CHAPTER 10*
CODES OF ETHICS

*Cited. 39 CS 99.

Table of Contents

Sec. 1-79. Definitions.
Sec. 1-79a. Calculation of dollar limit on gifts.
Sec. 1-80. State Ethics Commission. Members; appointment; qualifications; vacancies; compensation. Hearings.
Sec. 1-80a. Statements filed with commission. Restrictions on use.
Sec. 1-81. Duties of the commission. Model codes of ethics. Executive director and general counsel.
Sec. 1-82. Complaints. Procedure. Time limits. Investigation; notice; hearings. Attorneys' fees. Damages for complaints without foundation.
Sec. 1-82a. Confidentiality of complaints, evaluations of possible violations and investigations. Publication of findings.
Sec. 1-83. Statements of financial interests. Filing requirements. Ethics statements.
Sec. 1-84. (Formerly Sec. 1-66). Prohibited activities.
Sec. 1-84a. Disclosure or use of confidential information by former official or employee.
Sec. 1-84b. Certain activities restricted after leaving public office or employment.
Sec. 1-85. (Formerly Sec. 1-68). Interest in conflict with discharge of duties.
Sec. 1-86. Procedure when discharge of duty affects official's or state employee's financial interests. Lobbyists prohibited from accepting employment with General Assembly and General Assembly members forbidden to be lobbyists.
Secs. 1-86a to 1-86d.
Sec. 1-86e. Consultants and independent contractors. Prohibited activities.
Sec. 1-87. Aggrieved persons. Appeals.
Sec. 1-89. Violations; penalties. Disciplinary powers of the legislature, agencies and commissions. Civil action for damages.
Sec. 1-89a. Conferences on ethical issues.
Sec. 1-90. Commission to review oath of office for members of General Assembly.
Sec. 1-91. Definitions.
Sec. 1-92. Duties of commission. Regulations. Advisory opinions.
Sec. 1-93. Complaints. Procedure. Time limits. Investigation; notice; hearings. Damages for complaints without foundation.
Sec. 1-93a. Confidentiality of complaints, evaluations of possible violations and investigations. Publication of findings.
Sec. 1-94. Lobbyist registration with the commission.
Sec. 1-95. Registration procedure. Fees.
Sec. 1-96. Financial reports of registrants. Requirements.
Sec. 1-96a. Maintenance of substantiating documents. Random audits of registrants.
Sec. 1-96b. Filing of registrants' financial reports in electronic form.
Sec. 1-96c. Public access to computerized data from financial reports.
Sec. 1-96d. Statement whether expenditures for legislative reception are reportable.
Sec. 1-96e. Statements of necessary expenses paid or reimbursed by registrants.
Sec. 1-97. Restrictions on activities of registrants. Contingent fees.
Sec. 1-98. Appeal from commission decision.
Sec. 1-99. Authority of commission after finding violation.
Sec. 1-100. Violations; penalties.
Sec. 1-101. Lobbyists to wear badges. Regulations.
Secs. 1-101a to 1-101z.
Sec. 1-101aa. Provider participation in informal committees, task forces and work groups of certain state agencies not deemed to be lobbying.

PART I*
CODE OF ETHICS FOR PUBLIC OFFICIALS

*Code of ethics for public officials, Secs. 1-79−1-89 cited. 18 CA 212, 213.
(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-79. Definitions. The following terms, when used in this part, shall have the following meanings unless the context otherwise requires:
(a) "Blind trust" means a trust established by a public official or state employee or member of his immediate family for the purpose of divestiture of all control and knowledge of assets.
(b) "Business with which he is associated" means any sole proprietorship, partnership, firm, corporation, trust or other entity through which business for profit or not for profit is conducted in which the public official or state employee or member of his immediate family is a director, officer, owner, limited or general partner, beneficiary of a trust or holder of stock constituting five per cent or more of the total outstanding stock of any class, provided, a public official or state employee, or member of his immediate family, shall not be deemed to be associated with a not for profit entity solely by virtue of the fact that the public official or state employee or member of his immediate family is an unpaid director or officer of the not for profit entity. "Officer" refers only to the president, executive or senior vice president or treasurer of such business.
(c) "Candidate for public office" means any individual who has filed a declaration of candidacy or a petition to appear on the ballot for election as a public official, or who has raised or expended money in furtherance of such candidacy, or who has been nominated for appointment to serve as a public official, but shall not include a candidate for the office of senator or representative in Congress.
(d) "Commission" means the State Ethics Commission established in section 1-80.
(e) "Gift" means anything of value, which is directly and personally received, unless consideration of equal or greater value is given in return. "Gift" shall not include:
(1) A political contribution otherwise reported as required by law or a donation or payment as described in subdivision (9) or (10) of subsection (b) of section 9-333b;
(2) Services provided by persons volunteering their time;
(3) A commercially reasonable loan made on terms not more favorable than loans made in the ordinary course of business;
(4) A gift received from (A) an individual's spouse, fiance or fiancee, (B) the parent, brother or sister of such spouse or such individual, or (C) the child of such individual or the spouse of such child;
(5) Goods or services (A) which are provided to the state (i) for use on state property, or (ii) to support an event or the participation by a public official or state employee at an event, and (B) which facilitate state action or functions. As used in this subdivision, "state property" means (i) property owned by the state, or (ii) property leased to an agency in the Executive or Judicial Department of the state;
(6) A certificate, plaque or other ceremonial award costing less than one hundred dollars;
(7) A rebate, discount or promotional item available to the general public;
(8) Printed or recorded informational material germane to state action or functions;
(9) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars in the aggregate per recipient in a calendar year, and consumed on an occasion or occasions at which the person paying, directly or indirectly, for the food or beverage, or his representative, is in attendance;
(10) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed at a publicly noticed legislative reception to which all members of the General Assembly are invited and which is hosted not more than once in any calendar year by a lobbyist or business organization. For the purposes of such limit, (A) a reception hosted by a lobbyist who is an individual shall be deemed to have also been hosted by the business organization which he owns or is employed by and (B) a reception hosted by a business organization shall be deemed to have also been hosted by all owners and employees of the business organization who are lobbyists. In making the calculation for the purposes of such fifty-dollar limit, the donor shall divide the amount spent on food and beverage by the number of persons whom the donor reasonably expects to attend the reception;
(11) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed at a publicly noticed reception to which all members of the General Assembly from a region of the state are invited and which is hosted not more than once in any calendar year by a lobbyist or business organization. For the purposes of such limit, (A) a reception hosted by a lobbyist who is an individual shall be deemed to have also been hosted by the business organization which he owns or is employed by, and (B) a reception hosted by a business organization shall be deemed to have also been hosted by all owners and employees of the business organization who are lobbyists. In making the calculation for the purposes of such fifty-dollar limit, the donor shall divide the amount spent on food and beverage by the number of persons whom the donor reasonably expects to attend the reception. As used in this subdivision, "region of the state" means the established geographic service area of the organization hosting the reception;
(12) A gift, including but not limited to, food or beverage or both, provided by an individual for the celebration of a major life event;
(13) Gifts costing less than one hundred dollars in the aggregate or food or beverage provided at a hospitality suite at a meeting or conference of an interstate legislative association, by a person who is not a registrant or is not doing business with the state of Connecticut;
(14) Admission to a charitable or civic event, including food and beverage provided at such event, but excluding lodging or travel expenses, at which a public official or state employee participates in his official capacity, provided such admission is provided by the primary sponsoring entity;
(15) Anything of value provided by an employer of (A) a public official, (B) a state employee, or (C) a spouse of a public official or state employee, to such official, employee or spouse, provided such benefits are customarily and ordinarily provided to others in similar circumstances; or
(16) Anything having a value of not more than ten dollars, provided the aggregate value of all things provided by a donor to a recipient under this subdivision in any calendar year shall not exceed fifty dollars.
(f) "Immediate family" means any spouse, children or dependent relatives who reside in the individual's household.
(g) "Individual" means a natural person.
(h) "Member of an advisory board" means any individual (1) appointed by a public official as an advisor or consultant or member of a committee, commission or council established to advise, recommend or consult with a public official or branch of government or committee thereof, (2) who receives no public funds other than per diem payments or reimbursement for his actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of his official duties and (3) who has no authority to expend any public funds or to exercise the power of the state.
(i) "Person" means an individual, sole proprietorship, trust, corporation, limited liability company, union, association, firm, partnership, committee, club or other organization or group of persons.
(j) "Political contribution" has the same meaning as in section 9-333b except that for purposes of this part, the provisions of subsection (b) of that section shall not apply.
(k) "Public official" means any state-wide elected officer, any member or member- elect of the General Assembly, any person appointed to any office of the legislative, judicial or executive branch of state government by the Governor or an appointee of the Governor, with or without the advice and consent of the General Assembly, any public member or representative of the teachers' unions or state employees' unions appointed to the Investment Advisory Council pursuant to subsection (a) of section 3-13b, any person appointed or elected by the General Assembly or by any member of either house thereof, and any member or director of a quasi-public agency, but shall not include a member of an advisory board, a judge of any court either elected or appointed or a senator or representative in Congress.
(l) "Quasi-public agency" means the Connecticut Development Authority, Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, Connecticut Health and Education Facilities Authority, Connecticut Higher Education Supplemental Loan Authority, Connecticut Housing Finance Authority, Connecticut Housing Authority, Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority, Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, Lower Fairfield County Convention Center Authority, Capital City Economic Development Authority and Connecticut Coastline Port Authority.
