CHAPTER 372*
CHIROPRACTIC

*Chapters 369 to 381, inclusive, cited. 207 C. 674, 677. Cited. 211 C. 508, 511, 539. Cited. 242 C. 1.
Cited. 22 CA 181, 186.

Table of Contents

Sec. 20-24. Definitions.
Sec. 20-25. Examining board.
Sec. 20-26. Meetings of board. Powers and duties.
Sec. 20-27. License.
Sec. 20-28. Examination. Scope of practice.
Sec. 20-28a. Exempt activities.
Sec. 20-28b. Professional liability insurance required, when. Amount of insurance. Reporting requirements.
Sec. 20-29. Disciplinary action. Grounds.
Secs. 20-29a to 20-31a. Reinstatement of lapsed registration. Renewal certificates; fee. Board to account to State Treasurer. Fees to be credited to General Fund.
Sec. 20-32. Use of names and titles. Continuing education. Regulations.
Sec. 20-33. Penalties.


Sec. 20-24. Definitions. As used in this chapter:
(1) The practice of chiropractic means the practice of that branch of the healing arts consisting of the science of adjustment, manipulation and treatment of the human body in which vertebral subluxations and other malpositioned articulations and structures that may interfere with the normal generation, transmission and expression of nerve impulse between the brain, organs and tissue cells of the body, which may be a cause of disease, are adjusted, manipulated or treated.
(2) The terms "chiropractic", "doctor of chiropractic", "chiropractor" and "chiropractic physician" are synonymous, and mean a practitioner of chiropractic as defined in subdivision (1) of this section.
(3) The term "accredited chiropractic college or colleges" means only those institutions which are at the time of the applicant's graduation, either (A) accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education or other specialized accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education or (B) if located outside the United States, deemed by said council to meet its educational standards.
(1949 Rev., S. 4386; P.A. 76-83, S. 1; P.A. 80-358, S. 1; P.A. 84-100; P.A. 94-174, S. 6, 12.)
History: P.A. 76-83 restated definition of chiropractic practice and added Subsec. (b) defining practitioners; P.A. 80- 358 added Subsec. (c) defining chiropractic colleges; P.A. 84-100 amended Subsec. (c) to require an accrediting agency of a chiropractic college to be a "specialized" accrediting agency; P.A. 94-174 made technical changes and amended Subdiv. (3) to add Subpara. (B) regarding standards for institutions located outside the United States, effective June 6, 1994.
Cited. 211 C. 508, 511. Cited. 220 C. 86, 107.
Subsec. (a):
Cited. 211 C. 508, 537.

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Sec. 20-25. Examining board. The State Board of Chiropractic Examiners shall consist of seven members, four of whom shall be practicing chiropractors and residents of this state and shall have practiced chiropractic continuously in this state for at least three years, and three of whom shall be public members. The Governor shall appoint a chairman from among the members of the board. Said board shall meet at least once during each calendar quarter and at such other times as the chairman deems necessary. Special meetings shall be held on the request of a majority of the board after notice in accordance with the provisions of section 1-225. A majority of the members of the board shall constitute a quorum. Members shall not be compensated for their services. Any member who fails to attend three consecutive meetings or who fails to attend fifty per cent of all meetings held during any calendar year shall be deemed to have resigned from office. Minutes of all meetings shall be recorded by the board. No member shall participate in the affairs of the board during the pendency of any disciplinary proceedings by the board against such member. No professional member shall be an elected or appointed officer of a professional society of chiropractors or have been such an officer during the year immediately preceding his appointment. No member shall serve more than two full consecutive terms which commence after July 1, 1980. Said board shall (1) hear and decide matters concerning suspension or revocation of licensure, (2) adjudicate complaints against practitioners and (3) impose sanctions where appropriate.
(1949 Rev., S. 4378; 1955, S. 2195d; P.A. 77-481; 77-614, S. 362, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 167, 176; P.A. 81-471, S. 10, 71; P.A. 88-248, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12, S. 16, 55; P.A. 98-143, S. 5, 24.)
History: P.A. 77-481 deleted provision allowing payment of fifteen-dollar per diem and reimbursement of expenses; P.A. 77-614 changed composition of board from three chiropractors to two chiropractors and one public member and revised appointment provisions so that two names, rather than six, are submitted to the governor and simplified statement of procedure for governor's appointments, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-484 deleted provision whereby Chiropractic Association submitted names for consideration as appointees and added provisions re meetings, expense reimbursement, members' attendance, duties, etc.; P.A. 81-471 changed "elected official" to "elected or appointed officer" as of July 1, 1981, and added prohibition against members serving more than two consecutive terms; P.A. 88-248 increased number of members on board from three to seven, required four, instead of two, members to be practicing chiropractors and state residents and to have practiced chiropractic continuously in this state for at least three years and increased number of public members from one to three; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12 eliminated expense reimbursement for board members; P.A. 98- 143 added quorum provision, effective July 1, 1998.
See title 2c re termination under "Sunset Law".
See Sec. 4-9a for definition of "public member".
See Secs. 19a-8 to 19a-12, inclusive, re powers and duties of boards and commissions within Public Health Department.
Cited. 211 C. 508, 517−519, 522, 524. Cited. 220 C. 86, 87, 89, 101−104, 110.

