CHAPTER 669*
REGULATED ACTIVITIES

*Creditors' Collection Practices Act (CCPA) cited. 231 C. 707, 713, 715, 716, 718.

Table of Contents

Sec. 36a-645. (Formerly Sec. 36-243a). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-646. (Formerly Sec. 36-243b). Prohibited acts.
Sec. 36a-647. (Formerly Sec. 36-243c). Enforcement powers of commissioner. Regulations.
Secs. 36a-648 to 36a-654.
Sec. 36a-655. (Formerly Sec. 36-364). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-656. (Formerly Sec. 36-365). Debt adjustment limited to nonprofit organizations. License application and requirements.
Sec. 36a-657. (Formerly Sec. 36-369). Denial, revocation or suspension of license.
Sec. 36a-658. (Formerly Sec. 36-370). Posting of license. Nontransferable. Business of licensee.
Sec. 36a-659. (Formerly Sec. 36-372). Separate bank account for benefit of debtors. Books and records.
Sec. 36a-660. (Formerly Sec. 36-375). Licensee's duties.
Sec. 36a-661. (Formerly Sec. 36-376). Prohibited acts.
Sec. 36a-662. (Formerly Sec. 36-377). Regulations.
Sec. 36a-663. (Formerly Sec. 36-378). Exceptions.
Sec. 36a-664. (Formerly Sec. 36-380). Reference to bond or state approval prohibited.
Sec. 36a-665. (Formerly Sec. 36-381). Penalties.
Secs. 36a-666 to 36a-674.
Sec. 36a-675. (Formerly Sec. 36-416). Short title: Truth-in-Lending Act.
Sec. 36a-676. (Formerly Sec. 36-393). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-677. (Formerly Sec. 36-393a). State policy.
Sec. 36a-678. (Formerly Sec. 36-393b). Compliance with Consumer Credit Protection Act. Exempt transactions.
Sec. 36a-679. (Formerly Sec. 36-395). Regulations.
Sec. 36a-680. (Formerly Sec. 36-398). Effect of inconsistent law.
Sec. 36a-681. (Formerly Sec. 36-399). Penalty.
Sec. 36a-682. (Formerly Sec. 36-400). Compliance of governmental instruments. Exemptions from penalties.
Sec. 36a-683. (Formerly Sec. 36-407). Failure to disclose.
Sec. 36a-684. (Formerly Sec. 36-414). Enforcement. Disclosure errors and adjustments.
Sec. 36a-685. (Formerly Sec. 36-415). Unenforceable agreements.
Secs. 36a-686 to 36a-689.
Sec. 36a-690. (Formerly Sec. 36-417z). Calculation of interest or finance charge rebates. Prohibited methods. Transactions affected.
Secs. 36a-691 to 36a-694.
Sec. 36a-695. (Formerly Sec. 36-431). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-696. (Formerly Sec. 36-432). Disclosure to consumer of information re credit report.
Sec. 36a-697. (Formerly Sec. 36-433). Exceptions.
Sec. 36a-698. (Formerly Sec. 36-434). Regulations.
Sec. 36a-699. (Formerly Sec. 36-435). Penalty.
Sec. 36a-699a. Written summary of consumer's rights.
Sec. 36a-699b. Dispute by consumer re completeness or accuracy of information.
Sec. 36a-699c. Procedures by credit rating agency to assure accuracy.
Sec. 36a-699d. Credit report for use in credit transaction not initiated by consumer.
Sec. 36a-699e. Existing consent judgment or settlement with Attorney General.
Sec. 36a-700. (Formerly Sec. 36-435l). Credit clinics. Definitions. Contracts. Prohibited acts. Penalties.
Secs. 36a-701 to 36a-704.
Sec. 36a-705. (Formerly Sec. 36-442). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-706. (Formerly Sec. 36-442a). Mortgage rate lock-in agreements.
Sec. 36a-707. (Formerly Sec. 36-442b). Applicant's remedies.
Secs. 36a-708 to 36a-714.
Sec. 36a-715. (Formerly Sec. 36-442m). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-716. (Formerly Sec. 36-442n). Escrow accounts.
Sec. 36a-717. (Formerly Sec. 36-442o). Penalties.
Sec. 36a-718. (Formerly Sec. 36-442p). Orders. Notice. Hearings.
Secs. 36a-719 to 36a-724.
Sec. 36a-725. (Formerly Sec. 36-442aa). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-726. (Formerly Sec. 36-442bb). Disclosure required.
Secs. 36a-727 to 36a-734.
Sec. 36a-735. (Formerly Sec. 36-443). Short title: Home Mortgage Disclosure Act.
Sec. 36a-736. (Formerly Sec. 36-444). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-737. (Formerly Sec. 36-445). Discrimination in making of home purchase, home improvement and mortgage loans.
Sec. 36a-738. (Formerly Sec. 36-446). Disclosure requirements for financial institutions.
Sec. 36a-739. (Formerly Sec. 36-448). Reports by financial institutions. Filing requirements.
Sec. 36a-740. (Formerly Sec. 36-449). Violations by financial institutions. Rights of loan applicant.
Sec. 36a-741. (Formerly Sec. 36-451). Cease and desist order. Enforcement action.
Sec. 36a-742. (Formerly Sec. 36-452). Protection of confidentiality of an individual's financial status.
Sec. 36a-743. (Formerly Sec. 36-454). Commissioner to analyze home financing.
Sec. 36a-744. (Formerly Sec. 36-455). Regulations.
Secs. 36a-745 to 36a-754.
Sec. 36a-755. (Formerly Sec. 36-9h). Mortgage appraisal practices. Definitions. Regulations.
Sec. 36a-756. (Formerly Sec. 36-9t). Title insurance as condition of mortgage on residential real estate prohibited.
Sec. 36a-757. (Formerly Sec. 36-9u). Mortgage insurance requirements limited.
Sec. 36a-758. (Formerly Sec. 36-9y). Payment of loan proceeds by certified, bank treasurer's or cashier's check or by wire transfer.
Sec. 36a-759. (Formerly Sec. 36-4). Minority of veterans, spouses and widows for purposes of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act.
Secs. 36a-760 to 36a-769.
Sec. 36a-770. (Formerly Sec. 42-83). Applicability of commercial code. Filing and recording. Definitions.
Sec. 36a-771. (Formerly Sec. 42-84). General contract requirements.
Sec. 36a-772. (Formerly Sec. 42-85). Maximum finance charge on retail sales of motor vehicles and other goods.
Sec. 36a-773. (Formerly Sec. 42-86). Insurance.
Sec. 36a-774. (Formerly Sec. 42-87). Installment loan contract requirements.
Sec. 36a-775. (Formerly Sec. 42-88). Confession of judgment provision invalid.
Sec. 36a-776. (Formerly Sec. 42-89). Inclusion of other goods in contract void.
Sec. 36a-777. (Formerly Sec. 42-90). Acknowledgment of receipt of notice and statement.
Sec. 36a-778. (Formerly Sec. 42-91). Delinquency and collection charges.
Sec. 36a-779. (Formerly Sec. 42-92). Assignment of contract.
Sec. 36a-780. (Formerly Sec. 42-93). Payments after assignment.
Sec. 36a-781. (Formerly Sec. 42-94). Statement of payments made. Receipts.
Sec. 36a-782. (Formerly Sec. 42-95). Cancellation of contract on payment in full.
Sec. 36a-783. (Formerly Sec. 42-96). Rebate and refund upon prepayment of contract.
Sec. 36a-784. (Formerly Sec. 42-97). Renewals and extensions.
Sec. 36a-785. (Formerly Sec. 42-98). Foreclosure.
Sec. 36a-786. (Formerly Sec. 42-99). Recovery of charges barred by wilful violations.
Sec. 36a-787. (Formerly Sec. 42-100). Penalty.
Sec. 36a-788. (Formerly Sec. 42-100a). Enforcement action.
Secs. 36a-789 to 36a-799.
Sec. 36a-800. (Formerly Sec. 42-127). Consumer collection agency. Definitions.
Sec. 36a-801. (Formerly Sec. 42-127a). License required. Application, issuance, renewal. Examination of records.
Sec. 36a-802. (Formerly Sec. 42-128a). Bond required.
Sec. 36a-803. (Formerly Sec. 42-129). Conviction of certain crimes disqualification to engage in consumer collection business.
Sec. 36a-804. (Formerly Sec. 42-129a). Suspension or revocation of license of a consumer collection agency.
Sec. 36a-805. (Formerly Sec. 42-131). Prohibited practices.
Sec. 36a-806. (Formerly Sec. 42-131a). Prohibited practices within and without state. Examination of affairs.
Sec. 36a-807. (Formerly Sec. 42-131b). Cease and desist order. Liability.
Sec. 36a-808. (Formerly Sec. 42-131c). Unfair or deceptive practices. Enforcement action.
Sec. 36a-809. (Formerly Sec. 42-131d). Commissioner's powers. Regulations.
Sec. 36a-810. (Formerly Sec. 42-133a). Penalty.


PART I*
CREDITORS' COLLECTION PRACTICES

*See chapter 669, Part III, (Sec. 36a-675 et seq.) re Truth-in-Lending Act.
See Sec. 36a-800 et seq. re consumer collection agencies.
Annotations to former chapter 647a (Sec. 36-243a et seq.):
Creditors collection practices act, (CCPA) cited; Secs. 36-243a−36-243c cited. 216 C. 458, 460, 481−483.

Sec. 36a-645. (Formerly Sec. 36-243a). Definitions. As used in sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Consumer debtor" means any natural person residing in this state who owes a debt to a creditor.
(2) "Creditor" means any person to whom a debt is owed by a consumer debtor and such debt results from a transaction occurring in the ordinary course of such person's business. "Creditor" shall not include a consumer collection agency, as defined in section 36a-800, or any department or agency of the United States, this state, any other state, or any political subdivision thereof.
(3) "Debt" means an obligation or alleged obligation arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, goods or services which are the subject of the transaction are for personal, family or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment.
(P.A. 77-418, S. 1; 77-614, S. 161, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 80-482, S. 252, 345, 348; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-357, S. 53, 78; P.A. 92-12, S. 70; P.A. 94-122, S. 293, 340; P.A. 97-207, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner and made banking department a division within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as independent department with commissioner as its head and abolished the department of business regulation, thereby allowing revision of commissioner's title to omit reference to that department; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 91-357 made a technical change in Subsec. (c); P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs.; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definitions of "person" and "commissioner" and alphabetized the remaining definitions, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-243a transferred to Sec. 36a-645 in 1995; P.A. 97-207 redefined "consumer debtor", "creditor" and "debt", and deleted definition of "credit".
Annotations to former section 36-243a:
Cited. 231 C. 707, 727.

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Sec. 36a-646. (Formerly Sec. 36-243b). Prohibited acts. No creditor shall use any abusive, harassing, fraudulent, deceptive or misleading representation, device or practice to collect or attempt to collect any debt.
(P.A. 77-418, S. 2.)
History: Sec. 36-243b transferred to Sec. 36a-646 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 36-243b:
Cited. 216 C. 458, 482. Cited. 231 C. 707, 713.

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Sec. 36a-647. (Formerly Sec. 36-243c). Enforcement powers of commissioner. Regulations. (a) The commissioner may adopt such regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of sections 36a- 645 to 36a-647, inclusive, including, but not limited to, specifying those acts which are deemed to be in violation of section 36a-646.
(b) The commissioner may receive and investigate complaints and may receive assurances of voluntary compliance with the provisions of sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, or forward such complaints to the appropriate prosecuting officials at the commissioner's discretion. No action taken by the commissioner against a creditor in accordance with section 36a-50 relieves the creditor from civil liability.
(c) Whenever the commissioner has reason to believe that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate any provision of sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, or any regulation adopted under this section, the commissioner may take action against such person in accordance with section 36a-50.
(d) Nothing contained in sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, shall be construed as a limitation upon the power or authority of the state, the Attorney General or the commissioner to seek administrative, legal or equitable relief as provided by other statutes or at common law.
(P.A. 77-418, S. 3; P.A. 82-174, S. 3, 14; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94- 122, S. 294, 340.)
History: P.A. 82-174 amended Subsec. (b) by authorizing the commissioner to issue, after notice, cease and desist orders, unless a hearing is requested, and authorizing him to bring an action to enforce any such order; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-243c transferred to Sec. 36a-647 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-648 to 36a-654. Reserved for future use.

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PART II
DEBT ADJUSTERS

Sec. 36a-655. (Formerly Sec. 36-364). Definitions. As used in sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, "bona fide nonprofit organization" means an individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, association, organization or other person in the operation of which no shareholder, member, director, officer, partner, employee, agent or other affiliated person profits financially other than receiving reasonable salaries if applicable, and which provides debt adjustment services for individuals at no cost or at a cost not exceeding that required to defray necessary, reasonable and bona fide expenses in order to provide such services; and "debt adjustment" means receiving, as agent of a debtor, money or evidences thereof for the purpose of distributing such money or evidences thereof among creditors in full or partial payment of obligations of the debtor.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 1; P.A. 77-614, S. 161, 610; P.A. 79-160, S. 1; P.A. 80-482, S. 258, 345, 348; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-122, S. 295, 340; P.A. 95-79, S. 135, 189.)
History: P.A. 77-614 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner within the department of business regulation and made banking department a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-160 defined "bona fide nonprofit organization" and deleted reference to receipt of fee or compensation in definition of "debt adjustment"; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as independent department and abolished the department of business regulation, allowing revision of commissioner's name to omit reference to abolished department; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "commissioner", effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-364 transferred to Sec. 36a-655 in 1995; P.A. 95-79 redefined "bona fide nonprofit organization" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995.

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Sec. 36a-656. (Formerly Sec. 36-365). Debt adjustment limited to nonprofit organizations. License application and requirements. No person, other than a bona fide nonprofit organization, shall engage in the business of debt adjustment in this state. No bona fide nonprofit organization shall engage in the business of debt adjustment in this state without a license issued in accordance with the provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive. Any bona fide nonprofit organization desiring to obtain such a license shall file with the commissioner an application in writing, under oath, setting forth such information as the commissioner may require. Each applicant for a license and each licensee shall notify the commissioner of any material changes in the applicant's business from that stated in the application for a license including, but not limited to, any changes in location or additional locations of the business. Except as provided in section 36a-657, a license issued under sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, shall be effective as long as the licensee remains in the business of debt adjustment.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 2; P.A. 79-160, S. 2; P.A. 94-122, S. 296, 340.)
History: P.A. 79-160 made provisions applicable to bona fide nonprofit organizations rather than to persons, firms or corporations generally, replaced detailed provisions re contents of application with statement re information required by commissioner, added provisions re notification of changes in business, location, number of offices, etc. and specified that license continues in effect as long as licensee continues in debt adjustment business, deleting former Subsecs. (b) to (e) which had required informing commissioner of contract intended to be used and any changes thereto, which had set June thirtieth as annual expiration date, which had required appointment of commissioner as applicant's agent for service of process and which had required that application contain names of persons, firms and corporations with financial interest in the business; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-365 transferred to Sec. 36a-656 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-657. (Formerly Sec. 36-369). Denial, revocation or suspension of license. The commissioner may deny any application for a license under sections 36a- 655 to 36a-665, inclusive. The commissioner may revoke or suspend any license under said sections in accordance with section 36a-51 for the following causes: (1) Conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude; (2) violation of any provision of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive; (3) fraud or deceit or, if the licensee was not at the time of application and still is not entitled to obtain a license under said sections, material error in procuring the issuance of a license under said sections; (4) the licensee no longer meets the requirements necessary to obtain a license under said sections; (5) maintenance of a continuous course of unfair conduct, or (6) insolvency, commencement of any proceeding in bankruptcy, receivership, or assignment for the benefit of creditors by any licensee or applicant for a license under said sections.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 6; P.A. 79-160, S. 3; P.A. 82-174, S. 11, 14; P.A. 94-122, S. 297, 340.)
History: P.A. 79-160 rephrased provisions, added in Subdiv. (3) ground of material error if licensee was not at time of application entitled to obtain license and remains unentitled to do so, inserted new Subdiv. (4) and renumbered former Subdivs. (4) and (5) accordingly; P.A. 82-174 replaced the provision that the commissioner may revoke or suspend a license after notice and hearing with provisions concerning the form and manner of the notice and authorizing the commissioner to revoke or suspend a license "after allowing the licensee a reasonable opportunity to be heard"; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-369 transferred to Sec. 36a-657 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-658. (Formerly Sec. 36-370). Posting of license. Nontransferable. Business of licensee. Each license or a copy thereof shall be posted conspicuously in each office of the licensee. No license shall be transferable or assignable. The licensee shall be limited solely to the business of debt adjustment and any other business which does not conflict with the interests of persons for whom the licensee is adjusting debts or with the business of debt adjustment.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 7; P.A. 79-160, S. 4.)
History: P.A. 79-160 rephrased prior provisions, authorized conduct of business which does not conflict with interests of clients or business of debt adjustment and deleted provision prohibiting change in office location unless authorized by commissioner, but see Sec. 36-365 for similar prohibition; Sec. 36-370 transferred to Sec. 36a-658 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-659. (Formerly Sec. 36-372). Separate bank account for benefit of debtors. Books and records. Each licensee shall maintain a separate bank account for the benefit of debtors in which all payments received from debtors for the benefit of creditors shall be deposited and in which all payments shall remain until a remittance is made to either a debtor or a creditor. Every licensee shall keep, and use in the licensee's business, books, accounts and records which will enable the commissioner to determine whether such licensee is complying with the provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, and with the regulations of the commissioner. Every licensee shall preserve such books, accounts and records for at least seven years after making the final entry on any transaction recorded therein.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 298, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 changed "his" to "the licensee's", effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-372 transferred to Sec. 36a- 659 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-660. (Formerly Sec. 36-375). Licensee's duties. Each licensee shall: (1) Keep complete and adequate records during the term of the contract and for a period of seven years from the date of cancellation or completion of the contract with each debtor, which records shall contain complete information regarding the contract, extensions thereof, payments, disbursements and charges, and shall be open to inspection by the commissioner during normal business hours; (2) make remittances to creditors within a reasonable time after receipt of any funds, less prorated fees and costs, unless the reasonable payment of one or more of the debtor's obligations requires that such funds be held for a longer period so as to accumulate a sum certain; and (3) furnish the debtor a written statement of the debtor's account within a reasonable time after the debtor may request it and within ninety days after the completion of the adjustment of the debtor's debts, and shall furnish the debtor a verbal accounting at any time the debtor may request it during normal business hours.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 12; P.A. 79-160, S. 6; P.A. 94-122, S. 299, 340.)
History: P.A. 79-160 required that remittances to creditors be made "within a reasonable time" rather than within ten days, required that statement of account be likewise made within reasonable time after debtor requests it and in all cases within ninety days after adjustment completed rather than made each ninety days and deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) which required that budget analysis indicate debtor can meet requirements and that debtors have full benefit of any compromise of debt arranged by a licensee with any one or more creditors; P.A. 94-122 deleted "and his duly appointed agents" from Subdiv. (1) and changed "his" to "the debtor's" in Subdiv. (2), effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-375 transferred to Sec. 36a-660 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-661. (Formerly Sec. 36-376). Prohibited acts. No licensee shall: (1) Purchase from a creditor any obligation of a debtor; (2) operate as a collection agent and as a licensee as to the same debtor's account; (3) execute any contract or agreement to be signed by the debtor unless the contract or agreement is fully and completely filled in and finished; (4) pay any bonus or other consideration to any person for the referral of a debtor to the licensee's business or accept or receive any bonus, commission or other consideration for referring any debtor to any person for any reason, or (5) advertise, display, distribute, broadcast or televise or permit to be displayed, advertised, distributed, broadcast or televised the licensee's services, rates or terms in any manner whatsoever wherein any false, misleading or deceptive statement or representation is made with regard to the services to be performed by the licensee or the charges to be made therefor.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 13; P.A. 79-160, S. 7; P.A. 94-122, S. 300, 340.)
History: P.A. 79-160 deleted former Subdiv. (4) prohibiting receipt or charge of fee in form of promissory note or other promise to pay or receipt or acceptance of wage assignment, mortgage or other security for any fee, renumbering remaining Subsecs. accordingly; P.A. 94-122 changed "his" to "the licensee's", effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-376 transferred to Sec. 36a-661 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-662. (Formerly Sec. 36-377). Regulations. The commissioner may adopt such regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, as the commissioner deems necessary to administer and enforce the provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 14; P.A. 94-122, S. 301, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-377 transferred to Sec. 36a-662 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-663. (Formerly Sec. 36-378). Exceptions. The provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, shall not apply to the following: (1) Any attorney admitted to the practice of law in this state, when engaged in such practice; (2) any bank, fiduciary or financing or lending institution authorized to transact business in this state or any other state, which performs debt adjustment in the regular course of its principal business; (3) any title insurance or abstract company authorized to transact business in this state or any other state, while doing an escrow business; and (4) any person acting pursuant to any law of this state or of the United States or acting under the order of a court.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 15; P.A. 73-357; P.A. 79-160, S. 8; P.A. 92-67, S. 8, 9.)
History: P.A. 73-357 added Subsec. (b) exempting bona fide nonprofit cooperative organizations offering debt adjustment services exclusively for members from chapter provisions except Secs. 36-364, 36-371, 36-372, 36-374, 36-375, 36- 376, 36-377, 36-379 and 36-381; P.A. 79-160 deleted exemption from bona fide nonprofit, religious, fraternal or cooperative organization (Subsec. (a)(5) and Subsec. (b)) and exemption for employees of licensees when acting in the regular course of employment; P.A. 92-67 added exception for banks, fiduciaries or financing or lending institutions authorized to transact business in any other state; Sec. 36-378 transferred to Sec. 36a-663 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-664. (Formerly Sec. 36-380). Reference to bond or state approval prohibited. No licensee shall use, attempt to use or make reference to, either directly or indirectly, any word or phrase which states or implies that the licensee is bonded, approved, bonded by the state or approved by the state.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 17; P.A. 94-122, S. 302, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 changed "he" to "the licensee", effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-380 transferred to Sec. 36a- 664 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-665. (Formerly Sec. 36-381). Penalties. (a) Any person who engages in debt adjustment without a license as required by sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned more than one year, or both, for each violation. Each day on which a person engages in debt adjustment without a license as required by said sections shall be construed as a separate violation.
(b) Any person who violates any other provision of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars for the first offense, and for each subsequent offense shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than one year.
(1967, P.A. 882, S. 18; P.A. 79-160, S. 9.)
History: P.A. 79-160 made no change; Sec. 36-381 transferred to Sec. 36a-665 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-666 to 36a-674. Reserved for future use.