(m) "State employee" means any employee in the executive, legislative or judicial branch of state government, whether in the classified or unclassified service and whether full or part-time, and any employee of a quasi-public agency, but shall not include a judge of any court, either elected or appointed.
(n) "Trust" means a trust in which any public official or state employee or member of his immediate family has a present or future interest which exceeds ten per cent of the value of the trust or exceeds fifty thousand dollars, whichever is less, but shall not include blind trusts.
(o) "Business organization" means a sole proprietorship, corporation, limited liability company, association, firm or partnership, other than a client lobbyist, which is owned by, or employs, one or more individual lobbyists.
(p) "Client lobbyist" means a person on behalf of whom lobbying takes place and who makes expenditures for lobbying and in furtherance of lobbying.
(q) "Necessary expenses" means a public official's or state employee's expenses for an article, appearance or speech or for participation at an event, in his official capacity, which shall be limited to necessary travel expenses, lodging for the nights before, of and after the appearance, speech or event, meals and any related conference or seminar registration fees.
(r) "Lobbyist" and "registrant" shall be construed as defined in section 1-91.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 1, 15; 77-605, S. 14, 21; P.A. 79-493, S. 1, 9; P.A. 81-395, S. 6, 9; P.A. 82-423, S. 1, 8; P.A. 83-249, S. 1, 14; P.A. 84-335, S. 1, 4; P.A. 86-99, S. 29, 34; P.A. 88-139, S. 1; 88-225, S. 1, 14; P.A. 89-245, S. 1; 89-360, S. 8, 45; 89-369, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-8, S. 54, 63; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 1, 20, 22; P.A. 92-149, S. 7, 12; P.A. 93-413, S. 13, 16; P.A. 95-79, S. 3, 4, 189; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5, S. 17, 19; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 1, 14; P.A. 98-179, S. 13, 30; P.A. 99-56; P.A. 00-43, S. 16, 19; 00-99, S. 13, 154.)
History: P.A. 77-605 redefined "political contribution"; P.A. 79-493 redefined "candidate for public office", "gift", "immediate family", "member of an advisory board" and "public official" and included treasurers as officers of businesses in Subdiv. (a); P.A. 81-395 substituted reference to Sec. 9-335(18) for reference to Sec. 9-348q(a) in Subdiv. (i); P.A. 82- 423 amended Subdiv. (d) to change food and beverage exception from under twenty-five dollars to under fifty dollars; P.A. 83-249 amended Subdiv. (i) to broaden the definition of "political contribution"; P.A. 84-335 amended Subdiv. (j) to include sheriffs and deputy sheriffs in definition of "public official"; P.A. 86-99 amended definition of "political contribution" to reflect technical changes made in chapter 150; P.A. 88-139 added definitions of "blind trust" and "trust", redefined "business with which he is associated" to include references to sole proprietorships, firms, corporations, trusts and other profit or nonprofit entities, and redefined "person" to include sole proprietorships and trusts, relettering Subdivs. as necessary; P.A. 88-225 included "any member or director of a quasi-public agency" in definition of "public official", included "any employee of a quasi-public agency" in definition of "state employee" and inserted new Subdiv. defining "quasi-public agency", relettering former Subdivs. as necessary; P.A. 89-245 amended the definition of "quasi-public agency" in Subdiv. (l) to rename Connecticut Product Development Corporation as Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated; P.A. 89-360 redefined "quasi-public agency" to include the New Haven Family Alliance; P.A. 89-369 limited exception in definition of "gift" for food or beverage costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed on a single occasion to an occasion "at which the person paying, directly or indirectly, for the food or beverage, or his representative, is in attendance"; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-8 deleted reference to New Haven Family Alliance in definition of "quasi-public agency"; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 added exception to definition of "business with which he is associated" in Subdiv. (b), substantially amended definition of "gift" and exceptions to "gift" in Subdiv. (e), redefined "quasi-public agency" in Subdiv. (l) by adding Lower Fairfield County Convention Center Authority and Connecticut Convention Center Authority, and added Subdivs. (o) to (r), inclusive, defining "business organization", "client lobbyist", "necessary expenses" and "lobbyist" and "registrant"; P.A. 92-149 redefined "client lobbyist"; P.A. 93-413 included Connecticut Coastline Port Authority in definition of "quasi-public agency" in Subdiv. (l), effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" and "business organization" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5 amended Subsec. (e)(1) by changing Sec. 9-333b(b) Subdiv. reference from (11) to (10), effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to elections and primaries held on or after January 1, 1998; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subsec. (e) by expanding Subdiv. (5), by changing limit to fifty dollars in Subdiv. (9), inserting new Subdiv. (11) re food or beverage consumed at a publicly noticed reception, adding new Subdiv. (14) re admission to charitable or civic event, adding new Subdiv. (15) re anything of value provided by employer and adding new Subdiv. (16) re anything of value of not more than ten dollars, effective January 1, 1998 (Revisor's note: In Subdiv. (11) of Subsec. (e) a hyphen between "publicly" and "noticed" was deleted editorially by the Revisors for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 98-179 amended Subsec. (l), defining "quasi-public agency", by deleting the Connecticut Convention Center Authority and adding the Capital City Economic Development Authority, effective June 1, 1998; P.A. 99-56 amended Subsec. (k) by adding an appointee of the Governor to the definition of "public official"; P.A. 00-43 amended Subsec. (k) to include members of the Investment Advisory Council as "public officials", effective May 3, 2000; P.A. 00-99 deleted reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff in Subsec. (k), effective December 1, 2000.
See Sec. 1-79a re calculation of dollar limit on gifts.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-79a. Calculation of dollar limit on gifts. For purposes of calculating the dollar limits under the exceptions to the term "gift" under sections 1-79 and 1-91 any expenditure provided by a lobbyist who is an individual shall be deemed to have also been provided by the business organization which he owns or by which he is employed, and any expenditure provided by a business organization shall be deemed to have also been provided by all owners and employees of the business organization who are lobbyists.
(P.A. 92-149, S. 6, 12; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 9, 14.)
History: June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 deleted provision that, for purposes of calculating dollar limit, gifts costing less than ten dollars per occasion or transaction are not considered and added provision that, for purposes of calculating dollar limit, expenditures provided by a lobbyist shall be considered to be provided by the business organization by which he is employed and vice versa, effective January 1, 1998.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-80. State Ethics Commission. Members; appointment; qualifications; vacancies; compensation. Hearings. (a) There shall be a State Ethics Commission consisting of seven members to be appointed with the advice and consent of the General Assembly. One member shall be appointed by the speaker of the House, one member by the president pro tempore of the Senate, one member by the minority leader of the Senate, one member by the minority leader of the House of Representatives and three members by the Governor. Members of the commission shall serve for four-year terms which shall commence on October first, except that members first appointed shall have the following terms: The Governor shall appoint two members for a term of three years and one member for a term of four years; the minority leader of the House of Representatives and the speaker of the House of Representatives shall each appoint one member for a term of two years; the president pro tempore of the Senate and the minority leader of the Senate shall each appoint one member for a term of four years. No individual shall be appointed to more than one four-year term as a member of such commission, provided that members may continue in office until a successor has been appointed and qualified. No more than four members shall be members of the same political party.
(b) All members shall be electors of the state. No member or employee of such commission shall (1) hold or campaign for any public office; (2) have held public office or have been a candidate for public office for a three-year period prior to appointment; (3) hold office in any political party or political committee or be a member of any organization or association organized primarily for the purpose of influencing legislation or decisions of public agencies; or (4) be an individual who is a registrant as defined in subsection (q) of section 1-91.
(c) Any vacancy on the commission shall be filled for the unexpired portion of the term by the appointing authority having the power to make the original appointment. An individual selected by the appointing authority to fill a vacancy shall be eligible for appointment to one full four-year term thereafter. Any vacancy occurring on the commission shall be filled within thirty days.
(d) The commission shall elect a chairperson who shall, except as provided in subsection (b) of section 1-82 and subsection (b) of section 1-93, preside at meetings of the commission and a vice-chairperson to preside in the absence of the chairperson. Five members of the commission shall constitute a quorum. Except as provided in subdivision (3) of section 1-81, subsections (a) and (b) of section 1-82, subsection (b) of section 1- 88, subdivision (5) of section 1-92, subsections (a) and (b) of section 1-93 and subsection (b) of section 1-99, a majority vote of the quorum shall be required for action of the commission. The chairperson or any four members may call a meeting.
(e) Any matter before the commission, except hearings held pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 1-82 or subsection (b) of section 1-93, may be assigned by the commission to two of its members to conduct an investigation or hearing, as the case may be, to ascertain the facts and report thereon to the commission with a recommendation for action.
(f) Members of the commission shall be compensated at the rate of fifty dollars per day for each day they attend a meeting or hearing and shall receive reimbursement for their necessary expenses incurred in the discharge of their official duties.
(g) The commission shall not be construed to be a board or commission within the meaning of section 4-9a.
(h) The members and employees of the State Ethics Commission shall adhere to the following code of ethics under which the members and employees shall: (1) Observe high standards of conduct so that the integrity and independence of the State Ethics Commission may be preserved; (2) respect and comply with the law and conduct themselves at all times in a manner which promotes public confidence in the integrity and impartiality of the commission; (3) be faithful to the law and maintain professional competence in the law; (4) be unswayed by partisan interests, public clamor or fear of criticism; (5) maintain order and decorum in proceedings of the commission; (6) be patient, dignified and courteous to all persons who appear in commission proceedings and with other persons with whom the members and employees deal in their official capacities; (7) refrain from making any statement outside of a commission proceeding, which would have a likelihood of prejudicing a commission proceeding; (8) refrain from making any statement outside of a commission proceeding that a reasonable person would expect to be disseminated by means of public communication if the member or employee should know that such statement would have a likelihood of materially prejudicing or embarrassing a complainant or a respondent; (9) preserve confidences of complainants and respondents; (10) exercise independent professional judgment on behalf of the commission; and (11) represent the commission competently.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 2, 15; 77-605, S. 2, 21; P.A. 79-493, S. 2, 9; P.A. 83-249, S. 2, 3, 14; 83-586, S. 1, 14; P.A. 84-52, S. 5; 84-334, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-390, S. 3, 4; 86-403, S. 93, 132; P.A. 88-139, S. 4; P.A. 92-149, S. 9, 12.)