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Sec. 20-26. Meetings of board. Powers and duties. Section 20-26 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 4379; June, 1955, S. 2196d; P.A. 77-614, S. 363, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 175, 176.)

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Sec. 20-27. License. (a) Required. No person shall engage in the practice of chiropractic in this state until he has obtained a license.
(b) Examination. Qualifications. No person shall receive a license until he has passed an examination prescribed by the Department of Public Health, with the advice and consent of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners, except as hereinafter provided. Any person desiring to practice chiropractic shall make application to the department upon such form as the department adopts. Applications shall be in writing, signed by the applicant and shall contain a statement of the educational advantages of the applicant, his experience in matters pertaining to a knowledge of the care of the sick, the length of time applied and the school in which he studied chiropractic, any collateral branch of study and the length of time engaged in clinical practice and any diploma, certificate or degree which has been conferred upon such applicant. Each applicant shall present to the department satisfactory evidence that he graduated from an approved high school or possessed educational qualifications equivalent to those required for graduation from such school before beginning the study of chiropractic and that he graduated with the degree of doctor of chiropractic from an accredited college of chiropractic approved by said board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health, as provided herein, that, if he graduated prior to July 1, 1932, he has been a resident student in such an approved chiropractic college or colleges during three graded courses of six months each, each of which courses shall have included not less than nine hundred class hours, that, if he graduated after July 1, 1932, he has been a resident student in such an approved chiropractic college or colleges during four graded courses of eight months each, totaling not less than three thousand six hundred hours, and that, if he graduated after July 1, 1955, he has been a resident student in such an approved chiropractic college or colleges during four graded courses of eight months each, totaling not less than four thousand hours. On and after July 1, 1960, each applicant shall present to said department satisfactory evidence that before beginning the study of chiropractic he has completed at least two academic years or sixty semester hours of study leading to a baccalaureate degree in a college or university approved by said board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health. Said department shall issue a license to each applicant who passes the examination and who has met all other requirements of this chapter and any regulations adopted hereunder. There shall be paid to the department by each applicant a fee of four hundred fifty dollars. The examination shall be administered by the Department of Public Health under the supervision of the board. Passing scores shall be established by the department with the consent of the board.
(c) Licensure without written examination. The Department of Public Health may grant a license without written examination to any currently practicing, competent licensee from any other state having licensure requirements substantially similar to, or higher than, those of this state, who (1) is a graduate of an accredited school of chiropractic approved by said board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health, (2) presents evidence satisfactory to the department that he has completed a course of two academic years or sixty semester hours of study in a college or scientific school approved by the board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health, and (3) successfully passes the practical examination provided for in subsection (a) of section 20-28. There shall be paid to the department by each such applicant a fee of four hundred fifty dollars. No license shall be issued under this section to any applicant against whom professional disciplinary action is pending or who is the subject of an unresolved complaint. The department shall inform the board of the applications it receives for licenses under this section.
