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court the case of any child charged with the commission of a capital felony, a class A or B felony or a violation of section 53a-54d, provided such offense was committed after such child attained the age of fourteen years and counsel has been appointed for such child if such child is indigent. Such counsel may appear with the child but shall not be permitted to make any argument or file any motion in opposition to the transfer. The child shall be arraigned in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court at the next court date following such transfer. The file of any case so transferred shall remain sealed until the end of the tenth working day following such arraignment unless the state's attorney has filed a motion pursuant to this subsection in which case such file shall remain sealed until the court makes a decision on the motion. A state's attorney may, not later than ten working days after such arraignment, file a motion to transfer the case of any child charged with the commission of a class B felony to the docket for juvenile matters for proceedings in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The court sitting for the regular criminal docket shall, after hearing and not later than ten working days after the filing of such motion, decide such motion.
(b) Upon motion of a juvenile prosecutor and order of the court, the case of any child charged with the commission of a class C or D felony or an unclassified felony shall be transferred from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court, provided such offense was committed after such child attained the age of fourteen years and the court finds ex parte that there is probable cause to believe the child has committed the act for which he is charged. The file of any case so transferred shall remain sealed until such time as the court sitting for the regular criminal docket accepts such transfer. The court sitting for the regular criminal docket may return any such case to the docket for juvenile matters not later than ten working days after the date of the transfer for proceedings in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The child shall be arraigned in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court by the next court date following such transfer.
(c) Upon the effectuation of the transfer, such child shall stand trial and be sentenced, if convicted, as if he were sixteen years of age. Such child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to the effectuation of the transfer. A child who has been transferred may enter a guilty plea to a lesser offense if the court finds that such plea is made knowingly and voluntarily. Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket who pleads guilty to a lesser offense shall not resume his status as a juvenile regarding said offense. If the action is dismissed or nolled or if such child is found not guilty of the charge for which he was transferred or of any lesser included offenses, the child shall resume his status as a juvenile until he attains the age of sixteen years.
(d) Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court who is detained shall be in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction upon the finalization of such transfer. A transfer shall be final (1) upon the expiration of ten working days after the arraignment if no motion has been filed by the state's attorney pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or, if such motion has been filed, upon the decision of the court to deny such motion, or (2) upon the court accepting the transfer pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Any child returned to the docket for juvenile matters who is detained shall be in the custody of the Judicial Department.
(e) The transfer of a child to a Department of Correction facility shall be limited to the provisions of subsection (d) of this section and said subsection shall not be construed to permit the transfer of or otherwise reduce or eliminate any other population of juveniles in detention or confinement within the Judicial Department or the Department of Children and Families.
(P.A. 75-620, S. 1−4; P.A. 76-194, S. 3; 76-436, S. 18, 19, 20, 681; P.A. 79-581, S. 3; P.A. 83-402, S. 2; P.A. 86-185, S. 2; P.A. 90-136, S. 2; 90-187, S. 2, 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 6; P.A. 95-225, S. 13; P.A. 97-4, S. 1, 2; 97-319, S. 21, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 3.)
History: P.A. 76-194 required that child "be sentenced, if convicted" as if he were sixteen; P.A. 76-436 revised provisions to reflect transfer of juvenile court duties to superior court, substituting references to criminal and juvenile dockets for references to said courts, etc., effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-581 clarified and qualified circumstances under which matters transferred from juvenile to criminal docket and deleted requirements that transfer is contingent upon investigation finding that no suitable institution for care of children exists to which child in question may be committed and that court facilities for criminal sessions and institutions for those sixteen or over are suitable for child's care and confinement and deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) re establishment of maximum security facility for care and treatment of children under superior court jurisdiction and re court-ordered evaluation to determine whether institutions for children or institutions for those sixteen and over are more suitable for care and treatment of child in question; Sec. 17-60b temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-308 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-127 in 1979; P.A. 83-402 qualified reference to commission of murder in Subdiv. (1) by specifying murder "under sections 53a-54a to 53a-54d, inclusive" and required that written findings be made rather than an investigation prior to transfer; P.A. 86-185 added provision that a transfer order shall be a final judgment for purposes of appeal; P.A. 90-136 excluded from the provisions of Subdiv. (2) a child referred for the commission of the class A felony of murder, added provisions re the rights of the child and the procedure applicable at the hearing, authorized credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to transfer, authorized a child to plead guilty to a lesser offense and provided that a child who so pleads shall not resume his juvenile status re said offense, and replaced a reference to a finding of "innocent" with a finding of "not guilty"; P.A. 90-187 added provision requiring a transferred child to be maintained in a facility for children and youth rather than in a correctional facility until he is sixteen years of age or sentenced, whichever occurs first, effective July 1, 1991; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 designated existing provisions re children required to be transferred to the regular criminal docket as Subsec. (a) and amended said Subsec. to add a new Subdiv. (2) requiring the transfer of any child referred for the violation of certain firearm-related offenses, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, to exclude from Subdivs. (3) and (4) any child referred for a violation of any provision specified in Subdiv. (2), to add provision requiring the prosecuting authority for juvenile matters to consider whether the child is a person with mental retardation or suffers from a substantial mental disorder in deciding whether to seek the transfer of the child under Subdiv. (2) and to add provision authorizing the child to file a notice of intent to request a hearing under Subsec. (c), designated existing provisions re probable cause hearing as Subsec. (b), added Subsec. (c) re a hearing for a child referred pursuant to Subsec. (a)(2) at which he may present evidence that he should not be transferred to the regular criminal docket and the factors that must be proven at such hearing to avoid such a transfer, deleted the provision that a transfer order is a final judgment for purposes of appeal and designated existing provisions re post-transfer procedures as Subsec. (d); P.A. 95-225 substantially revised section by deleting former Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c), adding new Subsec. (a) re automatic transfer of a child charged with the commission of a capital felony, a class A or B felony or a violation of section 53a-54d, adding new Subsec. (b) re transfer of a child charged with a class C or D felony or an unclassified felony and redesignating former Subsec. (d) re post-transfer procedures as Subsec. (c); P.A. 97-4 amended Subsec. (c) to delete provision that prohibited a child being placed in a correctional facility and required the child to be maintained in a facility for children and youth until he attains the age of sixteen years or until he is sentenced, whichever occurs first, added Subsec. (d) providing that a child transferred to the regular criminal docket shall be in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction upon the finalization of the transfer and specifying when a transfer is final, and added Subsec. (e) limiting the transfer of children and juveniles to a Department of Correction facility, effective March 20, 1997; P.A. 97-319 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re appointment of counsel for indigent child, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to require the file of a transferred case to remain sealed "until the end of the tenth working day following such arraignment" rather than "until the tenth day following such arraignment" and to replace "disposition" with "proceedings", amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the case shall be transferred upon "order of the court" rather than upon "approval by the court", to establish a deadline for a court to return a case to the docket for juvenile matters of "not later than ten working days after the date of the transfer" and to require arraignment "by the next court date" rather than "at the next court date" and amended Subsec. (c) to make provision mandating that a child resume his status as a juvenile when found not guilty of the transferred charge also apply when found not guilty of any lesser included offenses.
See Sec. 18-65a re confinement of young and teenage women and female children.
See Sec. 18-73 re confinement of male children and youths.
Annotation to former section 17-60b:
Cited. 42 CS 426−429, 432, 497.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 195 C. 303, 310. Cited. 206 C. 323, 324, 326, 327, 330, 331. Section "required a transfer of defendant back to Juvenile Matters after it had been found that there was no probable cause to believe he had committed murder". 206 C. 346, 347, 350, 353−362. Cited. 207 C. 270, 275. Cited. 210 C. 435, 443. Cited. 211 C. 151, 158, 166. Cited. Id., 289, 296, 298, 299, 301, 304−307, 312, 318. Cited. 214 C. 454, 455, 457, 460, 461. Cited. 215 C. 277−282. Cited. 218 C. 714, 715, 717. Cited. 220 C. 162, 165. Cited. 221 C. 109, 110, 112, 114, 116, 119, 124, 125. Cited. 224 C. 29, 38. Cited. 226 C. 497, 499, 500. Requirements by section for adjudication of juvenile matter are not contemporaneous with procedural requirements of Sec. 54-46a. 229 C. 691−695, 697, 699, 701, 702. Cited. 233 C. 44, 64. 1994 amendment affects substantive rights and therefore applies prospectively. Judgment of appellate court reversed. 237 C. 364, 366, 369−378. P.A. 94-2 Sec. 6, July Spec. Sess. cited. Id. Section must be read to authorize the same sentence for those children convicted of lesser included offenses after a full trial as for those who plead guilty to lesser included offenses. 240 C. 727. Cited. Id., 743.
Cited. 20 CA 321, 330. Cited. 24 CA 244−246. Cited. 28 CA 608−610. Cited. 29 CA 499, 500. Cited. Id., 573, 574. Cited. Id., 771. Cited. 30 CA 381, 382, 384, 385, 391, 392. Cited. 32 CA 431, 433, 434, 436. Cited. Id., 759−765. Cited. 33 CA 90, 92. Cited. 36 CA 364, 365, 381. Cited. 46 CA 545.
Cited. 42 CS 426−429, 432, 437. Court allowed full participation of both state's attorney and state's advocate in transfer hearing. 43 CS 38, 40, 41. Cited. Id., 367−370.
Former Subdiv. (1):
Cited. 211 C. 289, 295−301, 307, 310, 313. Cited. 215 C. 277, 278. Cited. 218 C. 714, 715. Cited. 240 C. 727.
Cited. 24 CA 244, 245.
Former Subdiv. (2):
Cited. 211 C. 289, 298.
Subsec. (a):
Statute does not create vested liberty interest in juvenile status and therefore procedural due process is not denied by transferring juvenile to criminal docket without notice, hearing or the assistance of counsel; nor does statute violate juvenile's rights to substantive due process and equal protection of the law or violate principle of separation of powers. 245 C. 93.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 240 C. 727.

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Sec. 46b-128. (Formerly Sec. 51-309). Investigation of delinquency complaint. Nonjudicial disposition. Petition of delinquency. Summoning of child and parent or guardian. (a) Whenever the Superior Court is in receipt of any written complaint filed by any person, any public or private agency or any federal, state, city or town department maintaining that a child's conduct constitutes delinquency within the meaning of section 46b-120, it shall make a preliminary investigation to determine whether the facts, if true, would be sufficient to be a juvenile matter and whether the interests of the public or the child require that further action be taken. If so, the court may authorize the filing of a verified petition of alleged delinquency or it may make without such petition whatever nonjudicial disposition is practicable, including the ordering of such child to do work of which he is capable in public buildings or on public property, particularly in cases in which the complaint alleges that the conduct of such child resulted in the wilful destruction of property, provided the facts establishing jurisdiction are admitted and that a competent acceptance of such a disposition has been given by the child and his parent or guardian. If a nonjudicial disposition is made, the term of any nonjudicial supervision shall be established by the juvenile probation supervisor provided such period of supervision shall not exceed one hundred eighty days. Each verified petition of delinquency filed by the court shall set forth plainly (1) the facts which bring the child within the jurisdiction of the court, (2) the name, date of birth, sex and residence of the child, (3) the names and residence of his parent or parents, guardian or other person having control of the child, and (4) a prayer for appropriate action by the court in conformity with the provisions of this chapter.
(b) Upon the filing of a delinquency petition, the court may, either forthwith or after investigation, cause a summons, which summons shall have a copy of said verified petition attached thereto, signed by the judge or by the clerk or assistant clerk of such court, to be issued, requiring the child and the parent or parents, guardian or other person having control of the child to appear in court at the time and place therein specified. Whenever it appears to the judge that orders addressed to an adult, as set forth in section 46b-121, are necessary for the welfare of such child, a similar summons shall be issued and served upon such adult if such adult is not already in court. Service of summons, together with a copy of the verified petition, may be made by any one of the following methods: (1) By the delivery of a true and attested copy thereof to the person summoned, or at such person's usual place of abode; (2) by restricted delivery addressed to the person summoned, return receipt requested; or (3) by first class mail addressed to the person summoned. Any notice sent by first class mail shall include a provision informing the party that appearance in court as a result of the notice may subject the appearing party to the jurisdiction of the court. If service is made by first class mail and the party does not appear, no order may be entered by the court in the case. If, after reasonable effort, personal service has not been made, such substitute service, by publication or otherwise, as the judge may order, shall be sufficient. Service may be made by any officer authorized by law to serve process, or by a probation officer, probation aide or indifferent person, and the court may allow suitable expenses and a reasonable fee therefor. The court may punish for contempt, as provided in section 46b-121, any parent, guardian or other person so summoned who fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified.
(1949 Rev., S. 2807; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 6; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 6; P.A. 75-157; 75-226, S. 1; P.A. 76-436, S. 15, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 14; P.A. 00-196, S. 27.)
History: 1967 act added requirement that copy of petition be served with the summons; 1969 act applied provisions to delinquent children only where previously applicable to "uncared-for, neglected, dependent or delinquent" children, added provisions re nonjudicial disposition of child and re contents of petition of delinquency and authorized service of summons at person's usual place of abode; P.A. 75-157 authorized probation aides to serve summons; P.A. 75-226 allowed court to order child to do work in public buildings or on public property in cases where complaint alleges that child's conduct resulted in wilful destruction of property; P.A. 76-436 made changes in wording to reflect transfer of juvenile court powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-61 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-309 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-128 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-61) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 95-225 inserted Subsec. indicators, amended Subsec. (a) to delete the provision that prohibited nonjudicial supervision being continued beyond three months unless reviewed and extended by the judge or the supervising officer's administrative superior and with the continuing acceptance of such action by the child and his parent or guardian and add the provision that if a nonjudicial disposition is made, the term of nonjudicial supervision shall be established by the juvenile probation supervisor and shall not exceed one hundred eighty days and amended Subsec. (b) to authorize service of the summons and copy of the verified petition to be made by restricted delivery addressed to the person summoned, return receipt requested, or by first class mail addressed to the person summoned, require any notice sent by first class mail to inform the party that appearance in court as a result of the notice may subject the appearing party to the jurisdiction of the court, prohibit an order being entered in the case if service is by first class mail and the party does not appear, and authorize the court to punish for contempt any parent, guardian or other person so summoned who fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (b).
See Sec. 46b-142 re venue and appeals in juvenile matters.
Annotations to former sections 17-61 and 51-309:
Cited. 171 C. 630, 641 (Dissent).
Cited. 19 CS 374; 26 CS 316.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 206 C. 323, 326. Cited. Id., 346, 349. Cited. 229 C. 691, 700.
Subdiv. (1):
Cited. 211 C. 289, 294.