History: P.A. 77-605 changed method for making initial appointments and qualifications for members and placed commission in the office of secretary of the state for administrative purposes only; P.A. 79-493 changed provisions concerning quorum, introduced provisions for fact-finding investigations and hearings and excluded commission from Sec. 4-9a; P.A. 83-249 amended Subsec. (a) to clarify that terms commence on October first and that members may continue in office until successors are appointed and qualify and made technical changes in Subsec. (d); P.A. 83-586 added Subsec. (h) allowing appointment of executive director and general counsel upon concurring vote of five members and dismissal upon concurring vote of four members; P.A. 84-52 made technical changes in Subsecs. (d) and (e) to reflect relettering of subsections in sections 1-82 and 1-93; P.A. 84-334 increased members' compensation from twenty-five to fifty dollars per day; P.A. 86-390 deleted provision in Subsec. (a) placing commission within the office of the secretary of the state for administrative purposes only; P.A. 86-403 made technical change in Subsec. (d); P.A. 88-139, S. 4 which was codified as Subsec. (i) established a code of ethics for members and employees of the ethics commission; P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (d) to make technical corrections, deleted Subsec. (h) re appointment of executive director and general counsel, but see Sec. 1-18(b), and relettered remaining Subsec. accordingly.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-80a. Statements filed with commission. Restrictions on use. The statements of members of the General Assembly, elected state officers, commissioners and deputy commissioners required to be filed with and maintained by the former joint legislative ethics committee under sections 1-76 and 1-77 of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to 1977, shall be transferred to the Ethics Commission established under section 1-80 and shall be maintained by said commission during the term of office of such persons and for a period of two years thereafter. Such statements shall not be open to public inspection except at the direction of the person making the statement, provided such statements may be open to the use of the Ethics Commission if probable cause has been found under section 1-82 and for the purposes of subsection (c) of section 1-83.
(P.A. 78-169, S. 1, 2.)

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-81. Duties of the commission. Model codes of ethics. Executive director and general counsel. (a) The commission shall:
(1) Compile and maintain an index of all reports, advisory opinions, memoranda filed under the provisions of subsection (f) of section 1-82a and statements filed by and with the commission to facilitate public access to such reports and statements as provided by this part;
(2) Preserve advisory opinions permanently; preserve memoranda filed under subsection (f) of section 1-82a, and statements and reports filed by and with the commission for a period of five years from the date of receipt;
(3) Upon the concurring vote of four of its members, issue advisory opinions with regard to the requirements of this part, upon the request of any person subject to the provisions of this part, and publish such advisory opinions in the Connecticut Law Journal. Advisory opinions rendered by the commission, until amended or revoked, shall be binding on the commission and shall be deemed to be final decisions of the commission for purposes of section 1-87. Any advisory opinion concerning the person who requested the opinion and who acted in reliance thereon, in good faith, shall be binding upon the commission, and it shall be an absolute defense in any criminal action brought under the provisions of this part, that the accused acted in reliance upon such advisory opinion;
(4) Report annually, prior to April fifteenth, to the Governor summarizing the activities of the commission;
(5) Not later than July 1, 1995, develop a model code of ethics for officials and officers of municipalities, as defined in section 7-148, and provide a copy of said model code to the chief elected official of each municipality in the state;
(6) Not later than July 1, 1995, develop a model code of ethics for officers of districts, as defined in section 7-324, and provide a copy of said model code to the president of each district in the state; and
(7) Adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to carry out the purposes of this part.
(b) The commission may employ an executive director and general counsel and necessary staff within available appropriations.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 3, 15; 77-605, S. 15, 21; P.A. 79-493, S. 3, 9; P.A. 83-249, S. 4, 14; 83-493, S. 1, 5; P.A. 84-52, S. 6; P.A. 86-403, S. 94, 132; P.A. 89-97, S. 1, 7; 89-369, S. 2; P.A. 92-149, S. 10, 12; P.A. 94-172; P.A. 95-291; P.A. 99-55.)
History: P.A. 77-605 specifically provided that advisory opinions be published in the Connecticut Law Journal; P.A. 79-493 limited the issuance of advisory opinions to those in which at least four members concur; P.A. 83-249 deleted the words "subject to the provisions of this part" modifying "public official or state employee" in Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (a); P.A. 83-493 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that advisory opinions shall be deemed to be final decisions of the commission for purposes of Sec. 1-87; P.A. 84-52 made technical changes to reflect relettering of subsections in Sec. 1-82; P.A. 86- 403 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 89-97 added Subdiv. (5) requiring commission to adopt regulations; P.A. 89-369 amended Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (a) to authorize any "person subject to the provisions of this part", instead of any "public official or state employee", to request an advisory opinion; P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (b) to authorize employment of an executive director and general counsel; P.A. 94-172 inserted new Subdivs. (5) and (6) re model codes of ethics and renumbered former Subdiv. (5) as (7); P.A. 95-291 amended Subdivs. (5) and (6) of Subsec. (a) by repealing requirement that the commission enforce model codes for municipalities and districts (Revisor's note: In Subdiv. (6) the word "and" was added editorially by the Revisors before "provide" to correspond with technical change enacted in Subdiv. (5)); P.A. 99-55 amended Subsec. (a)(4) by changing reporting date from February to April.
See Sec. 1-92 re commission's duties with regard to lobbyists.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-82. Complaints. Procedure. Time limits. Investigation; notice; hearings. Attorneys' fees. Damages for complaints without foundation. (a)(1) Upon the complaint of any person on a form prescribed by the commission, signed under penalty of false statement, or upon its own complaint, the commission shall investigate any alleged violation of this part. Not later than five days after the receipt or issuance of such complaint, the commission shall provide notice of such receipt or issuance and a copy of the complaint by registered or certified mail to any respondent against whom such complaint is filed and shall provide notice of the receipt of such complaint to the complainant. When the commission undertakes an evaluation of a possible violation of this part prior to the filing of a complaint by the commission, the subject of the evaluation shall be notified within five business days after a commission staff member's first contact with a third party concerning the matter.
(2) In the conduct of its investigation of an alleged violation of this part, the commission shall have the power to hold hearings, administer oaths, examine witnesses, receive oral and documentary evidence, subpoena witnesses under procedural rules adopted by the commission as regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to compel attendance before the commission and to require the production for examination by the commission of any books and papers which the commission deems relevant in any matter under investigation or in question. In the exercise of such powers, the commission may use the services of the state police, who shall provide the same upon the commission's request. The commission shall make a record of all proceedings conducted pursuant to this subsection. Any witness summoned before the commission shall receive the witness fee paid to witnesses in the courts of this state. During the investigation the respondent shall have the right to appear and be heard and to offer any information which may tend to clear him of probable cause to believe he has violated any provision of this part. The respondent shall also have the right to be represented by legal counsel and to examine and cross-examine witnesses. Not later than ten days prior to the commencement of any hearing conducted pursuant to this subsection, the commission shall provide the respondent with a list of its intended witnesses. The commission shall make no finding that there is probable cause to believe the respondent is in violation of any provision of this part except upon the concurring vote of four of its members.
(b) If a preliminary investigation indicates that probable cause exists for the violation of a provision of this part, the commission shall initiate hearings to determine whether there has been a violation of this part. A judge trial referee, who shall be assigned by the Chief Court Administrator and who shall be compensated in accordance with section 52-434 out of funds available to the commission, shall preside over such hearing and shall rule on all matters concerning the application of the rules of evidence, which shall be the same as in judicial proceedings. The trial referee shall have no vote in any decision of the commission. All hearings of the commission held pursuant to this subsection shall be open. At such hearing the commission shall have the same powers as under subsection (a) of this section and the respondent shall have the right to be represented by legal counsel, the right to compel attendance of witnesses and the production of books, documents, records and papers and to examine and cross-examine witnesses. Not later than ten days prior to the commencement of any hearing conducted pursuant to this subsection, the commission shall provide the respondent with a list of its intended witnesses. The judge trial referee shall, while engaged in the discharge of his duties as provided in this subsection, have the same authority as is provided in section 51-35 over witnesses who refuse to obey a subpoena or to testify with respect to any matter upon which such witness may be lawfully interrogated, and may commit any such witness for contempt for a period no longer than thirty days. The commission shall make a record of all proceedings pursuant to this subsection. The commission shall find no person in violation of any provision of this part except upon the concurring vote of five of its members. Not later than fifteen days after the public hearing conducted in accordance with this subsection, the commission shall publish its finding and a memorandum of the reasons therefor. Such finding and memorandum shall be deemed to be the final decision of the commission on the matter for the purposes of chapter 54. The respondent, if aggrieved by the finding and memorandum, may appeal therefrom to the Superior Court in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183.