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PART III*
TRUTH-IN-LENDING ACT

*Annotations to former chapter 657 (Sec. 36-393 et seq.):
Sec. 36-393 et seq., Conn. truth-in-lending act, cited. 205 C. 319, 320, 322. Cited. 223 C. 80, 103.
Secs. 36-393−36-417, Conn. truth-in-lending laws, cited. 12 CA 670, 671−673. Secs. 36-393−36-417, Connecticut Truth in lending act, cited. 18 CA 16, 18. Truth-in-lending act Sec. 36-393 et seq. cited. 27 CA 628, 629, 631, 632.
Cited. 34 CS 154, 155. Cited. 35 CS 508, 509. Sections 36-393 through 36-417 cited. 36 CS 506, 508, 509, 511, 512. Federally chartered banking institution subject to Federal Truth-in-Lending Act. Id., 512. Since extension of credit was to other than a natural person, transaction was not a consumer credit transaction and disclosure provisions of chapter did not apply. 36 CS 158, 159. Cited. Id., 183, 193. Cited. Id., 629, 630. Cited. 37 CS 606, 607.

Sec. 36a-675. (Formerly Sec. 36-416). Short title: Truth-in-Lending Act. Sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, shall be known and may be cited as the "Truth-in- Lending Act".
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 24.)
History: Sec. 36-416 transferred to Sec. 36a-675 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the Revisors editorially reinstated the word "shall" before the words "be known and may be cited" to correct a clerical error in the preparation of the 1995 revision).

Sec. 36a-676. (Formerly Sec. 36-393). Definitions. (a) As used in part II of chapter 668, sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Consumer" means "consumer" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602);
(2) "Consumer Credit Protection Act" means Title I of Public Law 90-321 (82 Stat. 146), as from time to time amended, and includes regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve Board pursuant to that act;
(3) "Credit" means "credit" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602);
(4) "Credit card", "cardholder" and "card issuer" mean "credit card", "cardholder" and "card issuer" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602);
(5) "Creditor" means "creditor" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602), but does not include any department or agency of the United States;
(6) "Credit sale" means "credit sale" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602);
(7) "Lessor" means "lessor" as defined in Section 181 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1667), but does not include any department or agency of the United States; and
(8) "Open-end credit plan" means "open-end credit plan" as defined in Section 103 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1602).
(b) Any word or phrase in sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, which is not defined in said sections but which is defined in the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.) shall have the meaning set forth in the Consumer Credit Protection Act.
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 1; P.A. 76-169, S. 1; P.A. 77-614, S. 161, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 260, 345, 348; P.A. 81-158, S. 1, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 83-136, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-613, S. 104, 154; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 88-65, S. 40; P.A. 90-230, S. 55, 101; P.A. 92-12, S. 81; P.A. 94-122, S. 303, 340.)
History: P.A. 76-169 redefined "creditor" to include credit card issuers and to specify credit "payable by agreement in more than four instalments"; P.A. 77-614 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner within the department of business regulation, reflecting incorporation of banking department as division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 abolished department of business regulation and restored banking division to prior status as independent department, thus allowing omission of reference to business regulation department in commissioner's title; P.A. 81- 158 redefined the terms to make them conform to the definitions in the Consumer Credit Protection Act, effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Sec. 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 83-136 corrected reference to public law in Subsec. (i), substituting "97-320" for "96-221"; P.A. 85-613 made technical changes; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 88-65 made a technical change by adding U.S. code citations; P.A. 90-230 made technical changes; P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subsecs. and Subdivs.; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definitions of "commissioner", "organization", and "person" and alphabetized the remainder, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-393 transferred to Sec. 36a-676 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 36-393:
Cited. 33 CS 203. Sections 36-393 through 36-417 cited. 36 CS 506, 508, 512.
Subsec. (b):
Nonstock corporation falls within definition of organization. 36 CS 158, 160.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 36 CS 158, 160.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 158 C. 543.
Subsec. (g):
Since party to whom credit was offered was a nonstock corporation and not a "natural person," transaction was not a consumer credit transaction subject to provisions of chapter. 36 CS 158, 159.

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Sec. 36a-677. (Formerly Sec. 36-393a). State policy. (a) It is the policy of this state to promote increased competition among the various businesses engaged in the extension of consumer credit or in the leasing of consumer goods and to serve the interests of consumers of credit and leased goods by requiring meaningful disclosure of credit and lease terms so that prospective debtors and lessees have the opportunity to compare more readily the various credit and lease terms available to them and the opportunity to avoid the uninformed use of credit and leases.
(b) It is also the policy of this state to provide that this state administer and enforce the requirements for such disclosures of credit and lease terms for transactions in this state.
(c) It is also the policy of this state to avoid duplication between the federal government and the government of this state in the administration and enforcement of statutes which are designed to accomplish an identical purpose, and therefore to obtain an exemption from the Consumer Credit Protection Act by subjecting various classes of credit and lease transactions in this state to requirements which are substantially similar to those imposed under said federal act.
(P.A. 81-158, S. 2, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; 82-472, S. 114, 183.)
History: P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 82-472 made technical changes and corrections; Sec. 36-393a transferred to Sec. 36a-677 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 36-393a:
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 27 CA 628, 631.

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Sec. 36a-678. (Formerly Sec. 36-393b). Compliance with Consumer Credit Protection Act. Exempt transactions. (a) Except as otherwise provided in sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, or regulations adopted by the commissioner, each person shall comply with all provisions of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.) which apply to such person.
(b) Any transaction which is exempt from the provisions of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as provided in Section 104 of said act, (15 USC 1603) is exempt from the provisions of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive.
(P.A. 81-158, S. 3, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; 82-174, S. 12, 14; P.A. 88-65, S. 41; P.A. 94-122, S. 304, 340.)
History: P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 82-174 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting the provision that a person "who is a creditor or lessor" shall comply with all applicable provisions; P.A. 88-65 made a technical change by adding U.S. code citations; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-393b transferred to Sec. 36a-678 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-679. (Formerly Sec. 36-395). Regulations. (a) The commissioner may adopt substantive regulations when authorized by sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and may adopt procedural regulations to carry out the provisions of said sections. Such regulations shall be consistent with the policy of this state as provided in section 36a-677. The commissioner may adopt regulations to carry out the provisions of sections 36a-567 and 36a-568, subdivision (13) of subsection (c) of section 36a-770, and sections 36a-771, 36a-774 and 36a-777. Such regulations shall be adopted in accordance with chapter 54 and shall not be inconsistent with the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.).
(b) No liability shall be imposed under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, for an act done or omitted in conformity with any provision of said sections, the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.) or a regulation of the commissioner notwithstanding that after the act or omission the provision may be amended, repealed or determined to be invalid for any reason.
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 3; P.A. 81-158, S. 4, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 88-65, S. 43; P.A. 94-122, S. 305, 340; P.A. 96- 109, S. 11.)
History: P.A. 81-158 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing "prescribe" with "adopt" and by providing that the regulations be consistent with the policy of the state, deleted the language concerning the mandatory and optional provisions of the regulations, and redesignated Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (b) and added "any provision of this chapter, the Consumer Credit Protection Act or", effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 88-65 made technical changes by adding U.S. code citations; the incorrect internal reference to section "42-83(2)(d)" was corrected editorially to "42-83(3)(d)" in 1991; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-395 transferred to Sec. 36a-679 in 1995; P.A. 96-109 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), deleting reference to Subsec. (c) of Sec. 36a-535 and substituting reference to Subdiv. (13) for Subdiv. (12) of Sec. 36a-770(c).
Annotations to former section 36-395:
Cited. 34 CS 154, 155.

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Sec. 36a-680. (Formerly Sec. 36-398). Effect of inconsistent law. (a) If the commissioner finds that the requirements of any other law of this state relating to the disclosure of information in connection with consumer credit transactions are inconsistent with the provisions of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, or regulations adopted thereunder, the commissioner shall by regulation exempt creditors who comply with said sections from compliance with such inconsistent law. For purposes of this subsection, disclosure statutes are inconsistent if both require disclosure of the same information even though the prescribed definition, method of calculation or manner of expression is different and, in case of such conflict or inconsistency, the provisions of sections 36a- 675 to 36a-685, inclusive, shall control.
(b) In any action or proceeding in any court involving a consumer credit sale, the disclosure of an annual percentage rate required by sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, may not be received as evidence that the sale was a loan or any type of transaction other than a credit sale, and in any consumer credit transaction, the disclosure of an annual percentage rate required by said sections shall not in itself indicate that a transaction is usurious or that the rate of charge exceeds a statutory ceiling.
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 6; P.A. 81-158, S. 5, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; 82-472, S. 115, 183; P.A. 94-122, S. 306, 340.)
History: P.A. 81-158 deleted references to Secs. 36-97a, 36-235, 36-236, 36-254(c), 42-83(2)(d), 42-84, 42-87, 42-90 and 42-99, effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 82-472 made technical grammatical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-398 transferred to Sec. 36a-680 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-681. (Formerly Sec. 36-399). Penalty. Any person who wilfully and knowingly (1) gives false or inaccurate information or fails to provide information which such person is required to disclose under the provisions of sections 36a-567, 36a-568 and 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, subdivision (13) of subsection (c) of section 36a- 770, and sections 36a-771, 36a-774, 36a-777 and 36a-786, or any regulation adopted thereunder, (2) uses any chart or table authorized by the Federal Reserve Board under Section 107 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1606) in such manner as to consistently understate the annual percentage rate determined under said sections or (3) otherwise fails to comply with any requirement imposed under said sections shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than one year or both.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 6; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 6; P.A. 94-122, S. 307, 340; P.A. 96-109, S. 12.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-94 transferred to Sec. 36a-681 in 1995; P.A. 96-109 made technical changes, deleting reference to Subsec. (c) of Sec. 36a-535 and substituting reference to Subdiv. (13) for Subdiv. (12) of Sec. 36a-770(c).

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Sec. 36a-682. (Formerly Sec. 36-400). Compliance of governmental instruments. Exemptions from penalties. (a) Any department or agency of the state or any political subdivision thereof which administers a credit program in which it extends, insures or guarantees consumer credit and in which it provides instruments to a creditor which contain any disclosures required by sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, shall, prior to the issuance or continued use of such instruments, consult with the commissioner to assure that such instruments comply with said sections.
(b) No civil or criminal penalty provided under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, for any violation thereof may be imposed upon this state or any other state, or any political subdivision thereof, or any department or agency of any such state or political subdivision.
(c) A creditor shall not be held liable for a civil or criminal penalty under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, in any case in which the violation results from the use of an instrument required by any department or agency of: (1) The United States, with regard to any transaction which is part of a credit program administered, insured or guaranteed by such department or agency; or (2) this state or of any political subdivision of this state, with regard to any transaction which is part of a credit program administered, insured or guaranteed by such department or agency, provided that such department or agency has consulted with the commissioner to assure that such instrument complies with said sections as provided in subsection (a) of this section.
(d) A creditor shall not be held liable for a civil or criminal penalty under the laws of this state for any technical or procedural failure, such as a failure to use a specific form, to make information available at a specific place on an instrument, or to use a specific typeface, as required by the laws of this state, which is caused by the use of an instrument required to be used by any department or agency of: (1) The United States with regard to any transaction which is part of a credit program administered, insured or guaranteed by such department or agency; or (2) this state or any political subdivision of this state, with regard to any transaction which is part of a credit program administered, insured or guaranteed by such department or agency, provided that such department or agency has consulted with the commissioner to assure that such instrument complies with sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, as provided in subsection (a) of this section.
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 8; P.A. 81-158, S. 7, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 96-109, S. 13; 96-180, S. 118, 166.)
History: P.A. 81-158 added Subsec. (a) to provide that any department, agency or political subdivision of the state consult with the commissioner to assure that the instruments it provides to a creditor comply with this chapter, clarified the governmental exemptions from penalties in Subsec. (b), and added Subsecs. (c) and (d) to provide that a creditor is not liable in certain cases where the violation results from the use of an instrument required by a federal department or agency or the state or a political subdivision of the state, effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81- 158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; Sec. 36-400 transferred to Sec. 36a-682 in 1995; P.A. 96-109 and 96-180 both substituted "36a-675 to 36a-685" for "36a-665 to 36a-675", where appearing, effective June 3, 1996; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the word "as" was reinstated editorially by the Revisors at the end of Subsec. (d) before the phrase "... provided in subsection (a) of this section." thereby correcting an omission which occurred in the preparation of the 1995 revision).