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Sec. 46b-129. (Formerly Sec. 51-310). Commitment of child or youth. Petition for neglected, uncared-for, dependent child or youth. Hearing re temporary custody, order to appear or petition. Review of permanancy plan. Revocation of commitment. (a) Any selectman, town manager, or town, city, or borough welfare department, any probation officer, or the Commissioner of Social Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or any child-caring institution or agency approved by the Commissioner of Children and Families, a child or his representative or attorney or a foster parent of a child, having information that a child or youth is neglected, uncared- for or dependent, may file with the Superior Court which has venue over such matter a verified petition plainly stating such facts as bring the child or youth within the jurisdiction of the court as neglected, uncared-for, or dependent, within the meaning of section 46b-120, the name, date of birth, sex, and residence of the child or youth, the name and residence of his parents or guardian, and praying for appropriate action by the court in conformity with the provisions of this chapter. Upon the filing of such a petition, except as otherwise provided in subsection (k) of section 17a-112, the court shall cause a summons to be issued requiring the parent or parents or the guardian of the child or youth to appear in court at the time and place named, which summons shall be served not less than fourteen days before the date of the hearing in the manner prescribed by section 46b- 128, and said court shall further give notice to the petitioner and to the Commissioner of Children and Families of the time and place when the petition is to be heard not less than fourteen days prior to the hearing in question.
(b) If it appears from the specific allegations of the petition and other verified affirmations of fact accompanying the petition and application, or subsequent thereto, that there is reasonable cause to believe that (1) the child is suffering from serious physical illness or serious physical injury or is in immediate physical danger from his surroundings and (2) that as a result of said conditions, the child's safety is endangered and immediate removal from such surroundings is necessary to ensure the child's safety, the court shall either (A) issue an order to the parents or other person having responsibility for the care of the child or youth to appear at such time as the court may designate to determine whether the court should vest in some suitable agency or person the child's or youth's temporary care and custody pending disposition of the petition, or (B) issue an order ex parte vesting in some suitable agency or person the child's or youth's temporary care and custody. A preliminary hearing on any ex parte custody order or order to appear issued by the court shall be held within ten days from the issuance of such order. The service of such orders may be made by any officer authorized by law to serve process, or by any probation officer appointed in accordance with section 46b-123, investigator from the Department of Administrative Services, state or local police officer or indifferent person. Such orders shall include a conspicuous notice to the respondent written in clear and simple language containing at least the following information: (i) That the order contains allegations that conditions in the home have endangered the safety and welfare of the child; (ii) that a hearing will be held on the date on the form; (iii) that the hearing is the opportunity to present the parents' position concerning the alleged facts; (iv) that an attorney will be appointed for parents who cannot afford an attorney; (v) that such parents may apply for a court-appointed attorney by going in person to the court address on the form and are advised to go as soon as possible in order for the attorney to prepare for the hearing; and (vi) if such parents have any questions concerning the case or appointment of counsel, any such parent is advised to go to the court or call the clerk's office at the court as soon as possible. Upon application for appointed counsel, the court shall promptly determine eligibility and, if the respondent is eligible, promptly appoint counsel. The expense for any temporary care and custody shall be paid by the town in which such child or youth is at the time residing, and such town shall be reimbursed therefor by the town found liable for his support, except that where a state agency has filed a petition pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the agency shall pay such expense. The agency shall give primary consideration to placing the child in the town where such child resides. The agency shall file in writing with the clerk of the court the reasons for placing the child in a particular placement outside the town where the child resides. Upon issuance of an ex parte order, the court shall provide to the commissioner and the parent or guardian specific steps necessary for each to take to address the ex parte order for the parent or guardian to retain or regain custody of the child or youth.
(c) In any proceeding under this section, any grandparent of the child may make a motion to intervene and the court shall grant such motion except for good cause shown. Upon the granting of such motion, such grandparent may appear by counsel or in person.
(d) The preliminary hearing on the order of temporary custody or order to appear or the first hearing on a petition filed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be held in order for the court to: (1) Advise the parent or guardian of the allegations contained in all petitions and applications that are the subject of the hearing; (2) assure that an attorney, and where appropriate, a separate guardian ad litem has been appointed to represent the child or youth in accordance with section 46b-129a and section 46b-136; (3) upon request, appoint an attorney to represent the respondent when the respondent is unable to afford representation, as determined by the court; (4) advise the parent or guardian of the right to a hearing on the petitions and applications, to be held within ten days from the date of the preliminary hearing if the hearing is pursuant to an order of temporary custody or an order to show cause; (5) accept a plea regarding the truth of such allegations; (6) make any interim orders, including visitation, that the court determines are in the best interests of the child or youth. The court, after a hearing pursuant to this subsection, shall order specific steps the commissioner and the parent or guardian shall take for the parent or guardian to regain or to retain custody of the child or youth; (7) take steps to determine the identity of the father of the child or youth, including ordering genetic testing, if necessary, and order service of the petition and notice of the hearing date, if any, to be made upon him; (8) if the person named as the father appears, and admits that he is the father, provide him and the mother with the notices which comply with section 17b-27 and provide them with the opportunity to sign a paternity acknowledgment and affirmation on forms which comply with section 17b-27. These documents shall be executed and filed in accordance with chapter 815y and a copy delivered to the clerk of the superior court for juvenile matters; and (9) in the event that the person named as a father appears and denies that he is the father of the child or youth, advise him that he may have no further standing in any proceeding concerning the child, and either order genetic testing to determine paternity or direct him to execute a written denial of paternity on a form promulgated by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator. Upon execution of such a form by the putative father, the court may remove him from the case and afford him no further standing in the case or in any subsequent proceeding regarding the child or youth until such time as paternity is established by formal acknowledgment or adjudication in a court of competent jurisdiction.
(e) If any parent or guardian fails, after service of such order, to appear at the preliminary hearing the court may enter or sustain an order of temporary custody.
(f) Upon request, or upon its own motion, the court shall schedule a hearing on the order for temporary custody or the order to show cause to be held within ten days from the date of the preliminary hearing. Such hearing shall be held on consecutive days except for compelling circumstances or at the request of the parent or guardian.
(g) At a contested hearing on the order for temporary custody or order to appear, credible hearsay evidence regarding statements of the child or youth made to a mandated reporter or to a parent may be offered by the parties and admitted by the court upon a finding that the statement is reliable and trustworthy and that admission of such statement is reasonably necessary. A signed statement executed by a mandated reporter under oath may be admitted by the court without the need for the mandated reporter to appear and testify unless called by a respondent or the child, provided the statement: (1) Was provided at the preliminary hearing and promptly upon request to any counsel appearing after the preliminary hearing; (2) reasonably describes the qualifications of the reporter and the nature of his contact with the child; and (3) contains only the direct observations of the reporter, and statements made to the reporter that would be admissible if the reporter were to testify to them in court and any opinions reasonably based thereupon. If a respondent or the child gives notice at the preliminary hearing that he intends to cross-examine the reporter, the person filing the petition shall make the reporter available for such examination at the contested hearing.
(h) If any parent or guardian fails, after due notice of the hearing scheduled pursuant to subsection (g) of this section and without good cause, to appear at the scheduled date for a contested hearing on the order of temporary custody or order to appear, the court may enter or sustain an order of temporary custody.
(i) When a petition is filed in said court for the commitment of a child or youth, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall make a thorough investigation of the case and shall cause to be made a thorough physical and mental examination of the child or youth if requested by the court. The court after hearing may also order a thorough physical or mental examination, or both, of a parent or guardian whose competency or ability to care for a child or youth before the court is at issue. The expenses incurred in making such physical and mental examinations shall be paid as costs of commitment are paid.
(j) Upon finding and adjudging that any child or youth is uncared-for, neglected or dependent, the court may commit him to the Commissioner of Children and Families for a maximum period of twelve months, unless such period is extended in accordance with the provisions of subsection (k) of this section, provided such commitment or any extension thereof may be revoked or parental rights terminated at any time by the court, or the court may vest such child's or youth's care and personal custody in any private or public agency which is permitted by law to care for neglected, uncared-for or dependent children or youth or with any person or persons found to be suitable and worthy of such responsibility by the court. The court shall order specific steps which the parent must take to facilitate the return of the child or youth to the custody of such parent. The commissioner shall be the guardian of such child or youth for the duration of the commitment, provided the child or youth has not reached the age of eighteen years or, in the case of a child or youth in full-time attendance in a secondary school, a technical school, a college or a state-accredited job training program, provided such child or youth has not reached the age of twenty-one, by consent of such youth, or until another guardian has been legally appointed, and in like manner, upon such vesting of his care, such other public or private agency or individual shall be the guardian of such child or youth until he has reached the age of eighteen years or, in the case of a child or youth in full-time attendance in a secondary school, a technical school, a college or a state-accredited job training program, until such child or youth has reached the age of twenty-one years or until another guardian has been legally appointed. Said commissioner may place any child or youth so committed to him in a suitable foster home or in the home of a person related by blood to such child or youth or in a licensed child-caring institution or in the care and custody of any accredited, licensed or approved child-caring agency, within or without the state, provided a child shall not be placed outside the state except for good cause and unless the parents of such child are notified in advance of such placement and given an opportunity to be heard, or in a receiving home maintained and operated by the Commissioner of Children and Families. In placing such child or youth, said commissioner shall, if possible, select a home, agency, institution or person of like religious faith to that of a parent of such child or youth, if such faith is known or may be ascertained by reasonable inquiry, provided such home conforms to the standards of said commissioner and the commissioner shall, when placing siblings, if possible, place such children together. As an alternative to commitment, the court may place the child in the custody of the parent or guardian with protective supervision by the Commissioner of Children and Families subject to conditions established by the court.
(k) (1) Ten months after the adjudication of neglect of the child or youth or twelve months after the vesting of temporary care and custody pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, whichever is earlier, the commissioner shall file a motion for review of a permanency plan and to extend or revoke the commitment. Ten months after a permanency plan has been approved by the court pursuant to this subsection, unless the court has approved placement in long-term foster care with an identified person or an independent living program, or the commissioner has filed a petition for termination of parental rights or motion to transfer guardianship, the commissioner shall file a motion for review of the permanency plan to extend or revoke the commitment. A hearing on any such motion shall be held within sixty days of the filing. The court shall provide notice to the child or youth, and his parent or guardian of the time and place of the court hearing on any such motion not less than fourteen days prior to such hearing.
(2) At such hearing, the court shall determine whether it is appropriate to continue to make reasonable efforts to reunify the child or youth with the parent. In making this determination, the court shall consider the best interests of the child, including the child's need for permanency. If the court finds that further efforts are not appropriate, the commissioner has no duty to make further efforts to reunify the child or youth with the parent. If the court finds that further efforts are appropriate, such efforts shall ensure that the child or youth's health and safety are protected and such efforts shall be specified by the court, including the services to be provided to the parent, what steps the parent may take to address the problem that prevents the child or youth from safely reuniting with the parent and a time period, not longer than six months, for such steps to be accomplished.
(3) At such hearing, the court shall approve a permanency plan that is in the best interests of the child or youth and takes into consideration the child or youth's need for permanency. Such permanency plan may include (A) revocation of commitment and placement of the child or youth with the parent or guardian, with or without protective supervision; (B) placing the child or youth in an independent living program; (C) transfer of guardianship; (D) approval of long-term foster care with an identified foster parent; (E) filing of termination of parental rights; (F) if the permanency plan identifies adoption as an option, a thorough adoption assessment and child specific recruitment. As used in this subdivision, "thorough adoption assessment" means conducting and documenting face-to-face interviews with the child, foster care providers, and other significant parties and "child specific recruitment" means recruiting an adoptive placement targeted to meet the individual needs of the specific child, including, but not limited to, use of the media, use of photo-listing services and any other in-state or out-of-state resources that may be used to meet the specific needs of the child, unless there are extenuating circumstances that indicate that these efforts are not in the best interest of the child; or (G) such other appropriate action ordered by the court. At the permanency plan hearing, the court shall review the status of the child, the progress being made to implement the permanency plan and determine a timetable for attaining the permanency prescribed by the plan. The court shall extend commitment if extension is in the best interests of the child or youth for a period of twelve months. The court shall revoke commitment if a cause for commitment no longer exists and it is in the best interests of the child or youth.
(l) The Commissioner of Children and Families shall pay directly to the person or persons furnishing goods or services determined by said commissioner to be necessary for the care and maintenance of such child or youth the reasonable expense thereof, payment to be made at intervals determined by said commissioner; and the Comptroller shall draw his order on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such part of the appropriation for care of committed children or youth as may be needed in order to enable the commissioner to make such payments. Said commissioner shall include in his annual budget a sum estimated to be sufficient to carry out the provisions of this section. Notwithstanding that any such child or youth has income or estate, the commissioner may pay the cost of care and maintenance of such child or youth. The commissioner may bill to and collect from the person in charge of the estate of any child or youth aided under this chapter, including his decedent estate, or the payee of such child's or youth's income, the total amount expended for care of such child or youth or such portion thereof as any such estate or payee is able to reimburse.
(m) The commissioner, a parent or the child's attorney may file a motion to revoke a commitment, and, upon finding that cause for commitment no longer exists, and that such revocation is in the best interest and welfare of such child or youth, the court may revoke the commitment of any child or youth. No such motion shall be filed more often than once every six months.
(n) Upon service on the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth of any order issued by the court pursuant to the provisions of subsections (b) and (j) of this section, the child or youth concerned shall be surrendered to the person serving the order who shall forthwith deliver the child or youth to the person, agency, department or institution awarded custody in such order. Upon refusal of the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth to surrender the child or youth as provided in the order, the court may cause a warrant to be issued charging the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth with contempt of court. If the person arrested is found in contempt of court, the court may order such person confined until he purges himself of contempt, but for not more than six months, or may fine such person not more than five hundred dollars, or both.
(o) A foster parent shall have standing for the purposes of this section in Superior Court in matters concerning the placement or revocation of commitment of a foster child living with such parent. A foster parent shall receive notice of any motion to revoke commitment or any hearing on such motion. A foster parent who has cared for a child or youth for not less than six months shall have standing to comment on the best interests of such child or youth in any matter under this section which is brought not more than one year after the last day the foster parent provided such care.
(1949 Rev., S. 2634, subs. (a)−(e); 1949, 1953, 1955, S. 1469d, subs. (a)−(e); 1957, P.A. 50; 1959, P.A. 293; 1967, P.A. 698; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 7; 1971, P.A. 150; 184; 231; 253; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 24; 294, S. 18; P.A. 73-205, S. 5; 73- 546, S. 2; 73-625, S. 3, 4; P.A. 74-251, S. 10, 11; P.A. 75-420, S. 4, 6; 75-492, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 4, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 16, 668, 681; P.A. 77-272; 77-273; 77-614, S. 71, 521, 587, 610; P.A. 78-223, S. 1, 2; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-423; 79-579; 79-631, S. 84, 111; P.A. 80-483, S. 121, 186; P.A. 82-181, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-449, S. 5, 7; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93- 262, S. 1, 87; P.A. 95-238, S. 4; P.A. 96-246, S. 20, 21; P.A. 97-319, S. 19, 22; P.A. 98-185; 98-241, S. 5, 18; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 102, 121; P.A. 00-137, S. 2, 3, 15.)
History: 1959 act specified that commissioner is to pay cost of child's care and maintenance and collect cost of care and maintenance from child's estate or income in Subsec. (d); 1967 act added "dependent child" to classification of children within section and added custody by private or public agency to Subsec. (c); 1969 act rephrased provisions and rearranged Subsecs., authorized filing in Subsec. (a) by town manager, local welfare department and commission on youth services, deleting authority for parent or guardian, Long Lane School and Connecticut State Farm for Women to file and added provisions in Subsec. (c) re physical and/or mental examinations of parents or guardians; 1971 acts authorized application by person who acknowledges paternity of a child born out of wedlock in Subsec. (f), added Subsec. (g) re surrender of child upon court order, rephrased provision in Subsec. (e) re recovery of costs of child's care and maintenance and specified in Subsec. (b) who may serve orders for temporary custody; 1972 acts changed age at which child's guardianship terminates from twenty-one to eighteen, reflecting changed age of majority, in Subsec. (d) and referred to annual rather than biennial budgets in Subsec. (e); P.A. 73-205 authorized court to order child's parent or person responsible for child to show cause why temporary custody should not be vested in suitable agency or person pending hearing and specified that hearing must be held within ten days from issuance of order in Subsec. (b); P.A. 73-546 rephrased provision in Subsec. (e) re recovery of costs of child's care and maintenance; P.A. 73-625 extended period of guardianship until child is twenty-one where he is in full-time attendance in secondary or technical school, college or state-accredited job training program in Subsec. (d); P.A. 74-251 authorized commitments to commissioner of children and youth services after April 1, 1975, in Subsecs. (a) and (d); P.A. 75-420 replaced welfare commissioner with commissioner of social services generally; P.A. 75-492 deleted reference to welfare commissioner and authorized filing by child, his representative, attorney or foster parent in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-602 applied provisions to youths, included in Subsec. (a) reference to "dependent" children and substituted children and youth services commissioner for welfare commissioner in Subsec. (c); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to superior court for references to juvenile court where appearing, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-272 added proviso in Subsec. (d) re conditions which must be met for out-of-state placements; P.A. 77-273 added Subsec. (h) re standing of foster parent; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced central collections division of finance and control department with department of administrative services in Subsec. (b) and, effective January 1, 1979, replaced references to social services commissioner with references to human resources commissioner; P.A. 78-223 specified commissioner in Subsec. (e) as commissioner "of the department to which the child or youth is committed"; P.A. 79-423 added exception in Subsec. (b) re payment of expenses of temporary care and custody by state agencies; P.A. 79-579 deleted reference to human resources commissioner in Subsec. (d), placed limitations on period of commitment in that Subsec., inserted new Subsec. (e) re procedure when expiration of commitment period is near to revoke or extend commitment or terminate parental rights, relettering former Subsecs. (e) to (h) accordingly, and amended Subsec. (i), formerly (h), to apply with regard to revocation of commitments; P.A. 79-631 and P.A. 80-483 made technical changes to reflect final deletion of extraneous references to commissioner of human resources; Sec. 17-62 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-310 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-129 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-62) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 82-181 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) by reducing the maximum period of commitment from two years to eighteen months; P.A. 84-449 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) of section 17-43a"; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of human resources, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-238 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) to change the maximum period of commitment from eighteen months to twelve months and amended Subsec. (e) to require that the court determine the appropriateness of continued efforts to reunify the child or youth with his family; P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision requiring court to provide commissioner and parent with specific steps for parent to facilitate return of child to custody of parent or maintain custody of child and amended Subsec. (g) by permitting attorney who represented child in prior or pending hearing, attorney appointed by Superior Court and attorney retained by child over fourteen to make application for revocation of commitment; P.A. 97-319 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re court orders of steps the parent must take to facilitate return of a child or youth to the custody of the parent and provision re placement of siblings and alternatives to commitment, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-185 amended Subsec. (i) by providing standing to foster parents to comment on the best interest of the child or youth; P.A. 98- 241 substantially revised section, amending provisions re allegations of petition, preliminary hearing on ex parte custody order or hearing on petition, notice re rights of parents re hearing, consideration of placement of child in town where child resides, necessary steps for parent to regain custody of child, intervention by grandparents, and contested hearing on order of temporary custody, adding new Subsecs. (c) to (h), inclusive, and redesignating former Subsecs. (c), (d), (f), (h) and (i) as Subsecs. (i), (j), (l), (n) and (o); replaced former Subsec. (e) with new Subsec. (k) re filing of permanency plan and motion to extend or revoke commitment by Commissioner of Children and Families, basis for determination by court, and determination by court, and replaced former Subsec. (g) with new Subsec. (m) re motion to revoke commitment; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-137 changed reference in Subsec. (a) from Subsec. (d) to Subsec. (k) of Sec. 17a-112, made technical changes in Subsec. (d), and in Subsec. (e) deleted "and enter a default" after "order of temporary custody" and added Subsec. (k)(3)(F) providing that if permanency plan identifies adoption as option, thorough adoption assessment and child specific recruitment is required, and defining "thorough adoption assessment" and "child specific recruitment", relettered former (F) as (G), and added provision to Subsec. (k)(3)(G) that at permanency plan hearing, court shall review status of child, progress made to implement permanency plan and determine timetable for attaining permanency plan, and deleted Subsec. (k)(4) re revocation of commitment by operation of law, following dismissal of termination petition, or denial of motion to transfer guardianship.
See Sec. 17a-109 re commitment of children to child-caring institutions.
Annotations to former section 17-62 and 51-310:
Cited. 4 CS 254; 26 CS 316. Youth and emotional instability of parents held not sufficient to warrant finding that child was uncared for or neglected. 21 CS 154.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 171 C. 630, 633.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 171 C. 630, 633, 634, 636, 638.
Cited. 33 CS 193, 194.
Subsec. (f):
Foster parents are not parents for purposes of this subsection. 171 C. 630, 632−636. Plaintiff-foster parent should have right to reopen commitment of child under this subsection. Id., 630, 639, 643, 644 (Dissent).
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 179 C. 155, 156, 169, 172, 173. Cited. 187 C. 431, 435; Cited. 189 C. 276, 289, 293. Cited. 190 C. 310, 312. Confers exclusive jurisdiction on superior court to enter orders in cases in which there is finding that child or youth is uncared for, neglected or dependent upon filing of a neglect petition. 195 C. 344−349, 353, 366. Cited. 211 C. 151, 162. Cannot be read together with Sec. 45a-717(f)(3) so as to permit the custody determination made under this section to lead directly to the termination determination made under Sec. 45a-717(f)(3). Judgment of appellate court in In re Valerie D., 25 CA 586 reversed. 223 C. 492, 499, 533−535. Cited. 224 C. 263, 265, 268.
Cited. 1 CA 463, 466. Cited. 6 CA 360, 361. Cited. 9 CA 506, 509, 511. Cited. 10 CA 428, 434, 438. Cited. 13 CA 626, 630. Cited. 22 CA 656, 657. Cited. 26 CA 58, 61, 63. Cited. 29 CA 112, 114. Cited. Id., 600, 602, 603, 607, 612, 613, 617, 618. Cited. 33 CA 632, 634. Cited. 35 CA 276, 277. Cited. 40 CA 366, 369.
Cited. 39 CS 514, 515. Cited. 43 CS 108, 110. Cited. 44 CS 235. P.A. 95-238 Sec. 4(e) cited. Id., 551.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 179 C. 155, 170. Cited. 189 C. 276, 280, 299. Cited. 195 C. 344, 364. Cited. 223 C. 492, 502. Authority to draft and sign petitions to terminate parental rights not limited to attorneys. 247 C. 1.
Cited. 2 CA 705, 706. Cited. 9 CA 98, 99. Cited. 10 CA 428, 430. Statute does not require that a respondent parent have custody for court to adjudicate a neglect petition. 51 CA 667.
Cited. 41 CS 23, 27.
Subsec. (b):
Held constitutional; burden of proof and standard of proof discussed. 189 C. 276 et seq. Subdiv. (1) cited. Id., 276, 293. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 276, 280, 281, 293−295. Cited. 192 C. 254, 256, 263. Cited. 223 C. 492, 499, 533.
Cited. 10 CA 428, 430, 435. Cited. 26 CA 58, 61, 62.
Subdiv. (2) cited. 39 CS 514, 516, 517. Subdiv. (2) cited. 41 CS 505, 509.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 179 C. 155, 173, 174. Cited. 189 C. 276, 299. Cited. 192 C. 254, 256. Cited. 216 C. 563, 580.
Does not violate due process. 10 CA 428, 438, 439. Cited. 33 CA 632, 641, 642.
Cited. 44 CS 551.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 192 C. 254, 264. Cited. 195 C. 344, 345, 349, 350, 352−357, 361, 364−367. Cited. 223 C. 492, 533. Cited. 230 C. 459, 462. Cited. 238 C. 146.
Cited. 8 CA 656, 657, 660, 666. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 656, 659. Cited. 9 CA 506, 509, 511, 512. Cited. Id., 608, 613. Cited. 10 CA 428, 429, 434. Cited. 19 CA 371, 372. Cited. 31 CA 400, 404; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 459 et seq. Cited. 40 CA 366, 367, 369, 371. Cited. 45 CA 606.
Cited. 39 CS 514, 518. Cited. 41 CS 23, 30. Cited. Id., 145. Cited. Id., 505, 513, 515. Cited. 42 CS 562−564.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 189 C. 276, 285. Cited. 190 C. 310, 319. Cited. 192 C. 254, 264. Cited. 195 C. 344, 350, 352, 355−358, 361. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 344, 356, 357.
"Shall" construed to be directory rather than mandatory. 9 CA 506, 508, 509, 511, 512. Cited. Id., 608, 613. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 608, 614. Cited. 23 CA 410, 413. Department of Children and Families (DCF) may petition for an extension of commitment pursuant to the section even when petition to terminate parental rights is pending. 40 CA 366−368, 371, 373, 374. Order of trial court extending commitment of minor child to commissioner is final judgment for purposes of appeal. 49 CA 361.
Cited. 44 CS 551.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 177 C. 648, 650, 657−659, 662. Cited. 189 C. 276, 291.
Subsec. (g):
Cited. 189 C. 276, 299. Cited. 192 C. 254, 264. Cited. 195 C. 344, 356.
Cited. 45 CA 606.
Cited. 41 CS 505, 514. Cited. 42 CS 562, 564.
Subsec. (i):
Cited. 188 C. 259, 261, 263.
Cited. 46 CA 69.

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Sec. 46b-129a. Examination by physician. Appointment of counsel and guardian ad litem. In proceedings in the Superior Court under section 46b-129: (1) The court may order the child, the parents, the guardian, or other persons accused by a competent witness with abusing the child, to be examined by one or more competent physicians, psychiatrists or psychologists appointed by the court; (2) a child shall be represented by counsel appointed by the court to represent the child whose fee shall be paid by the parents or guardian, or the estate of the child, or, if such persons are unable to pay, by the court. In all cases in which the court deems it appropriate, the court shall also appoint a person, other than the person appointed to represent the child, as guardian ad litem for such child to speak on behalf of the best interests of the child, which guardian ad litem is not required to be an attorney-at-law but shall be knowledgeable about the needs and protection of children and whose fee, if any, shall be paid by the parents or guardian, or the estate of the child, or, if such persons are unable to pay, by the court; (3) the privilege against the disclosure of communications between husband and wife shall be inapplicable and either may testify as to any relevant matter; and (4) evidence that the child has been abused or has sustained a nonaccidental injury shall constitute prima facie evidence that shall be sufficient to support an adjudication that such child is uncared for or neglected.
(P.A. 96-246, S. 13.)

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Sec. 46b-130. (Formerly Sec. 51-311). Reimbursement for expense of care and maintenance. Assignment of right of support to Commissioner of Children and Families. The parents of a minor child for whom care or support of any kind has been provided under the provisions of this chapter, shall be liable to reimburse the state for such care or support to the same extent, and under the same terms and conditions as are the parents of recipients of public assistance. Upon receipt of foster care maintenance payments under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act by a minor child, the right of support, present, past, and future from a parent of such child shall, by this section, be assigned to the Commissioner of Children and Families. Referral by the commissioner shall promptly be made to the Child Support Enforcement Unit of the Department of Social Services for pursuit of support for said minor child in accordance with the provisions of section 17b-179. Any child who reimburses the state under the provisions of subsection (k) of section 46b-129 for any care or support he received shall have a right of action to recover such payments from his parents.
(P.A. 73-546, S. 1; P.A. 85-548, S. 6; P.A. 90-230, S. 64, 101; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-262, S. 1, 87; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2, S. 106, 165; P.A. 98-241, S. 13, 18.)
History: Sec. 17-62a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-311 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-130 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-62a) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 85-548 added provision re assignment of support rights of minor child receiving foster care maintenance payments under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act; P.A. 90-230 corrected an internal reference; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of human resources, effective July 1, 1993; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2 made a technical change, deleting various references to sections in title 17b, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-241 changed reference from Subsec. (f) to Subsec. (k) of Sec. 46b-129, effective July 1, 1998.
Cited. 236 C. 582, 594.
Cited. 45 CA 508.

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Sec. 46b-131. (Formerly Sec. 51-312). Custody of alleged delinquent child pending disposition. Bail. Section 46b-131 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 2808; 1969, P.A. 297; 794, S. 8; P.A. 79-581, S. 4; P.A. 80-483, S. 122, 186; P.A. 81-472, S. 83, 159; P.A. 84-369, S. 3.)
Cited. 195 C. 303, 310.