(c) If the commission finds, after a hearing pursuant to this section, that there is no probable cause to believe that a public official or state employee has violated a provision of this part or that a public official or state employee has not violated any such provision, or if a court of competent jurisdiction overturns a finding by the commission of a violation by such a respondent, the state shall pay the reasonable legal expenses of the respondent as determined by the Attorney General or by the court if appropriate. If any complaint brought under the provisions of this part is made with the knowledge that it is made without foundation in fact, the respondent shall have a cause of action against the complainant for double the amount of damage caused thereby and if the respondent prevails in such action, he may be awarded by the court the costs of such action together with reasonable attorneys' fees.
(d) No complaint may be made under this section except within three years next after the violation alleged in the complaint has been committed.
(e) No person shall take or threaten to take official action against an individual for such individual's disclosure of information to the commission under the provisions of this part. After receipt of information from an individual under the provisions of this part, the commission shall not disclose the identity of such individual without his consent unless the commission determines that such disclosure is unavoidable during the course of an investigation.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 4, 15; 77-605, S. 16, 21; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-493, S. 4, 9; P.A. 81-296, S. 1; P.A. 83-249, S. 5, 14; 83-586, S. 2, 14; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-15, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-52, S. 1; 84-519, S. 1; P.A. 85-290, S. 1; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 14; P.A. 92-29, S. 1; P.A. 94-132, S. 1; P.A. 96-37, S. 1.)
History: P.A. 77-605 removed subpoena power and permission to use services of state police from investigation process in Subsec. (a) and placed these provisions in Subsec. (c) under the hearing process; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 placed the state police within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-493 required concurring vote of four members for finding of probable cause; P.A. 81-296 added Subsec. (e) establishing a three-year time limit for complaints; P.A. 83-249 made technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provisions concerning publication of commission findings and confidentiality of record; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-15 amended Subsec. (d) to provide for state reimbursement of legal expenses of respondent in some instances; P.A. 84-52 eliminated provisions re confidentiality of investigations and publication of findings; P.A. 84-519 amended section to grant subpoena power to commission at all stages of investigation, to require commission to meet prior to commencing investigation and to exempt such meetings from the freedom of information act, and deleted provision authorizing commission witnesses to be paid witness fees awarded court witnesses; P.A. 85-290 amended Subsec. (a) to require that commission notify persons under evaluation within five business days after a commission staff member's first contact with a third party concerning the matter; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to require trial referee or senior judge, instead of commission, to make determinations re violations; P.A. 92-29 amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) by eliminating references to senior judges; P.A. 94-132 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) by deleting provisions re meeting to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to warrant inquiry, changing notice deadline from five days after meeting to five days after receipt or issuance of complaint, and making technical grammatical changes, amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by adding "of an alleged violation of this part" after "investigation", deleting provision re deadline for adoption of regulations, and adding provisions re record of proceedings and list of intended witnesses, amended Subsec. (b) by specifying trial referee has no vote in commission decision, adding "of the commission held" after "all hearings" giving commission, rather than trial referee, the same powers as under Subsec. (a), adding provisions re list of intended witnesses and vote required for finding of violation, changing publisher of finding and memorandum from trial referee to commission, and deleting provision re commission aggrieved by finding and memorandum, amended Subsec. (c) by deleting provision re trial referee overturning finding by commission, changing finding that may be overturned by court from one of trial referee to one of commission, and making technical changes, and added new Subsec. (e) re individuals who disclose information to commission; P.A. 96-37 amended Subsec. (b) by changing "state trial referee" to "judge trial referee".
Cited. 222 C. 799, 815. Cited. 224 C. 29, 37.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-82a. Confidentiality of complaints, evaluations of possible violations and investigations. Publication of findings. (a) Unless the commission makes a finding of probable cause, a complaint alleging a violation of this part shall be confidential except upon the request of the respondent. A commission evaluation of a possible violation of this part prior to the filing of a complaint by the commission shall be confidential except upon the request of the subject of the evaluation. If the evaluation is confidential, any information supplied to or received from the commission shall not be disclosed to any third party by a subject of the evaluation, a person contacted for the purpose of obtaining information or by a commission or staff member. No provision of this subsection shall prevent the Ethics Commission from reporting the possible commission of a crime to the Chief State's Attorney or other prosecutorial authority.
(b) An investigation conducted prior to a probable cause finding shall be confidential except upon the request of the respondent. If the investigation is confidential, the allegations in the complaint and any information supplied to or received from the commission shall not be disclosed during the investigation to any third party by a complainant, respondent, witness, designated party, or commission or staff member.
(c) Not later than three business days after the termination of the investigation, the commission shall inform the complainant and the respondent of its finding and provide them a summary of its reasons for making that finding. The commission shall publish its finding upon the respondent's request and may also publish a summary of its reasons for making such finding.
(d) If the commission makes a finding of no probable cause, the complaint and the record of its investigation shall remain confidential, except upon the request of the respondent and except that some or all of the record may be used in subsequent proceedings. No complainant, respondent, witness, designated party, or commission or staff member shall disclose to any third party any information learned from the investigation, including knowledge of the existence of a complaint, which the disclosing party would not otherwise have known. If such a disclosure is made, the commission may, after consultation with the respondent if the respondent is not the source of the disclosure, publish its finding and a summary of its reasons therefor.
(e) The commission shall make public a finding of probable cause not later than five business days after the termination of the investigation. At such time the entire record of the investigation shall become public, except that the commission may post- pone examination or release of such public records for a period not to exceed fourteen days for the purpose of reaching a stipulation agreement pursuant to subsection (c) of section 4-177.
(P.A. 84-52, S. 2; P.A. 85-290, S. 2; P.A. 88-317, S. 40, 107; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 15; P.A. 94-132, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 85-290 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions re confidentiality of a commission evaluation prior to the filing of a complaint; P.A. 88-317 substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (d)" in reference to Sec. 4-177, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 repealed former Subsec. (f) re publication of commission finding and memorandum under Sec. 1-82(b); P.A. 94-132 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize reports to prosecutorial authority other than chief state's attorney.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-83. Statements of financial interests. Filing requirements. Ethics statements. (a)(1) All state-wide elected officers, members of the General Assembly, department heads and their deputies, members of the Gaming Policy Board, the executive director of the Division of Special Revenue within the Department of Revenue Services, members or directors of each quasi-public agency, members of the Investment Advisory Council, state marshal and such members of the Executive Department and such employees of quasi-public agencies as the Governor shall require, shall file, under penalty of false statement, a statement of financial interests for the preceding calendar year with the commission on or before the May first next in any year in which they hold such a position. Any such individual who leaves his or her office or position shall file a statement of financial interests covering that portion of the year during which such individual held his or her office or position. The commission shall notify such individuals of the requirements of this subsection within thirty days after their departure from such office or position. Such individuals shall file such statement within sixty days after receipt of the notification.
(2) Each state agency, department, board and commission shall develop and implement, in cooperation with the Ethics Commission, an ethics statement as it relates to the mission of the agency, department, board or commission. The executive head of each such agency, department, board or commission shall be directly responsible for the development and enforcement of such ethics statement and shall file a copy of such ethics statement with the Department of Administrative Services and the Ethics Commission.
(b) (1) The statement of financial interests, except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, shall include the following information for the preceding calendar year in regard to the individual required to file the statement and the individual's spouse and dependent children residing in the individual's household: (A) The names of all businesses with which associated; (B) the category or type of all sources of income in excess of one thousand dollars, without specifying amounts of income; (C) the name of securities in excess of five thousand dollars at fair market value owned by such individual, spouse or dependent children or held in the name of a corporation, partnership or trust for the benefit of such individual, spouse or dependent children; (D) the existence of any known blind trust and the names of the trustees; (E) all real property and its location, whether owned by such individual, spouse or dependent children or held in the name of a corporation, partnership or trust for the benefit of such individual, spouse or dependent children; (F) the names and addresses of creditors to whom the individual, the individual's spouse or dependent children, individually, owed debts of more than ten thousand dollars; and (G) any leases or contracts with the state held or entered into by the individual or a business with which he was associated. (2) The statement of financial interests filed by state marshals shall include only amounts and sources of income earned in their capacity as state marshals.
(c) The statement of financial interests filed pursuant to this section shall be a matter of public information, except the list of names, filed in accordance with subparagraph (F) of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section shall be sealed and confidential and for the use of the commission only after a complaint has been filed under section 1-82 and such complaint has been determined by a vote of the commission to be of sufficient merit and gravity to justify the unsealing of such list or lists and not open to public inspection unless the respondent requests otherwise. If the commission reports its findings to the Chief State's Attorney in accordance with subsection (c) of section 1-88, the commission shall turn over to the Chief State's Attorney such relevant information contained in the statement as may be germane to the specific violation or violations or a prosecutorial official may subpoena such statement in a criminal action. Unless otherwise a matter of public record, the Ethics Commission shall not disclose to the public any such subpoena which would be exempt from disclosure by the issuing agency.
(d) Any individual who is unable to provide information required under the provisions of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section by reason of impossibility may petition the commission for a waiver of the requirements.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 5, 15; P.A. 79-549; P.A. 80-482, S. 342, 343, 345, 348; P.A. 83-249, S. 6, 14; 83-270, S. 3; 83-586, S. 3, 14; P.A. 84-21, S. 1, 5; 84-335, S. 2, 4; 84-546, S. 141, 173; P.A. 87-524, S. 5, 7; P.A. 88-139, S. 2; 88-225, S. 2, 14; P.A. 89-97, S. 2, 7; 89-145; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 8; P.A. 94-126, S. 1; 94-132, S. 3; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97- 6, S. 12, 14; P.A. 00-43, S. 17, 19; 00-66, S. 1; 00-99, S. 14, 154.)