(d) Issuance of license. List of approved schools. Any person who has passed the prescribed examination shall receive from said department a license, which license shall include a statement that the person named therein is qualified to practice chiropractic. Any person practicing chiropractic in this state under a license granted by the Board of Chiropractic Examiners previous to July 1, 1927, shall, upon filing such license, together with the statement provided for, with the Department of Public Health, receive from said department a license. Said board shall file, annually, with the Department of Public Health, a list of accredited chiropractic colleges or institutions approved by said board with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health.
(1949 Rev., S. 4380; 1949, 1955, S. 2197d; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 8; 1969, P.A. 126, S. 1, 2; June, 1971, P.A. 8, S. 43, 44; 1972, P.A. 294, S. 24; P.A. 75-268, S. 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 364, 365, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 30, 136; P.A. 80-358, S. 2; 80- 484, S. 21, 174, 176; P.A. 81-471, S. 11, 71; P.A. 83-17, S. 1, 3; P.A. 89-251, S. 75, 203; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94- 174, S. 7, 12; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)
History: 1959 act doubled fees for certificates of approval, deleted requirement that deposit of fifteen dollars accompany application for the same and eliminated two-dollar fee for certificate of registration; 1969 act deleted references to duplicate certificates and statements in Subsecs. (b) and (d) and deleted provisions re disposition of duplicates with town clerks in physicians' towns of residence or towns where physicians intend to reside; 1971 act increased certificate fee in Subsec. (b) from fifty to one hundred fifty dollars and in Subsec. (c) from one hundred to one hundred fifty dollars; 1972 act made technical change, deleting reference to duplicate statements in Subsec. (d); P.A. 75-268 deleted provisions in Subsec. (c) which forbade granting of certificate to person failing to meet conditions set forth in repealed Sec. 20-3; P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services, required commissioner's consent for examination and deleted references to secretary-general of board of examiners, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-303 made technical changes; P.A. 80-358 specified that chiropractic colleges must be "accredited" rather than "reputable" and must be "approved" rather than "recognized" by the board; P.A. 80-484 essentially transferred powers of board re applications, examination and licensure to department, retaining board in advisory role and revising provisions as necessary, deleted requirement that applications be sworn, that applicant be of good moral character and that he be a resident or intends to be one, replaced certificates with licenses and added provisions in Subsec. (b) re establishment of passing scores by department and in Subsec. (c) re applicants against whom disciplinary action pending or who are subject of unresolved complaint and re informing board of number of applications received; P.A. 81-471 changed "certificates" to "licenses" in Subsec. (c) as of July 1, 1981; P.A. 83-17 amended Subsec. (c) to authorize the granting of a license to a licensee from another state without a "written" examination, deleted the requirement that a certificate of proficiency in basic sciences be submitted and added requirement that such licensee pass a practical examination; P.A. 89-251 increased the fee from one hundred fifty dollars to four hundred fifty dollars; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-174 deleted language which provided that the accredited college of chiropractic be accredited at the time of application, effective June 6, 1994; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.
See Sec. 19a-88 re annual renewal of licenses.
See Sec. 19a-89 re notification of change in office or residence address.
Cited. 211 C. 508, 511, 515, 516, 537, 538. Cited. 220 C. 86, 106.
Compared with section 20-37. 14 CS 199. The court may refuse to compel the commissioner to issue a certificate of registration if the certificate issued by the board was falsely obtained. 19 CS 462.
Subsec. (d):
Cited. 220 C. 86, 109.