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Sec. 36a-683. (Formerly Sec. 36-407). Failure to disclose. (a) Liability of creditor. Except as otherwise provided in this section, any creditor who fails to comply with any requirement of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, including Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), or of section 36a-771 or 36a-774, with respect to any person is liable to that person in an amount equal to the sum of (1) any actual damage sustained by such person as a result of the failure; (2) (A) (i) in the case of an individual action other than as provided in this subparagraph (A) (ii) and (iii) twice the amount of any finance charge in connection with the transaction, (ii) in the case of an individual action relating to a consumer lease under Chapter 5 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC Sections 1667 to 1667E, inclusive) twenty-five per cent of the total amount of monthly payments under the lease, except that the liability under this subparagraph (A) (i) or (ii) shall not be less than one hundred dollars nor greater than one thousand dollars, or (iii) in the case of an individual action related to a credit transaction not under an open end credit plan that is secured by real property or a dwelling, not less than two hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars; (B) in the case of a class action, such amount as the court may allow, except that as to each member of the class no minimum recovery shall be applicable, and the total recovery under this subparagraph in any class action or series of class actions arising out of the same failure to comply by the same creditor shall not be more than the lesser of five hundred thousand dollars or one per cent of the net worth of the creditor; and (3) in the case of any successful action to enforce the foregoing liability, or in any action in which a person is determined to have a right of rescission under Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), the costs of the action, together with a reasonable attorney's fee as determined by the court. In determining the amount of award in any class action, the court shall consider, among other relevant factors, the amount of any actual damages awarded, the frequency and persistence of failures of compliance by the creditor, the resources of the creditor, the number of persons adversely affected, and the extent to which the creditor's failure of compliance was intentional. In connection with the disclosures referred to in Section 127 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1637) a creditor shall have a liability determined under subdivision (2) of this subsection only for failing to comply with the requirements of Section 125 or 127(a) of said act (15 USC 1635) or (15 USC 1637(a)) or of paragraph (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9) or (10) of Section 127(b) of said act (15 USC 1637(b)). In connection with the disclosures referred to in Section 128 of said act (15 USC 1638) a creditor shall have a liability determined under subdivision (2) of this subsection only for failing to comply with the requirements of Section 125 of said act (15 USC 1635) or of paragraph (2), insofar as it requires a disclosure of the "amount financed", or paragraph (3), (4), (5), (6) or (9) of Section 128 (a) of said act (15 USC 1638(a)). With respect to any failure to make disclosures required under Chapter 2, 4 or 5 of said act, liability shall be imposed only upon the creditor required to make disclosure, except as provided in Section 131 of said act (15 USC 1641).
(b) Adjustment of error. A creditor or assignee has no liability under this section or section 36a-681 or 36a-684 for any failure to comply with any requirement imposed under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, if within sixty days after discovering an error, whether pursuant to a final written examination report or notice issued under subsection (d) of section 36a-684, or through the creditor's or assignee's own procedures, and prior to the institution of an action under this section or the receipt of written notice of the error from the obligor, the creditor or assignee notifies the person concerned of the error and makes whatever adjustments in the appropriate account are necessary to insure that the person will not be required to pay an amount in excess of the charge actually disclosed, or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower.
(c) Bona fide errors. A creditor or assignee may not be held liable in any action brought under this section for a violation of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, if the creditor or assignee shows by a preponderance of evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error. Examples of a bona fide error include, but are not limited to, clerical, calculation, computer malfunction and programming, and printing errors, except that an error of legal judgment with respect to a person's obligations under said sections is not a bona fide error.
(d) Multiple obligors. When there are multiple obligors in a consumer credit transaction or consumer lease, there shall be no more than one recovery of damages under subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section for a violation of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive.
(e) Time limit for bringing action. Any action under this section shall be brought in any court of competent jurisdiction within one year from the date of the occurrence of the violation. This subsection does not bar a person from asserting a violation of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, in an action to collect the debt which was brought more than one year from the date of the occurrence of the violation as a matter of defense by recoupment or set-off in such action.
(f) Good faith conformance. No provision of this section, subsection (d) of section 36a-684 or section 36a-681 imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any provision of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, or with any rule, regulation, approval or formal interpretation thereof by the commissioner, or in conformity with the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.), including any rule or regulation adopted by the Federal Reserve Board pursuant to said act, or in conformity with any interpretation of said act by the Federal Reserve Board or in conformity with any interpretation or approval by an official or employee of the Federal Reserve System duly authorized by the Federal Reserve Board to issue such interpretations or approvals under such procedures as said board may prescribe therefor, notwithstanding that after such act or omission has occurred, such statute, rule, regulation, approval or interpretation is amended, rescinded or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.
(g) Multiple failure to disclose. The multiple failure to disclose to any person any information required under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, to be disclosed in connection with a single account under an open-end consumer credit plan, other single consumer credit sale, consumer loan, other extension of consumer credit or consumer lease, shall entitle the person to a single recovery under this section but continued failure to disclose after a recovery has been granted shall give rise to rights to additional recoveries. This subsection does not bar any remedy permitted by subsection (j) of this section.
(h) Offsets. A person may not take any action to offset any amount for which a creditor or assignee is potentially liable to such person under subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section against any amount owed by such person, unless the amount of the creditor's or assignee's liability under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, has been determined by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction in an action to which such person was a party. This subsection does not bar a consumer then in default on the obligation from asserting a violation of said sections as an original action, or as a defense or counterclaim to an action to collect amounts owed by the consumer brought by a person liable under said sections.
(i) Duplicate recovery prohibited. Notwithstanding any other provision of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, (1) no person shall be entitled in any action to a recovery under this section for the failure to disclose any information required under said sections if a recovery is awarded in the same action under Section 130 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1640) for the failure to disclose any information required under said sections; and (2) no person shall be entitled in any action brought under this section to a recovery if, prior to an award in any such action, a recovery has been awarded to such person in any action brought under Section 130 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1640) in which the same act or omission was the basis of that action.
(j) Rescission. (1) When an obligor exercises his right to rescind under Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), he is not liable for any finance or other charge, and any security interest given by the obligor, including any such interest arising by operation of law, becomes void upon such a rescission. Within twenty days after receipt of a notice of rescission, the creditor shall return to the obligor any money or property given as earnest money, downpayment or otherwise, and shall take any action necessary or appropriate to reflect the termination of any security interest created under the transaction. If the creditor has delivered any property to the obligor, the obligor may retain possession of it. Upon the performance of the creditor's obligations under this subsection and Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), the obligor shall tender the property to the creditor, except that if return of the property in kind would be impracticable or inequitable, the obligor shall tender its reasonable value. Tender shall be made at the location of the property or at the residence of the obligor, at the option of the obligor. If the creditor does not take possession of the property within twenty days after tender by the obligor, ownership of the property vests in the obligor without obligation on his part to pay for it. The procedures described by this subdivision shall apply except when otherwise ordered by a court.
(2) Notwithstanding any rule of evidence, written acknowledgment of receipt of any disclosures required under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, by a person to whom information, forms and a statement is required to be given pursuant to this subsection and Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), does no more than create a rebuttable presumption of delivery thereof.
(3) An obligor's right of rescission shall expire three years after the date of consummation of the transaction or upon the sale of the property, whichever occurs earlier, notwithstanding the fact that the information and forms required under this section and Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), or any other disclosures required under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, have not been delivered to the obligor, except that if (A) the commissioner institutes a proceeding to enforce the provisions of this section, or Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), made a part of said sections as provided in section 36a-678, within three years after the date of consummation of the transaction, (B) the commissioner finds a violation of this subsection or Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), and (C) the obligor's right to rescind is based in whole or in part on any matter involved in such proceeding, then the obligor's right of rescission shall expire three years after the date of consummation of the transaction or upon the earlier sale of the property, or upon the expiration of one year following the conclusion of the proceeding or any judicial review or period for judicial review thereof, whichever is later.
(4) (A) In any credit transaction in which an obligor has the right to rescind under Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), and the obligor does not exercise that right, a finance charge may not begin to accrue in connection with such transaction until after midnight of the third business day following the consummation of the transaction. (B) Any obligor required to pay a finance charge, in violation of the provisions of this subdivision, may recover from the creditor twice the amount of such finance charge, costs and reasonable attorney's fees.
(5) In any action in which it is determined that a creditor has violated subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection, in addition to rescission the court may award relief under other subsections of this section for violations of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, not relating to the right to rescind.
(6) An obligor shall have no rescission rights arising solely from the form of written notice used by the creditor to inform the obligor of the rights of the obligor under this subsection and Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635), if the creditor provided the obligor the appropriate form of written notice published and adopted by the Federal Reserve Board, or a comparable written notice of the rights of the obligor, that was properly completed by the creditor, and otherwise complied with all other requirements of this subsection and Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635) regarding notice.
(7) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (n) of this section, and subject to the time period provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, an obligor shall have the rescission rights in foreclosure set forth in Subsection (i) of Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635(i)). This subdivision shall apply to all consumer credit transactions in existence or consummated on or after September 30, 1995.
(k) Action against assignee. (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, any civil action for a violation of said sections or proceeding by the commissioner which may be brought against a creditor, other than with respect to a consumer credit transaction secured by real property, may be maintained against any assignee of that creditor only if the violation for which such action or proceeding is brought is apparent on the face of the disclosure statement, except where the assignment was involuntary. For the purpose of this subdivision, a violation apparent on the face of the disclosure statement includes, but is not limited to, (A) a disclosure which can be determined to be incomplete or inaccurate from the face of the disclosure statement or other documents assigned, or (B) a disclosure not made in the terms required to be used by said sections.
(2) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of subsection (j) of this section, in any action or proceeding by or against any subsequent assignee of the original creditor without knowledge to the contrary by the assignee when he acquires the obligation, written acknowledgment of receipt by a person to whom a statement is required to be given pursuant to sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, shall be conclusive proof of the delivery thereof and, except as provided in subdivision (1) of this subsection, of compliance with Chapter 2 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. This subsection does not affect the rights of the obligor in any action against the original creditor.
(3) Any consumer who has the right to rescind a transaction under subsection (j) of this section or Section 125 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1635) may rescind the transaction as against any assignee of the obligation.
(4) (A) Except as otherwise specifically provided in sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, any civil action against a creditor for a violation of said sections and any proceeding brought by the commissioner against a creditor, with respect to a consumer credit transaction secured by real property, may be maintained against any assignee of such creditor only if (i) the violation for which such action or proceeding was brought is apparent on the face of the disclosure statement provided in connection with such transaction pursuant to sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.), and (ii) the assignment to the assignee was voluntary. (B) For purposes of this subdivision, a violation is "apparent on the face of the disclosure statement" if (i) the disclosure can be determined to be incomplete or inaccurate by a comparison among the disclosure statement, any itemization of the amount financed, the note, or any other disclosure of disbursement, or (ii) the disclosure statement does not use the terms or format required to be used by sections 36a-675 to 36a- 685, inclusive, and the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.).
(5) A servicer of a consumer obligation arising from a consumer credit transaction shall be treated as an assignee of such obligation to the extent provided in Subsection (f) of Section 131 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1641 (f)). This subdivision applies to all consumer credit transactions in existence or consummated on or after September 30, 1995.
(l) Liability of credit card issuer. (1) Subject to the limitation contained in subdivision (2) of this subsection, a card issuer who has issued a credit card to a cardholder pursuant to an open-end consumer credit plan shall be subject to all claims, other than tort claims, and defenses arising out of any transaction in which the credit card is used as a method of payment or extension of credit if (A) the obligor has made a good faith attempt to obtain satisfactory resolution of a disagreement or problem relative to the transaction from the person honoring the credit card; (B) the amount of the transaction exceeds fifty dollars; and (C) the transaction took place wholly within this state, provided the mailing address previously provided by the cardholder was within this state and provided the state of billing of the transaction shall not be considered in determining where the transaction took place, or the transaction took place within one hundred miles from the mailing address within this state previously provided by the cardholder, except that the limitations set forth in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this subdivision with respect to an obligor's right to assert claims and defenses against a card issuer shall not be applicable to any transaction in which the person honoring the credit card (i) is the same person as the card issuer, (ii) is controlled by the card issuer, (iii) is under direct or indirect common control with the card issuer, (iv) is a franchised dealer in the card issuer's products or services, or (v) has obtained the order for such transaction through a mail solicitation made by or participated in by the card issuer in which the cardholder is solicited to enter into such transaction by using the credit card issued by the card issuer.
(2) The amount of claims or defenses asserted by the cardholder may not exceed the amount of credit outstanding with respect to such transaction at the time the cardholder first notifies the card issuer or the person honoring the credit card of such claim or defense. For the purpose of determining the amount of credit outstanding in this subdivision, payments and credits to the cardholder's account are deemed to have been applied, in the order indicated, to the payment of: (A) Late charges in the order of their entry to the account; (B) finance charges in order of their entry to the account; and (C) debits to the account other than those set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this subdivision, in the order in which each debit entry to the account was made.
(m) Liability of lessor. (1) For the purpose of this subsection, the term "creditor" in this section shall include a lessor.
(2) Any lessor who fails to comply with any requirement imposed under Section 182 or 183 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1667a or 1667b) with respect to any person is liable to such person as provided in this section.
(3) Any lessor who fails to comply with any requirement imposed under Section 184 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1667c) with respect to any person who suffers actual damage from the violation is liable to such person as provided in this section.
(n) Limitations on rights of creditors, assignees and consumers. In the case of any consumer credit transaction subject to the provisions of sections 36a-675 to 36a- 685, inclusive, that is consummated before September 30, 1995, the civil, administrative and criminal liability of a creditor or any assignee of a creditor under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and a consumer's extended rescission rights under subdivision (3) of subsection (j) of this section, shall be limited to the extent provided in and subject to the exceptions contained in Section 139 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1649).
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 15; P.A. 75-55; 75-436, S. 6, 7; P.A. 77-315, S. 1; P.A. 81-158, S. 8, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 87-65; P.A. 88-65, S. 45; P.A. 96-40, S. 1, 2; 96-109, S. 14; 96-180, S. 119, 166.)
History: P.A. 75-55 required that action be brought within three years, rather than one year, in Subsec. (e); P.A. 75- 436 rewrote Subsec. (a) to distinguish between class actions and individual actions, returned time for bringing action to one year in Subsec. (e) and added Subsecs. (f) to (j); P.A. 77-315 specified applicability in Subsec. (a) to failure to comply with requirements of chapter 657a, this chapter and previously listed sections rather than to failure to disclose information required under this chapter and listed sections; P.A. 81-158 inserted new Subsecs. (i) to (m) and made extensive changes to the existing Subsecs. to make the provisions of the section conform to federal law, effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82- 18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 87-65 amended Subsec. (j) by adding Subdiv. (4) re the accrual of finance charges during the rescission period; P.A. 88-65 made technical changes by adding U.S. code citations; Sec. 36-407 transferred to Sec. 36a-683 in 1995; P.A. 96-40 made technical changes, and made specific changes to conform with the federal Truth in Lending Act by amending Subsecs. (a) and (k) re consumer credit secured by real property, adding Subdivs. (j)(6) and (7) re obligor rescission rights, adding Subdivs. (k)(4) and (5) re assignments, and adding Subsec. (n) re consumer rescission rights and re liability of creditors and assignees for transactions before September 30, 1995, effective May 2, 1996; P.A. 96-109 and 96-180 both substituted "36a-675 to 36a-685" for "36a-665 to 36a-675" where appearing and substituted references to Subsec. (d) for Subsec. (g) of Sec. 36a-684, effective June 3, 1996.
Annotations to former section 36-407:
Cited. 183 C. 85, 91.
Cited. 3 CA 201, 210.
One-year limitation for bringing action under state truth-in-lending act is not bar to common law defense of recoupment. 33 CS 201−204.
Subsec. (a):
Subdiv. (2)(A) cited. 35 CS 508, 509; 36 CS 629, 630; 37 CS 606, 608.
Subsec. (e):
Statute of limitations does not bar defendant's counterclaim by way of recoupment. 35 CS 508−510.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 37 CS 606, 617.

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Sec. 36a-684. (Formerly Sec. 36-414). Enforcement. Disclosure errors and adjustments. (a) Compliance with the requirements of sections 36a-567, 36a-568 and 36a- 675 to 36a-685, inclusive, subdivision (13) of subsection (c) of section 36a-770, and sections 36a-771, 36a-774 and 36a-777 shall be enforced by the commissioner and the commissioner shall, in addition to other powers granted by said sections or by other provisions of law, receive and act on complaints, take action designed to obtain voluntary compliance with said sections or commence proceedings on the commissioner's own initiative.
(b) In order to accomplish the purposes of sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the provisions of the general statutes referred to in subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner may (1) counsel persons and groups on their rights and duties under said sections and provisions, (2) establish programs for the education of consumers with respect to credit and leasing practices and problems and (3) make studies appropriate to effectuate the purposes and policies of said sections and provisions and make the results available to the public.
(c) The commissioner may by regulation require the maintenance of records related to consumer credit sales, loans and leases sufficient to evidence the adoption of policies calculated to produce compliance with sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the provisions of the general statutes referred to in subsection (a) of this section which shall be in addition to the record retention requirements imposed under the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.).
(d) (1) In carrying out enforcement activities under this section, the commissioner, in cases where an annual percentage rate or finance charge was inaccurately disclosed, shall notify the creditor of such disclosure error and may require the creditor to make an adjustment to the account of the person to whom credit was extended, to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower. For the purposes of this subsection, except where such disclosure error resulted from a wilful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in determining whether a disclosure error has occurred and in calculating any adjustment, (A) the commissioner shall apply (i) with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance of one-quarter of one per cent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to Section 107(c) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1606(c)), and (ii) with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerance provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate; except that (B) with respect to transactions consummated after March 31, 1982, the commissioner shall apply (i) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of ten years or less, with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance not to exceed one-quarter of one per cent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to Section 107(c) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1606(c)), but in no event a tolerance of less than the tolerances allowed under Section 107(c) (15 USC 1606(c)), (ii) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of more than ten years, with respect to the annual percentage rate, only such tolerances as are allowed under Section 107(c) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1606(c)), and (iii) for all transactions, with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerances provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate.
(2) The commissioner shall require such an adjustment when the commissioner determines that such disclosure error resulted from a clear and consistent pattern or practice of violations, from gross negligence, or from a wilful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom the credit was extended. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except where such disclosure error resulted from a wilful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, the commissioner need not require such an adjustment if the commissioner determines that such disclosure error: (A) Resulted from an error involving the disclosure of a fee or charge that would otherwise be excludable in computing the finance charge, including but not limited to, violations involving the disclosures described in Sections 106(b), (c) and (d) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1605(b), (c) and (d)), in which event the commissioner may require such remedial action as the commissioner determines to be equitable, except that for transactions consummated after March 31, 1982, such an adjustment shall be ordered for violations of Section 106(b) (15 USC 1605(b)); (B) involved a disclosed amount which was ten per cent or less of the amount that should have been disclosed and (i) in cases where the error involved a disclosed finance charge, the annual percentage rate was disclosed correctly, and (ii) in cases where the error involved a disclosed annual percentage rate, the finance charge was disclosed correctly; in which event the commissioner may require such adjustment as the commissioner determines to be equitable; (C) involved a total failure to disclose either the annual percentage rate or the finance charge, in which event the commissioner may require such adjustment as the commissioner determines to be equitable; or (D) resulted from any other unique circumstance involving clearly technical and nonsubstantive disclosure violations that do not adversely affect information provided to the consumer and that have not misled or otherwise deceived the consumer. In the case of other such disclosure errors, the commissioner may require such an adjustment.
(3) Notwithstanding subdivision (2) of this subsection, no adjustment shall be ordered: (A) If it would have a significantly adverse impact upon the safety or soundness of the creditor, but in any such case, the commissioner may require a partial adjustment in an amount which does not have such an impact except that with respect to any transaction consummated after May 18, 1981, the commissioner shall require the full adjustment, but permit the creditor to make the required adjustment in partial payments over an extended period of time which the commissioner considers to be reasonable, (B) if the amount of the adjustment would be less than one dollar, except that if more than one year has elapsed since the date of the violation, the commissioner may require that such amount be paid to the commissioner, (C) except where such disclosure error resulted from a wilful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in the case of an open-end credit plan, more than two years after the violation, or in the case of any other extension of credit, as follows: (i) With respect to creditors that have been examined by the commissioner, except in connection with violations arising from practices identified in the current examination and only in connection with transactions that are consummated after the date of the immediately preceding examination, except that where practices giving rise to violations identified in earlier examinations have not been corrected, adjustments for those violations shall be required in connection with transactions consummated after the date of the examination in which such practices were first identified; (ii) with respect to creditors that have not been examined by the commissioner, except in connection with transactions that are consummated after May 10, 1978; and (iii) in no event after the later of (I) the expiration of the life of the credit extension, or (II) two years after the agreement to extend credit was consummated.
(4) In addition to the enforcement powers authorized by the provisions of this section and section 36a-50, the commissioner may order any creditor to make an adjustment as provided in subdivision (1) of this subsection. After such an order is issued, the persons named therein may, within fourteen days after receipt of the order, file a written request for a hearing. The hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.
(5) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subsection and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner may not require a creditor to make dollar adjustments for errors in any requirements under the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1601 et seq.), except with regard to the requirements of Section 165 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1666d).
(6) A creditor shall not be subject to an order to make an adjustment, if within sixty days after discovering a disclosure error, whether pursuant to a final written examination report or through the creditor's own procedures, the creditor notifies the person concerned of the error and adjusts the account so as to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower.
(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner shall require an adjustment for an annual percentage rate disclosure error that exceeds a tolerance of one-quarter of one per cent less than the actual rate, determined without regard to Section 107(c) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 USC 1606(c)), with respect to any transaction consummated between January 1, 1977, and May 18, 1981.
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 22; P.A. 74-254, S. 7; P.A. 78-280, S. 6, 127; P.A. 81-158, S. 9, 10, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; 82- 174, S. 7, 14; P.A. 88-65, S. 46; 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 308, 340; P.A. 96-109, S. 15.)
History: P.A. 74-254 substituted reference to chapter 54 for reference to chapter 637 in Subsec. (f); P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" for "Hartford county" in Subsec. (d); P.A. 81-158 amended Subsec. (b) to include leasing practices and problems in the education programs of the commissioner, amended Subsec. (c) to require the intention of records related to consumer leases, provide that the record retention requirements are in addition to those imposed by federal law and provide that examination of records related to required disclosures may take place on the premises of a lessor or an assignee of a creditor or lessor, amended Subsec. (d) to provide that the commissioner is not required to post a bond, amended Subsec. (e) to delete provisions concerning the specific topics to be covered by the report, amended Subsec. (f) to add "or lessor or assignee thereof", effective March 31, 1982, and added Subsec. (g) concerning disclosure errors and required adjustments by a creditor to conform to federal law; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 82-174 amended Subsec. (f) by deleting provisions authorizing the commissioner, after a hearing, to order a creditor, lessor or assignee to cease and desist from violating the chapter and authorizing an aggrieved person to appeal in the manner provided in chapter 54, and by adding provisions authorizing the commissioner to issue, after notice, cease and desist orders unless a hearing is requested and authorizing him to bring an action to enforce any such order; P.A. 88-65 made technical changes by adding U.S. code citations; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; the incorrect internal reference in Subsec. (a) to section "42-83(2)(d)" was corrected editorially to "42-83(3)(d)" in 1991; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-122 deleted a provision authorizing the commissioner or his representative to examine records on a creditor's or lessor's premises in Subsec. (c), deleted Subsecs. (d) re court injunctions, (e) re annual reports to the governor and (f) re cease and desist orders, relettered former Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (d) and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36- 414 transferred to Sec. 36a-684 in 1995; P.A. 96-109 made technical change in Subsec. (a), deleting reference to Subsec. (c) of Sec. 36a-535 and substituting reference to Subdiv. (13) for reference to Subdiv. (12) of Sec. 36a-770(c).

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Sec. 36a-685. (Formerly Sec. 36-415). Unenforceable agreements. (a) If it is the understanding of the creditor and the debtor at the time an extension of credit is made that delay in making repayment or failure to make repayment could result in the use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person, the repayment of the extension of credit is unenforceable through civil judicial processes against the debtor.
(b) Proof that an extension of credit was made at an annual rate exceeding forty- five per cent calculated according to the actuarial method, and that the creditor then had a reputation for the use or threat of use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person to collect extensions of credit or to punish the nonrepayment thereof, is prima facie evidence that the extension of credit was unenforceable under subsection (a).
(1969, P.A. 454, S. 23.)
History: Sec. 36-415 transferred to Sec. 36a-685 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-686 to 36a-689. Reserved for future use.

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PART IV
INTEREST AND FINANCE CHARGE REBATES

Sec. 36a-690. (Formerly Sec. 36-417z). Calculation of interest or finance charge rebates. Prohibited methods. Transactions affected. (a) As used in this section:
(1) "Amount financed" means the amount of credit a borrower will actually be able to use as determined in accordance with sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive.
(2) "Annual percentage rate" means the annual percentage rate of finance charge determined in accordance with sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive.
(3) "Finance charge" means the cost of credit determined in accordance with sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive.
(b) Except as provided in this section, no creditor shall use any method of calculating interest rebates or finance charge rebates in any transaction described in subsection (c) of this section which originated on or after December 1, 1980, if such method would cause the actual interest or finance charge earned for the period during which the indebtedness is outstanding after deduction of an acquisition charge of twenty-five dollars to exceed the finance charge which would be earned if the annual percentage rate were calculated by the actuarial method on the amount financed in accordance with the disclosed schedule of payments. When such rebate is less than one dollar, no rebate need be made.
(c) Notwithstanding any section of the general statutes to the contrary, this section shall apply to any transaction which is subject to sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and which originated on or after December 1, 1980, but before October 1, 1987, if in such transaction: (1) The finance charge is precomputed; (2) the annual percentage rate is greater than fourteen per cent; and (3) the original term of the contract exceeds forty- eight months and fifteen days; and to any such transaction which originated on or after October 1, 1987, if in such transaction: (A) The finance charge is precomputed; and (B) the original term of the contract exceeds forty-eight months and fifteen days.
(P.A. 79-135, S. 1−4; P.A. 81-472, S. 70, 159; P.A. 87-13.)
History: P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 87-13 amended Subsec. (c) to expand the application of the section after October 1, 1987, by deleting the requirement that the interest rate of the loan exceeds fourteen per cent; Sec. 36-417z transferred to Sec. 36a-690 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 an obsolete reference in Subsec. (c) to "chapter 657" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive," to reflect the renumbering in 1995 of the sections contained in former chapter 657).

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Secs. 36a-691 to 36a-694. Reserved for future use.

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PART V
CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTS

Sec. 36a-695. (Formerly Sec. 36-431). Definitions. As used in sections 36a-695 to 36a-699e, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Consumer" means an individual seeking credit for personal, family or household purposes;
(2) "Creditor" means any person who extends credit in the ordinary course of business;
(3) "Credit report" means any written or oral report, recommendation or representation of a credit rating agency as to the credit worthiness, credit standing, or credit capacity of any consumer, and includes any information which is sought or given for the purpose of serving as the basis for determining eligibility for credit to be used primarily for personal, family or household purposes;
(4) "Credit rating agency" means any person whose business is the assembling and evaluating of information as to the credit standing and credit worthiness of a consumer, for the purposes of furnishing credit reports, for monetary fees and dues to third parties.
(1971, P.A. 868, S. 1; P.A. 86-403, S. 100, 132; P.A. 92-12, S. 85; P.A. 94-122, S. 309, 340; P.A. 98-177, S. 5.)
History: P.A. 86-403 made technical change in Subdiv. (c); P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs. and made technical changes; P.A. 94-122 added "unless the context otherwise requires" and deleted "firm, company, partnership, corporation, bureau or agency" from the definition of "credit rating agency" in Subdiv. (4), effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-431 transferred to Sec. 36a-695 in 1995; P.A. 98-177 made a technical change.