History: P.A. 79-549 included members of gaming policy board, executive director of division of special revenue within the department of business regulation under filing requirements; P.A. 80-482 changed "business regulation" to "revenue services", expanded provisions regarding the executive director and limited revenue services' control to administrative purposes only; P.A. 83-249 changed "commissioners and deputy commissioners" to "department heads and their deputies" and made technical amendments; P.A. 83-270 amended Subsec. (a) to include members of the board of directors of the Connecticut resources recovery authority under filing requirements; P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (a) to require post- termination filing of financial statement, amended Subsec. (b) to allow for nondisclosure of privileged information, to clarify that reporting threshold figure of five thousand dollars refers to net income and to require disclosure of clients providing more than five thousand dollars of net income to any business with which the individual was associated, names of creditors and state leases and contracts, amended Subsec. (c) to allow commission access to list of names if commission determines that a complaint is of sufficient merit and gravity to justify its unsealing and added Subsec. (d) allowing waiver in cases in which it is impossible to comply with information requirements; P.A. 84-21 made technical correction in Subsec. (c) to refer to list of names of creditors as sealed and confidential; P.A. 84-335 added requirement that sheriffs and deputy sheriffs file limited financial statements; P.A. 84-546 made technical changes in Subsec. (b); P.A. 87-524 amended Subsec. (b) to specify that Subdiv. (2) shall not permit elected official to receive gift, honorarium or compensation prohibited under Sec. 9-333i(h); P.A. 88-139 amended Subsec. (a) by changing the filing deadline for statements of financial interests from April fifteenth to May first, amended Subsec. (b)(1)(C) by deleting the exception for blind trusts; added Subsec. (b)(1)(D) re blind trusts; added the language in Subsec. (b)(1)(E) re real property held for the benefit of an individual, spouse or dependent children and relettered Subparas. (E) and (F) accordingly; P.A. 88-225 amended Subsec. (a) to require (1) members or directors of each quasi-public agency, instead of only members of board of directors of Connecticut resources recovery authority, and (2) such employees of quasi-public agencies as governor requires to file statement of financial interests; P.A. 89-97 added definition of "fee" and "honorarium" in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (b) and required filing of such a fee or honorarium in an amount of one hundred dollars or more received in capacity as public official or state employee instead of fee or honorarium received for appearance or delivery of address to any meeting of an organization; P.A. 89- 145 increased threshold in Subpara. (B) of Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (b) for reporting names and addresses of clients, patients and customers providing income to individual, from five thousand to ten thousand dollars; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 deleted former Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (b) re disclosure of fees and honoraria and renumbered Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (2); P.A. 94-126 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new Subdiv. (2) re ethics statements and clarified that Subsecs. (b) and (c) apply to statements of financial interests; P.A. 94-132 amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re disclosure of subpoenas; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (b) to delete requirement that statement of financial interests include names and addresses of clients, patients and customers who provide more than ten thousand dollars of net income, effective January 1, 1998; P.A. 00-43 amended Subsec. (a) to extend provisions of section to members of the Investment Advisory Council and to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective May 3, 2000; P.A. 00-66 made technical changes in Subsec. (b); P.A. 00-99 changed reference to sheriffs and deputy sheriffs to state marshals in Subsecs. (a) and (b), effective December 1, 2000.
Disclosure obligations under statute not subject to disclosure requirement of Sec. 1-19(a). 18 CA 212, 213, 215−218.
Subsec. (b):
Subdivs. (1) and (3) cited. 18 CA 212, 216. Subpara. (1) (B) cited. Id., 212, 216, 217.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 18 CA 212, 217.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-84. (Formerly Sec. 1-66). Prohibited activities. (a) No public official or state employee shall, while serving as such, have any financial interest in, or engage in, any business, employment, transaction or professional activity, which is in substantial conflict with the proper discharge of his duties or employment in the public interest and of his responsibilities as prescribed in the laws of this state, as defined in section 1-85.
(b) No public official or state employee shall accept other employment which will either impair his independence of judgment as to his official duties or employment or require him, or induce him, to disclose confidential information acquired by him in the course of and by reason of his official duties.
(c) No public official or state employee shall wilfully and knowingly disclose, for financial gain, to any other person, confidential information acquired by him in the course of and by reason of his official duties or employment and no public official or state employee shall use his public office or position or any confidential information received through his holding such public office or position to obtain financial gain for himself, his spouse, child, child's spouse, parent, brother or sister or a business with which he is associated.
(d) No public official or state employee or employee of such public official or state employee shall agree to accept, or be a member or employee of a partnership, association, professional corporation or sole proprietorship which partnership, association, professional corporation or sole proprietorship agrees to accept any employment, fee or other thing of value, or portion thereof, for appearing, agreeing to appear, or taking any other action on behalf of another person before the Department of Banking, the Claims Commissioner, the Office of Health Care Access, the Insurance Department, the office within the Department of Consumer Protection that carries out the duties and responsibilities of sections 30-2 to 30-68m, inclusive, the Department of Motor Vehicles, the State Insurance and Risk Management Board, the Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Public Utility Control, the Connecticut Siting Council, the Division of Special Revenue within the Department of Revenue Services, the Gaming Policy Board within the Department of Revenue Services or the Connecticut Real Estate Commission; provided this shall not prohibit any such person from making inquiry for information on behalf of another before any of said commissions or commissioners if no fee or reward is given or promised in consequence thereof. For the purpose of this subsection, partnerships, associations, professional corporations or sole proprietorships refer only to such partnerships, associations, professional corporations or sole proprietorships which have been formed to carry on the business or profession directly relating to the employment, appearing, agreeing to appear or taking of action provided for in this subsection. Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit any employment, appearing, agreeing to appear or taking action before any municipal board, commission or council. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as applying (1) to the actions of any teaching or research professional employee of a public institution of higher education if such actions are not in violation of any other provision of this chapter, (2) to the actions of any other professional employee of a public institution of higher education if such actions are not compensated and are not in violation of any other provision of this chapter, (3) to any member of a board or commission who receives no compensation other than per diem payments or reimbursement for actual or necessary expenses, or both, incurred in the performance of the member's duties or (4) to any member or director of a quasi-public agency. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, a legislator, an officer of the General Assembly or part-time legislative employee may be or become a member or employee of a firm, partnership, association or professional corporation which represents clients for compensation before agencies listed in this subsection, provided the legislator, officer of the General Assembly or part-time legislative employee shall take no part in any matter involving the agency listed in this subsection and shall not receive compensation from any such matter. Receipt of a previously established salary, not based on the current or anticipated business of the firm, partnership, association or professional corporation involving the agencies listed in this subsection, shall be permitted.
(e) No legislative commissioner or his partners, employees or associates shall represent any person subject to the provisions of part II concerning the promotion of or opposition to legislation before the General Assembly, or accept any employment which includes an agreement or understanding to influence, or which is inconsistent with, the performance of his official duties.
(f) No person shall offer or give to a public official or state employee or candidate for public office or his spouse, his parent, brother, sister or child or spouse of such child or a business with which he is associated, anything of value, including but not limited to, a gift, loan, political contribution, reward or promise of future employment based on any understanding that the vote, official action or judgment of the public official, state employee or candidate for public office would be or had been influenced thereby.
(g) No public official or state employee or candidate for public office shall solicit or accept anything of value, including but not limited to, a gift, loan, political contribution, reward or promise of future employment based on any understanding that the vote, official action or judgment of the public official or state employee or candidate for public office would be or had been influenced thereby.
(h) Nothing in subsection (f) or (g) of this section shall be construed (1) to apply to any promise made in violation of subdivision (6) of section 9-333x or (2) to permit any activity otherwise prohibited in section 53a-147 or 53a-148.
(i) No public official or state employee or member of his immediate family or a business with which he is associated shall enter into any contract with the state, valued at one hundred dollars or more, other than a contract of employment as a state employee or pursuant to a court appointment, unless the contract has been awarded through an open and public process, including prior public offer and subsequent public disclosure of all proposals considered and the contract awarded. In no event shall an executive head of an agency, as defined in section 4-166, including a commissioner of a department, or an executive head of a quasi-public agency, as defined in section 1-79, or his immediate family or a business with which he is associated enter into any contract with that agency or quasi-public agency. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as applying to any public official who is appointed as a member of the executive branch or as a member or director of a quasi-public agency and who receives no compensation other than per diem payments or reimbursement for actual or necessary expenses, or both, incurred in the performance of his duties unless such public official has authority or control over the subject matter of the contract. Any contract made in violation of this subsection shall be voidable by a court of competent jurisdiction if the suit is commenced within ninety days of the making of the contract.
(j) No public official, state employee or candidate for public office, or a member of any such person's staff or immediate family shall knowingly accept any gift, as defined in subsection (e) of section 1-79, from a person known to be a registrant or anyone known to be acting on behalf of a registrant.
(k) No public official or state employee shall accept a fee or honorarium for an article, appearance or speech, or for participation at an event, in the public official's or state employee's official capacity, provided a public official or state employee may receive payment or reimbursement for necessary expenses for any such activity in his official capacity. If a public official or state employee receives such a payment or reimbursement for lodging or out-of-state travel or both, the official or employee shall, within thirty days, file a report of the payment or reimbursement with the commission, unless the payment or reimbursement is provided by the federal government or another state government. If a public official or state employee does not file such report within such period, either intentionally or due to gross negligence on the public official's or state employee's part, the public official or state employee shall return the payment or reimbursement. If any failure to file such report is not intentional or due to gross negligence on the part of the public official or state employee, the public official or state employee shall not be subject to any penalty under this chapter. When a public official or state employee attends an event in this state in the public official's or state employee's official capacity and as a principal speaker at such event and receives admission to or food or beverage at such event from the sponsor of the event, such admission or food or beverage shall not be considered a gift and no report shall be required from such official or employee or from the sponsor of the event.