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Sec. 20-28. Examination. Scope of practice. (a) The examination provided for in section 20-27 shall consist of both a written and practical examination. The subjects of the written examination shall be as follows: Anatomy, physiology, symptomatology, histology, vertebral palpation, principles of chiropractic and adjusting, chemistry, hygiene, pathology, dietetics and diagnosis. The national board tests of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners may be accepted as the written examination provided it includes physiotherapy. The practical examination shall require the candidate to demonstrate clinical competency in basic chiropractic principles and procedures, including orthopedics, neurology, diagnosis, x-ray, vertebral palpation and adjustment.
(b) Any chiropractor who has complied with the provisions of this chapter may:
(1) Practice chiropractic as defined in section 20-24, but shall not prescribe for or administer to any person any medicine or drug included in materia medica, except vitamins, or perform any surgery or practice obstetrics or osteopathy;
(2) Examine, analyze and diagnose the human living body and its diseases, and use for diagnostic purposes the x-ray or any other general method of examination for diagnosis and analysis taught in any school or college of chiropractic which has been recognized and approved by the State Board of Chiropractic Examiners;
(3) Treat the human body by manual, mechanical, electrical or natural methods, including acupuncture, or by use of physical means, including light, heat, water or exercise in preparation for chiropractic adjustment or manipulation, and by the oral administration of foods, food concentrates, food extracts or vitamins;
(4) Administer first aid and, incidental to the care of the sick, advise and instruct patients in all matters pertaining to hygiene and sanitary measures as taught and approved by recognized chiropractic schools and colleges.
(1949 Rev., S. 4381; P.A. 76-83, S. 2; P.A. 77-614, S. 323, 610; P.A. 81-471, S. 12, 71; P.A. 83-17, S. 2, 3; P.A. 96- 225, S. 2, 4.)
History: P.A. 76-83 divided section into Subsecs., restated actions chiropractors may perform as power to practice chiropractic, allowed them to prescribe vitamins and added Subdivs. (2) to (4) in Subsec. (b) re permitted diagnoses, treatments, etc.; P.A. 77-614 replaced department of health with department of health services in Subsec. (a), effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 81-471 deleted requirement that examination questions and answers be retained for six years by department of health services; P.A. 83-17 amended Subsec. (a) to specify requirements of the practical examination and to authorize acceptance of national board tests in lieu of written examination as specified; P.A. 96-225 added acupuncture to the scope of practice in Subsec. (b)(3), effective June 4, 1996.
See Sec. 19a-31 re analysis of chiropractic specimens by licensed clinical laboratories.
Subsec. (b):
Cited. 220 C. 86, 91, 104, 107. Subdiv. (2) cited. Id., 86, 87, 93, 103−108. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id., 86, 107. Subdiv. (4) cited. Id.

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Sec. 20-28a. Exempt activities. No provision of this chapter shall be construed to prohibit a student of chiropractic enrolled in an educational program of chiropractic in a regionally accredited chiropractic college or institution approved solely for the purposes of this section by the Board of Chiropractic Examiners with the consent of the Commissioner of Public Health, from performing, under the direct supervision of a licensed chiropractor, such work as is incidental to his course of study at such institution.
(P.A. 93-296, S. 4, 10; 93-381, S. 9, 39; 93-435, S. 59, 95; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)
History: P.A. 93-296 effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 93-381 and P.A. 93-435 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of public health and addiction services for commissioner and department of health services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

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Sec. 20-28b. Professional liability insurance required, when. Amount of insurance. Reporting requirements. (a) Each person licensed to practice chiropractic under the provisions of section 20-27 who provides direct patient care services shall maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity against liability for professional malpractice. The amount of insurance which each such person shall carry as insurance or indemnity against claims for injury or death for professional malpractice shall not be less than five hundred thousand dollars for one person, per occurrence, with an aggregate of not less than one million five hundred thousand dollars.
(b) Each insurance company which issues professional liability insurance, as defined in subdivisions (1), (6), (7), (8) and (9) of subsection (b) of section 38a-393, shall on and after January 1, 1995, render to the Commissioner of Public Health a true record of the names and addresses, according to classification, of cancellations of and refusals to renew professional liability insurance policies and the reasons for such cancellation or refusal to renew said policies for the year ending on the thirty-first day of December next preceding.
(P.A. 94-71, S. 3; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-180, S. 67, 166.)
History: P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-180 required addresses to be included with the record of names in Subsec. (b), effective June 3, 1996.