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Sec. 36a-696. (Formerly Sec. 36-432). Disclosure to consumer of information re credit report. (a) No creditor shall take adverse action based wholly or in part on a credit report on any consumer applying to such creditor for credit for personal, family or household purposes without first disclosing to the consumer the name and address of the credit rating agency which issued the report.
(b) Upon written request and proper identification of any consumer, a credit rating agency shall disclose to the consumer, within five business days of receipt of the consumer's request, the nature and substance of all information in its files, including (1) any credit score or predictor relating to the consumer, as required by and in a form and manner that complies with the federal Fair Credit Reporting Act and commentary adopted and enforced by the Federal Trade Commission; (2) a record of all inquiries, by recipient, including the recipient's name which resulted in providing a credit report concerning the consumer during the preceding twelve-month period; (3) a clear and concise explanation of the information; and (4) a written summary of the consumer's rights under state and federal consumer credit reporting statutes in a form substantially similar to the summary in section 36a-699a. The credit rating agency may charge no more than five dollars for the first request for such information within the preceding twelve months and no more than seven dollars and fifty cents for any additional request within the same twelve-month period for such information, provided such disclosure shall be made without charge to the consumer if the request for disclosure is made not more than sixty days after notification to the consumer of an adverse action by a creditor.
(1971, P.A. 868, S. 2; P.A. 87-146, S. 2; P.A. 92-12, S. 86; P.A. 95-104, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 87-146 amended Subsec. (b) by requiring disclosure to be made without charge to the consumer if the request for disclosure is made not more than thirty days after notification to the consumer of an adverse action by a creditor; P.A. 92-12 made technical changes; Sec. 36-432 transferred to Sec. 36a-696 in 1995; P.A. 95-104 divided section into Subsecs. and amended Subsec. (b) by adding a five-day disclosure deadline, adding Subdiv. (1) providing for disclosure of any credit score or predictor relating to the customer, Subdiv. (2) requiring a record of all inquiries by recipient, Subdiv. (3) requiring a clear and concise explanation of the information and Subdiv. (4) requiring a written summary of the consumer's rights, and adding the maximum charge by the credit rating agency and changing the request period from thirty to sixty days for disclosures without charge.
See Sec. 36a-699a re written summary of consumer's rights.
See Sec. 36a-699b re dispute by consumer re completeness or accuracy of information.
See Sec. 36a-699c re procedures by credit rating agency to assure accuracy.
See Sec. 36a-699d re credit report for use in credit transaction not initiated by consumer.
See Sec. 36a-699e re existing consent judgment or settlement with Attorney General.

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Sec. 36a-697. (Formerly Sec. 36-433). Exceptions. The provisions of sections 36a-691 to 36a-699, inclusive, shall not apply to any disclosure made at the request of a law enforcement or investigative officer in his capacity as such, who is employed on a full-time basis in that capacity, by the United States, or by any state or political subdivision thereof, or upon the order of any court.
(1971, P.A. 868, S. 3.)
History: Sec. 36-433 transferred to Sec. 36a-697 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-698. (Formerly Sec. 36-434). Regulations. The commissioner shall adopt such regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 36a-695 to 36a-699, inclusive.
(1971, P.A. 868, S. 4; P.A. 77-614, S. 161, 610; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-122, S. 310, 340.)
History: P.A. 77-614 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-434 transferred to Sec. 36a-698 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-699. (Formerly Sec. 36-435). Penalty. Any person who wilfully violates any provision of sections 36a-695 to 36a-699, inclusive, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars for a first offense and not more than five hundred dollars for a second offense, and shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or be imprisoned for not more than six months, or both, for each subsequent offense.
(1971, P.A. 868, S. 5.)
History: Sec. 36-435 transferred to Sec. 36a-699 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-699a. Written summary of consumer's rights. Each written summary of a consumer's rights under state and federal consumer credit reporting statutes shall be in a form substantially similar to the following:
"You have a right to obtain a copy of your credit file from a credit rating agency. You may be charged a reasonable fee not exceeding five dollars for your first request in twelve months or seven dollars and fifty cents for any subsequent request in that same twelve-month period. There is no fee, however, if you have been turned down for credit, employment, insurance or a rental dwelling because of information in your credit report within the preceding sixty days. The credit rating agency must provide someone to help you interpret the information in your credit file.
You have a right to dispute inaccurate information by contacting the credit rating agency directly. However, neither you nor any credit repair company or credit service organization has the right to have accurate, current and verifiable information removed from your credit report. Under the federal Fair Credit Reporting Act, the credit rating agency must remove accurate, negative information from your report only if it is over seven years old. Bankruptcy information can be reported for ten years.
If you have notified a credit rating agency in writing that you dispute the accuracy of information in your file, the credit rating agency must then, within thirty business days, reinvestigate and modify or remove inaccurate information. If you provide additional information to the credit rating agency, the agency may extend this time period by fifteen business days. The credit rating agency shall provide you with a toll-free telephone number to use in resolving the dispute.
The credit rating agency may not charge a fee for this service. Any pertinent information and copies of all documents you have concerning an error should be given to the credit rating agency.
If reinvestigation does not resolve the dispute to your satisfaction, you may send a brief statement to the credit rating agency to keep in your file, explaining why you think the record is inaccurate. The credit rating agency must include your statement about disputed information in a report it issues about you.
You have a right to receive a record of all inquiries relating to a credit transaction initiated in twelve months preceding your request which resulted in the provision of a credit report.
You may request in writing that the information contained in your file not be provided to a third party for marketing purposes.
If you have reviewed your credit report with the credit rating agency and are dissatisfied, you may contact the Connecticut Department of Banking. You have a right to bring civil action against anyone who knowingly or wilfully misuses file data or improperly obtains access to your file."
(P.A. 95-104, S. 2.)

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Sec. 36a-699b. Dispute by consumer re completeness or accuracy of information. (a) If the completeness or accuracy of any item of information contained in any credit file of a credit rating agency is disputed by the consumer, the consumer may notify, in writing, the credit rating agency of the disputed information. The credit rating agency shall, no later than after a written dispute has been submitted by the consumer to the credit rating agency, provide the credit rating agency's toll-free telephone number to the consumer for use in resolving the dispute. The credit rating agency shall reinvestigate the disputed information without fee to the consumer. Within five business days of receipt of the notice from the consumer, the credit rating agency shall provide notice of the dispute to all persons who provided any item of the information in dispute. Within thirty business days of receipt of the notice of dispute from the consumer, the credit rating agency shall complete its reinvestigation and provide notice to the consumer of the results of the reinvestigation provided the time period for completing the reinvestigation may be extended for a period not exceeding fifteen business days if the credit rating agency receives additional information from the consumer which the credit rating agency determines is necessary to the accuracy of the reinvestigation and provides written notice to the consumer of such extension. The notice of the results of the reinvestigation shall contain a statement that the reinvestigation is completed, a copy of the credit file indicating the results of the reinvestigation, a notice of the consumer's right to file a statement with the credit rating agency disputing the accuracy or completeness of the information, a notice that the consumer may request, in writing or by a toll-free telephone call at the consumer's option, that the credit rating agency disclose the company name, address and telephone number of each information source contacted during the reinvestigation and a notice of the consumer's right to request a revised credit report be sent to any recipient of information in the consumer's file who requested such information within twelve months preceding the consumer's filing of the notice of disputed information. If the credit rating agency fails to complete the reinvestigation and provide notice of the results of the reinvestigation (1) within thirty business days of receipt of the notice of dispute, or (2) if an extension was noticed, within forty-five business days of such receipt, such information shall be deleted.
(b) If the credit rating agency determines, upon reinvestigation, that an item of information is inaccurate or cannot be verified, the credit rating agency shall promptly delete that item. At the request of the consumer, the credit rating agency shall promptly notify, without charge, those recipients specifically designated by the consumer who received a credit report within twelve months of completion of the reinvestigation that such information was deleted. Such information may be reinserted only upon verification of the completeness and accuracy of the information by the furnisher of the information. The credit rating agency shall notify the consumer within five business days of reinsertion of such information.
(c) If the credit rating agency determines, upon reinvestigation, that an item of information is accurate and complete or that the consumer has not provided sufficient information, the credit rating agency may retain such information.
(d) If the credit rating agency determines, upon reinvestigation, that an item of information is inaccurate or incomplete, but can be modified so as to make such information accurate and complete, the credit rating agency shall promptly modify such information.
(P.A. 95-104, S. 3.)

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Sec. 36a-699c. Procedures by credit rating agency to assure accuracy. Each credit rating agency shall maintain reasonable procedures to assure maximum possible accuracy of the information concerning the consumer and to avoid the reinsertion of previously deleted information without verification.
(P.A. 95-104, S. 4.)

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Sec. 36a-699d. Credit report for use in credit transaction not initiated by consumer. (a) A credit rating agency shall not provide a credit report for use in a credit transaction which is not initiated by the consumer if the consumer notifies, in writing, the credit rating agency that the consumer does not consent to that use.
(b) Each credit rating agency shall annually publish in a publication of general circulation in the state a notice that information in its credit files may be used in connection with a credit transaction which is not initiated by the consumer. A consumer may notify the credit rating agency of his election to be excluded from credit transactions which are not initiated by the consumer by writing to the address provided in the notice for such election. Compliance with the requirements of this section by any credit rating agency constitutes compliance by the agency's affiliates.
(c) As used in this section, "credit transaction which is not initiated by the consumer" does not include a request for a consumer report by a person with which the consumer has an account for purposes of reviewing the account or collecting on the account or a request for a consumer report by an employer in accordance with 15 USC 1681b.
(P.A. 95-104, S. 5.)

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Sec. 36a-699e. Existing consent judgment or settlement with Attorney General. Nothing in sections 36a-696 or 36a-699a to 36a-699d, inclusive, shall prohibit a credit rating agency from complying with any requirement contained in any existing consent judgment or settlement with the Attorney General.
(P.A. 95-104, S. 6.)

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Sec. 36a-700. (Formerly Sec. 36-435l). Credit clinics. Definitions. Contracts. Prohibited acts. Penalties. (a) As used in this section, "credit clinic" means any person who sells, provides or performs, or who represents that such person can or will sell, provide or perform, a service for the express or implied purpose of correcting, changing or deleting adverse entries on a consumer's credit record, history or rating or providing advice or assistance to a consumer with regard to correcting, changing or deleting adverse entries on a consumer's credit record, history or rating in return for the payment of a fee. "Credit clinic" does not include: (1) Credit rating agencies as defined in section 36a-695; (2) any person licensed to practice law in this state provided such person renders services as a credit clinic, as defined in this subsection, within the course and scope of his practice as an attorney; or (3) any organization which is exempt from taxation pursuant to Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended.
(b) A credit clinic shall provide to each purchaser of the services of a credit clinic a contract which contract shall include, in bold face type a minimum size of ten points, the following statements:

RIGHT TO REVIEW YOUR FILE

The federal Fair Credit Reporting Act gives you the right to know what your credit file contains and the credit rating agency must provide someone to help you interpret the data. Sections 36a-695 to 36a-699, inclusive, of the Connecticut general statutes gives you the right to receive an actual copy of your credit report. You will be required to identify yourself to the credit rating agency and you may be charged a small fee. There is no fee, however, if you have been turned down for credit, employment or insurance because of information contained in a report within the preceding thirty days.

INCORRECT INFORMATION

If you notify the credit rating agency that you dispute the accuracy of information, the agency must reinvestigate and modify or remove inaccurate data. The credit rating agency may not charge any fee for this investigation or for modifying or removing inaccurate data. If reinvestigation does not resolve the dispute, you may enter a statement of one hundred words or less in your file, explaining why you dispute the accuracy of your record or file. This statement or a coded version of it must be included with all reports which the credit rating agency issues on you. If the error is corrected, the credit rating agency must notify any person who requested a report on you during the previous two years for employment purposes and the previous six months for any other purpose.

TIME LIMITS ON ADVERSE DATA

Most kinds of information in your file may be reported for a period of seven years. If you have declared personal bankruptcy, however, that fact may be reported for ten years. After seven or ten years, the information cannot be disclosed by a credit rating agency unless you are being investigated for a credit application of fifty thousand dollars or more, for an application to purchase life insurance of fifty thousand dollars or more, or for employment at an annual salary of twenty thousand dollars or more.
(c) In addition to statements required in subsection (b) of this section, each contract shall contain a complete, detailed list of services to be performed by the credit clinic and the results to be achieved by the credit clinic. A copy of the consumer's current credit report shall be attached to the contract with the adverse entries to be modified clearly marked.
(d) Any contract which does not comply with the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall be void and the credit clinic shall return to the consumer any payments made by the consumer to the credit clinic under the voided contract.
(e) No credit clinic may charge a fee or receive any money or other valuable consideration for the performance of any service the credit clinic has agreed to perform for any consumer until the credit clinic has fully performed such service.
(f) A violation of any provision of this section shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade practice pursuant to section 42-110b.
(P.A. 87-146, S. 1; P.A. 91-357, S. 57, 78; P.A. 97-22, S. 2; P.A. 99-40.)
History: P.A. 91-357 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); Sec. 36-435l transferred to Sec. 36a-700 in 1995; P.A. 97-22 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 99-40 added new Subsec. (e) prohibiting credit clinics from charging consumers prior to fully performing services and relettered former Subsec. (e) accordingly.
Annotations to former section 36-435l:
Cited. 228 C. 375, 382. Cited. 231 C. 707, 727.

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Secs. 36a-701 to 36a-704. Reserved for future use.

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PART VI
MORTGAGE PROCESSING

Sec. 36a-705. (Formerly Sec. 36-442). Definitions. As used in this section and sections 36a-706 and 36a-707, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "First mortgage loan" means any loan made to an individual, the proceeds of which are to be used primarily for personal, family or household purposes, which loan is secured by a mortgage upon any interest in one-to-four-family residential, owner- occupied real property located in this state which is not subject to any prior mortgages. The term includes the renewal or refinancing of an existing first mortgage loan;
(2) "Mortgage lender" means any person engaged in the business of making first mortgage loans, including, but not limited to, banks, out-of-state banks, Connecticut credit unions, federal credit unions, out-of-state credit unions and first mortgage lenders required to be licensed under sections 36a-485 to 36a-498, inclusive; and
(3) "Mortgage rate lock-in" means any written agreement with a mortgage applicant made by a mortgage lender or its representative, prior to the issuance of a first mortgage loan commitment, in which the mortgage lender agrees that a particular rate, number of points or variable rate terms will be the rate, number of points, or variable rate terms at which it will lend, provided the first mortgage loan is closed within a specified period, and the applicant qualifies for the loan in accordance with the lender's standards of credit worthiness.
(P.A. 87-73, S. 1; P.A. 92-12, S. 89; P.A. 94-122, S. 311, 340.)
History: P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "person", reordered definitions and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-442 transferred to Sec. 36a-705 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-706. (Formerly Sec. 36-442a). Mortgage rate lock-in agreements. (a) Duration. (1) No mortgage lender shall enter into a mortgage rate lock-in agreement unless such agreement is in writing and the period for which the terms are locked in is at least as long as the mortgage lender's good faith estimate of the anticipated time from when the mortgage loan application is submitted to the lender to the time when such lender will be ready to close such loan, taking into consideration current market conditions and the processing requirements for the type of first mortgage loan in question. (2) In the event a mortgage rate lock-in agreement is executed after the mortgage loan application is submitted to the lender, the minimum period for which the terms may be locked in shall be the period determined in accordance with subdivision (1) of this subsection, less the number of days elapsed since the application was submitted to the lender.
(b) Closing required in accordance with lock-in agreement. Exceptions. Any first mortgage loan application for which a mortgage rate lock-in agreement has been issued shall, unless it is denied in accordance with the mortgage lender's standards of credit worthiness, be closed at the terms specified in the mortgage rate lock-in agreement regardless of whether the specified lock-in period has expired, unless the failure to close the first mortgage loan is the result of the following: (1) The applicant has failed to provide information or documentation required by the lender in a timely manner; (2) the applicant or the applicant's attorney has failed to close the first mortgage loan on or before the date specified by the mortgage lender; (3) the applicant has failed to produce, at or before the closing, all of the documentation specified by the mortgage loan commitment as being required for closing; or (4) the applicant has provided or omitted any information, in the application or subsequently, which upon verification proves to be significantly inaccurate causing the need for review or further investigation by the lender. Information is significantly inaccurate if the information as verified would cause the applicant to be disqualified for the type of first mortgage loan for which the applicant has applied or would cause the secondary market source for which the first mortgage loan is being originated to refuse to purchase the loan.
(c) Refund of fees. In any case where a first mortgage loan has not been closed, and the application has not been rejected in accordance with the mortgage lender's standards of credit worthiness, ninety days after the filing of an application for a first mortgage loan with an initial loan to value ratio of eighty per cent or less or one hundred twenty days after filing an application for a first mortgage loan with an initial loan to value ratio of more than eighty per cent, or a first mortgage loan to be insured or guaranteed by any agency of the federal government, or any state or municipal government, or any quasi-governmental agency, whether or not there has been a mortgage rate lock- in, the applicant shall be entitled upon written request, which must be made within thirty days of the expiration of the ninety or one hundred twenty day period, as applicable, to a full refund of all funds paid to the mortgage lender unless the failure to close was caused by the applicant for one of the reasons set forth in subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of subsection (b) of this section or the applicant has requested a closing date which is later than ninety days after application for a first mortgage loan with an initial loan to value ratio of eighty per cent or less or one hundred twenty days for a first mortgage loan with an initial loan to value ratio of more than eighty per cent or which is to be insured or guaranteed by any agency of the federal government, or any state or municipal government, or any quasi-governmental agency.
(d) Lock-in agreements generally. Information requested by lender. For the purposes of subsections (b) and (c) of this section:
(1) An applicant shall be deemed to have provided information or documentation in a timely manner if such information or documentation is delivered to the mortgage lender or a representative thereof within seven calendar days after it is requested.
(2) If a written commitment issued by a mortgage lender contains any conditions to be satisfied by the applicant, the mortgage lender shall specify a closing date no sooner than seven calendar days after the issuance of a written commitment unless an earlier date is requested by the applicant.
(3) Any new information or documentation requested by the mortgage lender within seven calendar days before the expiration of any rate lock-in period shall serve to extend the rate lock-in period by seven calendar days from the date of such request. Information or documentation is not new if the request is made necessary by inaccuracies in or omissions from previously provided information, by changes in the information previously provided by the applicant, or questions raised as the result of appraisals, pest inspections, water or sewer tests, engineering reports or reports of a similar nature.
(4) If an applicant chooses to change the type or amount of a first mortgage loan for which application is made, or does not qualify for a particular type or amount of first mortgage loan and chooses to apply for another, any rate lock-in agreement shall be void and any subsequent rate lock-in shall be evidenced by a new written agreement and shall for the purposes of sections 36a-705 to 36a-707, inclusive, be considered a new application.
(5) A mortgage rate lock-in agreement shall not be binding on the mortgage lender in connection with the application for any first mortgage loan which is to be insured or guaranteed by any agency of the federal government or any state or municipal government or quasi-governmental agency in the event the loan program for which the applicant has applied becomes unavailable subsequent to filing an application because of actions taken by that governmental agency. In such cases the applicant shall be entitled to a refund of all funds paid by the applicant which have not actually been expended by the mortgage lender.
(6) If the mortgage lender requires that the closing of the first mortgage loan be conducted by a particular attorney or law firm, and that attorney or law firm is not available to conduct the closing before a commitment period or rate lock-in period expires, the mortgage lender shall extend the commitment or rate lock-in period until the designated attorney is available to conduct the closing.
(P.A. 87-73, S. 2; P.A. 88-364, S. 54, 123.)
History: P.A. 88-364 made a technical change; Sec. 36-442a transferred to Sec. 36a-706 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-707. (Formerly Sec. 36-442b). Applicant's remedies. (a) Any mortgage lender who violates any provision of sections 36a-705 to 36a-707, inclusive, with respect to any applicant shall be liable to such applicant for all fees and charges paid by the applicant in connection with the application for a first mortgage loan.
(b) No provision of sections 36a-705 to 36a-707, inclusive, shall be construed or implied to impose an obligation on any party by implication unless expressly stated in said sections.
(c) No provision of sections 36a-705 to 36a-707, inclusive, shall be considered as a limitation of the applicant's ability to seek such equitable relief as may be provided by any other statute or at common law.
(P.A. 87-73, S. 3.)
History: Sec. 36-442b transferred to Sec. 36a-707 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-708 to 36a-714. Reserved for future use.