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Sec. 46b-132. (Formerly Sec. 51-313). Temporary detention places. Where accommodations for the temporary detention of children in state-operated detention homes are unavailable, the Chief Court Administrator or his designee shall arrange with some agency or person for the use of suitable accommodations to serve as a temporary detention place as may be required. The court may allow such agency or person reasonable compensation for the expenses and services incident to such detention. The Chief Court Administrator or his designee may employ any other suitable method or arrangement for detention. Each child while detained as herein provided shall be under the orders, direction and supervision of the court.
(1949 Rev., S. 2809; 1955, S. 1577d; P.A. 76-436, S. 10a, 21, 681.)
History: P.A. 76-436 transferred powers formerly held by juvenile court district judges to chief court administrator or his designee, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-64 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-313 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-132 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-64.
Annotations to former section 17-64:
Cited. 26 CS 316.

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Sec. 46b-132a. Medical care of children in detention centers. When deemed in the best interests of a child placed in a juvenile detention center, the administrator of such detention center may authorize, under policies promulgated by the Chief Court Administrator, such medical assessment and treatment and dentistry as is necessary to ensure the continued good health or life of the child. The administrator of the detention center shall make reasonable efforts to inform the child's parents or guardian prior to taking such action, and in all cases shall send notice to the parents or guardian by letter to their last-known address informing them of the actions taken and of the outcome, provided failure to notify shall not affect the validity of the authorization.
(P.A. 98-256, S. 9.)

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Sec. 46b-133. (Formerly Sec. 51-314). Arrest of child. Release or detention of arrested child. Alcohol or drug testing or treatment as condition of release. Admission of child to overpopulated juvenile detention center. (a) Nothing in this part shall be construed as preventing the arrest of a child, with or without a warrant, as may be provided by law, or as preventing the issuance of warrants by judges in the manner provided by section 54-2a, except that no child shall be taken into custody on such process except on apprehension in the act, or on speedy information, or in other cases when the use of such process appears imperative. Whenever a child is arrested and charged with a crime, such child may be required to submit to the taking of his photograph, physical description and fingerprints. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 46b-124, the name, photograph and custody status of any child arrested for the commission of a capital felony or class A felony may be disclosed to the public.
(b) Whenever a child is brought before a judge of the Superior Court, such judge shall immediately have the case proceeded upon as a juvenile matter. Such judge may admit such child to bail or release him in the custody of his parent or parents, his guardian or some other suitable person to appear before the Superior Court when ordered. If detention becomes necessary or desirable, the same shall be in the manner prescribed by this chapter.
(c) Upon the arrest of any child by an officer, such officer may release him to the custody of his parent or parents, guardian or some other suitable person or agency or may immediately turn him over to a juvenile detention center. When a child is arrested for the commission of a delinquent act and the child is not placed in detention or referred to a diversionary program, an officer shall serve a written complaint and summons on the child and his parent, guardian or other person having control of the child. Such parent, guardian or other person shall execute a written promise to appear in court at the time and place specified in such summons. If any person so summoned wilfully fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified, the court may issue a warrant for the child's arrest or a capias to assure the appearance in court of such parent, guardian or other person. The court may punish for contempt, as provided in section 46b-121, any parent, guardian or other person so summoned who wilfully fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified.
(d) The court or detention supervisor may turn such child over to a youth service program created for such purpose, if such course is practicable, or such child may be detained pending a hearing which shall be held on the business day next following his arrest. No child shall be detained after such hearing or held in detention pursuant to a court order unless it appears from the available facts that there is probable cause to believe that the child has committed the acts alleged and that there is (1) a strong probability that the child will run away prior to court hearing or disposition, (2) a strong probability that the child will commit or attempt to commit other offenses injurious to him or to the community before court disposition, (3) probable cause to believe that the child's continued residence in his home pending disposition will not safeguard the best interests of the child or the community because of the serious and dangerous nature of the act or acts he is alleged to have committed, (4) a need to hold the child for another jurisdiction or (5) a need to hold the child to assure his appearance before the court, in view of his previous failure to respond to the court process. Such probable cause may be shown by sworn affidavit in lieu of testimony. No child shall be released from detention who is alleged to have committed a serious juvenile offense except by order of a judge of the Superior Court. In no case shall a child be confined in a community correctional center or lockup, or in any place where adults are or may be confined, except in the case of a nursing infant; nor shall any child at any time be held in solitary confinement. When a female child is held in custody, she shall, as far as possible, be in the charge of a woman attendant.
(e) The police officer who brings a child into detention shall have first notified, or made a reasonable effort to notify, the parents or guardian of the child in question of the intended action and shall file at the detention center a signed statement setting forth the alleged delinquent conduct of the child. Unless the arrest was for a serious juvenile offense, the child may be released by a detention supervisor to the custody of his parent or parents, guardian or some other suitable person.
(f) In conjunction with any order of release from detention the court may, when it has reason to believe a child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent as defined in section 46b-120, and where necessary, reasonable and appropriate, order the child to participate in a program of periodic alcohol or drug testing and treatment as a condition of such release. The results of any such alcohol or drug test shall be admissible only for the purposes of enforcing the conditions of release from detention.
(g) Whenever the population of a juvenile detention center equals or exceeds the maximum capacity for such center, as determined by the Judicial Department, the detention supervisor in charge of intake shall only admit a child who: (1) Is charged with the commission of a serious juvenile offense, (2) is the subject of an order to detain or an outstanding court order to take such child into custody, (3) is ordered by a court to be held in detention, or (4) is being transferred to such center to await a court appearance.
(1949 Rev., S. 2810; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 54; P.A. 74-183, S. 211, 291; P.A. 76-426; 76-436, S. 22, 668, 681; P.A. 77- 452, S. 24, 72; P.A. 80-236; P.A. 82-220; P.A. 83-504; P.A. 84-369, S. 1; P.A. 89-273, S. 3; P.A. 90-161, S. 2, 6; P.A. 95- 225, S. 15; P.A. 98-256, S. 4.)
History: 1959 act substituted circuit court for city, police, borough or town court; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-426 authorized juvenile court, probation officer or other officer to turn child over to youth service program; P.A. 76-436 replaced references to court of common pleas and juvenile court with references to superior court and juvenile matters, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 made technical grammatical change; Sec. 17-65 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-314 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-133 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-65) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 80-236 authorized turning child over to juvenile detention center and similarly authorized detention supervisor to turn child over to youth service program; P.A. 82-220 added provision re taking photograph, physical description and fingerprints of child fourteen or older arrested and charged with a felony; P.A. 83-504 divided section into Subsecs. and added provision re arrest of child by an officer for the commission of a serious juvenile offense as Subsec. (e); P.A. 84-369 revised the procedures for the release or detention of an arrested child including deleting the provision allowing the police officer to set bond for a child arrested for a serious juvenile offense, providing that a child arrested for any offense may either be released to the custody of his parent, guardian or some other suitable person or agency or turned over to a detention center, requiring the detention release hearing to be held on the next business day for all arrested children who are detained, prohibiting detention unless certain findings are made including probable cause that the child has committed the acts alleged, prohibiting release from detention of a child who has committed a serious juvenile offense except by order of a judge, and requiring a police officer to notify the parents or guardian of a child whom he intends to bring into detention; P.A. 89-273 added Subsec. (f) re the criteria for the admission of a child to a juvenile detention center when the population of the center equals or exceeds its maximum capacity; P.A. 90-161 inserted new Subsec. (f) permitting the court to order child to participate in drug testing and treatment as condition of release from detention, relettering former Subsec. as (g); P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to revise provision re taking of the photograph, physical description and fingerprints of an arrested child by making it applicable to any child who is charged with a crime, rather than only to a child fourteen years of age or older who is charged with a violation of any provision of title 53a which is designated a felony, and by providing that such child "may be required to" submit to such taking, rather than "shall" submit to such taking, and add provision permitting the disclosure to the public of the photograph of any child arrested for the commission of a capital felony or a class A felony, amended Subsec. (c) to add provisions requiring an officer to serve a written complaint and summons on a child and the parent, guardian or other person having control of a child who is arrested or referred for the commission of a delinquent act and is not placed in detention, requiring such parent, guardian or other person to execute a written promise to appear in court, authorizing the court to issue a warrant for the child's arrest or a capias to assure the court appearance of the parent, guardian or other person if any person so summoned wilfully fails to appear in court and authorizing the court to punish for contempt any parent, guardian or other person who wilfully fails to appear in court and amended Subsec. (f) to authorize "alcohol" testing and treatment and allow the admissibility of the results of an "alcohol" test; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to revise provision authorizing the disclosure of the photograph of a child arrested for a capital felony or class A felony to also include the name and custody status of the child, amended Subsec. (c) to make requirement that an officer serve a written complaint and summons on a child arrested for a delinquent act and his parent, guardian or other person having control of the child inapplicable when the child is referred to a diversionary program and amended Subsec. (g) to add "an order to detain" in Subdiv. (2).
Annotations to former sections 17-65 and 51-314:
Cited. 115 C. 591; 154 C. 644, 648. Under circumstances of the apprehension, and in view of fact that offices of juvenile court were closed, it was not practicable to turn plaintiff over to appropriate officials immediately after arrest, and ten- hour detention was not unreasonable. 171 C. 683, 689.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 206 C. 346, 349. Cited. 211 C. 289, 293.
Cited. 46 CA 545.
Cited. 43 CS 211, 220.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 206 C. 323, 330. Cited. Id., 346, 349.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 46 CA 545.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 214 C. 454, 463.
Cited. 43 CS 211, 212, 220.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 215 C. 739, 748.

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Sec. 46b-133a. Right to trial or dismissal upon nolle prosequi of delinquency charge. Erasure of records. (a) A nolle prosequi may not be entered as to any count of delinquency if the juvenile objects to the nolle prosequi and demands either a trial or dismissal, except with respect to prosecutions in which a nolle prosequi is entered upon a representation to the court by the juvenile prosecutor that a material witness has died, disappeared or become disabled or that material evidence has disappeared or has been destroyed and that a further investigation is therefore necessary.
(b) Whenever a nolle prosequi has been entered as to any count of delinquency, or whenever any count of delinquency has been dismissed without prejudice, if at least thirteen months have elapsed since such nolle or dismissal without prejudice, all police and court records pertaining to such count shall be erased. Whenever any such count has been continued at the request of the juvenile prosecutor and a period of thirteen months has elapsed since the granting of such continuance during which period there has been no prosecution or other disposition of the matter, the count shall be construed to have been nolled as of the date of termination of such thirteen-month period and such erasure may thereafter be effected as provided in this subsection for nolled cases.
(P.A. 84-369, S. 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 16; P.A. 98-256, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 95-225 replaced "court advocate" with "juvenile prosecutor"; P.A. 98-256 replaced "charge" with "count" where appearing.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 21 CA 654, 661.

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Sec. 46b-133b. Suspension of delinquency proceedings for treatment for alcohol or drug dependency. (a) The court, on motion of a child charged with a delinquency offense, but not yet convicted, may order that such child be examined to determine whether the child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent as defined in section 46b- 120. Such motion shall be filed with the court within ten days after a plea is entered, except if waived by the court or pursuant to an agreement by the parties. The results of any examination ordered pursuant to this subsection shall be utilized only for the purposes of determining whether the delinquency proceeding should be suspended under this section.
(b) The court, upon motion of the child charged with a delinquency offense but not yet convicted, may order the suspension of the delinquency proceedings for a period of up to one year, order periodic alcohol and drug testing of such child during the period of suspension and order treatment for alcohol or drug dependency if the court, after consideration of information before it concerning the alcohol or drug dependency of the child, finds that (1) the child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent as defined in section 46b-120, (2) the child presently needs and is likely to benefit from treatment for the dependency and (3) the suspension of the delinquency proceedings will advance the interests of justice. During the period of suspension, a child shall be placed under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer for treatment for alcohol or drug dependency and such officer shall monitor the compliance of the child with the orders of the court.
(c) If the court denies the motion for suspension of the delinquency proceedings, the juvenile prosecutor may proceed with the delinquency proceedings. Any order of the court granting or denying a motion for suspension of the delinquency proceedings shall not be deemed a final order for purposes of appeal.
(d) At any time before the end of the period of the suspension of the delinquency proceedings, but not later than one month before the end of the period of suspension, a juvenile probation officer shall notify the court of the impending conclusion of the suspension and submit a report on whether the child has completed the treatment program and has complied with all other conditions of the suspension order imposed by the court.
(e) If the court, on motion of the child or on its own motion, finds that the child has completed the treatment program and has complied with all other conditions of suspension, it may dismiss the charge for which the delinquency proceedings had been suspended. If the court denies the motion and terminates the suspension of the delinquency proceedings, the juvenile prosecutor may proceed with such proceedings.
(f) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any child charged with a serious juvenile offense as defined in section 46b-120 or any child who was previously ordered treated under this section.
(P.A. 90-161, S. 4, 6; P.A. 95-225, S. 17.)
History: P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "adjudged a delinquent child" with "convicted", amended Subsec. (b) to replace "adjudged a delinquent child" with "convicted" and authorize the court to order periodic alcohol and drug testing of the child during the period of suspension and amended Subsecs. (c) and (e) to replace "court advocate" with "juvenile prosecutor".

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Sec. 46b-133c. Serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution. Sentencing. (a) Whenever a child is referred for the commission of a felony committed after such child attained the age of fourteen years and such child is a serious juvenile repeat offender, as defined in section 46b-120, the juvenile prosecutor may request the court to designate the proceeding as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution.
(b) If a juvenile prosecutor requests that a proceeding be designated a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution, the court shall hold a hearing not later than thirty days after the filing of such request unless good cause is shown by the juvenile prosecutor or by the child as to why the hearing should not be held within such period. If good cause is shown, the hearing shall be held not later than ninety days after the filing of such request. The court shall decide whether to designate the proceeding as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution not later than thirty days after the completion of such hearing. The court shall grant the request to designate the proceeding as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution if the juvenile prosecutor shows by clear and convincing evidence that such designation will serve the public safety. The decision to designate the proceeding as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution shall not be a final judgment for purposes of appeal.
(c) A proceeding designated as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be held before the court without a jury provided the child has waived his right to a trial by jury. If a child is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony in such proceeding, the court shall: (1) Sentence the child in accordance with section 46b-140 or 46b-141a and (2) sentence the child in accordance with section 53a- 28 with the execution of such sentence stayed on the condition that the child not violate the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection or commit a subsequent crime.
(d) If a child is convicted of or pleads guilty to a misdemeanor in a proceeding designated as a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the court shall sentence the child in accordance with section 46b-140 or 46b-141a.
(e) Whenever it appears that a child who has been sentenced pursuant to subsection (c) of this section has violated the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (1) of said subsection (c) or has committed a subsequent crime, the court may, without notice, order that the child be immediately taken into custody in accordance with the provisions of section 46b-125. The court shall notify the child and such child's parent or guardian and the attorney of record, if any, in writing of the reasons alleged to exist for the lifting of the stay of execution of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (2) of said subsection (c). If the child challenges such reasons, the court shall hold a hearing at which the child shall be entitled to be heard and be represented by counsel. After such hearing, if the court finds that the child has violated the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (1) of said subsection (c) or committed a subsequent crime, it shall order the child to serve a sentence not to exceed that imposed pursuant to subdivision (2) of said subsection (c) unless it determines there are mitigating circumstances that justify continuing the stay of execution and specifically states such mitigating circumstances in writing for the record. The child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (2) of said subsection (c) for time served in a juvenile facility pursuant to the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (1) of said subsection (c).
(f) Whenever a proceeding has been designated a serious juvenile repeat offender prosecution pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and the child does not waive his right to a trial by jury, the court shall transfer the case from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court. Upon transfer, such child shall stand trial and be sentenced, if convicted, as if he were sixteen years of age, except that no such child shall be placed in a correctional facility but shall be maintained in a facility for children and youth until he attains sixteen years of age or until he is sentenced, whichever occurs first. Such child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to the effectuation of the transfer. A child who has been transferred may enter a guilty plea to a lesser offense if the court finds that such plea is made knowingly and voluntarily. Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket who pleads guilty to a lesser offense shall not resume his status as a juvenile regarding said offense. If the action is dismissed or nolled or if such child is found not guilty of the charge for which he was transferred, the child shall resume his status as a juvenile until he attains sixteen years of age.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 25.)

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Sec. 46b-133d. Serious sexual offender prosecution. Sentencing. (a) For the purposes of this section, "special juvenile probation" means a period of probation imposed by the superior court for juvenile matters upon a child in a proceeding designated as a serious sexual offender prosecution during which the child is supervised by a juvenile probation officer prior to such child attaining eighteen years of age and by an adult probation officer after such child attains eighteen years of age.
(b) Whenever a child is referred for the commission of any crime of a sexual nature, and such case is not transferred to the regular criminal docket pursuant to section 46b- 127, the juvenile prosecutor may request the court to designate the proceeding as a serious sexual offender prosecution.
(c) If a juvenile prosecutor requests that a proceeding be designated a serious sexual offender prosecution, the court shall hold a hearing not later than thirty days after the filing of such request unless good cause is shown by the juvenile prosecutor or by the child as to why the hearing should not be held within such period. If good cause is shown, the hearing shall be held not later than ninety days after the filing of such request. The court shall decide whether to designate the proceeding as a serious sexual offender prosecution not later than thirty days after the completion of such hearing. The court shall grant the request to designate the proceeding as a serious sexual offender prosecution if the juvenile prosecutor shows by a preponderance of the evidence that such designation will serve the public safety. The decision to designate the proceeding as a serious sexual offender prosecution shall not be a final judgment for purposes of appeal.
(d) A proceeding designated as a serious sexual offender prosecution pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall be held before the court without a jury provided the child has waived the right to a trial by jury. If a child is convicted of or pleads guilty or nolo contendere to a charge in a proceeding that has been designated as a serious sexual offender prosecution, the court shall: (1) Sentence the child in accordance with section 46b-140 or 46b-141a, (2) sentence the child to a period of special juvenile probation of at least five years, to commence upon the release of the child from the institution, agency or program in whose care the child had been placed, and (3) sentence the child in accordance with section 53a-28 with the execution of such sentence stayed on the condition that the child not violate the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection or commit a subsequent crime.
(e) Whenever it appears that a child who has been sentenced pursuant to subsection (d) of this section has violated the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (2) of said subsection or has committed a subsequent crime, the court may, without notice, order that the child be immediately taken into custody in accordance with the provisions of sections 46b-125 and 53a-32. If such violation of probation or subsequent crime occurs prior to the person attaining eighteen years of age, the matter shall be handled by the superior court for juvenile matters. If such violation of probation or subsequent crime occurs after the person has attained eighteen years of age, the matter shall be handled by the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court. Whenever such matter is handled by the superior court for juvenile matters, the court shall notify the child and such child's parent or guardian and the attorney of record, if any, in writing of the reasons alleged to exist for the lifting of the stay of execution of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (d) of this section. If the child challenges such reasons, the court shall hold a hearing at which the child shall be entitled to be heard and be represented by counsel. After such hearing, if the court finds that the child has violated the conditions of the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of this section or committed a subsequent crime, it shall order the child to serve a sentence not to exceed that imposed pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (d) of this section unless it determines there are mitigating circumstances that justify continuing the stay of execution and specifically states such mitigating circumstances in writing for the record. The child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (d) of this section for time served in a juvenile facility pursuant to the sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (1) of said subsection.
(f) When a proceeding has been designated a serious sexual offender prosecution pursuant to subsection (c) of this section and the child does not waive the right to a trial by jury, the court shall transfer the case from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court. Upon transfer, such child shall stand trial and be sentenced, if convicted, as if such child were sixteen years of age, except that no such child shall be placed in a correctional facility but shall be maintained in a facility for children and youth until such child attains sixteen years of age or until such child is sentenced, whichever occurs first. Such child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to the effectuation of the transfer. A child who has been transferred may enter a guilty plea to a lesser offense if the court finds that such plea is made knowingly and voluntarily. Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket who pleads guilty to a lesser offense shall not resume such child's status as a juvenile regarding such offense. If the action is dismissed or nolled or if such child is found not guilty of the charge for which such child was transferred, the child shall resume such child's status as a juvenile until such child attains sixteen years of age.
(June Sp. Sess. P.A. 99-2, S. 47.)

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Sec. 46b-133e. Suspension of delinquency proceedings for participation in school violence prevention program. (a) The court, upon motion of a child charged with an offense involving the use or threatened use of physical violence in or on the real property comprising a public or private elementary or secondary school or at a school-sponsored activity as defined in subsection (h) of section 10-233a, may order the suspension of the delinquency proceedings for a period of one year and order the child to participate in a school violence prevention program during the period of suspension if the court, after consideration of information before it, finds that (1) the child presently needs and is likely to benefit from participation in a school violence prevention program, and (2) the suspension of the delinquency proceedings will advance the interests of justice.
(b) As a condition of eligibility for suspension of prosecution and placement in a school violence prevention program pursuant to this section, (1) the child shall agree to participate in a program of anger management and nonviolent conflict resolution consisting of at least eight group counseling sessions, and to satisfactorily complete such program, (2) the child shall agree to comply with any orders of the court, and (3) the parents or guardian of such child shall certify under penalty of false statement that, to the best of such parents' or guardian's knowledge and belief, neither such parent or guardian nor such child possesses any firearms, dangerous weapons, controlled substances or other property or materials the possession of which is prohibited by law or in violation of the law.
(c) The cost of participation in such program shall be paid by the parent or guardian of such child, except that no child shall be excluded from such program for inability to pay such cost provided (1) the parent or guardian of such child files with the court an affidavit of indigency or inability to pay, and (2) the court enters a finding thereof.
(d) During the period of suspension, a child shall be placed under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer for placement in a school violence prevention program and such officer shall monitor the compliance of the child with the orders of the court including, but not limited to, maintaining contact with the child and officials of the child's school.
(e) If the court denies the motion for suspension of the delinquency proceedings, the juvenile prosecutor may proceed with the delinquency proceedings. Any order of the court granting or denying a motion for suspension of the delinquency proceedings shall not be deemed a final order for purposes of appeal.
(f) At any time before the end of the period of the suspension of the delinquency proceedings, but not later than one month before the end of the period of suspension, a juvenile probation officer shall notify the court of the impending conclusion of the suspension and submit a report on whether the child has satisfactorily completed the school violence prevention program and has complied with all other conditions of the suspension order imposed by the court.
(g) If the court, on motion of the child or on its own motion, finds that the child has satisfactorily completed the school violence prevention program and has complied with all other conditions of suspension, and one year has elapsed since the child was placed in such program, it may dismiss the charge for which the delinquency proceedings had been suspended. If the court denies the motion and terminates the suspension of the delinquency proceedings, the juvenile prosecutor may proceed with such proceedings.
(P.A. 99-259, S. 1, 3.)
History: P.A. 99-259 effective January 1, 2000.
See Sec. 54-56j re school violence prevention program for students sixteen years of age and older.