(l) No public official or state employee, or any person acting on behalf of a public official or state employee, shall wilfully and knowingly interfere with, influence, direct or solicit existing or new lobbying contracts, agreements or business relationships for or on behalf of any person.
(m) No public official or state employee shall knowingly accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, as defined in subsection (e) of section 1-79, from any person the official or employee knows or has reason to know: (1) Is doing business with or seeking to do business with the department or agency in which the official or employee is employed or (2) is engaged in activities which are directly regulated by such department or agency. No person shall knowingly give, directly or indirectly, any gift or gifts in violation of this provision.
(n) As used in this subsection, "investment services" means legal services, investment banking services, investment advisory services, underwriting services, financial advisory services or brokerage firm services. The Treasurer shall not pay any compensation, expenses or fees or issue any contract to any firm which provides investment services when (1) a political committee, as defined in section 9-333a, established by such firm, or (2) an individual who is an owner of such firm or employed by such firm as a manager, officer, director, partner or employee with managerial or discretionary responsibilities to invest, manage funds or provide investment services for brokerage, underwriting and financial advisory activities which are in the statutory and constitutional purview of the Treasurer, has made a contribution, as defined in section 9-333b, on or after October 1, 1995, to, or solicited contributions on or after said date on behalf of, any exploratory committee or candidate committee, as defined in section 9-333a, established by a candidate for nomination or election to the office of Treasurer. The Treasurer shall not pay any compensation, expenses or fees or issue any contract to such firms and individuals during the term of office as Treasurer, including, for an incumbent Treasurer seeking reelection, any remainder of the current term of office.
(o) Any person who (1) (A) is doing business with or seeking to do business with the department or agency in which a public official or state employee is employed or (B) is engaged in activities which are directly regulated by such department or agency and (2) gives to such public official or state employee anything of value which is subject to the reporting requirements pursuant to subsection (e) of section 1-96 shall, not later than ten days thereafter, give such recipient a written report stating the name of the donor, a description of the item or items given, the value of such items and the cumulative value of all items given to such recipient during that calendar year. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to a political contribution otherwise reported as required by law.
(1971, P.A. 822, S. 1; P.A. 75-605, S. 20, 27; P.A. 76-302, S. 1, 3; P.A. 77-600, S. 6, 15; 77-604, S. 68, 84; 77-605, S. 13, 21; 77-614, S. 165, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 37, 136; P.A. 79-404, S. 1, 45; 79-493, S. 5, 7, 9; P.A. 80-482, S. 1, 4, 170, 191, 345, 348; 80-483, S. 2, 186; P.A. 82-423, S. 6, 8; P.A. 83-249, S. 7, 14; 83-586, S. 4, 14; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; 87-234; 87-524, S. 6, 7; P.A. 88-225, S. 3, 14; P.A. 89-369, S. 3; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 2, 6, 22; P.A. 92-149, S. 1, 12; P.A. 94-69, S. 2, 3; P.A. 95-188, S. 1; 95-195, S. 4, 83; 95-257, S. 39, 58; P.A. 96-11, S. 1, 5; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97- 6, S. 2−5, 14; P.A. 99-51, S. 1, 9; 99-145, S. 14, 23; P.A. 00-66, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 75-605 changed "commission on claims" to "claims commissioner"; P.A. 76-302 added Subsec. (e); P.A. 77-600 broadened scope of section regarding prohibited activities and those who are affected by the prohibitions and added Subsecs. (f) to (i), effective January 1, 1978; P.A. 77-604 changed sections referred to in Subsec. (h), effective January 1, 1978; P.A. 77-605 expanded scope of prohibitions in Subsec. (e); in Subsec. (d) P.A. 77-614 changed "liquor control commission" to "division of liquor control within the department of business regulation"; in Subsec. (d) P.A. 78-303 changed "state banking commission" to "banking commissioner", effective January 1, 1979; in 1979 Sec. 1-66 transferred to Sec. 1-84; P.A. 79-404 changed "commission on special revenue" to "division of special revenue" and added the gaming policy board in Subsec. (d); P.A. 79-493 clarified prohibited conduct in Subsec. (d) and excluded members of advisory boards and commissions receiving per diem or reimbursement for expenses from provisions and excluded executive branch officials from provisions of Subsec. (i) except in certain cases; P.A. 80-482 deleted references to business regulation and reflected changes placing special revenue and the gaming policy board within the department of revenue services and creating the banking, insurance, liquor control and public utility control departments; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 82-423 added Subsec. (j) which placed fifty dollar limit on gifts accepted by public officials; P.A. 83-249 limited prohibition to financial interest or gains; P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (d) to include appearance or action before commission on hospitals and health care, insurance department, department of public utility control or Connecticut siting council, effective January 9, 1985; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9, "banking department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "department of banking"); P.A. 87-234 amended Subsec. (d) to exempt from provisions of Subsec. (d) actions of teaching or research professional employees of public institutions of higher education, regardless of whether such actions are compensated; P.A. 87-524 added provision in Subsec. (h) that Subsecs. (f) and (g) shall not apply to promise violating Subdiv. (6) of Sec. 9-333x; P.A. 88-225 added Subdiv. (4) to Subsec. (d), exempting members and directors of quasi- public agencies from application of Subsec. (d) and amended Subsec. (i) to exempt certain members and directors of quasi- public agencies from application of Subsec. (i); P.A. 89-369 applied section to sole proprietorships; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsec. (j) by inserting "knowingly" and making a technical change and added Subsec. (k) re fees and honoraria and Subsec. (l) re influence with lobbying contracts, agreements or business relationships; P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (d) to allow firms employing legislators or legislative employees to represent clients before specific agencies provided such employee derives no compensation from such representation, amended Subsec. (k) to allow public officials or state employees to receive payment or reimbursements for necessary expenses for lodging, out-of-state travel or both provided a report is filed with the commission and added new Subsec. (m) re acceptance of gifts in excess of fifty dollars; P.A. 94-69 amended Subsec. (m) by deleting "serving in the executive branch or a quasi-public agency" after "state employee", effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 95-188 added Subsec. (n) re contributions to candidates for Treasurer by "investment services" firms or individuals associated with such firms; P.A. 95-195 amended Subsec. (d) to replace reference to Department of Liquor Control with reference to office within the Department of Consumer Protection carrying out the duties of Secs. 30-2 to 30-68m, inclusive, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-257 amended Subsec. (d) to replace Commission on Hospitals and Health Care with Office of Health Care Access, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-11 amended Subsec. (i) to prohibit an executive head of an agency or his immediate family or a business with which he is associated from entering into a contract with that agency, effective January 1, 1997; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subsec. (j) to delete reference to gifts of fifty dollars or more in value, amended Subsec. (k) to provide that admission to, and food and beverage consumed at, an event are not considered a gift if consumed at the event, if official or employee attends in official capacity or as principal speaker, amended Subsec. (m) to delete reference to gifts of fifty dollars or more in value and to delete Subdiv. (3) re financial interests that may be substantially affected by performance or nonperformance of duties and added new Subsec. (o) re written reports by person who is doing business with agency and who gives something of value to a public official or employee of that agency, effective January 1, 1998; P.A. 99-51 amended Subsec. (d) to substitute "State Insurance and Risk Management Board" for "State Insurance Purchasing Board" and to make existing provisions gender neutral, effective May 27, 1999; P.A. 99-145 amended Subsec. (d) to substitute "State Insurance and Risk Management Board" for "State Insurance Purchasing Board", effective June 8, 1999; P.A. 00-66 made technical changes in Subsec. (k).
See Sec. 1-79a re calculation of dollar limit on gifts.
Subsec. (c):
Cited. 229 C. 479, 494.
Ethics Commission has jurisdiction in case involving the use of office by state employee for financial gain even if employee's behavior could arguably subject him to discipline by Commissioner of Administrative Services pursuant to State Personnel Act. 53 CA 808.
Not unconstitutionally void for vagueness or overbroad as applied to plaintiff, a high sheriff engaged in fee splitting. 45 CS 242.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-84a. Disclosure or use of confidential information by former official or employee. No former executive or legislative branch or quasi-public agency public official or state employee shall disclose or use confidential information acquired in the course of and by reason of his official duties, for financial gain for himself or another person.
(P.A. 83-586, S. 5; P.A. 88-225, S. 4, 14.)
History: P.A. 88-225 applied provisions of section to quasi-public agency public officials and state employees.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-84b. Certain activities restricted after leaving public office or employment. (a) No former executive branch or quasi-public agency public official or state employee shall represent anyone other than the state, concerning any particular matter (1) in which he participated personally and substantially while in state service and (2) in which the state has a substantial interest.
(b) No former executive branch or quasi-public agency public official or state employee shall, for one year after leaving state service, represent anyone, other than the state, for compensation before the department, agency, board, commission, council or office in which he served at the time of his termination of service, concerning any matter in which the state has a substantial interest. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to an attorney who is a former employee of the Division of Criminal Justice, with respect to any representation in a matter under the jurisdiction of a court.