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PART VII
MORTGAGE SERVICING

Sec. 36a-715. (Formerly Sec. 36-442m). Definitions. As used in sections 36a- 715 to 36a-718, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "First mortgage loan" has the same meaning as provided in subsection (1) of section 36a-485.
(2) "Mortgage servicing company" means any person, wherever located, who, for such person or on behalf of the holder of a first mortgage loan, receives payments of principal and interest in connection with a first mortgage loan, records such payments on such person's books and records and performs such other administrative functions as may be necessary to properly carry out the mortgage holder's obligations under the mortgage agreement including, when applicable, the receipt of funds from the mortgagor to be held in escrow for payment of real estate taxes and insurance premiums and the distribution of such funds to the taxing authority and insurance company.
(3) "Mortgagor" means any person obligated to repay a first mortgage loan.
(P.A. 89-347, S. 3; P.A. 92-12, S. 90; P.A. 94-122, S. 312, 340.)
History: P.A. 92-12 made technical changes; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36- 442m transferred to Sec. 36a-715 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-716. (Formerly Sec. 36-442n). Escrow accounts. (a) Any mortgage servicing company which receives funds from a mortgagor to be held in escrow for payment of taxes and insurance premiums shall pay the taxes and insurance premiums of the mortgagor to the appropriate taxing authority and insurance company in the amount required and at the time such taxes and insurance premiums are due provided (1) the mortgage servicing company has been provided with the tax or insurance bills at least fifteen days prior to the date such taxes and insurance premiums are due, and (2) the mortgagor has paid to the mortgage servicing company the amounts required to be paid into the escrow account, as determined by the mortgage servicing company, for all amounts scheduled to be paid to the mortgage servicing company prior to the date such taxes and insurance premiums are due.
(b) Each mortgage servicing company shall, through its own effort and expense, determine and notify the mortgagor of the amounts necessary to be paid into the escrow account to assure that sufficient funds will be available for the payment of such taxes and insurance premiums as of the date such payment is due.
(c) If the amount held in the escrow account as of the date such taxes and insurance premiums are due is insufficient to pay the taxes and insurance premiums despite compliance by the mortgagor with subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, the mortgage servicing company shall pay such taxes and insurance premiums from its own funds. The mortgage servicing company shall then give the mortgagor the option of paying the shortage over a period of not less than one year. The mortgage servicing company shall not charge or collect interest on such shortage during the one-year period.
(P.A. 89-347, S. 4.)
History: Sec. 36-442n transferred to Sec. 36a-716 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-717. (Formerly Sec. 36-442o). Penalties. Any mortgage servicing company which violates any provision of section 36a-716 shall be liable to the mortgagor for: (1) Any penalties, interest or other charges levied by the taxing authority or insurance company as a result of such violation; (2) any actual damages suffered by the mortgagor as a result of such violation, including, but not limited to, any amount which would have been paid by an insurer for a casualty or liability claim had the insurance policy not been cancelled for nonpayment by the mortgage servicing company; and (3) in the case of any successful action to enforce the foregoing liability, the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court.
(P.A. 89-347, S. 5.)
History: Sec. 36-442o transferred to Sec. 36a-717 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-718. (Formerly Sec. 36-442p). Orders. Notice. Hearings. If the commissioner determines that any mortgage servicing company has violated any provision of section 36a-716, the commissioner may, in accordance with section 36a-52, order the mortgage servicing company to cease and desist from such violation. The commissioner may also order the mortgage servicing company to make restitution to the mortgagor upon fourteen days notice in writing. Such notice shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the principal place of business of the mortgage servicing company and shall state the grounds for the contemplated action. Within fourteen days of receipt of the notice, the mortgage servicing company may file a written request for a hearing. If a hearing is requested, the commissioner shall not issue an order to make restitution until after such hearing is held. Such hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.
(P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 89-347, S. 6; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 313, 340.)
History: P.A. 88-230 authorized substitution of "judicial district of Hartford" for "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" in the public and special acts of 1989, effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-122 deleted provisions allowing the commissioner to bring an enforcement action in superior court and to fine violators up to two thousand five hundred dollars and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-442p transferred to Sec. 36a-718 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-719 to 36a-724. Reserved for future use.

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PART VIII
MORTGAGE INSURANCE

Sec. 36a-725. (Formerly Sec. 36-442aa). Definitions. As used in this section and section 36a-726, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "First mortgage loan" means any loan made to an individual, the proceeds of which are to be used primarily for personal, family or household purposes, which loan is secured by a mortgage upon any interest in one-to-four-family residential, owner- occupied real property located in this state which is not subject to any prior mortgages. The term includes the renewal or refinancing of an existing first mortgage loan;
(2) "Mortgage insurance" means insurance written by an independent mortgage insurance company to protect the mortgage lender against loss incurred in the event of a default by a borrower under the mortgage loan;
(3) "Mortgage lender" means any person engaged in the business of making first mortgage loans, including, but not limited to, banks, out-of-state banks, Connecticut credit unions, federal credit unions, out-of-state credit unions, and first mortgage lenders required to be licensed under sections 36a-485 to 36a-498, inclusive.
(P.A. 89-95, S. 1; P.A. 92-12, S. 91; P.A. 94-122, S. 314, 340.)
History: P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs. and made technical changes; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "person", reordered definitions and made other technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-442aa transferred to Sec. 36a- 725 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-726. (Formerly Sec. 36-442bb). Disclosure required. (a) Any mortgage lender who requires a borrower to pay for mortgage insurance as a condition of obtaining a first mortgage loan shall disclose to the applicant in writing at the time the first mortgage loan application is filed:
(1) That the purpose of mortgage insurance is to protect the mortgage lender against a loss which may be incurred in the event of a default by the borrower under the mortgage loan;
(2) That mortgage insurance is required as a condition of obtaining the mortgage loan, and under what, if any, conditions the lender may release the borrower from this obligation;
(3) A good faith estimate of the initial cost, if any, and the monthly cost, if any, of the required mortgage insurance. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the first mortgage loan transaction is subject to the requirements of the federal Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the mortgage lender may, in place of the disclosure required under this subdivision, disclose that the cost of mortgage insurance will be disclosed on the good faith estimate of closing costs required to be furnished to the applicant in accordance with the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.
(b) Any mortgage lender who does not require mortgage insurance but does charge a higher interest rate for first mortgage loans in excess of an eighty per cent loan-to- value ratio shall disclose this fact to the applicant in writing at the time the first mortgage loan application is filed.
(c) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any first mortgage loan which is to be insured or guaranteed by any agency of the federal government or any state or municipal government or quasi-governmental agency where such agency requires that mortgage insurance be obtained in connection with the loan.
(P.A. 89-95, S. 2.)
History: Sec. 36-442bb transferred to Sec. 36a-726 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-727 to 36a-734. Reserved for future use.

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PART IX
HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE

Sec. 36a-735. (Formerly Sec. 36-443). Short title: Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. Sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, shall be known and may be cited as the "Home Mortgage Disclosure Act".
(P.A. 77-153, S. 1; P.A. 94-122, S. 315, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made a technical change, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-443 transferred to Sec. 36a-735 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-736. (Formerly Sec. 36-444). Definitions. As used in sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Applicant" means any person who applies for a home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan as defined in sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, whether or not the loan is granted;
(2) "Federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act" means the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975 (12 USC section 2801 et seq.), as from time to time amended, and any regulations promulgated by the Federal Reserve Board pursuant to that act, except, for purposes of sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, the supervisory agency shall be the commissioner;
(3) "Financial institution" means any Connecticut bank or Connecticut credit union which makes home purchase loans or home improvement loans or any for profit mortgage lending institution other than a Connecticut bank or Connecticut credit union, whose home purchase loan originations equaled or exceeded ten per cent of its loan origination volume, measured in dollars, in the preceding calendar year, if such mortgage lending institution is licensed under sections 36a-485 to 36a-498, inclusive, or 36a-510 to 36a-524, inclusive;
(4) "Home improvement loan" has the same meaning as provided in the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act;
(5) "Home purchase loan" has the same meaning as provided in the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act; and
(6) "Mortgage loan" means a loan which is secured by residential real property.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 2; 77-614, S. 161, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 80-482, S. 262, 345, 348; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 90-34, S. 1, 5; P.A. 93-186, S. 1, 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 316, 340; 94-161, S. 1; May 25 Sp. Sess. 94-1, S. 107, 130; P.A. 96-109, S. 16; 96-180, S. 120, 166.)
History: P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner within the department of business regulation, reflecting incorporation of banking department as a division within that department, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as an independent department and abolished the department of business regulation, allowing omission of reference to abolished department in commissioner's title; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 90-34 amended the definitions of "financial institution" and "home improvement loan", deleted the definition of "census tract", added a definition of "federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act" and renumbered each Subsec., effective May 2, 1990, and applicable to all reports and disclosures required under chapter 661 concerning loans originated or purchased, and loan applications received on and after January 1, 1990; P.A. 93-186 amended the definitions of "financial institution", "federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act" and "applicant", deleted the definition of "mortgage loan" and added definition of "home purchase loan" and renumbered Subdivs. accordingly, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "commissioner" and reordered the definitions, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 94-161 inserted new Subdiv. (2) defining "mortgage loan", renumbered the remaining Subdivs., included "or other mortgage loan" in the definition of "applicant" and made technical changes; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1994 and applicable January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-444 transferred to Sec. 36a-736 in 1995; P.A. 96-109 and 96-180 both made technical change in definition of "financial institution", substituting "or" for "and" in reference to licensure under specified sections.

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Sec. 36a-737. (Formerly Sec. 36-445). Discrimination in making of home purchase, home improvement and mortgage loans. No financial institution and no federal bank shall discriminate, on a basis that is arbitrary or unsupported by a reasonable analysis of the lending risks associated with the applicant for a given loan or the condition of the property to secure it, in the granting, withholding, extending, modifying, renewing or in the fixing of the rates, terms, conditions or provisions of any home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan on one-to-four-family owner-occupied residential real property, solely because such property is located in a low-income or moderate-income neighborhood or geographical area, provided it shall not be a violation of this section if the home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan is made pursuant to a specific public or private program, the purpose of which is to increase the availability of home purchase loans, home improvement loans or other mortgage loans within a low-income or moderate-income neighborhood or geographical area in which such investment capital has generally been denied.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 3; P.A. 93-186, S. 2, 9; P.A. 94-161, S. 2; P.A. 95-155, S. 28, 29.)
History: P.A. 93-186 deleted references to "mortgage loans" in favor of "home purchase loan" and made technical corrections for clarity and accuracy, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-161 included "other mortgage loans" within the antidiscrimination provision and changed "specific neighborhood" to "low-income or moderate-income neighborhood"; Sec. 36-445 transferred to Sec. 36a-737 in 1995; P.A. 95-155 applied section to federal banks, effective June 27, 1995.

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Sec. 36a-738. (Formerly Sec. 36-446). Disclosure requirements for financial institutions. A financial institution shall comply with all applicable provisions of the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, and, in addition, shall report on the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act loan application register the reason for denial in connection with each loan application subject to federal reporting that is denied by the financial institution. Each financial institution shall provide the commissioner with any information required to be disclosed to a federal agency pursuant to the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act as the commissioner may require.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 4; P.A. 81-128, S. 7, 17; P.A. 84-546, S. 159, 173; P.A. 90-34, S. 2, 5; P.A. 92-2; P.A. 93-186, S. 3, 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 317, 340; 94-161, S. 3; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 108, 130.)
History: P.A. 81-128 amended Subsec. (a) by substituting "United States Department of Commerce" for "Federal Office of Management and Budget" and changed the reporting requirement from fiscal to calendar years, amended Subsec. (b) to indicate when data is disclosed by census tracts or by county, and added Subsec. (e) concerning disclosure to federal authorities; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (a), replacing reference to U.S. Department of Commerce with reference to U.S. Office of Management and Budget; P.A. 90-34 deleted former Subsecs. (a) to (d), relettered Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (b) and added new Subsec. (a) re compliance with the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, effective May 2, 1990, and applicable to all reports and disclosures required under chapter 661 concerning loans originated or purchased, and loan applications received on and after January 1, 1990; P.A. 92-2 added Subsec. (c) re disclosure of reason for denial of mortgage loan application; P.A. 93-186 added a reporting requirement for mortgage loans denied and the basis of denial to both the commissioner and any federal agencies which require such a report and deleted the reporting requirements required by the federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-122 changed "he" to "the commissioner", effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 94-161 changed "each home purchase loan or home improvement loan application" to "each loan application subject to federal reporting"; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-446 transferred to Sec. 36a-738 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-739. (Formerly Sec. 36-448). Reports by financial institutions. Filing requirements. A financial institution which is required to provide the commissioner with information pursuant to section 36a-738 and which fails to submit such information on the date required shall be fined one hundred dollars for each day on which such information has not been filed after the required date.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 6; 77-614, S. 161, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 80-482, S. 263, 345, 348; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 93-186, S. 4, 9.)
History: P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 made banking department a division within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as independent department and abolished the department of business regulation; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "department of banking"); P.A. 93-186 deleted former Subsec. (a) which had required that reports be filed with banking department and maintained for five years, amended Subsec. (b) re reporting requirements of the commissioner and increased the fine for noncompliance from ten to one hundred dollars per day, effective June 23, 1993; Sec. 36-448 transferred to Sec. 36a-739 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-740. (Formerly Sec. 36-449). Violations by financial institutions. Rights of loan applicant. Any applicant who has been discriminated against as a result of a violation of section 36a-737 and the regulations adopted pursuant to sections 36a- 735 to 36a-744, inclusive, may bring an action in a court of competent jurisdiction. Upon finding that a financial institution is in violation of sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, the court may award damages, reasonable attorneys' fees and court costs. No class action shall be permitted pursuant to the provisions of this section. Any applicant alleging a violation under this section shall do so in the applicant's own individual complaint and each case resulting from such complaints shall be heard on its own merits unless consolidation of such cases is agreed to by each defendant affected thereby.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 7; P.A. 94-122, S. 318, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-449 transferred to Sec. 36a-740 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 36-449:
Cited. 183 C. 85, 91. Cited. 211 C. 648, 652.
Cited. 10 CA 22, 31.

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Sec. 36a-741. (Formerly Sec. 36-451). Cease and desist order. Enforcement action. (a) If the commissioner finds that a financial institution is violating the provisions of sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, the commissioner shall order the institution to cease and desist from such practices in accordance with section 36a-52.
(b) Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any financial institution has violated, is violating or is about to violate any provision of sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, or any regulation adopted under said sections, the commissioner may take action against such financial institution in accordance with section 36a-50.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 319, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 deleted the provision making financial institutions which violate cease and desist orders subject to a five-thousand-dollar fine, added a reference to the commissioner's cease and desist authority under Sec. 36a-52, and added Subsec. (b) re the commissioner's enforcement authority under Sec. 36a-50, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-451 transferred to Sec. 36a-741 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-742. (Formerly Sec. 36-452). Protection of confidentiality of an individual's financial status. To insure and protect the confidential nature of an individual's financial status, no provision of sections 36a-735 to 36a-744, inclusive, shall be construed as requiring any financial institution to divulge, other than to an appropriate state agency, the names of individual depositors or mortgagors; neither shall any provisions of said sections be construed as authorizing any officer of this state to require any institution to divulge, other than to an appropriate state agency, the names of individual depositors or mortgagors.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 10.)
History: Sec. 36-452 transferred to Sec. 36a-742 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-743. (Formerly Sec. 36-454). Commissioner to analyze home financing. The commissioner shall analyze the practices and actions of the financial institutions in the home financing area in relationship to its customers and to the housing needs and conditions of the state.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 12; P.A. 93-186, S. 6, 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 320, 340.)
History: P.A. 93-186 made a technical change, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-122 deleted provision requiring annual report to governor, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-454 transferred to Sec. 36a-743 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-744. (Formerly Sec. 36-455). Regulations. The commissioner may adopt, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, such regulations as the commissioner deems necessary for the proper operation and enforcement of sections 36a-735 to 36a-743, inclusive.
(P.A. 77-153, S. 13; P.A. 90-34, S. 3, 5; P.A. 93-186, S. 7, 9; P.A. 94-122, S. 321, 340.)
History: P.A. 90-34 made technical changes, effective May 2, 1990, and applicable to all reports and disclosures required under chapter 661 concerning loans originated or purchased, and loan applications received on and after January 1, 1990; P.A. 93-186 deleted requirement that regulations be consistent with "sound banking practices" and the federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-122 changed "he" to "the commissioner", effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-455 transferred to Sec. 36a-744 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-745 to 36a-754. Reserved for future use.

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PART X
OTHER MORTGAGE AND LOAN PRACTICES

Sec. 36a-755. (Formerly Sec. 36-9h). Mortgage appraisal practices. Definitions. Regulations. (a) As used in this section:
(1) "Applicant" means a natural person who applies for a mortgage loan;
(2) "Financial institution" means a bank, out-of-state bank, Connecticut credit union, federal credit union, out-of-state credit union, secondary mortgage loan licensee and first mortgage lender licensee; and
(3) "Mortgage loan" means a loan to be secured by a mortgage on one, two, three or four family residential real property, including a unit of a condominium.
(b) Any financial institution which directly or indirectly imposes a fee on any applicant for an appraisal on real property to secure a mortgage loan shall make available to such applicant at no charge a copy of the appraisal report promptly after the financial institution's receipt of the applicant's written request for a copy of the appraisal report, provided the financial institution receives the written request not later than ninety days after the financial institution has provided the applicant with notice of action taken on the applicant's application or not later than ninety days after the application is withdrawn by the applicant, as applicable.
(c) Any financial institution which directly or indirectly imposes a fee on any applicant for an appraisal shall either (1) notify such applicant in writing of the availability of a copy of the appraisal report or (2) provide such applicant with a copy of the appraisal report at no charge, such notice or copy to be provided not later than ten days after receipt of the appraisal report, but in any event not later than the date on which the sale of such property is to be consummated.
(d) Any person who prepares such appraisal report shall not be liable to any person with whom the preparer has not contracted to make such appraisal report for opinions or facts stated in or omitted from such appraisal report, unless such statement or omission results from intentional misrepresentation.
(e) The commissioner may adopt such regulations pursuant to chapter 54 as the commissioner deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
(P.A. 78-157, S. 1−5, 7; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 87-6; 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 88-262, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-122, S. 322, 340; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 105, 130.)
History: P.A. 78-303 allowed substitution of banking commissioner for bank commissioner to achieve conformity with changes enacted under P.A. 77-614; P.A. 87-6 redefined "financial institution" in Subsec. (a) to include federally chartered institutions and first and second mortgage lenders; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 88-262 amended Subsec. (b) to require that copies of appraisal reports be made available to mortgage applicants at no charge and deleted provisions in Subsec. (b) re fees for copies of appraisal reports; the word "the" was inserted editorially by the Revisors before "commissioner" in Subsec. (a)(4) in 1991; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "commissioner", reordered the definitions, added language at the end of Subsec. (b) specifying that the lender must make the appraisal report available promptly after receiving the applicant's written request for a copy within a ninety-day time period, gave lenders the option of giving the applicant a copy of the report whether or not requested in Subsec. (c), and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes to Subsec. (a), effective January 1, 1994, and applicable January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-9h transferred to Sec. 36a-755 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-756. (Formerly Sec. 36-9t). Title insurance as condition of mortgage on residential real estate prohibited. No bank or out-of-state bank shall, in connection with any application for a mortgage loan in this state which is secured by mortgage on residential real estate located in this state, require any prospective mortgagor to obtain by purchase or otherwise an owner's title insurance policy as a condition for the granting of such mortgage.
(P.A. 83-61; P.A. 94-122, S. 335, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made a technical change, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-9t transferred to Sec. 36a-756 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-757. (Formerly Sec. 36-9u). Mortgage insurance requirements limited. No mortgage lender shall, in connection with any application for a mortgage loan in this state which is secured by mortgage on residential real estate located in this state, require any prospective mortgagor to obtain by purchase or otherwise a fire insurance policy, flood insurance policy, other extended coverage policy, or any combination thereof, in excess of the replacement value of the covered premises as a condition for the granting of such mortgage.
(P.A. 84-212; P.A. 00-95.)
History: Sec. 36-9u transferred to Sec. 36a-757 in 1995; P.A. 00-95 added "flood insurance policy, other extended coverage policy, or any combination thereof".

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Sec. 36a-758. (Formerly Sec. 36-9y). Payment of loan proceeds by certified, bank treasurer's or cashier's check or by wire transfer. Any financial institution, as defined in subdivision (1) of section 36a-41, or any other person who makes any loan (1) for the purchase of real property to be secured by a first mortgage on real property located in this state or (2) to refinance an existing indebtedness secured by a mortgage, which loan is to be secured by a first mortgage on real property located in this state shall, at the time of the execution of such loan or at the termination of any right to rescind the loan transaction under 12 CFR 226, whichever is later, pay the loan proceeds to the mortgagor, to the mortgagor's attorney or to the mortgagee's attorney by a certified, bank treasurer's or cashier's check or by means of wire transfer.
(P.A. 85-430; P.A. 92-12, S. 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 323, 340.)
History: P.A. 92-12 made a technical change; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36- 9y transferred to Sec. 36a-758 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-759. (Formerly Sec. 36-4). Minority of veterans, spouses and widows for purposes of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act. The disability of minority of any person otherwise eligible for a loan, or guaranty or insurance of a loan, pursuant to the act of the Congress of the United States entitled the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as from time to time amended, and of the minor spouse or unmarried widow of any eligible veteran, in connection with any transaction entered into pursuant to that act, shall not affect the binding effect of any obligation incurred by such eligible person or spouse or widow as an incident to any such transaction, including incurring of indebtedness and acquiring, encumbering, selling, releasing or conveying property, or any interest therein, if all or part of any such obligation is guaranteed or insured by the federal government or the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs pursuant to that act; or, if the administrator is the creditor, by reason of a loan or a sale pursuant to that act. This section shall not create, or render enforceable, any other or greater rights or liabilities than would exist if such person, such spouse or such widow were not a minor.
(1953, S. 2780d; P.A. 94-122, S. 324, 340.)
History: P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-4 transferred to Sec. 36a-759 in 1995.