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Sec. 46b-134. (Formerly Sec. 51-315). Investigation by probation officer prior to disposition of delinquency case. Physical, mental and diagnostic examination. Prior to the disposition of the case of any child convicted of a delinquent act, investigation shall be made of the facts as herein specified by the probation officer, and until such investigation has been completed and the results thereof placed before the judge, no disposition of the child's case shall be made. Such investigation shall consist of an examination of the parentage and surroundings of the child, his age, habits and history, and shall include also an inquiry into the home conditions, habits and character of his parents or guardians. Such investigation shall include an inquiry into the circumstances of the offense, the attitude of the complainant or victim, the criminal record, the present condition of the child and any damages suffered by the victim including medical expenses, loss of earnings and property loss. Where a child is or legally should be in attendance at school, it shall further contain a report of the child's school attendance, adjustment and behavior and any recommendations from school officials on conditions of probation if the child is placed on probation pursuant to section 46b-140, which shall be furnished by the school officials to the court upon its request. The court shall, when it is found necessary to the disposition, cause a complete physical or mental examination, or both, to be made of the child by persons professionally qualified to do so. Such examination may include testing to determine whether the child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent as defined in section 46b-120. Where the court causes a complete physical or mental examination, or both, to be made of a child whose parents, guardian or custodian is found able to pay in whole or in part the cost thereof, it shall assess as costs against such parents, guardian or custodian, including any agency vested with the legal custody of the child, the expense so incurred and paid for by the court in having such examination performed, to the extent of their financial ability to do so. Prior to the disposition of the case of any child convicted of a delinquent act, the court may cause a complete diagnostic examination to be made, unless such information is otherwise available. Such information shall include physical and psychological diagnoses and may include medical, psychiatric, neurological, learning disability diagnoses and such other diagnoses as the court deems necessary. If such child is committed to the Department of Children and Families, such information shall be shared with the Department of Children and Families.
(1949 Rev., S. 2811; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 9; P.A. 78-188, S. 7, 8; P.A. 79-581, S. 5; P.A. 82-298, S. 7; P.A. 89-273, S. 4; P.A. 90-161, S. 3, 6; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-221, S. 13; P.A. 95-225, S. 18.)
History: 1969 act restated provisions and specified probation officer as agent required to make investigations necessary prior to disposition of case; P.A. 78-188 authorized court to order a restitution investigation; P.A. 79-581 added provisions re required diagnostic examinations in cases where child found delinquent for serious juvenile offense; Sec. 17-66 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-315 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-134 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66; P.A. 82-298 deleted provision which empowered court to order restitution investigations; P.A. 89-273 added provision requiring that the costs incurred and paid by the court for a physical or mental examination of a child be assessed against the parents, guardian or custodian of such child, including any agency vested with the legal custody of such child, to the extent of their financial ability to do so, and made the diagnostic examination discretionary rather than mandatory and applicable to any child found to be delinquent rather than any child found to be delinquent for a serious juvenile offense; P.A. 90-161 added provision permitting examination to include testing to determine whether the child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-221 expanded the information to be included in the report for a child attending school or who legally should be attending school to include attendance, behavior and any recommendations from school officials on conditions of probation if the child is placed on probation; P.A. 95-225 replaced "found to be delinquent" with "convicted of a delinquent act" and added provision requiring the investigation to include an inquiry into the circumstances of the offense, the attitude of the complainant or victim, the criminal record, the present condition of the child and any damages suffered by the victim.
Annotations to former section 17-66:
Cited. 135 C. 515; 136 C. 494; 158 C. 439.
Cited. 19 CS 374; 26 CS 316.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 211 C. 151, 158, 159. Cited. 216 C. 563, 580, 581.

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Sec. 46b-135. (Formerly Sec. 51-316). Right to counsel and cross-examination. (a) At the commencement of any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of a child, the parent or parents or guardian and the child shall have the right to counsel and be so informed by the judge, and that if they are unable to afford counsel that counsel will be provided for them. Such counsel and such parent or parents or guardian or child shall have the rights of confrontation and cross-examination.
(b) At the commencement of any proceeding on behalf of a neglected, uncared-for or dependent child or youth, the parent or parents or guardian of the child or youth shall have the right to counsel, and shall be so informed by the judge, and that if they are unable to afford counsel, counsel will be provided for them, and such counsel and such parent or guardian of the child or youth shall have the rights of confrontation and cross- examination.
(1967, P.A. 630, S. 8; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 11, 12; P.A. 75-602, S. 5, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 23, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 19.)
History: 1969 act deleted references to persons, other than parent or guardian, "having control of the child" and required that judge inform parent, guardian and child of their right to counsel and their right to have counsel provided if they cannot afford counsel themselves, both in Subsec. (a) and in new Subsec. (b); P.A. 75-602 added references to youths in Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to juvenile court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-66b temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-316 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-135 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66b; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "proceeding on behalf of a delinquent child" with "proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of a child" and make technical changes.
Annotations to former section 17-66b:
Cited. 158 C. 439.
Annotations to present section:
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 195 C. 303, 306. Cited. 207 C. 725, 732, 743. Cited. 211 C. 289, 310.
Juvenile is entitled to counsel at both adjudicatory and dispositive phases. 39 CS 400, 401.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 23 CA 207, 212. Cited. Id., 410, 420, 421. Cited. 25 CA 536, 540−542. Cited. 42 CA 664. In parental rights termination case, trial court did not violate respondent's right of confrontation under this subsec. by deciding not to question child in camera where trial court found that child's testimony was not necessary based on all the evidence in case and that requiring child to testify would victimize her. 49 CA 763.
Cited. 41 CS 145, 147.

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Sec. 46b-136. (Formerly Sec. 51-317). Appointment of attorney to represent child or youth and parent or guardian. In any proceeding on a juvenile matter the judge before whom such proceeding is pending shall, even in the absence of a request to do so, provide an attorney to represent the child or youth, his parent or parents, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth, if such judge determines that the interests of justice so require, and in any proceeding in which the custody of a child is at issue, such judge shall provide an attorney to represent the child and may authorize such attorney or appoint another attorney to represent such child or youth, parent, guardian or other person on an appeal from a decision in such proceeding. Where, under the provisions of this section, the court so appoints counsel for any such party who is found able to pay, in whole or in part the cost thereof, it shall assess as costs against such parents, guardian, or custodian, including any agency vested with the legal custody of the child or youth, the expense so incurred and paid for by the court in providing such counsel, to the extent of their financial ability to do so.
(1967, P.A. 630, S. 9; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 10; P.A. 73-188; P.A. 75-277; 75-602, S. 6, 13; P.A. 76-235, S. 1, 2; 76-436, S. 24, 681.)
History: 1969 act specified that judge may provide attorney to represent child "even in the absence of a request to do so" and added provisions re assessment of costs; P.A. 73-188 allowed judge to authorize attorney to represent his assigned client on an appeal to the superior court; P.A. 75-277 added provision making appointment of attorney for child in custody proceeding mandatory; P.A. 75-602 applied provisions to youths; P.A. 76-235 referred to cases where custody of child "is at issue" rather than to cases where custody "may be affected"; P.A. 76-436 replaced reference to juvenile court with reference to juvenile matters and deleted reference to superior court as appeal court, reflecting transfer of juvenile court powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-66c temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-317 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-136 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66c.
Annotations to former section 17-66c:
Cited. 158 C. 439. Cited. 168 C. 421.
Annotations to present section:
Where statute mandates assistance of counsel it is implicit that this means competent counsel. 179 C. 155, 160.
Cited. 10 CA 36, 37, 39, 40. Cited. 31 CA 400, 422; judgment reversed, see 230 C. 459 et seq.
Cited. 39 CS 400, 402.

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Sec. 46b-137. (Formerly Sec. 51-318). Admissibility of confession or other statement in juvenile proceedings. (a) Any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child to a police officer or Juvenile Court official shall be inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child making such admission, confession or statement unless made by such child in the presence of his parent or parents or guardian and after the parent or parents or guardian and child have been advised (1) of the child's right to retain counsel, or if unable to afford counsel, to have counsel appointed on the child's behalf, (2) of the child's right to refuse to make any statements and (3) that any statements he makes may be introduced into evidence against him.
(b) Any confession, admission or statement, written or oral, made by the parent or parents or guardian of the child or youth after the filing of a petition alleging such child or youth to be neglected, uncared-for or dependent, shall be inadmissible in any proceeding held upon such petition against the person making such admission or statement unless such person shall have been advised of his right to retain counsel, and that if he is unable to afford counsel, counsel will be appointed to represent him, that he has a right to refuse to make any statement and that any statements he makes may be introduced in evidence against him.
(1967, P.A. 630, S. 10; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 13, 14; P.A. 75-183; 75-602, S. 7, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 591, 681; P.A. 95- 225, S. 20; P.A. 98-256, S. 11.)
History: 1969 act removed persons having control of child (other than parents or guardians) from purview of section and specifically enumerated rights of parents or guardians where previously "rights as provided by section 17-66a" occurred and added Subsec. (b) re admissibility of confessions, admissions, etc. in court proceeding; P.A. 75-183 applied Subsec. (a) to admissions, confessions, etc. made by child, replacing provisions applicable to children, their parents or guardians; P.A. 75-602 added references to youths in Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to juvenile court, reflecting transfer of that court's powers to superior court and made technical changes to correct grammar in Subsec. (b); Sec. 17-66d temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-318 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-137 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66d; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to limit applicability of provisions to any admission, confession or statement made "to a police officer or juvenile court official" and replace "inadmissible in any proceeding for delinquency against the child" with "inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child"; P.A. 98-256 made a technical change in Subsec. (a).
Annotations to former section 17-66d:
Cited. 158 C. 439. Cited. 211 C. 289, 315.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 211 C. 289, 315.
Cited. 46 CA 545.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 211 C. 289, 312, 314, 315. Cited. 215 C. 739, 748, 749.
"Fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine as applied to statements obtained in violation of statute discussed. 22 CA 53, 56− 61. "Where accused and parent or guardian are informed through a single reading, separate Miranda readings would be unnecessary and redundant." 32 CA 431, 432, 434−436. Cited. 46 CA 545.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 10 CA 428, 439.

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Sec. 46b-138. (Formerly Sec. 51-319). Summoning of witnesses. Conversation privileged. For the purpose of hearing any juvenile matter, the court may summon witnesses and compel their attendance. The conversations of the judge with a child or youth whose case is before the court shall be privileged.
(1949 Rev., S. 2812; P.A. 75-602, S. 8, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 25, 681; P.A. 78-379, S. 11, 27.)
History: P.A. 75-602 specified that conversations of judge and youth are privileged as well as conversations between judge and child; P.A. 76-436 referred to judges "hearing a juvenile matter" rather than to judges of juvenile court, reflecting transfer of juvenile court duties to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-379 deleted provisions which had empowered judge to exclude from hearing persons whose presence is not necessary and which had prohibited use of room regularly used for criminal matters; Sec. 17-67 temporarily transferred to Sec. 51-319 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-138 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-67.
Annotations to former section 17-67:
Cited. 135 C. 516; 158 C. 439.
Cited. 26 CS 316.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 2 CA 132, 136.
Cited. 41 CS 505, 509.

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Sec. 46b-138a. Testimony of accused juvenile, parent or guardian in juvenile proceeding. In any juvenile proceeding in the Superior Court, the accused child shall be a competent witness, and at his or her option may testify or refuse to testify in such proceedings. The parent or guardian of such child shall be a competent witness but may elect or refuse to testify for or against the accused child except that a parent or guardian who has received personal violence from the child may, upon the child's trial for offenses arising from such personal violence, be compelled to testify in the same manner as any other witness. No unfavorable inferences shall be drawn by the court from the accused child's silence.
(P.A. 79-263.)

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Sec. 46b-138b. Statement of victim or victim's representative at delinquency proceeding. In any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of a child, any victim of the alleged delinquent conduct, the parents or guardian of such victim, an advocate for such victim, appointed under section 54-221, or such victim's counsel shall have the right to appear before the court for the purpose of making a statement to the court concerning the disposition of the case.
(P.A. 89-273, S. 11; P.A. 95-225, S. 21.)
History: P.A. 95-225 authorized the victim's advocate and the victim's counsel to appear before the court and deleted the provision that the appearance by the victim or the victim's representative shall be "outside the presence of the alleged delinquent child".

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Sec. 46b-139. (Formerly Sec. 51-320). Expert medical witnesses; interpreter. (a) When any licensed physician or certified or licensed psychologist is summoned to give expert testimony in any juvenile matter, the court shall determine a reasonable fee to be paid to such physician or psychologist in lieu of all other witness fees payable to such physician or psychologist.
(b) Any judge of the Superior Court hearing a juvenile matter may call in a competent interpreter to interpret the evidence in any such hearing and each interpreter so necessarily employed shall be paid from funds appropriated to the Judicial Department.
(1969, P.A. 794, S. 15; P.A. 76-436, S. 26, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 25, 65.)
History: P.A. 76-436 deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) re recompense for town, city or borough policemen summoned to testify in proceedings and re fees for other witnesses, redesignating former Subsec. (d) accordingly, and revised remaining provisions to reflect transfer of juvenile court powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-576 replaced provision re fifteen-dollar fee for interpreters or other fee determined by judge to be reasonable in exceptional cases with statement that interpreter is to be paid from judicial department appropriations, omitting any reference to amount of fee; Sec. 17-67a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-320 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-139 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-67a.

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Sec. 46b-140. (Formerly Sec. 51-321). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Disposition upon conviction of child as delinquent. (a) In determining the appropriate disposition of a child convicted as delinquent, the court shall consider: (1) The seriousness of the offense, including the existence of any aggravating factors such as the use of a firearm in the commission of the offense and the impact of the offense on any victim; (2) the child's record of delinquency; (3) the child's willingness to participate in available programs; (4) the existence of other mitigating factors; and (5) the culpability of the child in committing the offense including the level of the child's participation in the planning and carrying out of the offense.
(b) Upon conviction of a child as delinquent, the court may: (1) Place the child in the care of any institution or agency which is permitted by law to care for children; (2) order the child to participate in an alternative incarceration program; (3) order the child to participate in a wilderness school program operated by the Department of Children and Families; (4) order the child to participate in a youth service bureau program; (5) place the child on probation; (6) order the child or the parents or guardian of the child or both to make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section; (7) order the child to participate in a program of community service in accordance with subsection (e) of this section; or (8) withhold or suspend execution of any judgment.
(c) The court may order, as a condition of probation, that the child (1) reside with a parent, relative or guardian or in a suitable foster home or other residence approved by the court, (2) attend school and class on a regular basis and comply with school policies on student conduct and discipline, (3) refrain from violating any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, (4) undergo any medical or psychiatric evaluation or treatment deemed necessary by the court, (5) submit to random drug or alcohol testing, or both, (6) participate in a program of alcohol or drug treatment, or both, (7) make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section, (8) participate in an alternative incarceration program or other program established through the Office of Alternative Sanctions, (9) participate in a program of community service, and (10) satisfy any other conditions deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the child, the child's parents or guardian and the child's probation officer.
(d) If the child has engaged in conduct which results in property damage or personal injury, the court may order the child or the parent or parents or guardian of the child, if such parent or parents or guardian had knowledge of and condoned the conduct of the child, or both the child and the parent or parents or guardian, to make full or partial restitution to the victim of such offense, provided the liability of such parent or parents or guardian shall be limited to an amount not exceeding the amount such parent or parents or guardian would be liable for in an action under section 52-572. Restitution may consist of monetary reimbursement for the damage or injury, based on the child's or the parent's, parents' or guardian's ability to pay, as the case may be, in the form of a lump sum or installment payments, paid to the court clerk or such other official designated by the court for distribution to the victim.
(e) The court may order the child to participate in a program of community service under the supervision of the court or any organization designated by the court. Such child shall not be deemed to be an employee and the services of such child shall not be deemed employment.
(f) If the court further finds that its probation services or other services available to the court are not adequate for such child, the court shall commit such child to the Department of Children and Families in accordance with the provisions of section 46b-141. Prior to making such commitment, the court shall consult with the department to determine the placement which will be in the best interest of such child.
(g) Any child or youth coming within the jurisdiction of the court, who is found to be mentally ill, may be committed by said court to the Commissioner of Children and Families and, if the court convicts a child as delinquent and finds him to be mentally deficient, it may commit him to an institution for mentally deficient children or youth or delinquents. Whenever it is found that a child convicted by the court as delinquent or adjudged by the court to be a member of a family with service needs who is fourteen years of age or older would not benefit from continued school attendance, the court may order him to be placed on vocational probation if such court finds that he may properly be employed for part or full-time at some useful occupation and that such employment would be favorable to his welfare, and the probation officer shall supervise such employment. For the purposes of this section the limitations of subsection (a) of section 31-23 on the employment of minors under the age of sixteen years shall not apply for the duration of such vocational probation.
(h) Whenever the court commits a child to the Department of Children and Families, there shall be delivered with the mittimus a copy of the results of the investigations made as required by section 46b-134. The court may, at any time, require from the department in whose care a child has been placed such report as to such child and his treatment.
(i) If the delinquent act for which the child is committed to the Department of Children and Families is a serious juvenile offense, the court may set a period of time during which the Department of Children and Families shall place such child out of his town of residence at the commencement of such child's commitment. The setting of any such time period shall be in the form of an order of the court included in the mittimus. For good cause shown in the form of an affidavit annexed thereto, the Department of Children and Families, the parent or guardian of the child or the child may petition the court for temporary modification of any such order not to extend or reduce the term of such placement.
(j) Notwithstanding any provisions of the general statutes concerning the confidentiality of records and information, whenever a child convicted as delinquent is committed to the Department of Children and Families, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall have access to the following information: (1) Educational records of such child; (2) records regarding such child's past treatment for physical or mental illness, including substance abuse; (3) records regarding such child's prior placement in a public or private residential facility; (4) records created or obtained by the Judicial Department regarding such child; and (5) records, as defined in subsection (a) of section 17a-28. The Commissioner of Children and Families shall review such information to determine the appropriate services and placement which will be in the best interest of the child.
(1949 Rev., S. 2813; 1955, S. 1578d; 1957, P.A. 41; 1969, P.A. 498, S. 1; 664, S. 9; P.A. 75-226, S. 2; 75-567, S. 77, 80; 75-602, S. 9, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 27, 681; P.A. 78-188, S. 6, 8; P.A. 79-581, S. 6; P.A. 84-10; 84-389, S. 1; P.A. 89- 273, S. 5; 89-390, S. 20, 37; P.A. 90-161, S. 5, 6; 90-240, S. 5, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-136, S. 2; 94-221, S. 14; P.A. 95-225, S. 22; P.A. 98-70, S. 3; 98-256, S. 6.)