(c) The provisions of this subsection apply to present or former executive branch public officials or state employees who hold or formerly held positions which involve significant decision-making or supervisory responsibility and are designated as such by the State Ethics Commission in consultation with the agency concerned except that such provisions shall not apply to members or former members of the boards or commissions who serve ex officio, who are required by statute to represent the regulated industry or who are permitted by statute to have a past or present affiliation with the regulated industry. Designation of positions subject to the provisions of this subsection shall be by regulations adopted by the State Ethics Commission in accordance with chapter 54. As used in this subsection, "agency" means the Office of Health Care Access, the Connecticut Siting Council, the Department of Banking, the Insurance Department, the Department of Public Safety, the office within the Department of Consumer Protection that carries out the duties and responsibilities of sections 30-2 to 30-68m, inclusive, the Department of Public Utility Control, including the Office of Consumer Counsel, the Division of Special Revenue and the Gaming Policy Board and the term "employment" means professional services or other services rendered as an employee or as an independent contractor.
(1) No public official or state employee, in an executive branch position designated by the State Ethics Commission shall negotiate for, seek or accept employment with any business subject to regulation by his agency.
(2) No former public official or state employee who held such a position in the executive branch shall within one year after leaving an agency, accept employment with a business subject to regulation by that agency.
(3) No business shall employ a present or former public official or state employee in violation of this subsection.
(d) The provisions of subsection (e) of this section apply to (1) present or former Gaming Policy Board or Division of Special Revenue public officials or state employees who hold or formerly held positions which involve significant decision-making or supervisory responsibility and are designated as such by the State Ethics Commission, in consultation with the agency concerned, and (2) present or former public officials or state employees of other agencies who hold or formerly held positions which involve significant decision-making or supervisory responsibility concerning the regulation or investigation of (A) any business entity (i) engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state and (ii) in which a federally-recognized Indian tribe in the state owns a controlling interest or (B) a governmental agency of a federally-recognized Indian tribe engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state, which positions are designated as such by the State Ethics Commission, in consultation with the agency concerned. Designation of positions subject to the provisions of this subsection shall be by regulations adopted by the State Ethics Commission in accordance with chapter 54. As used in subsection (e) of this section, the term "employment" means professional services or other services rendered as an employee or as an independent contractor.
(e) (1) No Gaming Policy Board or Division of Special Revenue public official or state employee or other public official or state employee described in subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of this section, in a position designated by the State Ethics Commission, shall negotiate for, seek or accept employment with (A) a business entity (i) engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state and (ii) in which a federally-recognized Indian tribe in the state owns a controlling interest or (B) a governmental agency of a federally- recognized Indian tribe engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state.
(2) No former Gaming Policy Board or Division of Special Revenue public official or state employee or other former public official or state employee described in subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of this section, who held such a position shall, within two years after leaving such agency, accept employment with (A) a business entity (i) engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state and (ii) in which a federally-recognized Indian tribe in the state owns a controlling interest or (B) a governmental agency of a federally- recognized Indian tribe engaged in Indian gaming operations in the state.
(f) No former public official or state employee (1) who participated substantially in the negotiation or award of (A) a state contract valued at an amount of fifty thousand dollars or more or (B) a written agreement for the approval of a payroll deduction slot described in section 3-123g, or (2) who supervised the negotiation or award of such a contract or agreement, shall accept employment with a party to the contract or agreement other than the state for a period of one year after his resignation from his state office or position if his resignation occurs less than one year after the contract or agreement is signed.
(g) No member or director of a quasi-public agency who participates substantially in the negotiation or award of a contract valued at an amount of fifty thousand dollars or more, or who supervised the negotiation or award of such a contract, shall seek, accept, or hold employment with a party to the contract for a period of one year after the signing of the contract.
(h) The regulations required to implement the provisions of subsection (c) of this section may be adopted by the State Ethics Commission prior to January 7, 1987, but may not take effect prior to that date.
(i) The provisions of subsections (a), (b) and (f) of this section shall not apply to any employee of a quasi-public agency who leaves such agency before July 1, 1989.
(j) No Treasurer who authorizes, negotiates or renegotiates a contract for investment services valued at an amount of fifty thousand dollars or more shall negotiate for, seek or accept employment with a party to the contract prior to one year after the end of the Treasurer's term of office within which such contract for investment services was authorized, negotiated or renegotiated by such Treasurer.
(P.A. 83-586, S. 6, 14; P.A. 86-250, S. 3, 4; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 88-22, S. 1; 88-225, S. 5, 14; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-144, S. 10, 11; 95-195, S. 6, 83; 95-257, S. 39, 58; P.A. 96-156, S. 5; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 13, 14; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 80, 121; P.A. 00-43, S. 15, 19; 00-66, S. 3.)
History: P.A. 83-586, S. 6, effective January 7, 1987; P.A. 86-250 added Subsec. (e) permitting adoption of regulations to implement provisions of Subsec. (c) prior to January 7, 1987; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9, "banking department" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "department of banking"); P.A. 88-22 substituted in Subsec. (c) the office of consumer counsel for the division of consumer counsel; P.A. 88-225 applied provisions of Subsec. (b) to quasi-public agency public officials and state employees, inserted new Subsec. (e) re employment prohibition for certain members and directors of quasi-public agencies, relettered former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f) and added Subsec. (g) providing that Subsecs. (a), (b) and (d) shall not apply to any quasi-public agency employee leaving agency before July 1, 1989; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (b) to exempt from the prohibition of this subsection attorneys who are former employees of the division of criminal justice, "with respect to any representation of a criminal defendant in a matter under the jurisdiction of a court", effective December 13, 1994; P.A. 95-144 amended Subsec. (b) by applying exception from its provisions for attorneys to any representation in a court matter, instead of to any representation "of a criminal defendant" in a court matter, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-195 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute Department of Consumer Protection for Department of Liquor Control, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-257 amended Subsec. (c) to replace Commission on Hospitals and Health Care with Office of Health Care Access, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-156 inserted Subdiv. and Subpara. designations in Subsec. (d) and applied its provisions to persons participating in the approval of a payroll deduction slot; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subsec. (c) to add the Department of Public Safety, inserted new Subsec. (d) re applicability of Subsec. (e) and inserted new Subsec. (e) to prohibit certain public officials and state employees from employment with entities engaged in Indian gaming operations and to prohibit such employment for a period of two years after leaving certain state agencies, relettering prior Subsecs. accordingly, effective July 1, 1997; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subsec. (f) by substituting "3-123g" for "3-123", effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 00-43 added Subsec. (j) re Treasurer's employment with parties to certain investment services contracts, effective May 3, 2000; P.A. 00-66 changed a subsection reference in Subsec. (d).

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-85. (Formerly Sec. 1-68). Interest in conflict with discharge of duties. A public official, including an elected state official, or state employee has an interest which is in substantial conflict with the proper discharge of his duties or employment in the public interest and of his responsibilities as prescribed in the laws of this state, if he has reason to believe or expect that he, his spouse, a dependent child, or a business with which he is associated will derive a direct monetary gain or suffer a direct monetary loss, as the case may be, by reason of his official activity. A public official, including an elected state official, or state employee does not have an interest which is in substantial conflict with the proper discharge of his duties in the public interest and of his responsibilities as prescribed by the laws of this state, if any benefit or detriment accrues to him, his spouse, a dependent child, or a business with which he, his spouse or such dependent child is associated as a member of a profession, occupation or group to no greater extent than any other member of such profession, occupation or group. A public official, including an elected state official or state employee who has a substantial conflict may not take official action on the matter.
(1971, P.A. 822, S. 3; P.A. 77-600, S. 7, 15; P.A. 84-546, S. 142, 173; P.A. 89-97, S. 5, 7.)
History: P.A. 77-600 changed "person subject to this chapter" to "public official or state employee"; in 1979 Sec. 1- 68 transferred to Sec. 1-85; P.A. 84-546 made technical change; P.A. 89-97 amended section to specify applicability to elected state officials, state employees, their spouses and dependent children and businesses with which they are associated and to prohibit an official or employee who has substantial conflict from taking official action on the matter.
Cited. 229 C. 479, 494.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-86. Procedure when discharge of duty affects official's or state employee's financial interests. Lobbyists prohibited from accepting employment with General Assembly and General Assembly members forbidden to be lobbyists. (a) Any public official or state employee, other than an elected state official, who, in the discharge of his official duties, would be required to take an action that would affect a financial interest of himself, his spouse, parent, brother, sister, child or the spouse of a child or a business with which he is associated, other than an interest of a de minimis nature, an interest that is not distinct from that of a substantial segment of the general public or an interest in substantial conflict with the performance of official duties as defined in section 1-85 has a potential conflict of interest. Under such circumstances, he shall, if he is a member of a state regulatory agency, either excuse himself from the matter or prepare a written statement signed under penalty of false statement describing the matter requiring action and the nature of the potential conflict and explaining why despite the potential conflict, he is able to vote and otherwise participate fairly, objectively and in the public interest. He shall deliver a copy of the statement to the commission and enter a copy of the statement in the journal or minutes of the agency. If he is not a member of a state regulatory agency, he shall, in the case of either a substantial or potential conflict, prepare a written statement signed under penalty of false statement describing the matter requiring action and the nature of the conflict and deliver a copy of the statement to his immediate superior, if any, who shall assign the matter to another employee, or if he has no immediate superior, he shall take such steps as the commission shall prescribe or advise.
(b) No elected state official shall be affected by subsection (a) of this section.
(c) No person required to register with the State Ethics Commission under section 1-94 shall accept employment with the General Assembly or with any member of the General Assembly in connection with legislative action, as defined in section 1-91. No member of the General Assembly shall be a lobbyist.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 8, 15; 77-604, S. 67, 84; P.A. 81-53, S. 1, 3; 81-472, S. 114, 159; P.A. 83-249, S. 8, 14; 83-586, S. 7, 14; P.A. 85-369; P.A. 89-97, S. 6, 7.)