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Secs. 36a-760 to 36a-769. Reserved for future use.
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PART XI*
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES FINANCING

*See Sec. 36a-676 for definitions under the Truth-in-Lending Act applicable to this part.
Annotations to former chapter 733 (Sec. 42-83 et seq.):
Remedies under this chapter not limited to Secs. 42-99 and 42-100. 155 C. 469. Retail installment sales financing act cited. 202 C. 106, 107, 109, 110, 112−114, 116−119. Retail installment sales financing act (RISFA) cited. 216 C. 458, 460, 462, 465, 470, 474, 477, 480, 483. Retail Installment Sales Financing Act (RISFA) cited. 231 C. 707, 709, 712, 713, 715− 719, 721−724, 726−729.
Retail installment sales financing act (RISFA), Sec. 42-83 et seq. cited. 24 CA 455, 457, 461−463, 465−467.
Cited. 34 CS 154, 156.
Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 745.

Sec. 36a-770. (Formerly Sec. 42-83). Applicability of commercial code. Filing and recording. Definitions. (a) The Uniform Commercial Code. A transaction subject to sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c is also subject to the Uniform Commercial Code, title 42a, but in case of any conflict the provisions of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c shall control.
(b) Filing and recording. Section 42a-9-302 determines the need for filing or recording to perfect a security interest, section 42a-9-301 the persons who take subject to an unperfected security interest, and sections 42a-9-302(3)(b) and 42a-9-401 to 42a- 9-409, inclusive, the place for such filing or recording.
(c) Definitions. As used in sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42- 100c, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Boat" means any watercraft, as defined in section 22a-248, other than a seaplane, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, by any power including muscular.
(2) "Cash price" means the total amount in dollars at which the seller and buyer agreed the seller would transfer unqualified title to the goods, if the transaction were a cash sale instead of a sale under a retail installment contract.
(3) "Commercial vehicle" means any domestic or foreign truck or truck tractor of ten thousand or more pounds gross vehicular weight or any trailer or semitrailer designed for use in connection with any truck or truck tractor of ten thousand or more pounds gross vehicular weight and which is not used primarily for personal, family or household use.
(4) "Filing fee" means the fee prescribed by law for filing, recording or otherwise perfecting and releasing or satisfying a security interest, as defined in section 42a-1- 201(37), retained or created by a retail installment contract or installment loan contract.
(5) "Finance charge" means the amount in excess of the cash price of the goods agreed upon by the retail seller and the retail buyer, to be paid by the retail buyer for the privilege of purchasing the goods under the retail installment contract or installment loan contract.
(6) "Goods" means (A) "consumer goods", as defined in sections 42a-9-105(1)(h) and 42a-9-109(1) and motor vehicles included under such definitions, having an aggregate cash price of fifty thousand dollars or less, and (B) equipment, as defined in section 42a-9-109(2), having an aggregate cash price of sixteen thousand dollars or less, provided such consumer goods or such equipment is included in one retail installment contract or installment loan contract.
(7) "Installment loan contract" means any agreement made in this state to repay in installments the amount loaned or advanced to a retail buyer for the purpose of paying the retail purchase price of goods and by virtue of which a security interest, as defined in section 42a-1-201(37), is taken in the goods for the payment of the amount loaned or advanced. For purposes of this subdivision, "installment loan contract" does not include agreements to repay in installments loans made by the United States or any department, agency or instrumentality thereof.
(8) "Lender" means a person who extends or offers to extend credit to a retail buyer under an installment loan contract.
(9) A retail installment contract or installment loan contract is "made in this state" if: (A) An offer or agreement is made in Connecticut by a retail seller or a lender to sell or extend credit to a resident retail buyer, including, but not limited to, any verbal or written solicitation or communication to sell or extend credit originating outside the state of Connecticut but forwarded to and received in Connecticut by a resident retail buyer; or (B) an offer to buy or an application for extension of credit, or an acceptance of an offer to buy or to extend credit, is made in Connecticut by a resident retail buyer, regardless of the situs of the contract which may be specified therein, including, but not limited to, any verbal or written solicitation or communication to buy or to have credit extended, originating within the state of Connecticut but forwarded to and received by a retail seller or a lender outside the state of Connecticut. For purposes of this subdivision, a "resident retail buyer" means a retail buyer who is a resident of the state of Connecticut.
(10) "Motor vehicle" means any device in, upon or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway by any power other than muscular. For purposes of this subdivision, "motor vehicle" does not include self-propelled wheelchairs and invalid tricycles, tractors, power shovels, road machinery, implements of husbandry and other agricultural machinery, or other machinery not designed primarily for highway transportation but which may incidentally transport persons or property on a highway, or devices which move upon or are guided by a track or travel through the air.
(11) "Retail buyer" means a person who buys or agrees to buy one or more articles of goods from a retail seller not for the purpose of resale or lease to others in the course of business and who executes a retail installment contract or an installment loan contract in connection therewith.
(12) "Retail installment contract" means any security agreement, as defined in section 42a-9-105(1)(l), made in this state, including one in the form of a mortgage, conditional sale contract or other instrument evidencing an agreement to pay the retail purchase price of goods, or any part thereof, in installments over a period of time and pursuant to which a security interest, as defined in section 42a-1-201(37), is retained or taken by the retail seller for the payment of the amount of such retail installment contract. For purposes of this subdivision, "retail installment contract" does not include a rent-to-own agreement, as defined in section 42-240.
(13) "Retail installment sale" means any sale evidenced by a retail installment contract or installment loan contract wherein a retail buyer buys goods from a retail seller at a time sale price payable in two or more installments. The cash price of the goods, the amount, if any, included for other itemized charges which are included in the amount of the credit extended but which are not part of the finance charge under sections 36a- 675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the finance charge shall together constitute the time sale price. For purposes of this subdivision, "retail installment sale" does not include a rent- to-own agreement, as defined in section 42-240.
(14) "Retail seller" means a person who sells or agrees to sell one or more articles of goods under a retail installment contract to a retail buyer.
(15) "Sales finance company" means any person engaging in this state in the business, in whole or in part, of acquiring retail installment contracts from retail sellers or installment loan contracts from holders thereof, by purchase, discount or pledge, or by loan or advance to the holder of either on the security thereof, or otherwise.
(1949 Rev., S. 6698; 1949, 1955, S. 2862d; November, 1955, N218; 1957, P.A. 357, S. 1; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 33; 1959, P.A. 495; 589, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 116, S. 20; 1969, P.A. 454, S. 28; P.A. 77-317; 77-604, S. 52, 84; P.A. 78-313, S. 1, 3; P.A. 81-158, S. 13, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 89-210, S. 1; P.A. 91-162, S. 15, 18; P.A. 93-39; P.A. 94-122, S. 325, 340; 94-134, S. 1, 3; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 109, 130.)
History: 1959 acts amended definitions of "goods" and "retail buyer"; 1961 act coordinated this section with Uniform Commercial Code; 1969 act redefined "retail instalment sale" to include the amount of itemized charges included in amount of credit extended but excluded from finance charge rather than the amount of insurances and other benefits and filing fees; P.A. 77-317 redefined goods to raise maximum aggregate cash price from six thousand to twenty-five thousand dollars; P.A. 77-604 revised references to Sec. 42a-9-105; P.A. 78-313 redefined "goods" to include motor vehicles and to establish separate maximum cash value of eight thousand dollars for equipment and defined "lender" and contracts "made in this state" in new Subdivs. (m) and (n) of Subsec. (3); P.A. 81-158 amended Subsec. (3) by replacing in Subdiv. (d) "section 36-396", which had been repealed, with "chapter 657", effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 89-210 amended Subsec. (3) by adding Subdiv. (o) defining "commercial vehicle"; P.A. 91-162 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) of Subdiv. (3) to specifically exclude consumer rent-to-own agreements, as defined in Sec. 42-240, from the definitions of "retail instalment sale" and "retail instalment contract"; P.A. 93-39 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the aggregate cash price of a motor vehicle to be included in the definition of "consumer goods" from twenty-five thousand dollars to fifty thousand dollars and increasing the aggregate cash price of equipment to be included from eight thousand dollars to sixteen thousand dollars; P.A. 94-122 changed Subdivs. (1), (2) and (3) to Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c), deleted the definition of "person", reordered the definitions and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 94-134 added Subsec. (p) defining "boat", effective October 1, 1994, and applicable to retail instalment contracts and instalment loan contracts executed on or after that date; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-83 transferred to Sec. 36a-770 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference in Subsec. (a) to "42-110b" was corrected editorially by the Revisors to "42-100b" thereby correcting a clerical error which occurred during the preparation of the 1995 revision).
See Sec. 36a-676 for definitions applicable to Truth-in-Lending Act and this part.
Annotations to former section 42-83:
Cited. 216 C. 458, 480.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 640. (e) Cited. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 351. Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 709.
Subsec. (1):
Cited. 231 C. 707, 717, 719, 722.
Subsec. (3):
Subdiv. (d) cited. 202 C. 106, 109. Subdiv. (N) cited. 231 C. 707, 715.

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Sec. 36a-771. (Formerly Sec. 42-84). General contract requirements. (a) Every retail installment contract shall be in writing, shall contain all the agreements of the parties and shall be completed as to all essential provisions prior to the signing of the contract by the retail buyer. No installment contract shall be signed by the retail buyer when such contract contains blank spaces to be filled in except that this provision shall not apply to serial number or other identifying marks which are not available for description at the time of execution of such contract. The retail seller shall deliver to the retail buyer a true and complete executed copy of the retail installment contract at the time the retail buyer signs such contract.
(b) Every retail installment contract for the purchase of consumer goods subject to section 36a-774 and this section shall set forth the information required to be disclosed under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the regulations thereunder, using the form, content and terminology provided therein.
(c) Retail installment contracts shall contain the following statements, printed in a size equal to at least ten-point bold type: (1) At the top of the contract, the words "RETAIL INSTALLMENT CONTRACT"; (2) a definite statement that the insurance, if any, included in the retail installment sale provides or does not provide coverage for personal liability and property damage caused to others, as the case may be; (3) the following notice directly above the space reserved for the signature of the buyer: "NOTICE TO THE BUYER: 1. Do not sign this contract before you read it or if it contains any blank space. 2. You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of the contract when you sign it. 3. Under the law, you have the following rights, among others: (a) To pay off in advance the full amount due and obtain a partial refund of any unearned finance charge; (b) to redeem the property if repossessed for a default; (c) to require, under certain conditions, a resale of the property if repossessed." Until October 1, 1982, any retail seller may, at his option, use the notice required by the provisions of this section in effect prior to May 18, 1981.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a)(1), (b); 1949, S. 2863d; 2864d; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a)1, (b), (c); 1969, P.A. 454, S. 29; 1971, P.A. 698; P.A. 77-324, S. 1; P.A. 81-163, S. 1, 4; P.A. 82-18, S. 3, 4; 82-472, S. 161, 183.)
History: 1969 act rewrote Subsec. (b) re contract contents; 1971 act clarified Subsec. (b), specifying required terminology, inserted new Subdivs. (8), (9), (11) and (14) re total of payments, deferred payment price, date when finance charge begins to accrue and method of computing unearned portion of finance charge, etc., respectively; P.A. 77-324 replaced Subsec. (b) which had detailed required contents of contracts with new provision requiring that contracts conform to requirements of Ch. 657; P.A. 81-163 amended Subsec. (c) to provide that the partial refund would be of "any unearned" finance charge and that until April 1, 1982, a retail seller could use the notice required prior to May 18, 1981; P.A. 82-18 amended Subsec. (c) to extend from April 1, 1982, until the effective date of certain statute sections amended by P.A. 81- 158, i.e. October 1, 1982, the date on which a retail seller must use the revised notice concerning refund of unearned finance charges; P.A. 82-472 made technical change in Subsec. (c); Sec. 42-84 transferred to Sec. 36a-771 in 1995.
See Sec. 36a-676 re definitions applicable to Truth-in-Lending Act and this part.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interest.
Annotations to former section 42-84:
Retail instalment contract not completed in conformity with this section is voidable at option of retail buyer, but, as condition precedent to rescission, he must restore seller to his former condition as nearly as possible. 155 C. 469. Cited. 209 C. 163, 166.
Cited. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 745.

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Sec. 36a-772. (Formerly Sec. 42-85). Maximum finance charge on retail sales of motor vehicles and other goods. (a) A retail seller of motor vehicles may charge, contract for, receive or collect a finance charge expressed as an annual percentage rate on any retail installment contract covering the retail sale of a motor vehicle in this state, which charge shall not exceed the rates indicated for the respective classifications of motor vehicles as follows: (1) On sales made prior to October 1, 1985, of (A) new motor vehicles, eighteen per cent; (B) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year not more than three years prior to the year in which the sale is made, nineteen and one-quarter per cent; and (C) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year more than three years prior to the year in which the sale is made, twenty-one and one-half per cent; (2) on sales made on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 1987, (A) new motor vehicles, sixteen per cent; (B) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year not more than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made, eighteen per cent; (C) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year more than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made, twenty per cent; and (3) on sales made on or after October 1, 1987, (A) new motor vehicles, fifteen per cent; (B) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year not more than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made, seventeen per cent; (C) used motor vehicles of a model designated by the manufacturer by a year more than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made, nineteen per cent.
(b) A retail seller of goods other than motor vehicles may charge, contract for, receive or collect a finance charge on any retail installment contract made on or after July 1, 1981, covering the retail sale of goods other than motor vehicles in this state, which charge shall not exceed an annual percentage rate of twenty-one per cent on sales made prior to October 1, 1985, nineteen per cent on sales made on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 1987, and eighteen per cent on sales made on or after October 1, 1987.
(c) The finance charge under subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be computed on the principal amount financed as determined under sections 36a-675 to 36a- 685, inclusive, and the regulations adopted under said sections. On contracts providing for installment payments extending for a period which is less than or greater than one year, the finance charge shall be computed proportionately. The finance charge may be computed on the basis of a full month for any fractional month period in excess of ten days. A minimum finance charge of fifteen dollars may be charged on any retail installment contract in which the finance charge, when computed at the rates indicated, results in a total charge of less than that amount. Nothing contained in sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c shall be construed to prohibit the computation of the interest component of the finance charge by application of an interest rate to the actual balance of such principal amount financed as may be outstanding from time to time.
(1955, S. 2866d; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1(i); P.A. 76-325; P.A. 77-391, S. 1; P.A. 78-11; P.A. 80-116, S. 1, 2; P.A. 81-158, S. 15, 17; 81-163, S. 2, 4; 81-362, S. 2, 4; 81-452, S. 1, 2; 81-472, S. 145, 159; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; 82-105, S. 2, 3; 82- 108; P.A. 83-226, S. 2, 3; 83-231; P.A. 85-522, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 76-325 expressed finance charges as annual percentages where previously charges were expressed as so many dollars per hundred dollars per year and raised maximum rates: In Subdiv. (1) from 7% to 12 3/4%, in Subdiv. (2) from 9% to 16 1/4%, in Subdiv. (3) from 12% to 21 1/2%, in Subdiv. (4) from 14% to 25% and in Subdiv. (5) from 15% to 26 3/4%; P.A. 77-391 incorporated previous provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (c) and inserted new Subsec. (b) re finance charge on goods other than motor vehicles; P.A. 78-11 substituted "subsection (a)(5) of section 36-405 and regulations implementing chapter 657" for "subsection (b)(5) of section 42-84" in Subsec. (c); P.A. 80-116 raised rates on new motor vehicles to sixteen per cent temporarily (from May 5, 1980 to January 1, 1982), restoring previous rate on or after January 1, 1982, applied 21 1/2% rate to used vehicles designated by a year "not more than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made" rather than to used vehicles designated by a year "not more than four years and not less than two years prior to the year in which the sale is made" and deleted Subdivs. (4) and (5) which had set rates for those vehicles more than four model years old; P.A. 81-158 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing "subsection (a)(5) of section 36-405", which had been repealed, with "chapter 657" and replacing "regulations implementing chapter 657" with "regulations adopted under that chapter", effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 81-163 amended Subsec. (c) by providing that the computation of the interest component of the finance charge by applying the interest rate to the outstanding balance of the principal amount financed is permitted; P.A. 81-362 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that on contracts made on or after July 1, 1981, the maximum finance charge shall be twenty-one per cent on sales made prior to March 1, 1983, and eighteen per cent thereafter; P.A. 81-452 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the finance charge on sales made prior to March 1, 1983, to eighteen per cent for new motor vehicles, nineteen and one-quarter per cent for used motor vehicles not more than three years old, and twenty-one and one-half per cent for used motor vehicles more than three years old; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 82-105 amended Subsec. (b) by extending from March 1, 1983, to October 1, 1983, the expiration date for the increase in finance charges enacted in 1981; P.A. 82-108 amended Subsec. (a) by extending from March 1, 1983, to October 1, 1983, the expiration date for the increase in finance charges enacted in 1981; P.A. 83-226 amended Subsec. (b) to extend the sunset date for the current maximum statutory interest rate for retail instalment sales contracts from October 1, 1983, to October 1, 1985; P.A. 83-231 amended Subsec. (a) to extend from October 1, 1983, to October 1, 1985, the sunset date for the current maximum finance charge which dealers may charge on the sale of new and used automobiles; P.A. 85-522 amended Subsec. (a) to establish a maximum finance charge of (1) sixteen per cent for new motor vehicles, eighteen per cent for used motor vehicles not more than two years old and twenty per cent for used motor vehicles more than two years old, on sales made on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 1987, and (2) fifteen per cent for new motor vehicles, seventeen per cent for used motor vehicles not more than two years old and nineteen per cent for used motor vehicles more than two years old, on sales made on or after October 1, 1987, and amended Subsec. (b) to establish a maximum finance charge on retail sales other than motor vehicles of nineteen per cent on sales made on or after October 1, 1985, and prior to October 1, 1987, and eighteen per cent on sales made on or after October 1, 1987; Sec. 42-85 transferred to Sec. 36a-772 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-773. (Formerly Sec. 42-86). Insurance. Every retail seller or sales finance company, if insurance is included in a retail installment contract, shall, within fifteen days after execution of the retail installment contract, send or cause to be sent to the retail buyer a policy or policies or certificate of insurance clearly setting forth the amount of the premium, the kind or kinds of insurance and the scope of the coverage and all of the terms, exceptions, limitations, restrictions and conditions of the contract or contracts of the insurance.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (c); 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (d).)
History: Sec. 42-86 transferred to Sec. 36a-773 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-774. (Formerly Sec. 42-87). Installment loan contract requirements. Every installment loan contract shall be in writing executed by the retail buyer and a copy thereof shall be delivered to such retail buyer at the time of the execution thereof. Within fifteen days after the execution of such installment loan contract, the holder thereof shall send or cause to be sent to the retail buyer a policy or policies or certificates of insurance clearly setting forth the amount of the premium, the kind or kinds of insurance and the scope of the coverage and all of the terms, exceptions, limitations, restrictions and conditions of the contract or contracts of the insurance. Every installment loan contract for the purchase of consumer goods subject to section 36a-771 and this section shall set forth the information required to be disclosed under sections 36a-675 to 36a- 685, inclusive, and the regulations thereunder, using the form, content and terminology provided therein.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (e); 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (f); 1969, P.A. 454, S. 30; P.A. 77-324, S. 2.)
History: 1969 act rewrote provisions re contract contents; P.A. 77-324 replaced detailed provisions re contract contents with provision requiring contracts to contain information required under Ch. 657 and associated regulations; Sec. 42-87 transferred to Sec. 36a-774 in 1995.
See Sec. 36a-676 re definitions applicable to Truth-in-Lending Act and this part.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.
Annotations to former section 42-87:
Cited. 3 CA 201, 202, 208, 210.
Subsec. (7):
Cited. 34 CS 154, 156.