*Note: Upon the filing with the Governor and the General Assembly of written certification by the Commissioner of Children and Families that the new Connecticut Juvenile Training School is operational, this section is to read as follows:
"Sec. 46b-140. (Formerly Sec. 51-321). Disposition upon conviction of child as delinquent. (a) In determining the appropriate disposition of a child convicted as delinquent, the court shall consider: (1) The seriousness of the offense, including the existence of any aggravating factors such as the use of a firearm in the commission of the offense and the impact of the offense on any victim; (2) the child's record of delinquency; (3) the child's willingness to participate in available programs; (4) the existence of other mitigating factors; and (5) the culpability of the child in committing the offense including the level of the child's participation in the planning and carrying out of the offense.
(b) Upon conviction of a child as delinquent, the court may: (1) Place the child in the care of any institution or agency which is permitted by law to care for children; (2) order the child to participate in an alternative incarceration program; (3) order the child to participate in a wilderness school program operated by the Department of Children and Families; (4) order the child to participate in a youth service bureau program; (5) place the child on probation; (6) order the child or the parents or guardian of the child or both to make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section; (7) order the child to participate in a program of community service in accordance with subsection (e) of this section; or (8) withhold or suspend execution of any judgment.
(c) The court may order, as a condition of probation, that the child (1) reside with a parent, relative or guardian or in a suitable foster home or other residence approved by the court, (2) attend school and class on a regular basis and comply with school policies on student conduct and discipline, (3) refrain from violating any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, (4) undergo any medical or psychiatric evaluation or treatment deemed necessary by the court, (5) submit to random drug or alcohol testing, or both, (6) participate in a program of alcohol or drug treatment, or both, (7) make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section, (8) participate in an alternative incarceration program or other program established through the Office of Alternative Sanctions, (9) participate in a program of community service, and (10) satisfy any other conditions deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the child, the child's parents or guardian and the child's probation officer.
(d) If the child has engaged in conduct which results in property damage or personal injury, the court may order the child or the parent or parents or guardian of the child, if such parent or parents or guardian had knowledge of and condoned the conduct of the child, or both the child and the parent or parents or guardian, to make full or partial restitution to the victim of such offense, provided the liability of such parent or parents or guardian shall be limited to an amount not exceeding the amount such parent or parents or guardian would be liable for in an action under section 52-572. Restitution may consist of monetary reimbursement for the damage or injury, based on the child's or the parent's, parents' or guardian's ability to pay, as the case may be, in the form of a lump sum or installment payments, paid to the court clerk or such other official designated by the court for distribution to the victim.
(e) The court may order the child to participate in a program of community service under the supervision of the court or any organization designated by the court. Such child shall not be deemed to be an employee and the services of such child shall not be deemed employment.
(f) If the court further finds that its probation services or other services available to the court are not adequate for such child, the court shall commit such child to the Department of Children and Families in accordance with the provisions of section 46b-141. Prior to making such commitment, the court shall consult with the department to determine the placement which will be in the best interest of such child.
(g) Any child or youth coming within the jurisdiction of the court, who is found to be mentally ill, may be committed by said court to the Commissioner of Children and Families and, if the court convicts a child as delinquent and finds such child to be mentally deficient, it may commit such child to an institution for mentally deficient children or youth or delinquents. Whenever it is found that a child convicted by the court as delinquent or adjudged by the court to be a member of a family with service needs who is fourteen years of age or older would not benefit from continued school attendance, the court may order such child to be placed on vocational probation if such court finds that such child may properly be employed for part or full-time at some useful occupation and that such employment would be favorable to such child's welfare, and the probation officer shall supervise such employment. For the purposes of this section, the limitations of subsection (a) of section 31-23 on the employment of minors under the age of sixteen years shall not apply for the duration of such vocational probation.
(h) Whenever the court commits a child to the Department of Children and Families, there shall be delivered with the mittimus a copy of the results of the investigations made as required by section 46b-134. The court may, at any time, require from the department in whose care a child has been placed such report as to such child and such child's treatment.
(i) If the delinquent act for which the child is committed to the Department of Children and Families is a serious juvenile offense, the court may set a minimum period of twelve months during which the child shall be placed in a residential facility operated by or under contract with said department, as determined by the Commissioner of Children and Families. The setting of such minimum period shall be in the form of an order of the court included in the mittimus. For good cause shown in the form of an affidavit annexed thereto, the Department of Children and Families, the parent or guardian of the child or the child may petition the court for modification of any such order.
(j) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the court may order a child be (1) committed to the Department of Children and Families and be placed directly in a residential facility within this state and under contract with said department, or (2) committed to the Commissioner of Children and Families for placement by the commissioner, in said commissioner's discretion, (A) with respect to the juvenile offenders determined by the Department of Children and Families to be the highest risk, in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School or other state facility, presumptively for a minimum period of twelve months, or (B) in a private residential or day treatment facility within or outside this state, or (C) on parole. The commissioner shall use a risk and needs assessment classification system to ensure that children who are in the highest risk level will be placed in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School.
(k) Any female child committed to the Connecticut Juvenile Training School shall be separated from any contact with male children in said facility. Separation shall be accomplished through architectural means, through time-phasing of common use nonresidential areas and through policies and procedures. No program activities may be shared by female and male children in said facility. For the purposes of this subsection, "contact" includes any physical or sustained sight or sound contact; "sight contact" means clear visual contact between female and male children within close proximity to each other; and "sound contact" means direct oral communication between female and male children.
(l) Notwithstanding any provisions of the general statutes concerning the confidentiality of records and information, whenever a child convicted as delinquent is committed to the Department of Children and Families, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall have access to the following information: (1) Educational records of such child; (2) records regarding such child's past treatment for physical or mental illness, including substance abuse; (3) records regarding such child's prior placement in a public or private residential facility; (4) records created or obtained by the Judicial Department regarding such child; and (5) records, as defined in subsection (a) of section 17a-28. The Commissioner of Children and Families shall review such information to determine the appropriate services and placement which will be in the best interest of the child."
(1949 Rev., S. 2813; 1955, S. 1578d; 1957, P.A. 41; 1969, P.A. 498, S. 1; 664, S. 9; P.A. 75-226, S. 2; 75-567, S. 77, 80; 75-602, S. 9, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 27, 681; P.A. 78-188, S. 6, 8; P.A. 79-581, S. 6; P.A. 84-10; 84-389, S. 1; P.A. 89- 273, S. 5; 89-390, S. 20, 37; P.A. 90-161, S. 5, 6; 90-240, S. 5, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-136, S. 2; 94-221, S. 14; P.A. 95-225, S. 22; P.A. 98-70, S. 3; 98-256, S. 6; P.A. 99-26, S. 12, 39.)
History: 1969 acts restated provisions and divided section into Subsecs., inserting new provision authorizing commitment of child to department of children and youth services as Subsec. (b); P.A. 75-226 added provisions in Subsec. (a) re orders for child to do work in public buildings or on public property; P.A. 75-567 deleted references to youths judged to be delinquent in Subsec. (c); P.A. 75-602 restored references to youths deleted by P.A. 75-667 in Subsec. (c) and authorized commitment of child or youth to commissioner of children and youth services rather than to "a hospital or other institution empowered by law to treat mentally ill children" in that Subsec.; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to juvenile court in Subsec. (d), reflecting transfer of juvenile court's powers and duties to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-188 authorized court to order child to make restitution in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-581 added Subsec. (e) re procedure where delinquent act is a serious juvenile offense; Sec. 17-68 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-321 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b- 140 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-68) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 84-10 amended Subsec. (c) by authorizing a court to place a child who is a member of a family with service needs on vocational probation if certain findings are made; P.A. 84-389 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision that prior to making commitment, court shall consult with department to determine placement in best interests of child and amended Subsec. (d) by deleting references to commitment to any institution, person or agency other than the department of children and youth services; P.A. 89-273 amended Subsec. (e) to delete reference to a "mandatory" transfer hearing to conform to changes made by act to Sec. 46b-126; P.A. 89-390 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the court to order the child to participate in a wilderness school program operated by the department of children and youth services; P.A. 90-161 added provision in Subsec. (a) permitting the court, as a condition of probation, to order the child to participate in a program of periodic drug testing and treatment; P.A. 90-240 deleted the term "defective delinquents"; P.A. 90-325 changed effective date of P.A. 90-240 from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-136 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the court to order the child to participate in an alternative incarceration program; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for participation in a youth service bureau program and expanded the list of possible conditions of probation to include attendance at school and class on a regular basis and compliance with school policies on student conduct and discipline; P.A. 95-225 added a new Subsec. (a) re factors the court shall consider in determining the appropriate disposition of a child convicted as delinquent, designated provisions of former Subsec. (a) re disposition alternatives as Subsec. (b) and amended said Subsec. to replace the provision authorizing the court to "adjudge" a child delinquent and take one of the enumerated actions "if it finds that the child is delinquent and needs the care, discipline or protection of the state" with provision authorizing the court to take one of the enumerated actions "Upon conviction of the child as delinquent", insert Subdiv. indicators and add Subdiv. (6) re restitution and Subdiv. (7) re community service, designated provisions of former Subsec. (a) authorizing the court to order as a condition of probation school attendance or drug testing or treatment as Subsec. (c) and amended said Subsec. to include "alcohol" testing and treatment, deleted provisions of former Subsec. (a) authorizing the court to order the child to do work of which he is capable in public buildings and on public property or make restitution of the fruits of his offense or make restitution in an amount he can afford to pay or provide in a suitable manner for the loss or damage caused thereby provided the child and his parent or guardian accept such disposition, added new Subsec. (d) authorizing the court to order the child or the parent or parents or guardian of the child, or both, to make full or partial restitution to the victim of the offense, added new Subsec. (e) authorizing the court to order the child to participate in a program of community service, redesignated former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (f), redesignated former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (g) and amended said Subsec. to replace "adjudges" and "adjudged" with "convicts" and "convicted", respectively, redesignated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (h), redesignated former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (i) and amended said Subsec. to delete in Subdiv. (1) the maximum period of six months during which the child shall be placed out of his town of residence, delete former Subdiv. (2) that had required the court to impose a period of one year during which a child who had committed a serious juvenile offense and been subject to a transfer hearing shall be placed out of his town of residence, and redesignate former Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (2); P.A. 98-70 added new Subsec. (j) re access by Commissioner of Children and Families to educational records, treatment records, records of prior placement in residential facility and records of Judicial Department of child convicted as delinquent and committed to department; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (b) to replace in Subdiv. (5) "order the child to remain in his own home or in the custody of a relative or any other fit person subject to the supervision of the probation officer" with "place the child on probation" and amended Subsec. (c) to specify the conditions of probation that a court may order by adding new Subdiv. (1) re place of residence, new Subdiv. (3) re refraining from violations of law, new Subdiv. (4) re medical or psychiatric evaluation or treatment, new Subdiv. (7) re restitution, new Subdiv. (8) re participation in alternative incarceration program, new Subdiv. (9) re participation in community service program and new Subdiv. (10) re satisfaction of other appropriate conditions and by redesignating former Subdiv. (1) re school attendance and compliance with school policies as Subdiv. (2) and by dividing former Subdiv. (2) re alcohol and drug testing and treatment into Subdiv. (5) re testing and Subdiv. (6) re treatment, and to add requirement that the court cause a copy of the order to be delivered to the child, the child's parents or guardian and the child's probation officer, amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the court to place on vocational probation a child who "would not benefit from continued school attendance" rather than a child who is "either mentally deficient or too educationally retarded to benefit from school attendance" and require the court to find that such employment would be "favorable to the child's welfare" rather than "more favorable to his welfare than commitment to an institution" and amended Subsec. (i) to make technical changes; P.A. 99-26 amended Subsec. (i) to authorize the court to set "a minimum period of twelve months during which the child shall be placed in a residential facility operated by or under contract with said department, as determined by the Commissioner of Children and Families" rather than "a period of time during which the Department of Children and Families shall place such child out of his town of residence at the commencement of such child's commitment" and to authorize a petition for "modification of any such order" rather than for "temporary modification of any such order not to extend or reduce the term of such placement", added new Subsec. (j) re commitment and placement options for the sentencing court, placement options for the Commissioner of Children and Families and the use of a risk and needs assessment classification system by the commissioner, added Subsec. (k) re sight and sound separation of female offenders and prohibition on sharing of program activities, redesignated former Subsec. (j) as Subsec. (l) and made technical changes in Subsecs. (g) and (h) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective upon the filing with the Governor and the General Assembly of written certification by the Commissioner of Children and Families that the new Connecticut Juvenile Training School is operational.
See Sec. 17a-10 re Children and Families Commissioner's custody of committed children, re support and health services for such children and re extension or termination of commitment.
Annotations to former section 17-68:
Cited. 162 C. 243.
Suspension of sentence and suspension of execution of a commitment distinguished; juvenile court has no power as to the latter. 19 CS 433. Cited. 26 CS 316. See note to Sec. 46b-121.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 199 C. 693, 713, 714. Cited. 204 C. 630, 633. Cited. 207 C. 270, 271. Cited. 211 C. 151 162, 165.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 199 C. 693, 713. Cited. 207 C. 270, 273. Cited. 211 C. 151, 159.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 199 C. 693, 695, 715. Cited. 207 C. 270, 273, 275. Cited. 211 C. 151, 159, 166.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 206 C. 323, 328.
Subsec. (e):
Subdiv. (1) cited. 204 C. 630, 633. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 630, 634.

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Sec. 46b-140a. Modification of conditions of probation or suspended commitment. Violation of conditions. (a) At any time during the period of probation or suspended commitment, after hearing and for good cause shown, the court may modify or enlarge the conditions, whether originally imposed by the court under this section or otherwise, and may extend the period as deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the child or youth and to such child or youth's parent or guardian and probation officer.
(b) The period of participation in an alternative incarceration program, as a condition of probation or suspended commitment, unless terminated sooner, shall not exceed the original period of probation or suspended commitment.
(c) At any time during the period of probation or suspended commitment, the court may issue a warrant for the arrest of a child or youth for violation of any of the conditions of probation or suspended commitment, or may issue a notice to appear to answer to a charge of such violation, which notice shall be personally served upon the child or youth. Any such warrant shall authorize all officers named therein to return the child or youth to the custody of the court or to any suitable juvenile detention facility designated by the court.
(d) If such violation is established, the court may continue or revoke the order of probation or suspended commitment or modify or enlarge the conditions and, if such order of probation or suspended commitment is revoked, require the child or youth to serve the commitment imposed or impose any lesser commitment. No such revocation shall be ordered, except upon consideration of the whole record and unless such violation is established by reliable and probative evidence.
(e) Upon a determination by the court that a child or youth has violated probation by failing to comply with the requirements of electronic monitoring, the court support services division shall notify the local law enforcement agency of such violation.
(P.A. 98-256, S. 8; P.A. 00-141, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 00-141 added Subsec. (e) providing that upon determination by court that child or youth has violated probation by failing to comply with electronic monitoring, court support services division shall notify local law enforcement agency of such violation.

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Sec. 46b-141. (Formerly Sec. 51-322). Length of commitments. Extensions. Judicial review. Reopening and termination. (a) Except as otherwise limited by subsection (i) of section 46b-140, commitment of children convicted as delinquent by the Superior Court to the Department of Children and Families shall be for (1) an indeterminate time up to a maximum of eighteen months, or (2) when so convicted for a serious juvenile offense, up to a maximum of four years at the discretion of the court, unless extended as hereinafter provided.
(b) The Commissioner of Children and Families may petition the court for an extension of the commitment as provided in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) beyond the eighteen-month period on the grounds that such extension is for the best interest of the child or the community. The court shall give notice to the parent or guardian and to the child at least fourteen days prior to the hearing upon such petition. The court may, after hearing and upon finding that such extension is in the best interest of the child or the community, continue the commitment for an additional period of not more than eighteen months.
(c) The Commissioner of Children and Families shall obtain judicial review of each child convicted as delinquent for a serious juvenile offense as provided in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) within eighteen months of commitment to the Department of Children and Families and every eighteen months thereafter. Such judicial review may include the submission of a petition to the court by the commissioner to either (1) modify such commitment, or (2) extend the commitment beyond such four-year period on the grounds that such extension is for the best interest of the child or the community. The court shall give notice to the parent or guardian and to the child at least fourteen days prior to the hearing upon such petition. The court, after hearing, may modify such commitment or, upon finding that such extension is in the best interest of the child or the community, continue the commitment for an additional period of not more than eighteen months.
(d) All other commitments of delinquent, mentally deficient or mentally ill children by the court pursuant to the provisions of section 46b-140, may be for an indeterminate time. Commitments may be reopened and terminated at any time by said court, provided the Commissioner of Children and Families shall be given notice of such proposed reopening and a reasonable opportunity to present his views thereon. The parents or guardian of such child may apply not more than twice in any calendar year for such reopening and termination of commitment. Any order of the court made under the provisions of this section shall be deemed a final order for purposes of appeal, except that no bond shall be required nor costs taxed on such appeal.
(1949 Rev., S. 2814; 1955, S. 1579d; 1969, P.A. 664, S. 10; 1971, P.A. 151; P.A. 76-436, S. 31, 681; P.A. 79-581, S. 7; P.A. 81-472, S. 84, 159; P.A. 84-389, S. 2; P.A. 92-167, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 23.)
History: 1969 act replaced previous provisions re commitment period, i.e. terminated when child reaches twenty-one unless he is mentally deficient or a defective delinquent, and re reopening and termination procedure with new provisions limiting commitment to two years and setting forth procedure for commitment extensions, retaining existing appeal provision; 1971 act inserted new Subsec. (c) re indeterminate commitments, in part replacing provisions deleted by 1969 act and incorporating existing appeal provision in this Subsec.; P.A. 76-436 replaced juvenile court with superior court and specified that orders are deemed final orders for appeal purposes in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-581 added exception re Sec. 51-321(e) and authorized four-year commitments when case involves serious juvenile offense in Subsec. (a); Sec. 17-69 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-322 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-141 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-69; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 84-389 deleted reference to "institution to which the child is committed" and inserted "commissioner of children and youth services" in lieu thereof; P.A. 92-167 amended Subsec. (a) by changing the maximum length of commitment of a child adjudged delinquent to the department from two years to eighteen months, amended Subsec. (b) by changing the maximum length of an extension of such commitment from two years to eighteen months and added Subsec. (c) re judicial review of children adjudged delinquent on a serious juvenile offense; P.A. 93- 91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to replace "adjudged" with "convicted", amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to make the best interest of the community a ground for the extension of a commitment and amended Subsec. (d) to make discretionary, rather than mandatory, that all other commitments be for an indeterminate time, and made technical changes.
See Sec. 17a-10 re Children and Families Commissioner's custody of committed children, re support and health services for such children and re extension or termination of commitment.
Annotations to former section 17-69:
Cited. 204 C. 630, 633.
Provision that no costs or fees shall be taxed in proceedings before juvenile court, or upon appeal to superior court, does not apply to appeals taken from the superior court to the supreme court. 135 C. 411. There is no specific provision in the statutes for an appeal to supreme court and none is necessary. A judgment of the superior court is a final judgment within section 52-263. 135 C. 512. Cited. 158 C. 439.
Juvenile court commitments continue until child is twenty-one unless terminated sooner. 19 CS 371. Commitments may be reopened or terminated at any time within prescribed limitations. Id., 432. Cited. 21 CS 73.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 204 C. 630, 633. Cited. 207 C. 270, 271. Cited. 211 C. 151, 162, 165. Cited. 229 C. 691, 701.
Cited. 43 CS 367, 370.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 199 C. 693, 716. Cited. 207 C. 270, 274. Cited. 211 C. 151, 159. Cited. 240 C. 727.
Cited. 32 CA 759, 764.
Subsec. (b):
Where there is no request to transfer a matter to the regular criminal docket, statutorily authorized response to further allegations of misconduct is extension of existing commitment, not successive commitments to be served in future. 207 C. 270, 274, 275. Cited. 211 C. 151, 160.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 207 C. 270, 274.

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Sec. 46b-141a. Placement of delinquent child in alternative incarceration program. (a) Whenever a child is convicted as delinquent, the court, in lieu of committing such child to the Department of Children and Families or to a juvenile detention center, may, in its discretion, order an assessment for placement in an alternative incarceration program to be conducted by the juvenile probation unit of the Superior Court. If the juvenile probation unit of the Superior Court recommends placement in an alternative incarceration program, it shall also submit to the court a proposed alternative incarceration plan. Upon completion of the assessment, the court shall determine whether such child shall be ordered to participate in such program as an alternative to commitment. If the court determines that the child shall participate in such program, the court shall suspend any commitment to the Department of Children and Families or to a juvenile detention center and shall make participation in the alternative incarceration program a condition of probation.
(b) An alternative incarceration program shall include, but not be limited to, fines, restitution, community service, halfway houses, alternative incarceration centers, day incarceration centers, drug, alcohol and mental health programs, electronic monitoring, intensive probation, vocational probation, boot camps, structured wilderness programs, pretrial diversion options aimed at creating alternatives to unnecessary detention, and school and job training programs.
(P.A. 94-136, S. 3; P.A. 95-225, S. 24.)
History: P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "adjudged delinquent" with "convicted as delinquent" and "Family Division" with "juvenile probation unit".

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Sec. 46b-141b. Probation treatment plan. (a) When a juvenile is referred to juvenile probation, the juvenile probation unit shall conduct an intake risk assessment and make a case classification evaluation. If the juvenile probation unit deems it appropriate, the proposed probation plan may be submitted to a professional evaluation team. Such team shall be composed of a juvenile probation officer, a representative of the Office of Alternative Sanctions or a representative from a contracted agency, and, where applicable, a school employee and any other interested parties in the discretion of the court. The evaluation team shall develop a probation treatment plan for each juvenile within fifteen days of the date of the referral of the case to the professional evaluation team, unless the court orders otherwise. The probation treatment plan shall include the following components: (1) Type of residential or nonresidential placement; (2) projected length of placement for the juvenile and the projected cost; (3) type of services needed by the juvenile and the projected cost.
(b) The probation treatment plan shall be submitted to the court for consideration and approval prior to the court's final entry of a probation treatment order. In addition to any probation order, the court may order a medical and psychiatric or psychological examination of the juvenile. The court may assess the cost of the examination to the family based on its ability to pay.
(c) In ordering implementation of a probation treatment plan, the court may reasonably designate from the programs and services under contract with the Office of Alternative Sanctions the scope and extent of the services to be provided by the Office of Alternative Sanctions and the juvenile probation unit.
(d) The Office of Alternative Sanctions shall proceed to implement the probation treatment plan immediately upon its approval by the court.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 5, 52.)
History: P.A. 95-225 effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 46b-141c. Reimbursement of costs of probation supervision. The Judicial Department may require the parent or parents or guardian of any child who receives probation supervision to fully or partially reimburse the department for the costs of such child's supervision and may assess such person a monthly supervision fee for such purpose. If the department finds that the parents or guardian are indigent and unable to pay a probation supervision fee, it shall waive such fee.
(P.A. 95-225, S. 46.)