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Sec. 20-29. Disciplinary action. Grounds. The Board of Chiropractic Examiners may take any of the actions set forth in section 19a-17 for any of the following reasons: The employment of fraud or deception in obtaining a license, habitual intemperance in the use of ardent spirits, narcotics or stimulants to such an extent as to incapacitate the user for the performance of professional duties, violation of any provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted hereunder, engaging in fraud or material deception in the course of professional services or activities, physical or mental illness, emotional disorder or loss of motor skill, including but not limited to, deterioration through the aging process, illegal, incompetent or negligent conduct in the practice of chiropractic, or failure to maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity against liability for professional malpractice as provided in subsection (a) of section 20-28b. Any practitioner against whom any of the foregoing grounds for action under said section 19a- 17 are presented to said board shall be furnished with a copy of the complaint and shall have a hearing before said board. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the regulations established by the Commissioner of Public Health. Said board may, at any time within two years of such action, by a majority vote, rescind such action. The Commissioner of Public Health may order a license holder to submit to a reasonable physical or mental examination if his physical or mental capacity to practice safely is the subject of an investigation. Said commissioner may petition the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to enforce such order or any action taken pursuant to section 19a-17.
(1949 Rev., S. 4382; P.A. 77-614, S. 366, 610; P.A. 80-484, S. 22, 176; P.A. 81-471, S. 13, 71; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-71, S. 9; P.A. 95-220, S. 4−6; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)
History: P.A. 77-614 permitted refusal to grant certificate if applicant has violated provisions of chapter or related regulations and replaced language detailing hearing procedure with provision for conduct of hearing in accordance with regulations established by health services commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-484 revised section to apply with regard to disciplinary actions rather than with regard to refusal to grant certificate and added provisions re fraud or deception, physical or mental illness, emotional disorder, loss of motor skill or illegal, incompetent or negligent conduct of practitioner, re orders to submit to physical or mental examination and re petitions to court for enforcement of orders or actions; P.A. 81-471 made no substantive changes; P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced commissioner of health services with commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-71 inserted new language concerning failure to maintain professional liability insurance or other indemnity against liability for professional malpractice; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95- 257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.
Cited. 211 C. 508, 511, 514, 535−537. Cited. 220 C. 86, 88, 92−94.

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Secs. 20-29a to 20-31a. Reinstatement of lapsed registration. Renewal certificates; fee. Board to account to State Treasurer. Fees to be credited to General Fund. Sections 20-29a to 20-31a, inclusive, are repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 4383, 4384; 1959, P.A. 616, S. 9−11; 1961, P.A. 467, S. 3; February, 1965, P.A. 85, S. 1; P.A. 80-484, S. 175, 176.)

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Sec. 20-32. Use of names and titles. Continuing education. Regulations. (a) No licensee under the provisions of this chapter shall use the title "Doctor" or any abbreviation or synonym thereof unless he holds the degree of doctor of chiropractic from a chartered chiropractic school or college, in which event the title shall be such as will designate the licensee as a practitioner of chiropractic. No person shall practice as a chiropractor under any name other than the name of the chiropractor actually owning the practice or a corporate name containing the name or names of such chiropractors. Each licensed chiropractor shall exhibit his name at the entrance of his place of business or on his office door.
(b) All licensed chiropractors applying for license renewal shall be required to participate in continuing education programs. The Commissioner of Public Health shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to (1) define basic requirements for continuing education programs, (2) delineate qualifying programs, (3) establish a system of control and reporting, and (4) provide for waiver of the continuing education requirement for good cause.
(1949 Rev., S. 4385; P.A. 95-31; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)
History: P.A. 95-31 added Subsec. (b) requiring participation in continuing education programs and the adoption of related regulations; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.
Cited. 150 C. 302.

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Sec. 20-33. Penalties. Any person, except a physician or surgeon licensed under the provisions of chapter 370, who practices or attempts to practice chiropractic, or any person, including such physician or surgeon, who buys, sells or fraudulently obtains any diploma or license to practice chiropractic, whether recorded or not, or who uses the title "Chiropractor", "D.C.", or any word or title to induce the belief that he is engaged in the practice of chiropractic, without complying with the provisions of this chapter, or any person who violates any provision of this chapter, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than five years or both. For the purposes of this section, each instance of patient contact or consultation which is in violation of any provision of this chapter shall constitute a separate offense. Failure to renew a license in a timely manner shall not constitute a violation for the purposes of this section.
(1949 Rev., S. 4387; P.A. 76-83, S. 3; P.A. 84-526, S. 3; P.A. 96-123, S. 3.)
History: P.A. 76-83 deleted reference to the title "Ph. C."; P.A. 84-526 amended section by changing penalty for violation of any provision of chapter to a fine of not more than five hundred dollars or imprisonment of not more than five years, and added provisions that each instance of patient contact or consultation shall constitute a separate offense and failure to renew license in timely manner is not a violation for purposes of section; P.A. 96-123 added physicians and surgeons to those prohibited from fraudulent use of term "chiropractor".
Cited. 141 C. 288. Cited. 211 C. 508, 511, 515, 516, 537, 538.

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