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Sec. 36a-775. (Formerly Sec. 42-88). Confession of judgment provision invalid. No provision for confession of judgment or power of attorney therefor, contained in any retail installment contract or installment loan contract or contained in a separate agreement relating thereto, shall be valid or enforceable.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 3; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 3.)
History: Sec. 42-88 transferred to Sec. 36a-775 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-776. (Formerly Sec. 42-89). Inclusion of other goods in contract void. Any provision of a retail installment contract as originally written or subsequently amended which purports to provide for the inclusion of title to or a lien upon any goods subsequently or previously sold under a retail installment contract not paid in full, other than that originally sold as the subject of such specific installment sale or other than substitution in whole or in part therefor, as security for payment of the time sale price or any part thereof shall be void; but the other provisions shall not be affected thereby.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 2; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 2.)
History: Sec. 42-89 transferred to Sec. 36a-776 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-777. (Formerly Sec. 42-90). Acknowledgment of receipt of notice and statement. An acknowledgment by the retail buyer of the delivery of any such copy, notice or statement as is required in section 36a-771 or 36a-774 contained in the body of the statement or contract shall be conclusive proof of delivery in any action or proceeding by or against any assignee without knowledge to the contrary when he acquires the obligation.
(1949, Rev., S. 6699, (f); 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (g); 1969, P.A. 454, S. 31.)
History: 1969 act described assignee as assignee "without knowledge to the contrary when he acquires the obligation" rather than as assignee "of a retail instalment contract or instalment loan contract"; Sec. 42-90 transferred to Sec. 36a-777 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-778. (Formerly Sec. 42-91). Delinquency and collection charges. The holder of any retail installment contract or any installment loan contract shall not receive or collect any charges or expenses for delinquency and collection except as follows: The holder of a retail installment contract or installment loan contract, other than a contract for the purchase of a commercial vehicle, may collect a delinquency and collection charge for default in the payment of any such contract or installment thereof, when such default has continued for a period of ten days, such charge not to exceed five per cent of the amount of the installments in default or the sum of ten dollars, whichever is the lesser; provided this provision shall have no application to installment loan contracts regulated by sections 36a-555 to 36a-573, inclusive. The holder of any retail installment contract or any installment loan contract for the purchase of a commercial vehicle, as defined in section 36a-770, may collect a delinquency and collection charge for default in the payment of any such contract or installment thereof, when such default has continued for a period of ten days, such charge not to exceed five per cent of the amount of the installments in default, provided this provision shall have no application to installment loan contracts regulated by sections 36a-555 to 36a-573, inclusive. In addition to any such delinquency and collection charge, the retail installment contract or the installment loan contract may provide for the payment of attorney's fees not exceeding fifteen per cent of the amount due and payable under such contract when such contract is referred to an attorney, not a salaried employee of the holder of the contract, for collection, plus the court costs. The restriction on charges herein provided shall not apply to any expenses permitted under section 36a-785.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 4; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 4; P.A. 80-69, S. 2, 3; P.A. 89-210, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 80-69 raised flat fee charge allowed as alternative to five per cent of amount in default from five to ten dollars; P.A. 89-210 added provisions re commercial vehicles; Sec. 42-91 transferred to Sec. 36a-778 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.
Annotations to former section 42-91:
Cited. 34 CS 154, 156.

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Sec. 36a-779. (Formerly Sec. 42-92). Assignment of contract. Any sales finance company may purchase or acquire from the original holder thereof or from any other sales finance company any retail installment contract or any installment loan contract on such terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed upon not inconsistent with the provisions of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c. Such contracts constitute chattel paper, as defined in section 42a-9-105 (1) (b), and are governed by article 9 of title 42a except as otherwise provided in said sections.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (d); 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (e); 1961, P.A. 116, S. 21.)
History: 1961 act coordinated this section with the Uniform Commercial Code; Sec. 42-92 transferred to Sec. 36a-779 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.
Annotations to former section 42-92:
Waiver of defense clause in consumer goods credit transaction void as against public policy in Connecticut. 158 C. 543.

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Sec. 36a-780. (Formerly Sec. 42-93). Payments after assignment. Unless notice has been given to the retail buyer of actual or intended assignment of a retail installment contract or installment loan contract, payment thereunder or tender thereof made by the retail buyer to the last-known holder of such contract shall be binding upon such subsequent holder or assignee.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 5; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 5.)
History: Sec. 42-93 transferred to Sec. 36a-780 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-781. (Formerly Sec. 42-94). Statement of payments made. Receipts. Upon written request from the retail buyer, the holder of the retail installment contract or the installment loan contract shall give or forward to the retail buyer a written statement of the dates and amounts of payments and the total amount unpaid under such contract. A retail buyer shall, upon written request, be entitled to a written receipt for any cash payment.
(1949 Rev., S. 6699, (a) 6; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (a) 6.)
History: Sec. 42-94 transferred to Sec. 36a-781 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-782. (Formerly Sec. 42-95). Cancellation of contract on payment in full. Upon payment in full of the balance and other amounts lawfully due under a retail installment contract or installment loan contract by the retail buyer, the holder shall mark the contract and note signed by the retail buyer with the word "paid" or "cancelled" and shall, at the time of payment, return such contract and note or, in lieu thereof, transmit or deliver to the retail buyer a certificate clearly identifying the goods covered by the contract and showing such contract has been paid in full. This requirement shall not apply to any retail installment contract or installment loan contract covering goods for which the cash price is one hundred dollars or less.
(1949, S. 2865d; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 1 (h).)
History: Sec. 42-95 transferred to Sec. 36a-782 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-783. (Formerly Sec. 42-96). Rebate and refund upon prepayment of contract. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any retail installment contract to the contrary, any retail buyer may satisfy in full at any time before maturity the debt of any retail installment contract and, in so satisfying any such debt on which there are unearned finance charges, shall receive a rebate thereon for such anticipation of payments as provided for by this section. Subject to the provisions of section 36a-690, the amount of such rebate on a retail installment contract other than any such contract for the sale of a commercial vehicle, shall represent at least as great a proportion of the total finance charge less an acquisition cost or minimum finance charge of fifteen dollars, as the sum of the periodical time balances, after the date of prepayment, bears to the sum of all the periodical time balances under the schedule of payments in the original retail installment contract. On a retail installment contract for the sale of a commercial vehicle, the amount of such rebate shall represent at least as great a proportion of the total finance charge as the sum of the periodical time balances, after the date of prepayment, bears to the sum of all the periodical time balances under the schedule of payments in the original retail installment contract and from which resulting amount is deducted an acquisition cost or minimum finance charge of one hundred fifty dollars. When any such rebate is less than one dollar, no rebate need be made.
(b) In the event of prepayment by the retail buyer of any such renewed or extended retail installment contract in full prior to the revised final date of maturity thereof, the sales finance company or retail seller shall refund to the retail buyer a monthly pro rata portion of the renewal or extension charge. When such refund is less than one dollar, no refund need be made.
(c) Whenever such refund is made, the holder of the contract shall, upon request therefor, deliver to the retail buyer a statement clearly setting forth separately the refund of finance charges and insurance premiums.
(1949 Rev., S. 6701; 1949, 1953, S. 2867d; 1957, P.A. 361, S. 2; P.A. 81-163, S. 3, 4; P.A. 89-210, S. 3.)
History: P.A. 81-163 amended Subsec. (a) by providing that if a retail buyer satisfies in full prior to maturity a debt on which there are unearned finance charges he shall receive a rebate thereon, providing that the calculation of the rebate is subject to the provisions of Sec. 36-417z and that a minimum finance charge may be deducted from the total finance charge, and by replacing "refund" with "rebate"; P.A. 89-210 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re commercial vehicles; Sec. 42-96 transferred to Sec. 36a-783 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.
Annotations to former section 42-96:
Cited. 24 CA 455, 464.
Cited. 34 CS 154, 156.

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Sec. 36a-784. (Formerly Sec. 42-97). Renewals and extensions. Whenever any sales finance company or retail seller renews or extends the installments remaining unpaid so that the retail installment contract is both extended beyond its original date of final payment and the installments are reduced or increased in amount, such renewal or extension agreement shall be in writing. Such sales finance company or retail seller may, any law to the contrary notwithstanding, make or collect a total additional charge therefor not exceeding an amount equivalent to a true rate of interest of twelve per cent per annum on the respective descending balances computed from the date of the oldest unpaid installment existing prior to such renewal or extension. When the renewal or extension does not include both an extension beyond the original date of final payment and a reduction or increase in the amount of the installments, such sales finance company or retail seller may make a total additional charge therefor up to the maximum lawful contract rate of interest permitted under the laws of this state but not exceeding twelve per cent true interest per annum, on the payment or payments extended for the period or periods of the extension.
(1949 Rev., S. 6702.)
History: Sec. 42-97 transferred to Sec. 36a-784 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.

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Sec. 36a-785. (Formerly Sec. 42-98). Foreclosure. (a) Repossession. When the retail buyer is in default in the payment of any sum due under the retail installment contract or installment loan contract, or in the performance of any other condition which such contract requires him to perform, or in the performance of any promise, the breach of which is by such contract expressly made a ground for the retaking of the goods, the holder of the contract may retake possession thereof. Unless the goods can be retaken without breach of the peace, it shall be retaken by legal process, but nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize a violation of the criminal law. In the case of repossession of any motor vehicle without the knowledge of the retail buyer, the local police department shall be notified of such repossession immediately thereafter. In the absence of a local police department or if the local police department cannot be reached for notification, the state police shall be promptly notified of such repossession.
(b) Notice of intention to repossess. Not less than ten days prior to the retaking, the holder of such contract, if he so desires, may serve upon the retail buyer, personally or by registered or certified mail, a notice of intention to retake the goods on account of the buyer's default. The notice shall state the default and the period at the end of which such goods will be retaken, and shall briefly and clearly state what the retail buyer's rights under this subsection will be in case such goods are retaken. If the notice is so served and the buyer does not perform the conditions and provisions as to which he is in default before the day set for retaking, the holder of the contract may retake said goods and hold such subject to the provisions of subsections (d), (e), (f), (g) and (h) of this section regarding resale, but without any right of redemption.
(c) Redemption. If the holder of such contract does not give the notice of intention to retake, described in subsection (b), he shall retain such goods for fifteen days after the retaking within the state in which they were located when retaken. During such period the retail buyer, upon payment or tender of the unaccelerated amount due under such contract at the time of retaking and interest, or upon performance or tender of performance of such other condition as may be named in such contract as precedent to the retail buyer's continued possession of such goods, or upon performance or tender of performance of any other promise for the breach of which such goods were retaken, and upon payment of the actual and reasonable expenses of any retaking and storing, may redeem such goods and become entitled to take possession of the same and to continue in the performance of such contract as if no default had occurred. The holder of such contract shall within three days of the retaking furnish or mail, by registered or certified mail, to the last known address of the buyer a written statement of the unaccelerated sum due under such contract and the actual and reasonable expense of any retaking and storing. For failure to furnish or mail such statement as required by this section, the holder of the contract shall forfeit the right to claim payment for the actual and reasonable expenses of retaking and storage, and also shall be liable for the actual damages suffered because of such failure. If such goods are perishable so that retention for fifteen days as herein prescribed would result in their destruction or substantial injury, the provisions of this subsection shall not apply and the holder of the contract may resell the goods immediately upon such retaking.
(d) Compulsory resale. If the retail buyer does not redeem such goods within fifteen days after the holder of the contract has retaken possession, the holder of the contract shall sell such goods at public or private sale which sale may be held not less than fifteen days and shall be held not more than one hundred eighty days after the retaking. When the holder of the contract retakes possession by legal process, and an answer is interposed, the holder of the contract may, at his election, hold such retaken goods for a period not to exceed thirty days after the entry of final judgment by a court of competent jurisdiction entitling the holder of the contract to possession of such goods before holding such resale. The holder of the contract shall give the retail buyer not less than ten days' written notice of the time and place of any public sale, or the time after which any private sale or other intended disposition is to be made, either personally or by registered mail or by certified mail receipted for on mailing directed to the retail buyer at his last-known place of business or residence. The holder of the contract may bid for such goods at any public sale. The proceeds of the resale shall be considered to be either the amount paid for such goods at such sale or the fair cash retail market value of such goods at the time of repossession, whichever is the greater, except as otherwise provided in subsection (g) of this section.
(e) Proceeds of resale. Proceeds of the resale shall be applied (1) to the payment of the actual and reasonable expenses thereof, (2) to the payment of the actual and reasonable expenses of any retaking and storing of said goods, (3) to the satisfaction of the balance due under the contract. Within thirty days of the resale, the holder of the contract shall give the retail buyer a written statement itemizing the disposition of the proceeds. Any sum remaining after the satisfaction of such claims shall be paid to the retail buyer.
(f) Deficiency on resale. Notwithstanding that the proceeds of the resale are not sufficient to defray the actual and reasonable expenses thereof, and also such actual and reasonable expenses of any retaking and storing of such goods and the balance due under the contract, the holder of the contract may not recover the deficiency from the retail buyer or any surety or guarantor for him, or from any one who has succeeded to the obligations of such retail buyer, except as provided in subsection (g) of this section.
(g) Fair market value. If the goods retaken consist of a motor vehicle the aggregate cash price of which was more than two thousand dollars, the prima facie fair market value of such motor vehicle shall be calculated by adding together the average trade-in value for that motor vehicle and the average retail value for that motor vehicle and dividing that sum by two. Such average trade-in value and average retail value shall be determined by the values as stated in the National Automobile Dealers Association Used Car Guide, Eastern Edition, as of the date of repossession. If the goods retaken consist of a boat the aggregate cash price of which was more than two thousand dollars, the prima facie fair market value of such boat shall be calculated by adding together the average trade-in value for that boat and the average retail value for that boat and dividing that sum by two. Such average trade-in value and average retail value shall be determined by the values as stated in the National Automobile Dealers Association Appraisal Guide for Boats, Eastern Edition, as of the date of repossession. In the event that the value of such motor vehicle or boat is not stated in such publication, then the fair market value at retail minus the reasonable costs of resale shall be determined by the court. The prima facie evidence of fair market value of such motor vehicle or boat so determined may be rebutted only by direct in-court testimony. If such value of the motor vehicle or boat is less than the balance due under the contract, plus the actual and reasonable expenses of the retaking of possession, the holder of the contract may recover from the retail buyer, or from anyone who has succeeded to his obligations, as a deficiency, the amount by which such liability exceeds such fair market value, as defined in this subsection. If the actual resale price received by the holder exceeds such fair market value, as defined in this subsection, the actual resale price shall govern.
(h) Election of remedies. After the holder retakes possession as provided in subsection (a), or if the holder obtains a prejudgment remedy against the goods under chapter 903a, the retail buyer or anyone who has succeeded to his obligations shall not be liable for any balance due, except to the extent permitted by subsection (g) of this section. The holder may seek a monetary judgment on the contract against the buyer unless the goods have been repossessed, with or without judicial process. Goods purchased under the contract shall not be executed upon to satisfy such judgment. When such judgment becomes final, the holder's security interest in the goods shall be extinguished. If the contract covers a retail sale of a motor vehicle required to be registered, the holder shall comply with section 14-188.
(i) Recovery of part payments. If the holder of the contract fails to comply with the provisions of subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), (g) and (h), after retaking the goods, the retail buyer may recover from the holder of the contract his actual damages, if any, and in no event less than one-fourth of the sum of all payments which have been made under the contract.
(j) Waiver of statutory protection. No act or agreement of the retail buyer before or at the time of the making of a retail installment contract or installment loan contract nor any agreement or statement by the retail buyer in such contract shall constitute a valid waiver of the provisions of subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h) and (i).
(k) Loss. After the delivery of the goods to the retail buyer and prior to any retaking thereof by the holder of the contract, the risk of injury and loss shall rest upon the retail buyer.
(1949 Rev., S. 6700; 1957, P.A. 357, S. 2, 3; 1959, P.A. 301; 1961, P.A. 116, S. 22, 23; P.A. 76-258, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77- 506; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 94-134, S. 2, 3; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 61, 130.)
History: 1959 act added provisions re notification of police where vehicle is repossessed without its buyer's knowledge in Subsec. (a); 1961 act amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) for conformity with Uniform Commercial Code; P.A. 76-258 amended Subsec. (d) to require that sale be held within one hundred eighty, rather than ninety days, to require that buyer be notified of "the time after which any private sale or other intended disposition is to be made", deleted Subsec. (e) re procedure where contract holder not required to resell repossessed goods, relettering as necessary, required that contract holder notify buyer of disposition of proceeds in new Subsec. (e), formerly (f), changed force of Subsec. (f), formerly (g), so that deficiency is not recoverable from buyer ("except as provided in subsection (g)") where previously deficiency was recoverable, added new Subsecs. (g) and (h), deleted former Subsecs. (h) and (i), and relettered former Subsecs. (j) to (l) as (i) to (k); P.A. 77- 506 substituted "retail" buyer for "instalment" buyer in Subsec. (a), referred to "unaccelerated" amounts due, required that buyer be notified of amount due within three days of retaking rather than "immediately" upon buyer's written demand and stated that failure to meet notice requirement resulted in forfeiture of right to claim payment for retaking and storage expenses rather than in forfeiture of ten dollars to the buyer, specified that Subsec. (h) is applicable where holder obtains a prejudgment remedy and made minor language changes in Subsecs. (e) and (g); P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 placed state police within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 94-134 amended Subsec. (g) to include a boat the aggregate price of which was more than two thousand dollars and reworded for clarity the formula for calculating a motor vehicle's fair market value, effective October 1, 1994, and applicable to retail instalment contracts and instalment loan contracts executed on or after that date; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (g) by making a technical change, effective July 1, 1994; Sec. 42-98 transferred to Sec. 36a-785 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 42-98:
Actual receipt of notice to resell repossessed automobile not necessary. 150 C. 631. Cited. 198 C. 34, 35. Notification requirements mandatory. 209 C. 163−165, 167−169. Cited. 216 C. 458, 459, 463, 472, 477, 479, 481. Cited. 231 C. 707− 709, 718.
Cited. 7 CA 613, 615.
Compliance with section mandatory under act. 30 CS 604. Cited. 31 CS 152.
Cited. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 495, 499, 681. Sale by holder of retail instalment contract who repossessed automobile need not be given notice by publication nor be conducted by licensed auctioneer. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 351. Applicable only to retail buyers. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 709.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 465−467.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 231 C. 707, 714, 715.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 467, 472, 474−476, 479, 483. Cited. 231 C. 707, 715.
Cited. 24 CA 455, 456, 461, 463.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 209 C. 163, 165, 166. Cited. 216 C. 458, 472, 476, 479−481. Cited. 231 C. 707, 715.
A bid is merely an offer to purchase. Where plaintiff did nothing to consummate sale other than to place in its own file a bid to purchase, held no resale having taken place, the plaintiff was not entitled to recover any deficiency. 23 CS 362.
Court held day of retaking was to be excluded and last day included in computing the fifteen days for redemption. 2 Conn. Cir. Ct. 708. Sale by repossessor before statutory time limit defeated his right to deficiency judgment. Id.
Subsec. (e):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 476, 477, 480. Cited. 231 C. 707, 715.
Cited. 24 CA 455, 456, 465, 466.
Subsec. (f):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 476, 481.
Subsec. (g):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 476, 479−481. Cited. 231 C. 707, 714, 715.
Cited. 23 CS 365.
Subsec. (h):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 476.
Cited. 23 CS 365.
Subsec. (i):
Cited. 216 C. 458, 476, 477, 483. Cited. 231 C. 707, 715, 719, 722.

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Sec. 36a-786. (Formerly Sec. 42-99). Recovery of charges barred by wilful violations. A wilful violation of any provision of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c, except a violation with respect to disclosure which is subject to the provisions of section 36a-683, by any person, firm, association or corporation shall bar recovery of any finance, delinquency or collection charge by the owner or holder of the retail installment contract or any interest, delinquency or collection charge by the owner or holder of an installment loan contract involved, provided such owner or holder approved of or had knowledge of such violation and after such approval or knowledge retained the benefits, proceeds, profits or advantages accruing from such violation or otherwise ratified such violation.
(1949 Rev., S. 6703; 1969, P.A. 454, S. 32.)
History: 1969 act added exception re violations with respect to disclosures; Sec. 42-99 transferred to Sec. 36a-786 in 1995.
See Sec. 42a-9-203 re attachment and enforceability of security interests.
Annotations to former section 42-99:
This section and section 42-100 are not exclusive of other remedies. 155 C. 469.
Cited. 3 CA 201, 210. Cited. 7 CA 613, 615.

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Sec. 36a-787. (Formerly Sec. 42-100). Penalty. Any person and any responsible officer, partner or employee of such person who wilfully and deliberately fails to comply with or violates any of the provisions of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42- 100b and 42-100c except a violation with respect to disclosure which is subject to the provisions of section 36a-681, shall, in addition to the penalty prescribed in section 36a- 786, be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each offense, except that in the case of a violation by a licensed motor vehicle dealer the penalty provided in section 14-64 shall apply.
(1949, S. 2868d; 1969, P.A. 454, S. 33; P.A. 94-122, S. 326, 340.)
History: 1969 act added exception re violations with respect to disclosures; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-100 transferred to Sec. 36a-787 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference to Sec. "42-110b" was corrected editorially by the Revisors to "42-100b" thereby correcting a clerical error which occurred during the preparation of the 1995 revision).
Annotations to former section 42-100:
These sections are not exclusive of other remedies. 155 C. 469.
Cited. 7 CA 613, 615.