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Sec. 46b-142. (Formerly Sec. 51-323). Venue of petitions. Appeal to Appellate Court. (a) The Chief Court Administrator, in consultation with the judges of the Superior Court, shall establish districts for the purpose of establishing venue in juvenile matters. All petitions concerning delinquent children shall be heard within the district where the delinquency is alleged to have occurred or where the child resides, in the discretion of the court. All other petitions shall be heard within the district where the child or youth resided at the time of the filing of the petition, but for the purposes of this section any child or youth born in any hospital or institution where the mother is confined at the time of birth shall be deemed to have residence in the district wherein his mother was living at the time of her admission to such hospital or institution.
(b) The Department of Children and Families, or any party at interest aggrieved by any final judgment or order of the court, may appeal to the Appellate Court in accordance with the provisions of section 52-263. The clerk in charge of such juvenile matters shall forthwith, after notice of any appeal, prepare and file with the clerk of the Appellate Court the certified copy of the record of the case from which such appeal has been taken. The name of the child or youth involved in any such appeal shall not appear on the record of the appeal, and the records and papers of any juvenile case filed in the Appellate Court shall be open for inspection only to persons having a proper interest therein and upon order of the court.
(c) Pending such appeal, the Superior Court may cause the child or youth to be detained in some suitable place as the court may direct, or may release the child or youth in the care of a parent, probation officer or other suitable person, and may require the appellant to enter into a bond or recognizance to the state, with surety or security conditioned that the child or youth shall appear before the Appellate Court and abide by the order and judgment.
(1949 Rev., S. 2815; 1957, P.A. 651, S. 15; 1959, P.A. 531, S. 14; 1967, P.A. 252; 630, S. 11; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 16; P.A. 74-251, S. 15; P.A. 75-420, S. 4, 6; 75-567, S. 78, 80; 75-602, S. 10, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 10a, 32, 681; P.A. 77-614, S. 521, 610; P.A. 78-379, S. 12, 27; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 36, 82; P.A. 86-108; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2.)
History: 1959 act provided for appeals to family relations session created by the act, deleted requirement of one week's notice of hearing to parties but see section 17-70a; 1967 acts changed county to district as venue; 1969 act divided section into Subsecs., added provisions in Subsec. (b) re superior court review of juvenile court proceedings and its action either to dismiss petition or return case to juvenile court for disposition in accordance with its findings, re confidentiality of records and re privileged status of appeals, clarified notice requirements in Subsec. (d) and deleted detailed provisions re court-ordered investigations, re admissible evidence and re superior court's powers; P.A. 74-251 authorized giving of notice to welfare commissioner's designee in Subsec. (d); P.A. 75-420 replaced welfare commissioner with commissioner of social services; P.A. 75-567 made technical correction in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-602 included youths in purview of section and included commissioner of children and youth services in notice requirement as of April 1, 1975; P.A. 76-436 transferred functions of juvenile court to superior court, thereby transferring appeals from superior court to supreme court, and added provisions re establishment of venue districts in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of social services with commissioner of human resources, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-379 deleted ten-day limit for appeals and provision granting appeals privileged status in Subsec. (b) and deleted Subsec. (d) re notice requirements; Sec. 17-70 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-323 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-142 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-70; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof; P.A. 86-108 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the department of children and youth services to appeal to the appellate court; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993.
Annotations to former sections 17-70 and 51-323:
Cited. 158 C. 439. Cited. 162 C. 241. Cited. 165 C. 435, 437, 438.
Cited. 26 CS 316.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 165 C. 435, 438, 440, 441. Cited. 168 C. 421.
Cited. 33 CS 100.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 226 C. 497, 499.
Cited. 43 CS 367, 371.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 177 C. 648, 658. Commissioner of children and youth services is not entitled to appeal as a "party at interest". 181 C. 292, 294. Cited. 183 C. 11. Cited. 187 C. 431. Cited. 188 C. 259; Id., 557. Cited. 189 C. 58; Id., 66; Id., 276. Cited. 190 C. 310; Id., 428; Id., 715. Cited. 192 C. 254. Cited. 195 C. 303; Id., 344. Cited. 196 C. 18. Cited. 204 C. 630. Cited. 207 C. 270, 271. Cited. Id., 725. Cited. 210 C. 157. Cited. Id., 435. Cited. 211 C. 151. Cited. Id., 289. Cited. 214 C. 454. Cited. 215 C. 31. Cited. Id., 277. Cited. 216 C. 563. Cited. 217 C. 459. Cited. 221 C. 109. Cited. 223 C. 492. Cited. Id., 557. Cited. 224 C. 263. Cited. 226 C. 497, 499. Cited. 229 C. 345. Cited. Id., 691. Cited. 234 C. 194. Cited. 237 C. 364, 367.
Cited. 1 CA 298; Id., 378, 380; Id., 463. Cited. 2 CA 11; Id., 705. Cited. 3 CA 30; Id., 158, 160; Id., 194; Id., 507. Cited. 4 CA 56. Cited. 6 CA 194; Id., 360. Cited. 8 CA 607. Cited. Id., 656. Cited. 9 CA 98. Cited. Id., 490. Cited. Id., 506. Cited. Id., 608. Cited. 10 CA 36. Cited. Id., 428. Cited. 11 CA 497. Cited. Id., 507. Cited. Id., 573. Cited. 12 CA 585. Cited. 13 CA 23. Cited. Id., 91. Cited. Id., 605. Cited. Id., 626. Cited. Id., 821. Cited. 14 CA 205. Cited. Id., 445. Cited. Id., 548. Cited. 15 CA 367. Cited. Id., 455. Cited. Id., 641. Cited. Id. 693. Cited. 17 CA 427. Cited. 18 CA 805. Cited. 19 CA 20. Cited. Id., 371. Cited. 20 CA 101. Cited. Id., 228. Cited. Id., 694. Cited. Id., 725. Cited. Id., 817. Cited. 21 CA 226. Cited. Id., 645. Cited. 22 CA 53. Cited. Id., 458. Cited. Id., 656. Cited. 23 CA 207. Cited. Id., 410. Cited. Id., 812. Cited. Id., 815. Cited. 24 CA 135. Cited. Id., 244. Cited. Id., 338. Cited. Id., 813. Cited. Id., 829. Cited. 25 CA 536. Cited. Id., 586; judgment reversed, see 223 C. 492 et seq. Cited. Id., 741. Cited. 26 CA 58. Cited. Id., 414. Cited. 27 CA 49. Cited. 28 CA 247. Cited. Id., 608. Cited. 29 CA 112. Cited. Id., 499. Cited. Id., 573. Cited. Id., 600. Cited. Id., 689. Cited. Id., 771. Cited. 30 CA 381. Cited. Id., 839. Cited. 31 CA 941. Cited. 32 CA 431. Cited. 33 CA 12. Cited. Id., 90. Cited. Id., 632. Cited. Id., 904. Cited. 34 CA 176. Cited. Id., 535. Cited. Id., 807, 809. Cited. 35 CA 276. Cited. Id., 490. Cited. 36 CA 146. Cited. Id., 364. Cited. Id., 961. Cited. 38 CA 909. Cited. Id., 214. Cited. 39 CA 353. Cited. 40 CA 73. Cited. Id., 216. Cited. Id., 366. Cited. 42 CA 664. Cited. 44 CA 80. Cited. 45 CA 508. Cited. Id., 606. Cited. 46 CA 69. Cited. Id., 545. Cited. 47 CA 64.
Cited. 39 CS 35; Id., 490; Id., 514.

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Sec. 46b-143. (Formerly Sec. 51-324). Notice of appeal. The clerk in charge of juvenile matters shall note the time of filing an appeal from a juvenile matter and forthwith forward to the clerk of the Appellate Court a certified copy of the appeal and order made thereon. He shall also send a copy by registered or certified mail to the Commissioner of Social Services or to the Commissioner of Children and Families, to the petitioner upon whose application the proceedings in the Superior Court were instituted, unless he is the appellant, to any person or agency having custody of any child or youth who is a subject of the proceeding, and to all other interested persons as designated in the appeal; and if the addresses of any such persons do not appear in the appeal, he shall call the matter to the attention of a judge of the Superior Court who shall make such an order of notice as he deems advisable.
(1959, P.A. 531, S. 15; P.A. 74-251, S. 16; P.A. 75-420, S. 4, 6; 75-602, S. 11, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 28, 681; P.A. 77- 614, S. 521, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 1, 127; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 37, 82; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-262, S. 1, 87.)
History: P.A. 74-251 authorized welfare commissioner's designee to receive copy of appeal; P.A. 75-420 replaced welfare commissioner with commissioner of social services; P.A. 75-602 required that appeal copy be sent to person or agency having custody of a "youth" who is the subject of proceedings and authorized sending appeal copy to commissioner of children and youth services after April 1, 1975; P.A. 76-436 revised section to reflect transfer of juvenile court powers to superior court, thus requiring appeals to supreme, rather than superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of social services with commissioner of human resources, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-280 deleted reference to counties; Sec. 17-70a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-324 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-143 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-70a; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of human resources, effective July 1, 1993.
Annotations to former section 17-70a:
Cited. 158 C. 439. Cited. 165 C. 435, 437.
Annotations to present section:
Does not confer standing to take an appeal; clear purpose is to give notice of appeal already taken by a "party at interest". 181 C. 292, 295.

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Sec. 46b-144. (Formerly Sec. 51-325). Religious faith. Service of commitment process. In committing a child or youth to a custodial agency, other than its natural guardians, the court shall, as far as practicable, select as such agency some person of like faith to that of the parent or parents of the child or youth or some agency or institution governed by persons of such faith, unless such agency or institution is a state or municipal agency or institution. In the order of committal, the court shall designate some indifferent person to serve the commitment process, and such indifferent person may be accompanied by any suitable relative or friend of such child or youth. If the person designated to serve such commitment process is an officer, such officer shall not serve such commitment process while dressed in the uniform of any police officer, and no such officer shall, while serving any such commitment process, wear plainly displayed any police officer's badge.
(1949 Rev., S. 2816; P.A. 75-602, S. 12, 13; P.A. 00-99, S. 91, 154.)
History: P.A. 75-602 added references to youths; Sec. 17-71 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-325 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-144 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-71; P.A. 00-99 deleted references to sheriffs, effective December 1, 2000.
Annotations to former section 17-71:
Cited. 132 C. 202.

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Sec. 46b-145. (Formerly Sec. 51-326). Prohibition on prosecution of child before regular criminal docket. Exceptions. No child shall be prosecuted for an offense before the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court except as provided in section 46b-127 and subsection (f) of section 46b-133c.
(1949 Rev., S. 2817; P.A. 76-436, S. 29, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 26.)
History: P.A. 76-436 replaced juvenile court with superior court and added exception, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17- 72 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-326 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-145 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-72) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 95- 225 limited provisions to prosecutions before the "regular criminal docket" of the Superior Court, deleted provision that prohibited the adjudication of a child as delinquent being deemed a conviction of a crime, deleted reference to Sec. 46b- 126, reflecting repeal of said section by same public act, and added exception for a prosecution as provided in Subsec. (f) of Sec. 46b-133c.
Annotations to former section 17-72:
Cited. 115 C. 592; 154 C. 644, 648; 156 C. 632.
Juvenile court commitment is not a criminal prosecution but is a civil inquiry. 19 CS 374.
Annotations to present section:
Cited. 195 C. 303, 304. Cited. 206 C. 323, 331. Cited. Id., 346, 355, 360. Cited. 210 C. 435, 443. Cited. 211 C. 151, 157. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697, 699, 701.
Cited. 46 CA 545.
Cited. 43 CS 367−370.

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Sec. 46b-146. (Formerly Sec. 51-327). Erasure of police and court records. Whenever any child has been found delinquent or a member of a family with service needs, and has subsequently been discharged from the supervision of the Superior Court or from the custody of the Department of Children and Families or from the care of any other institution or agency to whom he has been committed by the court, such child, his parent or guardian, may file a petition with the Superior Court and, if such court finds that at least two years or, in the case of a child convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, four years have elapsed from the date of such discharge, that no subsequent juvenile proceeding has been instituted against such child, that such child has not been found guilty of a crime and that such child has reached sixteen years of age within such period, it shall order all police and court records pertaining to such child to be erased. Upon the entry of such an erasure order, all references including arrest, complaint, referrals, petitions, reports and orders, shall be removed from all agency, official and institutional files, and a finding of delinquency or that the child was a member of a family with service needs shall be deemed never to have occurred. The persons in charge of such records shall not disclose to any person information pertaining to the record so erased, except that the fact of such erasure may be substantiated where, in the opinion of the court, it is in the best interests of such child to do so. No child who has been the subject of such an erasure order shall be deemed to have been arrested ab initio, within the meaning of the general statutes, with respect to proceedings so erased. Copies of the erasure order shall be sent to all persons, agencies, officials or institutions known to have information pertaining to the delinquency or family with service needs proceedings affecting such child. Whenever a child is dismissed as not delinquent or as not being a member of a family with service needs, all police and court records pertaining to such charge shall be ordered erased immediately, without the filing of a petition.
(1969, P.A. 794, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 204; P.A. 76-436, S. 30, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 25, 72; P.A. 89-273, S. 6; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 27; P.A. 98-256, S. 7.)
History: 1971 act made special provision requiring that records be erased immediately when child is dismissed as not delinquent, where previously same provisions applied for dismissal or adjudication as delinquent and added exception re substantiation of erasure; P.A. 76-436 replaced juvenile court with superior court and specified that erasure occurs if child has not been found guilty of a crime and he has reached age sixteen within two years after his discharge, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 made no changes; Sec. 17-72a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-327 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-146 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-72a; P.A. 89-273 made provisions of section applicable to a child who is a member of a family with service needs; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 increased from two years to four years the period of time that must elapse from the date of discharge; P.A. 98-256 specified that provision requiring four years to elapse from the date of discharge prior to erasure applied "in the case of a child convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense" and established a period of two years for all other cases.
Cited. 206 C. 346, 361. Cited. 214 C. 454, 460. Cited. 229 C. 691, 697. Cited. 237 C. 364, 374.
Cited. 1 CA 584, 589, 590. Cited. 21 CA 654, 661.

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Sec. 46b-147. (Formerly Sec. 51-328). Proceedings inadmissible as evidence in criminal proceedings. The disposition of any child under the provisions of this chapter, evidence given in such cases, except evidence of crime which, if committed by a person of sufficient age, would be punishable by imprisonment in the Connecticut Correctional Institution, Somers, and all orders therein, shall be inadmissible as evidence in any criminal proceedings against such child.
(1949 Rev., S. 2818.)
History: Sec. 17-73 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-328 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-147 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-78.
Annotations to former section 17-73:
Cited. 115 C. 592.

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Sec. 46b-147a. Reports on cases of children charged with serious juvenile offenses. The Judicial Department shall prepare a quarterly report which tracks the cases of children charged with the commission of serious juvenile offenses and includes information pertaining to the offenses charged, patterns and frequency of court involvement, and the disposition of the cases. The Judicial Department shall submit such reports to the General Assembly and all judges assigned to the juvenile session of the Superior Court.
(P.A. 89-273, S. 10.)

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Sec. 46b-148. (Formerly Sec. 51-329). Violation of valid court order by child of family with service needs. When a child whose family has been adjudicated as a family with service needs in accordance with section 46b-149 violates any valid order which regulates future conduct of the child made by the court following such an adjudication, a probation officer, on receipt of a complaint setting forth facts alleging such a violation, or on his own motion on the basis of his knowledge of such a violation, may file a petition with the court alleging that the child has committed a delinquent act by reason of having violated a valid court order and setting forth the facts claimed to constitute such a violation. Such child may be processed as any other delinquent child under this chapter, except that (1) such child shall not be held in detention prior to a hearing on such petition for more than seventy-two hours excluding Saturdays, Sundays and holidays; and (2) in entering any order that directs or authorizes placement in a facility under the auspices of the Office of Alternative Sanctions or commitment to the Department of Children and Families, the judge shall make a determination that there is no less restrictive alternative appropriate to the needs of the child and the community.
(1949 Rev., S. 2819; P.A. 76-436, S. 33, 681; P.A. 82-335; P.A. 85-226, S. 2; P.A. 89-273, S. 7; P.A. 98-183, S. 4.)
History: P.A. 76-436 specified applicability to enforcement of orders "in connection with any juvenile matter", effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-74 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-329 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-148 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-74; P.A. 82-335 added Subsecs. (b) to (d) to provide procedure for enforcement of court order violated by child of family with service needs, including petition, summons, custody, bail, release, hearing and detention; P.A. 85- 226 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re processing child as delinquent who violates valid court order which regulates future conduct of the child and deleted former Subsecs. (c) and (d) re procedures for taking custody of child and time limits for holding child in detention; P.A. 89-273 deleted Subsec. (a) re the authority of the court to enforce its orders in connection with any juvenile matter and reenacted such provision as part of Sec. 46b-121, and made a technical change in remaining provisions; P.A. 98-183 deleted "disposition of placement in a state-operated detention facility, Long Lane School or any other secure facility" and substituted "placement in a facility under the auspices of the Office of Alternative Sanctions or commitment to the Department of Children and Families".
Annotation to former section 17-74:
Juvenile court may make appropriate orders for support of children and punish for contempt. 19 CS 371.

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Sec. 46b-149. Family with service needs. Complaint. Review by probation officer. Filing of petition. Hearing. Order. (a) Any selectman, town manager, police officer or welfare department of any town, city or borough, probation officer, superintendent of schools, the Commissioner of Children and Families, any child-caring institution or agency approved or licensed by the Commissioner of Children and Families, any youth service bureau, a parent or foster parent of a child, or a child or his representative or attorney, who believes that the acts or omissions of a child are such that his family is a family with service needs, may file a written complaint setting forth those facts with the superior court which has venue over that matter.
(b) The court shall refer a complaint filed under subsection (a) of this section to a probation officer, who shall promptly determine whether it appears that the alleged facts, if true, would be sufficient to meet the definition of a family with service needs, provided a complaint alleging that a child is a truant or habitual truant shall not be determined to be insufficient to meet the definition of a family with service needs solely because it was filed during the months of April, May or June. If such probation officer so determines, he shall promptly either (1) refer the matter, with the consent of the child and his parents or guardian, to a suitable community-based or other service provider, or (2) file a petition with the court in the manner prescribed in subsection (c) of this section. In either case, the probation officer shall inform the complainant in writing of his action. If it appears that the allegations are not true, or that the child's family does not meet the definition of a family with service needs, the probation officer shall inform the complainant in writing of such finding. In any case in which the probation officer does not file a petition, he shall also inform the complainant of the right of such person to file a petition pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. Any person who has filed a complaint pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, and who has been notified by a probation officer that such officer does not intend to file a petition for a family with service needs may, within thirty days after mailing of such notice, file a petition under subsection (c) of this section.
(c) A petition alleging that a family constitutes a family with service needs shall be verified and filed with the Superior Court which has venue over the matter. The petition shall set forth plainly: (1) The facts which bring the child within the jurisdiction of the court, (2) the name, date of birth, sex and residence of the child, (3) the name and residence of his parent or parents, guardian or other person having control of him, and (4) a prayer for appropriate action by the court in conformity with the provisions of this section.
(d) When a petition is filed under subsection (c) of this section, the court may issue a summons to the child and his parents, guardian or other person having control of him to appear in court at a specified time and place. The summons shall be signed by a judge or by the clerk or assistant clerk of the court, and a copy of the petition shall be attached to it. Whenever it appears to the judge that orders addressed to an adult, as set forth in section 46b-121, are necessary for the welfare of such child, a similar summons shall be issued and served upon such adult if he is not already in court. Service of summons shall be made in accordance with section 46b-128. The court may punish for contempt, as provided in section 46b-121, any parent, guardian or other person so summoned who fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified. If a petition is filed under subsection (c) of this section alleging that a family is a family with service needs because a child is a truant or habitual truant, the court may not dismiss such petition solely because it was filed during the months of April, May or June.
(e) When a petition is filed under subsection (c) of this section alleging that a family constitutes a family with service needs because it includes a child who has been habitually truant, the court shall order that the local or regional board of education for the town in which the child resides, or the private school in the case of a child enrolled in a private school, shall cause an educational evaluation of such child to be performed if no such evaluation has been performed within the preceding year. Any costs incurred for the performance of such evaluation shall be borne by such local or regional board of education or such private school.
(f) If it appears from the allegations of a petition or other sworn affirmations that there is: (1) A strong probability that the child may do something that is injurious to himself prior to court disposition; (2) a strong probability that the child will run away prior to the hearing; or (3) a need to hold the child for another jurisdiction, a judge may vest temporary custody of such child in some suitable person or agency. No nondelinquent juvenile runaway from another state may be held in a state-operated detention home in accordance with the provisions of sections 46b-151 to 46b-151g, inclusive, Interstate Compact on Juveniles. A hearing on temporary custody shall be held not later than ten days after the date on which a judge signs an order of temporary custody. Following such hearing, the judge may order that the child's temporary custody continue to be vested in some suitable person or agency. Any expenses of temporary custody shall be paid in the same manner as provided in subsection (b) of section 46b-129.
(g) If it appears that the interests of the child or the family may be best served, prior to adjudication, by a referral to community-based or other services, the judge may permit the matter to be continued for a period not to exceed three months. If it appears at the conclusion of the continuance that the matter has been satisfactorily resolved, the judge may dismiss the petition.
(h) If the court finds, based on clear and convincing evidence, that the family of a child is a family with service needs, the court may, in addition to issuing any orders under section 46b-121, (1) refer the child to the Department of Children and Families for any voluntary services provided by said department or, if the family is a family with service needs solely as a result of a finding that a child is a truant or habitual truant, to the authorities of the local or regional school district or private school for services provided by such school district or such school, which services may include summer school, or to community agencies providing child and family services; (2) commit that child to the care and custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families for an indefinite period not to exceed eighteen months; (3) order the child to remain in his own home or in the custody of a relative or any other suitable person (A) subject to the supervision of a probation officer or (B) in the case of a family which is a family with service needs solely as a result of a finding that a child is a truant or habitual truant, subject to the supervision of a probation officer and the authorities of the local or regional school district or private school; or (4) if the family is a family with service needs as a result of the child engaging in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is thirteen years of age or older and not more than two years older or younger than such child, (A) refer the child to a youth service bureau or other appropriate service agency for participation in a program such as a teen pregnancy program or a sexually transmitted disease program and (B) require such child to perform community service such as service in a hospital, an AIDS prevention program or an obstetrical and gynecological program. If the court issues any order which regulates future conduct of the child, parent or guardian, the child, parent or guardian, shall receive adequate and fair warning of the consequences of violation of the order at the time it is issued, and such warning shall be provided to the child, parent or guardian, to his attorney and to his legal guardian in writing and shall be reflected in the court record and proceedings.
(i) (1) The Commissioner of Children and Families may petition the court for an extension of a commitment under this section on the grounds that an extension would be in the best interest of the child. The court shall give notice to the child and his parent or guardian at least fourteen days prior to the hearing upon that petition. The court may, after hearing and upon finding that such extension is in the best interest of the child, continue the commitment for an additional indefinite period of not more than eighteen months. (2) The Commissioner of Children and Families may at any time petition the court to discharge a child, committed under this section, and any child committed to the commissioner under this section, or the parent or guardian of such child, may at any time but not more often than once every six months petition the court which committed the child to revoke such commitment. The court shall notify the child, his parent or guardian and the commissioner of any petition filed under this subsection, and of the time when a hearing on such petition will be held. Any order of the court made under this subsection shall be deemed a final order for purposes of appeal, except that no bond shall be required nor costs taxed on such appeal.
(P.A. 79-567, S. 3, 7; P.A. 80-401, S. 1, 4; P.A. 85-226, S. 3; P.A. 88-214, S. 1, 4; P.A. 89-273, S. 8; P.A. 90-240, S. 3, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 91-303, S. 12, 22; P.A. 92-167, S. 2, 3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-340, S. 17; 93-435, S. 26, 95; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 94, 130; P.A. 95-339, S. 6, 8; P.A. 96-178, S. 11, 18; P.A. 98-183, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 80-401 changed applicable date in Subsec. (e) from August 1, 1980, to July 1, 1981, and added exception re detention of nondelinquent juvenile runaways from other states and deleted court's power to order child to do work in public buildings and on public properties in Subsec. (g), effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 85-226 amended Subsec. (g) by adding provision re adequate and fair warning to child of consequences of violation of order; P.A. 88-214 amended Subsec. (e) by providing that no delinquent juvenile runaway from another state may be held in a state-operated detention home, where previously such detention was permissible; P.A. 89-273 inserted a new Subsec. (e) re the performance of an educational evaluation of a habitually truant child and redesignated the remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 90-240 in Subsec. (b) provided that certain complaints not be insufficient because of the month in which they are filed, in Subsec. (d) provided that certain petitions not be dismissed because of the month in which they are filed, in Subsec. (c) required the court to order private schools to do and pay for educational evaluations for certain children and in Subsec. (h) provided for the referral of certain children to school authorities in Subdiv. (1) and in Subdiv. (2) provided for certain children to be subject to the supervision of a probation officer and school authorities; P.A. 90-325 changed effective date of P.A. 90-240 from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 91-303 in Subsec. (h) (1) added referral to community agencies providing child and family services; P.A. 92-167 amended Subsec. (h) by substituting "eighteen months" for "two years"; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (h) to add Subdiv. (4) re judicial dispositions authorized when the child has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person within a certain age range; P.A. 93-435 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (i) by reducing the time for an additional commitment period from twenty-four to eighteen months and made technical changes, effective June 28, 1993; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (h) by making technical change, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-339 amended Subsec. (a) to substitute agencies sanctioned by Commissioner of Education for agencies sanctioned by Commissioner of Children and Families, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-178 amended Subsec. (a) to add "approved or licensed by the Commissioner of Children and Families" after "child-caring institution or agency" and deleted "approved or licensed by the Commissioner of Education" after "youth service bureau", effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 98-183 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re punishment for contempt of any parent, guardian or other person who fails to appear in court, amended Subsec. (f) to delete obsolete provisions re state-operated detention homes and amended Subsec. (h) to add references to conduct of parent or guardian.
Cited. 36 CA 146, 149.
Cited. 39 CS 35, 36.
Subsec. (h):
Subdiv. (2) cited. 36 CA 146, 147. Cited. Id., 146, 147, 149.

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Sec. 46b-149a. Duties of police officer re child of family with service needs. (a) Any police officer who receives a report from the parent or guardian of a child that such child is a member of a family with service needs, as defined in section 46b-120, shall promptly attempt to locate the child. If the officer locates such child, or any child he believes has run away from his parent or guardian's home without permission, or any nondelinquent juvenile runaway from another state, he shall report the location of the child to the parent or guardian, and may respond in one of the following ways: (1) He may transport the child to the home of the child's parent or guardian or any other person; (2) he may refer the child to the superior court for juvenile matters in the district where the child is located; (3) he may hold the child in protective custody for a maximum period of twelve hours until the officer can determine a more suitable disposition of the matter, provided (A) the child is not held in any locked room or cell and (B) the officer may release the child at any time without taking further action; or (4) he may transport or refer a child to any public or private agency serving children, with or without the agreement of the child. If a child is transported or referred to an agency pursuant to this section, such agency may provide services to the child unless or until the child's parent or guardian at any time refuses to agree to those services. Such agency shall be immune from any liability, civil or criminal, which might otherwise be incurred or imposed; provided such services are provided in good faith and in a nonnegligent manner.
(b) Any police officer acting in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be deemed to be acting in the course of his official duties.
(P.A. 79-567, S. 6, 7; P.A. 80-401, S. 2, 4; P.A. 88-214, S. 2, 4; P.A. 89-273, S. 9; P.A. 98-183, S. 6.)
History: P.A. 80-401 deleted Subdiv. (1) authorizing officer to decline to take further action and terminate investigation, renumbering remaining Subdivs. accordingly, changed applicable date in Subdiv. (2), formerly (3), from August 1, 1980, to July 1, 1981 and added exception re nondelinquent juvenile runaways from other states, substituted "hold" for "allow to remain" in Subdiv. (3) and revised Subdiv. (4) to specify that transport or referral to agency need not be agreed to by child where previously child's agreement was necessary, in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1981; P.A. 88-214 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to nondelinquent juveniles from other states, deleting prior provision allowing the detention of such nondelinquent juveniles in accordance with interstate compact on juveniles, and added provision prohibiting holding a child in a locked room or cell; P.A. 89-273 amended Subsec. (a) to increase from six to twelve hours the maximum period that a police officer may hold a child in protective custody; P.A. 98-183 made technical changes in Subsec. (a).

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Sec. 46b-149b. Immunity of police officer or municipal official from personal liability. Any police officer or any official of a municipal or community agency, who in the course of his employment under subsection (d) of section 17a-15 or section 46b- 120, 46b-121, 46b-149 or 46b-149a provides assistance to a child or a family in need thereof, shall not be liable to such child or such family for civil damages for any personal injuries which result from the voluntary termination of service by the child or the family.
(P.A. 80-401, S. 3.)

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Sec. 46b-149c. Truancy and other family with service needs cases. Duties of judicial branch. With respect to truancy and other family with service needs cases, the judicial branch shall:
(1) Coordinate programs and services with other state agencies;
(2) Establish protocols in cooperation with the Office of Policy and Management, the Department of Children and Families and the Department of Education for referral to community-based intervention programs prior to referral of a case to the superior court for juvenile matters;
(3) Develop and use procedures to evaluate the risk and service needs of children whose cases have been referred to the superior court for juvenile matters; and
(4) Collaborate with community-based programs.
(P.A. 98-183, S. 1.)

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Sec. 46b-149d. Demonstration project to establish school and community- based truancy prevention initiative. Sites. Grant eligibility. Establishment of truancy or family with service needs docket. Duties of Office of Alternative Sanctions. (a) A demonstration project to establish a school and community-based truancy prevention initiative is authorized, which shall address the needs of public school children who exhibit patterns of unexcused absences from school. The Office of Policy and Management, in consultation with the Department of Education and the judicial branch, shall issue a request for proposals and award competitive grants. The Office of Policy and Management, in consultation with the Department of Education and the judicial branch, shall select at least two demonstration project sites.
(b) To be eligible for such a competitive grant the program shall include:
(1) A description of the policies that the community's board of education has adopted pursuant to section 10-198a, as well as the board's plans to work with the leadership of community truancy prevention initiatives to: (A) Monitor school attendance; (B) enhance any existing in-school truancy prevention programs; (C) establish after-school and summer school programs for truants; (D) provide mentoring programs for children at risk of being truant; (E) implement school and community-based intervention programs that target families with elementary school children who exhibit persistent patterns of absenteeism or truancy; (F) provide in-school alternative education initiatives for chronic truants; and (G) provide monthly truancy reports to the Office of Policy and Management.
(2) Participation of youth service bureaus, juvenile review boards or other community-based service networks, to provide such services as truancy coordinators, mentorship programs and peer mediation for children as well as truancy case management for boards of education prior to the referral of a truant to a juvenile court. Such proposal may also provide for diversion of truants from the juvenile court in appropriate cases. Case management will include development of student intervention action plans, family counseling and parental education programs and, when appropriate, referrals for mental health and substance abuse assessments for the child and parents.
(c) For those communities who have been awarded a grant pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and established community truancy prevention initiatives, the Chief Court Administrator may establish a truancy or family with service needs docket and the Office of Alternative Sanctions shall, within available appropriations, make available to such communities the following: (1) A risk and needs assessment tool; and (2) funding for nonjudicial diversion of appropriate truancy cases to youth service bureaus and juvenile review boards. For court sanctioned intervention programs the Office of Alternative Sanctions shall: (A) Provide parenting education programs; (B) expand existing programs to serve truancy cases; (C) provide intensive outreach and monitoring, including intensive probation services for chronic truancy cases; (D) provide for mental health assessment and outpatient mental health and substance abuse services; and (E) provide for short-term emergency residential placement for children with multiple referrals to the juvenile court for truancy, being beyond control and for being runaways.
(P.A. 98-183, S. 2.)

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Sec. 46b-150. Emancipation of minor. Procedure. Any minor who has reached his sixteenth birthday and is residing in this state, or any parent or guardian of such minor, may petition the superior court for juvenile matters or the probate court for the district in which either the minor or his parents or guardian resides for a determination that the minor named in the petition be emancipated. The petition shall be verified and shall state plainly: (1) The facts which bring the minor within the jurisdiction of the court, (2) the name, date of birth, sex and residence of the minor, (3) the name and residence of his parent, parents or guardian, and (4) the name of the petitioner and his relationship to the minor. Upon the filing of the petition in the Superior Court, the court shall cause a summons to be issued to the minor and his parent, parents or guardian, in the manner provided in section 46b-128. Upon the filing of the petition in the Probate Court, the court shall assign a time, not later than thirty days thereafter, and a place for hearing such petition. The court shall cause a citation and notice to be served on the minor and his parent, if the parent is not the petitioner, at least seven days prior to the hearing date, by a state marshal, constable or indifferent person. The court shall direct notice by certified mail to the parent, if the parent is the petitioner. The court shall order such notice as it directs to the Commissioner of Children and Families, and other persons having an interest in the minor.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 1; P.A. 98-219, S. 8; P.A. 00-99, S. 92, 154.)
History: P.A. 98-219 added provisions allowing Probate Court to have concurrent jurisdiction with Superior Court re emancipation petitions; P.A. 00-99 replaced reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff with state marshal, effective December 1, 2000.
Cited. 38 CS 503, 504. Cited. 39 CS 35, 39. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353. Cited. 43 CS 175.

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Sec. 46b-150a. Investigation of petition for emancipation. Report. Appointment of counsel. Probate Court may order examination. (a) With respect to a petition filed in Superior Court pursuant to section 46b-150, the Superior Court may, if it deems it appropriate, (1) require a probation officer, the Commissioner of Children and Families or any other person to investigate the allegations in the petition and file a report of that investigation with the court, (2) appoint counsel for the minor who may serve as guardian ad litem for the minor, (3) appoint counsel for the minor's parents or guardian, or (4) make any other orders regarding the matter which the court deems appropriate.
(b) With respect to a petition filed in Probate Court pursuant to section 46b-150, the Probate Court shall request an investigation by the Commissioner of Children and Families, unless this requirement is waived by the court for cause shown. The court shall appoint counsel to represent the minor. The costs of such counsel shall be paid by the minor, except that if such minor is unable to pay for such counsel and files an affidavit with the court demonstrating inability of the minor to pay, the reasonable compensation shall be established by, and paid from funds appropriated to, the Judicial Department. If funds have not been included in the budget of the Judicial Department for such purposes, such compensation shall be established by the Probate Court Administrator and paid from the Probate Court Administration Fund.
(c) Upon finding at the hearing or any time during the pendency of the proceeding in the Probate Court, that reasonable cause exists to warrant an examination, the court on its own motion or on motion of any party, may order the minor to be examined at a suitable place by a physician, psychiatrist or licensed psychologist appointed by the court. The court may also order examination of a parent whose competency or ability to care for a minor before the court is at issue. The expenses of any examination if ordered by the court on its own motion shall be paid for by the petitioner or if ordered on motion by a party, shall be paid for by the party moving for such an examination, unless such party or petitioner is unable to pay such expenses in which case they shall be paid for by funds appropriated to the Judicial Department. However, in the case of a probate matter, if funds have not been included in the budget of the Judicial Department for such purposes, such expenses shall be established by the Probate Court Administrator and paid from the Probate Court Administration Fund. The court may consider the results of the examinations in ruling on the merits of the petition.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 2; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-219, S. 9; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 108; P.A. 00-75, S. 10.)
History: P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 98-219 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a), adding language re petition filed in Superior Court, and added new Subsec. (b) re Probate Court request of investigation by Commissioner of Children and Families, appointment of counsel for minor and payment for counsel if minor is unable to pay; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 00-75 added Subsec. (c) providing that Probate Court during the pendency of an emancipation proceeding, on its own motion or on motion of any party, may order examination of minor and parent, with costs of examination paid by petitioner or party moving for examination, or if unable to pay, from funds appropriated to the Judicial Department, and, if a probate matter, if funds not appropriated to the Judicial Department, such expenses to be established by the Probate Court Administrator and paid from the Probate Court Administration Fund, and provided further that the court may consider the results of the examinations in ruling on the merits of the petition.
Cited. 38 CS 503, 504. Cited. 39 CS 35, 39. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353. Cited. 44 CS 437.

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Sec. 46b-150b. Order of emancipation. If the Superior Court or the Probate Court, after hearing, finds that: (1) The minor has entered into a valid marriage, whether or not that marriage has been terminated by dissolution; or (2) the minor is on active duty with any of the armed forces of the United States of America; or (3) the minor willingly lives separate and apart from his parents or guardian, with or without the consent of the parents or guardian, and that the minor is managing his own financial affairs, regardless of the source of any lawful income; or (4) for good cause shown, it is in the best interest of the minor, any child of the minor or the parents or guardian of the minor, the court may enter an order declaring that the minor is emancipated.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 3; P.A. 80-283, S. 1; P.A. 95-225, S. 28; P.A. 98-219, S. 10.)
History: P.A. 80-283 replaced Subdiv. (4) which had allowed emancipation order on basis of facts demonstrating irretrievable breakdown of parent-child relationship with new provision; P.A. 95-225 amended Subdiv. (4) to replace "in the best interest of either or both parties" with "in the best interest of the minor, any child of the minor or the parents or guardian of the minor"; P.A. 98-219 replaced "court" with "Superior Court or the Probate Court".
Cited. 38 CS 503, 504. Cited. 39 CS 35, 38. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353. Cited. 44 CS 437.
Subdiv. (4):
Cited. 44 CS 437.

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Sec. 46b-150c. Appeal. Any person named in a petition filed pursuant to section 46b-150a who is aggrieved by the order of the Probate Court may appeal to the Superior Court as provided in section 45a-186. Any person named in a petition filed pursuant to section 46b-150a who is aggrieved by order of the Superior Court may appeal to the Appellate Court in the manner provided in subsection (b) of section 46b-142.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29, S. 38, 82; P.A. 98-219, S. 11.)
History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-29 deleted reference to supreme court and substituted appellate court in lieu thereof; P.A. 98-219 added provision re appeal of order of Probate Court to the Superior Court and made conforming changes.
Cited. 38 CS 503, 504. Cited. 39 CS 35, 39. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353.

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Sec. 46b-150d. Effect of emancipation. An order that a minor is emancipated shall have the following effects: (a) The minor may consent to medical, dental or psychiatric care, without parental consent, knowledge or liability; (b) the minor may enter into a binding contract; (c) the minor may sue and be sued in his own name; (d) the minor shall be entitled to his own earnings and shall be free of control by his parents or guardian; (e) the minor may establish his own residence; (f) the minor may buy and sell real and personal property; (g) the minor may not thereafter be the subject of a petition under section 46b-120 as an abused, dependent, neglected or uncared for child or youth; (h) the minor may enroll in any school or college, without parental consent; (i) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of securing an operator's license under section 14-36 and a marriage license under subsection (b) of section 46b- 30 without parental consent; (j) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of registering a motor vehicle under section 14-12; (k) the parents of the minor shall no longer be the guardians of the minor under section 45a-606; (l) the parents of a minor shall be relieved of any obligations respecting his school attendance under section 10-184; (m) the parents shall be relieved of all obligation to support the minor; (n) the minor shall be emancipated for the purposes of parental liability for his acts under section 52-572; (o) the minor may execute releases in his own name under section 14-118; and (p) the minor may enlist in the armed forces of the United States without parental consent.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 5; 79-631, S. 98, 111; P.A. 80-283, S. 2; 80-483, S. 120, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 76; P.A. 90-61.)
History: P.A. 79-631 made no changes; P.A. 80-283 specified that minor is deemed to be over eighteen for purposes of securing marriage license in Subdiv. (i) and added Subdiv. (o) allowing minor to enlist in armed forces without parental consent; P.A. 80-483 substituted reference to Sec. 45-43 for reference to Sec. 45-53 in Subdiv. (j); P.A. 84-429 made technical change for statutory consistency; P.A. 90-61 specified that minor is deemed to be over eighteen for purposes of registering motor vehicle in Subdiv. (j) and relettered remaining Subdivs. accordingly.
Cited. 38 CS 503, 504. Cited. 39 CS 35, 39. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353. Cited. 44 CS 437.
Subdiv. (l):
Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353.

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Sec. 46b-150e. Emancipation under common law. Nothing in sections 46b-150 to 46b-150e, inclusive, shall affect the status of minors who are or may become emancipated under the common law of this state.
(P.A. 79-397, S. 6.)
The court saw no reason to distinguish between statutory and common law emancipation. 38 CS 503−505. Cited. 39 CS 35, 39. Cited. 40 CS 349, 351, 353.

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Sec. 46b-150f. Youth in crisis. Petition. Court orders. Violations. (a) Any selectman, town manager, police officer or welfare department of any town, city or borough, probation officer, superintendent of schools, any child-caring institution or agency approved or licensed by the Commissioner of Children and Families, any youth service bureau, a parent or foster parent of a youth, or a representative of youth, who believes that the acts or omissions of a youth are such that such youth is a youth in crisis may file a written complaint setting forth those facts with the Superior Court which has venue over that matter.
(b) A petition alleging that a youth is a youth in crisis shall be verified and filed with the Superior Court which has venue over the matter. The petition shall set forth plainly: (1) The facts which bring the youth within the jurisdiction of the court; (2) the name, date of birth, sex and residence of the child; (3) the name and residence of the parent or parents, guardian or other person having control of the youth; and (4) a prayer for appropriate action by the court in conformity with the provisions of this section.
(c) Upon determination that a youth is a youth in crisis in accordance with policies established by the Chief Court Administrator, the court may make and enforce orders, including, but not limited to, orders: (1) Prohibiting the youth in crisis from driving a motor vehicle for a time determined by the court; (2) requiring work or specified community service; (3) mandating that the youth in crisis attend an educational program in the local community approved by the court; and (4) requiring mental health services. A youth in crisis found to be in violation of any order under this section shall not be considered to be delinquent and shall not be punished by the court by incarceration in any state-operated detention facility or correctional facility.
(P.A. 00-177, S. 3, 5.) Effective July 1, 2001.
History: P.A. 00-177 effective July 1, 2001.

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Sec. 46b-150g. Duties of police officer re youth in crisis. (a) Any police officer who receives a report from the parent or guardian of a youth in crisis, as defined in section 46b-120, may attempt to locate the youth in crisis. If the officer locates such youth in crisis, such officer may report the location of the youth to the parent or guardian in accordance with the provisions of federal and state law after such officer determines that such report does not place the youth in any physical or emotional harm. In addition the police officer may: (1) Transport the youth in crisis to the home of the child's parent or guardian or any other person; (2) refer the youth in crisis to the superior court for juvenile matters in the district where the youth in crisis is located; (3) hold the youth in crisis in protective custody for a maximum period of twelve hours until the officer can determine a more suitable disposition of the matter, provided (A) the youth in crisis is not held in any cell designed or used for adults, and (B) the officer may release the youth in crisis at any time without taking further action; or (4) transport or refer a youth in crisis to any public or private agency serving children, with or without the agreement of the youth in crisis. If a youth in crisis is transported or referred to an agency pursuant to this section, such agency shall provide temporary services to the youth in crisis unless or until the parent or guardian of the youth in crisis at any time refuses to agree to those services.
(b) Any police officer acting in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be deemed to be acting in the course of official duties.
(P.A. 00-177, S. 4, 5.) Effective July 1, 2001.
History: P.A. 00-177 effective July 1, 2001.