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Sec. 36a-788. (Formerly Sec. 42-100a). Enforcement action. Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate any provision of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c, the commissioner may take action against such person in accordance with section 36a-50.
(P.A. 78-313, S. 2, 3; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-122, S. 327, 340.)
History: (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 94-122 rewrote the section to allow the commissioner to enforce Sec. 36a-50, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-100a transferred to Sec. 36a-788 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 42-100a:
Cited. 7 CA 613, 615.

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Secs. 36a-789 to 36a-799. Reserved for future use.

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PART XII
CONSUMER COLLECTION AGENCIES

Sec. 36a-800. (Formerly Sec. 42-127). Consumer collection agency. Definitions. As used in sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Consumer collection agency" means any person engaged in the business of collecting or receiving for payment for others of any account, bill or other indebtedness from a consumer debtor, including any person who, by any device, subterfuge or pretense, makes a pretended purchase or takes a pretended assignment of accounts from any other person or municipality of such indebtedness for the purpose of evading the provisions of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive. It includes persons who furnish collection systems carrying a name which simulates the name of a consumer collection agency and who supply forms or form letters to be used by the creditor, even though such forms direct the consumer debtor to make payments directly to the creditor rather than to such fictitious agency. "Consumer collection agency" further includes any person who, in attempting to collect or in collecting such person's own accounts or claims from a consumer debtor, uses a fictitious name or any name other than such person's own name which would indicate to the consumer debtor that a third person is collecting or attempting to collect such account or claim. "Consumer collection agency" does not include (A) an individual employed on the staff of a licensed consumer collection agency, or by a creditor who is exempt from licensing, when attempting to collect on behalf of such consumer collection agency, (B) persons not primarily engaged in the collection of debts from consumer debtors who receive funds in escrow for subsequent distribution to others, including, but not limited to, real estate brokers and lenders holding funds of borrowers for payment of taxes or insurance, (C) any public officer or a person acting under the order of any court, (D) any member of the bar of this state and (E) a person who services loans or accounts for the owners thereof when the arrangement includes, in addition to requesting payment from delinquent consumer debtors, the providing of other services such as receipt of payment, accounting, record-keeping, data processing services and remitting, for loans or accounts which are current as well as those which are delinquent. Any person not included in the definition contained in this subsection is, for purposes of sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, a "creditor", as defined in subdivision (3) of section 36a-645;
(2) "Consumer debtor" means any natural person, not an organization, who has incurred indebtedness or owes a debt for personal, family or household purposes, or who has incurred indebtedness or owes a debt to a municipality due to a levy by such municipality of a personal property tax;
(3) "Creditor" means a person, including a municipality, who retains, hires, or engages the services of a consumer collection agency;
(4) "Municipality" means any town, city or borough, consolidated town and city, consolidated town and borough, district as defined in section 7-324 or municipal special services district established under chapter 105a;
(5) "Organization" means a corporation, partnership, association, trust or any other legal entity or an individual operating under a trade name or a name having appended to it a commercial, occupational or professional designation.
(1953, 1955, S. 3310d; 1967, P.A. 882, S. 19; 1971, P.A. 539, S. 1; P.A. 75-486, S. 64, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 161, 162, 610; P.A. 78-226, S. 1; 78-303, S. 54, 136; P.A. 80-482, S. 333, 348; P.A. 84-61, S. 1, 3; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 88-65, S. 56; P.A. 91-357, S. 61, 78; P.A. 92-12, S. 103; P.A. 93-127, S. 1, 3; P.A. 94-122, S. 328, 340.)
History: 1967 act deleted language which had specifically included debt adjustment and prorate companies in definition of "collection agency"; 1971 act defined "consumer collection agency" rather than "collection agency", expanding definition and specifically excluding lender licensed by banking commission under Ch. 647, and added definitions of "commissioner", "consumer debtor" and "organization"; P.A. 75-486 substituted replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority in Subdiv. (b); P.A. 77-614 replaced bank commissioner and public utilities commission with banking commissioner (within the department of business regulation, the banking department having been made a division within that department) and division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-226 defined "creditor"; P.A. 78-303 confirmed change in bank commissioner's title and replaced banking commission with banking commissioner to conform with P.A. 77-614 which abolished said commission; P.A. 80-482 restored division of banking to prior status as independent department, made division of public utility control an independent department and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 84-61 amended Subsec. (b) to exempt from the definition of "consumer collection agency" those persons delineated in Subdivs. (1) through (5), inclusive, replacing prior exemption provision; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 88-65 substituted a reference to Sec. 42-133a for Sec. 42-133 in the introductory language; P.A. 91-357 made a technical change in Subsec. (c); P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subsecs. and Subdivs. and made technical changes; P.A. 93-127 amended Subdiv. (2) to include "municipality" in the definition of "consumer collection agency", amended Subdiv. (4) to include debts owed to a municipality in the definition of "consumer debtor", added a new Subdiv. (6) defining "municipality" and renumbered the former Subdiv. (6) as (7), effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94- 122 deleted the definitions of "person" and "commissioner", reordered definitions and made other technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-127 transferred to Sec. 36a-800 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the Revisors editorially corrected the reference at the end of Subdiv. (1) from "creditor", as defined in "subsection (2)" of section 36a-645; to "creditor" as defined in "subdivision (3)" of section 36a-645; to reflect correctly P.A. 94-122, S. 293).
See chapter 669, part I, (Sec. 36a-645 et seq.) re regulation of creditors' collection practices.
See chapter 669, part II, (Sec. 36a-655 et seq.) re debt adjusters.

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Sec. 36a-801. (Formerly Sec. 42-127a). License required. Application, issuance, renewal. Examination of records. (a) No person shall act within this state as a consumer collection agency, unless such person holds a license then in force from the commissioner authorizing such person so to act. A consumer collection agency is acting within this state if it (1) has its place of business located within this state; (2) has its place of business located outside this state and collects from consumer debtors who reside within this state for creditors who are located within this state; or (3) has its place of business located outside this state and regularly collects from consumer debtors who reside within this state for creditors who are located outside this state.
(b) (1) Any person desiring to act within this state as a consumer collection agency shall make a written application to the commissioner for such license in such form as the commissioner prescribes. Such application shall be accompanied by (A) a financial statement prepared by a certified public accountant or a public accountant, the accuracy of which is sworn to under oath before a notary public by the proprietor, a general partner or a corporate officer duly authorized to execute such documents, (B) a license fee of four hundred dollars and (C) an investigation fee of one hundred dollars. The commissioner shall cause to be made such inquiry and examination as to the qualifications of each such applicant as the commissioner deems necessary. Each applicant shall furnish satisfactory evidence to the commissioner that the applicant is a person of good moral character and is financially responsible. If the commissioner is satisfied that such applicant is in all respects properly qualified and trustworthy and that the granting of such license is not against the public interest, the commissioner may issue to such applicant a license, in such form as the commissioner may adopt, to act within this state as a consumer collection agency. Any such license issued by the commissioner shall expire at the close of business on April thirtieth of each year, but may be renewed by the commissioner, in the commissioner's discretion, and upon proper renewal application accompanied by a license fee of four hundred dollars and satisfactory proof that such applicant at that time possesses the required qualifications for the license. Such renewal application shall be filed with the commissioner prior to April first of each year. Any renewal application filed with the commissioner after April first shall be accompanied by a one-hundred-dollar late fee. To further the enforcement of this section and to determine the eligibility of any person holding a license, the commissioner may, as often as the commissioner deems necessary, examine the licensee's books and records, and may, at any time, require the licensee to submit such a financial statement for the examination of the commissioner, so that the commissioner may determine whether the licensee is financially responsible to carry on a consumer collection agency business within the intents and purposes of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive. Any financial statement submitted by a licensee shall be confidential and shall not be a public record unless introduced in evidence at a hearing conducted by the commissioner.
(2) No abatement of the license fee shall be made if the license is surrendered, revoked or suspended prior to the expiration of the period for which it was issued. All fees required by this section shall be nonrefundable.
(c) No person, licensed to act within this state as a consumer collection agency shall do so under any other name or at any other place of business than that named in the license. Not more than one place of business shall be maintained under the same license but the commissioner may issue more than one license to the same licensee upon compliance with the provisions of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, as to each new licensee. Any licensee holding, applying for, or seeking renewal of more than one license may, at its option, file the bond required under section 36a-802 separately for each place of business licensed, or to be licensed, or a single bond, naming each place of business, in an amount equal to five thousand dollars for each place of business.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 2, 3; P.A. 73-284; 73-328; 73-341; P.A. 81-292, S. 12; P.A. 88-150, S. 9; P.A. 92-89, S. 17, 20; P.A. 93-127, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-104, S. 6; 94-122, S. 329, 340; P.A. 96-71, S. 7, 8.)
History: P.A. 73-284 required that financial statements be "prepared" rather than "certified" by accountant and required that their accuracy be sworn to by proprietor, general partner or corporate officer in Subsec. (b); P.A. 73-328 defined acting within state with regard to consumer collection agencies in Subsec. (a); P.A. 73-341 added Subsec. (c); P.A. 81-292 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the license fee from one hundred to two hundred dollars and the renewal fee from fifty to two hundred dollars; P.A. 88-150 amended Subsec. (b) by providing that license and investigation fees are nonrefundable; P.A. 92-89 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the license fee from two hundred to four hundred dollars, to increase the investigation fee from fifty to one hundred dollars and to increase the renewal fee from two hundred to four hundred dollars; P.A. 93-127 amended Subsec. (a) by substituting "who are" for "whose place of business is", effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-104 changed the license expiration date from May first to April thirtieth, made April first the renewal application deadline and added a one-hundred-dollar late fee in Subsec. (a), and made technical changes; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-127a transferred to Sec. 36a-801 in 1995; P.A. 96-71 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and to add Subdiv. (2) to make all fees required by this section nonrefundable, effective July 1, 1996.

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Sec. 36a-802. (Formerly Sec. 42-128a). Bond required. No such license and no renewal thereof shall be granted unless the applicant has filed with the commissioner a bond to the people of the state in the penal sum of five thousand dollars, approved by the Attorney General as to form and by the commissioner as to sufficiency of the security thereof. Such bond shall be conditioned that such licensee shall well and truly and faithfully account for all funds entrusted to him and collected and received by him in his capacity as a consumer collection agency. Any person who may be damaged by the wrongful conversion of any trust funds held by such consumer collection agency may proceed on such bond against the principal or surety thereon, or both, to recover damages.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 4.)
History: Sec. 42-128a transferred to Sec. 36a-802 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-803. (Formerly Sec. 42-129). Conviction of certain crimes disqualification to engage in consumer collection business. No person shall engage in the business of a consumer collection agency within this state, if such person, or any partner, officer, director, or any employee of such person, has been convicted, in any state or federal court, of any crime which shows such person to be of unsuitable moral character, or has violated any provision of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive.
(1953, S. 3312d; 1971, P.A. 539, S. 5; P.A. 94-122, S. 330, 340.)
History: 1971 act replaced detailed listing of types of business actions falling within purview of section with general reference to business "of a consumer collection agency within this state", replaced detailed listing of specific types of criminal convictions with general reference to conviction for any crime which shows person committing crime to be of unsuitable moral character and to violation of chapter provisions and made provisions applicable to employees; P.A. 94- 122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-129 transferred to Sec. 36a-803 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-804. (Formerly Sec. 42-129a). Suspension or revocation of license of a consumer collection agency. The commissioner may suspend or revoke such license for cause shown, in accordance with section 36a-51.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 6; 1972, P.A. 108, S. 8; P.A. 74-254, S. 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 331, 340.)
History: 1972 act replaced superior court with court of common pleas, effective September 1, 1972, except that courts with cases pending retain jurisdiction; P.A. 74-254 replaced detailed appeal provisions with statement requiring that appeals be made in accordance with chapter 54; P.A. 94-122 replaced notice, hearing and appeal provisions with a reference to Sec. 36a-51, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-129a transferred to Sec. 36a-804 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-805. (Formerly Sec. 42-131). Prohibited practices. No consumer collection agency shall: (1) Furnish legal advice or perform legal services or represent that it is competent to do so, or institute judicial proceedings on behalf of others; (2) communicate with debtors in the name of an attorney or upon the stationery of an attorney, or prepare any forms or instruments which only attorneys are authorized to prepare; (3) purchase or receive assignments of claims for the purpose of collection or institute suit thereon in any court; (4) assume authority on behalf of a creditor to employ or terminate the services of an attorney unless such creditor has authorized such agency in writing to act as his agent in the selection of an attorney to collect the creditor's accounts; (5) demand or obtain in any manner a share of the proper compensation for services performed by an attorney in collecting a claim, whether or not such agency has previously attempted collection thereof; (6) solicit claims for collection under an ambiguous or deceptive contract; (7) refuse to return any claim or claims upon written request of the creditor, claimant or forwarder, which claims are not in the process of collection after the tender of such amounts, if any, as may be due and owing to the agency; (8) advertise or threaten to advertise for sale any claim as a means of forcing payment thereof, unless such agency is acting as the assignee for the benefit of creditors; (9) refuse or fail to account for and remit to its clients all money collected which is not in dispute within sixty days from the last day of the month in which said money is collected; (10) refuse or intentionally fail to return to the creditor all valuable papers deposited with a claim when such claim is returned; (11) refuse or fail to furnish at intervals of not less than ninety days, upon the written request of the creditor, claimant or forwarder, a written report upon claims received from such creditor, claimant or forwarder; (12) commingle money collected for a creditor, claimant or forwarder with its own funds or use any part of a creditor's, claimant's or forwarder's money in the conduct of its business; (13) add any charge or fee to the amount of any claim which it receives for collection or knowingly accept for collection any claim to which any charge or fee has already been added to the amount of the claim unless the consumer debtor is legally liable therefor, in which case, the charge or collection fee may not be in excess of fifteen per cent of the amount actually collected on the debt; (14) use or attempt to use or make reference to the term "bonded by the state of Connecticut", "bonded" or "bonded collection agency" or any combination of such terms or words, except that the word "bonded" may be used on the stationery of any such agency in type not larger than twelve-point; or (15) engage in any activities prohibited by sections 36a-800 to 36a- 810, inclusive.
(1953, S. 3314d; 1971, P.A. 539, S. 8; P.A. 81-183; P.A. 84-61, S. 2, 3; P.A. 92-12, S. 104.)
History: 1971 act specified applicability to "consumer" collection agencies, deleted provisions prohibiting (1) use of slogans in collection letters, etc., which threaten legal suit or wage garnishment or list attorney name and title, (2) use of justices of the peace, constables, sheriffs, etc., for claims collection, (3) use or threat of physical violence, (4) use of instruments simulating judicial process, (5) publication of list of debtors and threats to do so and (6) use of "shame cards", "shame automobiles", etc., intimidation or methods in violation of postal regulations, clarified remaining provisions and required accounting to clients of moneys collected within sixty rather than ninety days from end of month in which collected and added prohibitions contained in Subdivs. (l) to (r); P.A. 81-183 required that consumer collection agencies not add any charge or collection fee to the amount of a claim greater than fifteen per cent of amount actually collected on the debt; P.A. 84-61 amended Subdiv. (i) to provide that no agency shall refuse or fail to remit as well as account for all money collected which is not in dispute and amended Subdiv. (m) to prohibit such agency from knowingly accepting for collection any claim to which any fee or charge has been already added to the amount of the claim; P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs; Sec. 42-131 transferred to Sec. 36a-805 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 42-131:
Subdiv. (a):
Cited. 5 CA 427, 430.

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Sec. 36a-806. (Formerly Sec. 42-131a). Prohibited practices within and without state. Examination of affairs. (a) No consumer collection agency shall engage in this state in any practice which is prohibited in section 36a-805 or determined pursuant to sections 36a-807 and 36a-808 to be an unfair or deceptive act or practice, nor shall any consumer collection agency engage outside of this state in any act or practice prohibited in said section 36a-805. The commissioner shall have power to examine the affairs of every consumer collection agency in this state in order to determine whether it has been or is engaged in any act or practice prohibited by sections 36a-805 to 36a-808, inclusive.
(b) No creditor shall retain, hire, or engage the services or continue to retain or engage the services of any person who engages in the business of a consumer collection agency and who is not licensed to act as such by the commissioner, if such creditor has actual knowledge that such person is not licensed by the commissioner to act as a consumer collection agency.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 7; P.A. 78-226, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 78-226 added Subsec. (b) prohibiting hiring unlicensed persons; Sec. 42-131a transferred to Sec. 36a- 806 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-807. (Formerly Sec. 42-131b). Cease and desist order. Liability. (a) If the commissioner determines that any person has been engaged, or is engaging, in violations of sections 36a-801 to 36a-808, inclusive, in any act or practice prohibited in section 36a-805, or in violations of any regulations issued pursuant to section 36a- 809, the commissioner may order such person to cease and desist from such practices in accordance with section 36a-52. In that connection, the commissioner may exercise the powers contained in section 36a-17.
(b) No order of the commissioner under sections 36a-805 to 36a-808, inclusive, shall relieve or absolve any person affected by such order from any liability under any other laws of this state.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 9; 1972, P.A. 108, S. 9; P.A. 74-254, S. 9, 11; P.A. 76-436, S. 638, 681; P.A. 78-226, S. 3; 78-280, S. 1, 5, 127; P.A. 82-174, S. 9, 13, 14; P.A. 88-230, S, 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 92-12, S. 105; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 332, 340.)
History: 1972 act replaced superior court with court of common pleas, effective September 1, 1972, except that courts with cases pending retain jurisdiction; P.A. 74-254 required that notice be "in the form required under subsection (b) of section 4-177" and deleted reference to serving of statement of charges in Subsec. (a) and repealed Subsec. (c) re appeal procedure; P.A. 76-436 replaced court of common pleas with superior court and added reference to judicial districts in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-226 substituted "person" for "consumer collection agency" and, with P.A. 78- 280, substituted "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" for "Hartford county", dropped general reference to counties in Subsec. (a) and rephrased Subsec. (e); P.A. 82-174 entirely replaced Subsec. (a) and repealed Subsec. (b) outright, both of which concerned the issuance of cease and desist orders after a hearing and the conduct of such hearing, inserting new provisions authorizing the commissioner to issue, after notice, cease and desist orders, unless a hearing is requested; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subsecs. and made technical changes; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 94-122 deleted Subsec. (c) re violations of cease and desist orders and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-131b transferred to Sec. 36a-807 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-808. (Formerly Sec. 42-131c). Unfair or deceptive practices. Enforcement action. Whenever the commissioner has reason to believe that any consumer collection agency is engaging in this state in any act or practice in the conduct of such business which is not defined in section 36a-805, and that such act or practice is unfair or deceptive, or whenever it appears to the commissioner that any consumer collection agency or other person has violated, is violating, or is about to violate any provision of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, or any regulation adopted pursuant to section 36a-809, the commissioner may take action against such consumer collection agency or person in accordance with section 36a-50.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 10; P.A. 74-254, S. 10; P.A. 78-226, S. 4; 78-280, S. 2, 127; P.A. 82-174, S. 10, 14; P.A. 94-122, S. 333, 340.)
History: P.A. 74-254 specified that notice be "in the form required under subsection (b) of section 4-177" and deleted reference to serving of statement of charges; P.A. 78-226 added Subsec. (b) re actions brought against unlicensed persons; P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county" in Subsec. (a); P.A. 82-174 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing the provision that hearings be conducted as provided in "section 42-131b" with "chapter 54"; P.A. 94-122 deleted Subsec. (b) re injunctions against unlicensed consumer collection agencies, deleted provisions in Subsec. (a) re hearings to enjoin unfair or deceptive actions and added a reference to enforcement actions under Sec. 36a-50, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-131c transferred to Sec. 36a-808 in 1995.
Annotations to former section 42-131c:
Cited. 215 C. 277, 282.

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Sec. 36a-809. (Formerly Sec. 42-131d). Commissioner's powers. Regulations. The powers vested in the commissioner by sections 36a-805 to 36a-808, inclusive, shall be additional to any other powers to enforce any penalties, fines or forfeitures authorized by law with respect to the methods, acts and practices prohibited or declared to be unfair or deceptive, and the commissioner may adopt such regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, as may be necessary for the conduct of the consumer collection agency business.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 11; P.A. 73-428; P.A. 94-122, S. 334, 340.)
History: P.A. 73-428 authorized issuance of regulations "as may be necessary for the conduct of the consumer collection agency business" rather than regulations "implementing the provisions of section 42-131"; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-131d transferred to Sec. 36a-809 in 1995.

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Sec. 36a-810. (Formerly Sec. 42-133a). Penalty. Any person who operates a consumer collection agency without a license as required by sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. Any person who violates any other provision of said sections shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both. The state's attorney or assistant state's attorney for the superior court having jurisdiction in each town shall diligently inquire and make due complaint to the court of all violations of said sections which come to his knowledge, by investigation of report.
(1971, P.A. 539, S. 12; P.A. 74-183, S. 270, 291; P.A. 76-436, S. 233, 681.)
History: P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-436 replaced "prosecuting" attorney with "state's attorney or assistant state's" attorney and court of common pleas with superior court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 42-133a transferred to Sec. 36a-810 in 1995.

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