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PART II
INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES

Sec. 46b-151. (Formerly Sec. 17-75). Declaration of policy. It is hereby found and declared: (1) That juveniles who are not under proper supervision and control, or who have absconded, escaped or run away, are likely to endanger their own health, morals and welfare, and the health, morals and welfare of others; and (2) that the cooperation of this state with other states is necessary to provide for the welfare and protection of juveniles and of the people of this state. It shall therefore be the policy of this state, in adopting the interstate compact on juveniles, to cooperate fully with other states: (1) In returning juveniles to such other states whenever their return is sought; and (2) in accepting the return of juveniles whenever a juvenile residing in this state is found or apprehended in another state and in taking all measures to initiate proceedings for the return of such juveniles.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 1.)
History: Sec. 17-75 transferred to Sec. 46b-151 in 1991.

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Sec. 46b-151a. (Formerly Sec. 17-76). Compact. The Governor is hereby authorized and directed to execute a compact on behalf of this state with any other state or states legally joining therein in the form substantially as follows:

INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES

ARTICLE I

That juveniles who are not under proper supervision and control, or who have absconded, escaped or run away, are likely to endanger their own health, morals and welfare, and the health, morals and welfare of others. The cooperation of the states party to this compact is therefore necessary to provide for the welfare and protection of juveniles and of the public with respect to (1) cooperative supervision of delinquent juveniles on probation or parole; (2) the return, from one state to another, of delinquent juveniles who have escaped or absconded; (3) the return, from one state to another, of nondelinquent juveniles who have run away from home; and (4) additional measures for the protection of juveniles and of the public, which any two or more of the party states may find desirable to undertake cooperatively. In carrying out the provisions of this compact the party states shall be guided by the noncriminal, reformative and protective policies which guide their laws concerning delinquent, neglected or dependent juveniles generally. It shall be the policy of the states party to this compact to cooperate and observe their respective responsibilities for the prompt return and acceptance of juveniles and delinquent juveniles who become subject to the provisions of this compact. The provisions of this compact shall be reasonably and liberally construed to accomplish the foregoing purposes.

ARTICLE II

That all remedies and procedures provided by this compact shall be in addition to and not in substitution for other rights, remedies and procedures, and shall not be in derogation of parental rights and responsibilities.

ARTICLE III

That, for the purposes of this compact, "delinquent juvenile" means any juvenile who has been adjudged delinquent and who, at the time the provisions of this compact are invoked, is still subject to the jurisdiction of the court that has made such adjudication or to the jurisdiction or supervision of an agency or institution pursuant to an order of such court; "probation or parole" means any kind of conditional release of juveniles authorized under the laws of the states party hereto; "court" means any court having jurisdiction over delinquent, neglected or dependent children; "state" means any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and "residence" or any variant thereof means a place at which a home or regular place of abode is maintained.

ARTICLE IV

(a) That the parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to legal custody of a juvenile who has not been adjudged delinquent but who has run away without the consent of such parent, guardian, person or agency may petition the appropriate court in the demanding state for the issuance of a requisition for his return. The petition shall state the name and age of the juvenile, the name of the petitioner and the basis of entitlement to the juvenile's custody, the circumstances of his running away, his location if known at the time application is made, and such other facts as may tend to show that the juvenile who has run away is endangering his own welfare or the welfare of others and is not an emancipated minor. The petition shall be verified by affidavit, shall be executed in duplicate, and shall be accompanied by two certified copies of the document or documents on which the petitioner's entitlement to the juvenile's custody is based, such as birth certificates, letters of guardianship, or custody decrees. Such further affidavits and other documents as may be deemed proper may be submitted with such petition. The judge of the court to which this application is made may hold a hearing thereon to determine whether for the purposes of this compact the petitioner is entitled to the legal custody of the juvenile, whether or not it appears that the juvenile has in fact run away without consent, whether or not he is an emancipated minor, and whether or not it is in the best interest of the juvenile to compel his return to the state. If the judge determines, either with or without a hearing, that the juvenile should be returned, he shall present to the appropriate court or to the executive authority of the state where the juvenile is alleged to be located a written requisition for the return of such juvenile. Such requisition shall set forth the name and age of the juvenile, the determination of the court that the juvenile has run away without the consent of a parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to his legal custody, and that it is in the best interest and for the protection of such juvenile that he be returned. In the event that a proceeding for the adjudication of the juvenile as a delinquent, neglected or dependent juvenile is pending in the court at the time when such juvenile runs away, the court may issue a requisition for the return of such juvenile upon its own motion, regardless of the consent of the parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to legal custody, reciting therein the nature and circumstances of the pending proceeding. The requisition shall in every case be executed in duplicate and shall be signed by the judge. One copy of the requisition shall be filed with the compact administrator of the demanding state, there to remain on file subject to the provisions of law governing records of such court. Upon the receipt of a requisition demanding the return of a juvenile who has run away, the court or the executive authority to whom the requisition is addressed shall issue an order to any peace officer or other appropriate person directing him to take into custody and detain such juvenile. Such detention order must substantially recite the facts necessary to the validity of its issuance hereunder. No juvenile detained upon such order shall be delivered over to the officer whom the court demanding him shall have appointed to receive him, unless he shall first be taken forthwith before a judge of a court in the state, who shall inform him of the demand made for his return, and who may appoint counsel or guardian ad litem for him. If the judge of such court shall find that the requisition is in order, he shall deliver such juvenile over to the officer whom the court demanding him shall have appointed to receive him. The judge, however, may fix a reasonable time to be allowed for the purpose of testing the legality of the proceeding. Upon reasonable information that a person is a juvenile who has run away from another state party to this compact without the consent of a parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to his legal custody, such juvenile may be taken into custody without a requisition and brought forthwith before a judge of the appropriate court, who may appoint counsel or guardian ad litem for such juvenile and who shall determine after a hearing whether sufficient cause exists to hold the person, subject to the order of the court, for his own protection and welfare, for such a time not exceeding ninety days as will enable his return to another state party to this compact pursuant to a requisition for his return from a court of that state, provided no nondelinquent juvenile runaway may be detained in a state-operated detention home. If, at the time when a state seeks the return of a juvenile who has run away, there is pending in the state wherein he is found any criminal charge, or any proceeding to have him adjudicated a delinquent juvenile for an act committed in such state, or if he is suspected of having committed within such state a criminal offense or an act of juvenile delinquency, he shall not be returned without the consent of such state until discharged from prosecution or other form of proceeding, imprisonment, detention or supervision for such offense or juvenile delinquency. The duly accredited officers of any state party to this compact, upon the establishment of their authority and identity of the juvenile being returned, shall be permitted to transport such juvenile through any and all states party to this compact, without interference. Upon his return to the state from which he ran away, the juvenile shall be subject to such further proceedings as may be appropriate under the laws of that state.
(b) That the state to which a juvenile is returned under this article shall be responsible for payment of the transportation costs of such return.
(c) That "juvenile" as used in this article means any person who is a minor under the law of the state of residence of the parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to the legal custody of such minor.

ARTICLE V

(a) That the appropriate person or authority from whose probation or parole supervision a delinquent juvenile has absconded or from whose institutional custody he has escaped shall present to the appropriate court or to the executive authority of the state where the delinquent juvenile is alleged to be located a written requisition for the return of such delinquent juvenile. Such requisition shall state the name and age of the delinquent juvenile, the particulars of his adjudication as a delinquent juvenile, the circumstances of the breach of the terms of his probation or parole or of his escape from an institution or agency vested with his legal custody or supervision, and the location of such delinquent juvenile, if known, at the time the requisition is made. The requisition shall be verified by affidavit, shall be executed in duplicate, and shall be accompanied by two certified copies of the judgment, formal adjudication, or order of commitment which subjects such delinquent juvenile to probation or parole or to the legal custody of the institution or agency concerned. Such further affidavits and other documents as may be deemed proper may be submitted with such requisition. One copy of the requisition shall be filed with the compact administrator of the demanding state, there to remain on file subject to the provisions of law governing records of the appropriate court. Upon the receipt of a requisition demanding the return of a delinquent juvenile who has absconded or escaped, the court or the executive authority to whom the requisition is addressed shall issue an order to any peace officer or other appropriate person directing him to take into custody and detain such delinquent juvenile. Such detention order must substantially recite the facts necessary to the validity of its issuance hereunder. No delinquent juvenile detained upon such order shall be delivered over to the officer whom the appropriate person or authority demanding him shall have appointed to receive him, unless he shall first be taken forthwith before a judge of an appropriate court in the state, who shall inform him of the demand made for his return and who may appoint counsel or guardian ad litem for him. If the judge of such court shall find that the requisition is in order, he shall deliver such delinquent juvenile over to the officer whom the appropriate person or authority demanding him shall have appointed to receive him. The judge, however, may fix a reasonable time to be allowed for the purpose of testing the legality of the proceeding. Upon reasonable information that a person is a delinquent juvenile who has absconded while on probation or parole, or escaped from an institution or agency vested with his legal custody or supervision in any state party to this compact, such person may be taken into custody in any other state party to this compact without a requisition. But in such event, he must be taken forthwith before a judge of the appropriate court, who may appoint counsel or guardian ad litem for such person and who shall determine, after a hearing, whether sufficient cause exists to hold the person subject to the order of the court for such a time, not exceeding ninety days, as will enable his detention under a detention order issued on a requisition pursuant to this article. If, at the time when a state seeks the return of a delinquent juvenile who has either absconded while on probation or parole or escaped from an institution or agency vested with his legal custody or supervision, there is pending in the state wherein he is detained any criminal charge or any proceeding to have him adjudicated a delinquent juvenile for an act committed in such state, or if he is suspected of having committed within such state a criminal offense or an act of juvenile delinquency, he shall not be returned without the consent of such state until discharged from prosecution or other form of proceeding, imprisonment, detention or supervision for such offense or juvenile delinquency. The duly accredited officers of any state party to this compact, upon the establishment of their authority and the identity of the delinquent juvenile being returned, shall be permitted to transport such delinquent juvenile through any and all states party to this compact, without interference. Upon his return to the state from which he escaped or absconded, the delinquent juvenile shall be subject to such further proceedings as may be appropriate under the laws of that state.
(b) That the state to which a delinquent juvenile is returned under this article shall be responsible for the payment of the transportation costs of such return.

ARTICLE VI

That any delinquent juvenile who has absconded while on probation or parole, or escaped from an institution or agency vested with his legal custody or supervision in any state party to this compact, and any juvenile who has run away from any state party to this compact, who is taken into custody without a requisition in another state party to this compact under the provisions of article IV (a) or of article V (a), may consent to his immediate return to the state from which he absconded, escaped or ran away. Such consent shall be given by the juvenile or delinquent juvenile and his counsel or guardian ad litem if any, by executing or subscribing a writing, in the presence of a judge of the appropriate court, which states that the juvenile or delinquent juvenile and his counsel or guardian ad litem, if any, consent to his return to the demanding state. Before such consent shall be executed or subscribed, however, the judge, in the presence of counsel or guardian ad litem, if any, shall inform the juvenile or delinquent juvenile of his rights under this compact. When the consent has been duly executed, it shall be forwarded to and filed with the compact administrator of the state in which the court is located and the judge shall direct the officer having the juvenile or delinquent juvenile in custody to deliver him to the duly accredited officer or officers of the state demanding his return, and shall cause to be delivered to such officer or officers a copy of the consent. The court may, however, upon the request of the state to which the juvenile or delinquent juvenile is being returned, order him to return unaccompanied to such state and shall provide him with a copy of such court order; in such event a copy of the consent shall be forwarded to the compact administrator of the state to which said juvenile or delinquent juvenile is ordered to return.

ARTICLE VII

(a) That the duly constituted judicial and administrative authorities of a state party to this compact (herein called "sending state") may permit any delinquent juvenile within such state, placed on probation or parole, to reside in any other state party to this compact (herein called "receiving state") while on probation or parole, and the receiving state shall accept such delinquent juvenile, if the parent, guardian or person entitled to the legal custody of such delinquent juvenile is residing or undertakes to reside within the receiving state. Before granting such permission, opportunity shall be given to the receiving state to make such investigations as it deems necessary. The authorities of the sending state shall send to the authorities of the receiving state copies of pertinent court orders, social case studies and all other available information which may be of value to and assist the receiving state in supervising a probationer or parolee under this compact. A receiving state, in its discretion, may agree to accept supervision of a probationer or parolee in cases where the parent, guardian or person entitled to the legal custody of the delinquent juvenile is not a resident of the receiving state, and if so accepted the sending state may transfer supervision accordingly.
(b) That each receiving state will assume the duties of visitation and of supervision over any such delinquent juvenile and in the exercise of those duties will be governed by the same standards of visitation and supervision that prevail for its own delinquent juveniles released on probation or parole.
(c) That, after consultation between the appropriate authorities of the sending state and of the receiving state as to the desirability and necessity of returning such a delinquent juvenile, the duly accredited officers of a sending state may enter a receiving state and there apprehend and retake any such delinquent juvenile on probation or parole. For that purpose, no formalities will be required other than establishing the authority of the officer and the identity of the delinquent juvenile to be retaken and returned. The decision of the sending state to retake a delinquent juvenile on probation or parole shall be conclusive upon and not reviewable within the receiving state, but if, at the time the sending state seeks to retake a delinquent juvenile on probation or parole, there is pending against him within the receiving state any criminal charge or any proceeding to have him adjudicated a delinquent juvenile for any act committed in such state, or if he is suspected of having committed within such state a criminal offense or an act of juvenile delinquency, he shall not be returned without the consent of the receiving state until discharged from prosecution or other form of proceeding, imprisonment, detention or supervision for such offense or juvenile delinquency. The duly accredited officers of the sending state shall be permitted to transport delinquent juveniles being so returned through any and all states party to this compact, without interference.
(d) That the sending state shall be responsible under this article for paying the costs of transporting any delinquent juvenile to the receiving state or of returning any delinquent juvenile to the sending state.

ARTICLE VIII

(a) That the provisions of articles IV (b), V (b) and VII (d) of this compact shall not be construed to alter or affect any internal relationship among the departments, agencies and officers of and in the government of a party state, or between a party state and its subdivisions, as to the payment of costs, or responsibilities therefor.
(b) That nothing in this compact shall be construed to prevent any party state or subdivision thereof from asserting any right against any person, agency or other entity in regard to costs for which such party state or subdivision thereof may be responsible pursuant to articles IV (b), V (b) or VII (d) of this compact.

ARTICLE IX

That, to every extent possible, it shall be the policy of states party to this compact that no juvenile or delinquent juvenile shall be placed or detained in any prison, jail or lockup nor be detained or transported in association with criminal, vicious or dissolute persons.

ARTICLE X

That the duly constituted administrative authorities of a state party to this compact may enter into supplementary agreements with any other state or states party hereto for the cooperative care, treatment and rehabilitation of delinquent juveniles whenever they shall find that such agreements will improve the facilities or programs available for such care, treatment and rehabilitation. Such care, treatment and rehabilitation may be provided in an institution located within any state entering into such supplementary agreement. Such supplementary agreements shall (1) provide the rates to be paid for the care, treatment and custody of such delinquent juveniles, taking into consideration the character of facilities, services and subsistence furnished; (2) provide that the delinquent juvenile shall be given a court hearing prior to his being sent to another state for care, treatment and custody; (3) provide that the state receiving such a delinquent juvenile in one of its institutions shall act solely as agent for the state sending such delinquent juvenile; (4) provide that the sending state shall at all times retain jurisdiction over delinquent juveniles sent to an institution in another state; (5) provide for reasonable inspection of such institutions by the sending state; (6) provide that the consent of the parent, guardian, person or agency entitled to the legal custody of said delinquent juvenile shall be secured prior to his being sent to another state; and (7) make provision for such other matters and details as shall be necessary to protect the rights and equities of such delinquent juveniles and of the cooperating states.

ARTICLE XI

That any state party to this compact may accept any and all donations, gifts and grants of money, equipment and services from the federal or any local government, or any agency thereof and from any person, firm or corporation, for any of the purposes and functions of this compact, and may receive and utilize the same subject to the terms, conditions and regulations governing such donations, gifts and grants.

ARTICLE XII

That the governor of each state party to this compact shall designate an officer who, acting jointly with like officers of other party states, shall promulgate rules and regulations to carry out more effectively the terms and provisions of this compact.

ARTICLE XIII

That this compact shall become operative immediately upon its execution by any state as between it and any other state or states so executing. When executed it shall have the full force and effect of law within such state, the form of execution to be in accordance with the laws of the executing state.

ARTICLE XIV

That this compact shall continue in force and remain binding upon each executing state until renounced by it. Renunciation of this compact shall be by the same authority which executed it, by sending six months' notice in writing of its intention to withdraw from the compact to the other states party hereto. The duties and obligations of a renouncing state under article VII hereof shall continue as to parolees and probationers residing therein at the time of withdrawal until retaken or finally discharged. Supplementary agreements entered into under article X hereof shall be subject to renunciation as provided by such supplementary agreements, and shall not be subject to the six months' renunciation notice of the present article.

ARTICLE XV

That the provisions of this compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any participating state or of the United States or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state participating therein, the compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining states and in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 2; P.A. 88-214, S. 3, 4; P.A. 90-230, S. 24, 101; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 72, 121.)
History: P.A. 88-214 amended Subsec. (a) of article IV by adding provision prohibiting detention of nondelinquent juveniles in state-operated detention home; P.A. 90-230 made technical correction in article IV; Sec. 17-76 transferred to Sec. 46b-151a in 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Article X, effective June 24, 1998.
Annotations to former section 17-76:
Police are empowered to detain juvenile parole violators from other jurisdictions and aid juvenile authorities. There is no relevant distinction between allowing parole officer to apprehend violator and allowing police to do so since juvenile parolee is at all times in constructive custody of commissioner. 171 C. 644, 653.

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Sec. 46b-151b. (Formerly Sec. 17-76a). Amendment to compact concerning interstate rendition of juveniles alleged to be delinquent. The Governor is authorized and directed to execute, with any other state or states legally joining in the same, an amendment to the Interstate Compact on Juveniles in the form substantially as follows:

AMENDMENT TO THE INTERSTATE COMPACT ON
JUVENILES CONCERNING INTERSTATE RENDITION
OF JUVENILES ALLEGED TO BE DELINQUENT

(a) This amendment shall provide additional remedies and shall be binding only as among and between those party states which specifically execute the same.
(b) All provisions and procedures of articles V and VI of section 46b-151a shall be construed to apply to any juvenile charged with being a delinquent by reason of a violation of any criminal law. Any juvenile charged with being a delinquent by reason of violating any criminal law shall be returned to the requesting state upon a requisition to the state where the juvenile may be found. A petition in such case shall be filed in a court of competent jurisdiction in the requesting state where the violation of criminal law is alleged to have been committed. The petition may be filed regardless of whether the juvenile has left the state before or after the filing of the petition. The requisition described in article V of section 46b-151a shall be forwarded by the judge of the court in which the petition has been filed.
(P.A. 83-281, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-406, S. 19, 29.)
History: Sec. 17-76a transferred to Sec. 46b-151b in 1991; P.A. 91-406 confirmed the numbering of this section as Sec. 46b-151b, thereby correcting a typographical error.

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Sec. 46b-151c. (Formerly Sec. 17-77). Compact administrator. Pursuant to said compact, the Governor is hereby authorized and empowered to designate an officer who shall be the compact administrator and who, acting jointly with like officers of other party states, shall promulgate rules and regulations to carry out more effectively the terms of the compact. Said compact administrator shall serve subject to the pleasure of the Governor. The compact administrator is hereby authorized, empowered and directed to cooperate with all departments, agencies and officers of and in the government of this state and its subdivisions in facilitating the proper administration of the compact or of any supplementary agreement or agreements entered into by this state thereunder.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 3.)
History: Sec. 17-77 transferred to Sec. 46b-151c in 1991.

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Sec. 46b-151d. (Formerly Sec. 17-78). Supplementary agreements. The compact administrator is hereby authorized and empowered to enter into supplementary agreements with appropriate officials of other states pursuant to the compact. In the event that such supplementary agreement shall require or contemplate the use of any institution or facility of this state or require or contemplate the provisions of any service by this state, said supplementary agreement shall have no force or effect until approved by the head of the department or agency under whose jurisdiction said institution or facility is operated or whose department or agency will be charged with the rendering of such service.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 4.)
History: Sec. 17-78 transferred to Sec. 46b-151d in 1991.

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Sec. 46b-151e. (Formerly Sec. 17-79). Payments by state. The compact administrator, subject to the approval of the Comptroller, may make or arrange for any payments necessary to discharge any financial obligations imposed upon this state by the compact or by any supplementary agreement entered into thereunder.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 5.)
History: Sec. 17-79 transferred to Sec. 46b-151e in 1991.

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Sec. 46b-151f. (Formerly Sec. 17-80). Enforcement of compact. The courts, departments, agencies and officers of this state and its subdivisions shall enforce this compact and shall do all things appropriate to the effectuation of its purposes and intent which may be within their respective jurisdictions.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 6.)
History: Sec. 17-80 transferred to Sec. 46b-151f in 1991.

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Sec. 46b-151g. (Formerly Sec. 17-81). Additional procedure for return of juveniles. In addition to any procedure provided in Articles IV and VI of the compact for the return of any runaway juvenile, the particular states, the juvenile or his parents, the courts, or other legal custodian involved may agree upon and adopt any other plan or procedure legally authorized under the laws of this state and the other respective party states for the return of any such runaway juvenile.
(1957, P.A. 363, S. 7.)
History: Sec. 17-81 transferred to Sec. 46b-151g in 1991.

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Secs. 46b-152 to 46b-159. Reserved for future use.
Note: Chapters 815u to 815x, inclusive, are also reserved for future use.

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