History: P.A. 77-604 made technical changes; P.A. 81-53 amended this section to exempt public officials and state employees from compliance with its terms with respect to actions affecting a financial interest of theirs if such interest is not distinct from that of a substantial segment of the public where prior law provided an exemption only where the interest affected was the same as that of the public in general; P.A. 81-472 made technical correction; P.A. 83-249 made technical amendments; P.A. 83-586 eliminated requirement that official or employee refrain from action or decision in all instances in which a potential conflict exists; P.A. 85-369 added Subsec. (b) which prohibits persons required to register with the state ethics commission from accepting employment with the general assembly or a member thereof in connection with legislative action, and prohibits members of the general assembly from being lobbyists; P.A. 89-97 amended Subsec. (a) to limit applicability to public officials or state employees who are not elected state officials, to specify applicability in cases of both substantial and potential conflicts of interest and to rephrase provision re voluntary withdrawal from consideration of such matters, inserted new Subsec. (b) stating that Subsec. (a) does not apply to elected state officials, and relettered the former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c).

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Secs. 1-86a to 1-86d. Reserved for future use.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-86e. Consultants and independent contractors. Prohibited activities. (a) No person hired by the state as a consultant or independent contractor shall:
(1) Use the authority provided to the person under the contract, or any confidential information acquired in the performance of the contract, to obtain financial gain for the person, an employee of the person or a member of the immediate family of any such person or employee;
(2) Accept another state contract which would impair the independent judgment of the person in the performance of the existing contract; or
(3) Accept anything of value based on an understanding that the actions of the person on behalf of the state would be influenced.
(b) No person shall give anything of value to a person hired by the state as a consultant or independent contractor based on an understanding that the actions of the consultant or independent contractor on behalf of the state would be influenced.
(June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 7.)

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-87. Aggrieved persons. Appeals. Any person aggrieved by any final decision of the commission, made pursuant to this part, may appeal such decision in accordance with the provisions of section 4-175 or section 4-183.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 9, 15; P.A. 83-586, S. 8, 14.)
History: P.A. 83-586 added reference to appeals under Sec. 4-175.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-88. Authority of commission after finding violation. (a) The commission, upon a finding made pursuant to section 1-82 that there has been a violation of any provision of this part, shall have the authority to order the violator to do any or all of the following: (1) Cease and desist the violation of this part; (2) file any report, statement or other information as required by this part; and (3) pay a civil penalty of not more than two thousand dollars for each violation of this part.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), the commission may, after a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, upon the concurring vote of five of its members, impose a civil penalty not to exceed ten dollars per day upon any individual who fails to file any report, statement or other information as required by this part. Each distinct violation of this subsection shall be a separate offense and in case of a continued violation, each day thereof shall be deemed a separate offense. In no event shall the aggregate penalty imposed for such failure to file exceed two thousand dollars.
(c) The commission may also report its finding to the Chief State's Attorney for any action deemed necessary. The commission, upon a finding made pursuant to section 1-82 that a member or member-elect of the General Assembly has violated any provision of part I of chapter 10, shall notify the appropriate house of the General Assembly, in writing, of its finding and the basis for such finding.
(d) Any person who knowingly acts in his financial interest in violation of section 1-84, 1-85 or 1-86 or any person who knowingly receives a financial advantage resulting from a violation of any of said sections shall be liable for damages in the amount of such advantage. If the commission determines that any person may be so liable, it shall immediately inform the Attorney General of that possibility.
(e) Any employee or member of the commission who, in violation of this part, discloses information filed in accordance with subparagraph (B) or subparagraph (F) of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of section 1-83, shall be dismissed, if an employee, or removed from the commission, if a member.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 10, 15; P.A. 79-493, S. 6, 9; P.A. 80-483, S. 3, 186; P.A. 81-53, S. 2, 3; P.A. 83-249, S. 9, 14; 83-493, S. 2, 5; 83-586, S. 9, 14; P.A. 84-21, S. 2, 5; 84-546, S. 143, 173; P.A. 88-139, S. 3; 88-317, S. 41, 107; P.A. 94-132, S. 4.)
History: P.A. 79-493 provided for civil penalty for failure to file required information; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 81-53 amended Subsec. (c) to require the commission to notify the general assembly of its findings and their basis in the event of a violation by a member of the general assembly; P.A. 83-249 amended Subsec. (b) to require concurring vote of five members; P.A. 83-493 added Subsec. (d) creating liability for damages on the part of any person who knowingly acts in his pecuniary interest in violation of certain code provisions or knowingly receives a pecuniary advantage resulting from a violation of those sections; P.A. 83-586 added Subsec. (e) establishing penalties for disclosure of confidential information contained in financial statements; P.A. 84-21 changed "pecuniary" interest to "financial" interest and made technical changes in Subsecs. (d) and (e); P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 88-139 made technical change in Subsec. (e); P.A. 88-317 substituted "4-176e" for "4-177" in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 94-132 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by changing maximum penalty from one thousand to two thousand dollars.
Cited. 229 C. 479, 494.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-89. Violations; penalties. Disciplinary powers of the legislature, agencies and commissions. Civil action for damages. (a) Any person who intentionally violates any provision of this part shall be imprisoned for a term not to exceed one year or shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand dollars, or both, provided no person may be found guilty of a violation of subsection (f) or (g) of section 1-84 and bribery or bribe receiving under section 53a-147 or 53a-148 upon the same incident, but such person may be charged and prosecuted for all or any of such offenses upon the same information.
(b) The penalties prescribed in this part shall not limit the power of either house of the legislature to discipline its own members or impeach a public official, and shall not limit the power of agencies or commissions to discipline their officials or employees.
(c) The Attorney General may bring a civil action against any person who may be liable for damages under the provisions of subsection (d) of section 1-88. In any such action, the Attorney General may, in the discretion of the court, recover additional damages in an amount not exceeding twice the amount of the actual damages.
(d) Any fines, penalties or damages paid, collected or recovered under section 1- 88 or this section for a violation of any provision of this part applying to the office of the Treasurer shall be deposited on a pro rata basis in any trust funds, as defined in section 3-13c, affected by such violation.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 11, 15; 77-604, S. 69, 84; 77-605, S. 12, 21; P.A. 83-493, S. 3, 5; P.A. 94-132, S. 5; P.A. 00-43, S. 8, 19.)
History: P.A. 77-604 made technical changes; P.A. 77-605 repealed specific provisions regarding penalties for false swearing for obtaining financial gain through prohibited acts; P.A. 83-493 added Subsec. (c) allowing attorney general to bring a civil action against persons liable under Subsec. (d) of Sec. 1-88 and, in the discretion of the court, to recover double damages; P.A. 94-132 amended Subsec. (a) by changing maximum fine from one thousand to two thousand dollars; P.A. 00-43 added Subsec. (d) re penalties for violations involving Treasurer's office, effective May 3, 2000.
Cited. 229 C. 479, 494.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-89a. Conferences on ethical issues. (a) In each odd-numbered calendar year, the State Ethics Commission, the Connecticut Humanities Council and the Joint Committee on Legislative Management shall conduct a conference on ethical issues affecting members of the General Assembly and lobbyists.
(b) In each even-numbered calendar year, the State Ethics Commission shall conduct a conference on ethical issues affecting executive branch and quasi-public agency public officials and state employees.
(June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 21.)

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-90. Commission to review oath of office for members of General Assembly. Section 1-90 is repealed.
(P.A. 77-600, S. 12, 15; P.A. 82-472, S. 182, 183.)

PART II
CODE OF ETHICS FOR LOBBYISTS


(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-91. Definitions. When used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires:
(a) "Administrative action" means any action or nonaction of any executive agency of the state with respect to the proposal, drafting, development, consideration, amendment, adoption or repeal of any rule, regulation or utility rate, and any action or nonaction of any executive agency or quasi-public agency, as defined in section 1-79, regarding a contract, grant, award, purchasing agreement, loan, bond, certificate, license, permit or any other matter which is within the official jurisdiction or cognizance of such an agency.
(b) "Candidate for public office" means any person who has filed a declaration of candidacy or a petition to appear on the ballot for election as a public official, or who has raised or expended money in furtherance of such candidacy, or who has been nominated for appointment to serve as a public official; but shall not include a candidate for the office of senator or representative in Congress.
(c) "Commission" means the State Ethics Commission established under section 1-80.
(d) "Compensation" means any value received or to be received by a person acting as a lobbyist, whether in the form of a fee, salary or forbearance.
(e) "Executive agency" means a commission, board, agency, or other body or official in the executive branch of the state government and any independent body of the state government that is not a part of the legislative or judicial branch.
(f) "Expenditure" means any advance, conveyance, deposit, distribution, transfer of funds, loan, payment, unless expressly excluded; any payments for telephone, mailing, postage, printing and other clerical or office services and materials; any paid communications, costing fifty dollars or more in any calendar year, disseminated by means of any printing, broadcasting or other medium, provided such communications refer to pending administrative or legislative action; any contract, agreement, promise or other obligation; any solicitation or solicitations, costing fifty dollars or more in the aggregate for any calendar year, of other persons to communicate with a public official or state employee for the purpose of influencing any legislative or administrative act and any pledge, subscription of money or anything of value. "Expenditure" shall not include the payment of a registrant's fee pursuant to section 1-95, any expenditure made by any club, committee, partnership, organization, business, union, association or corporation for the purpose of publishing a newsletter or other release to its members, shareholders or employees, or contributions, membership dues or other fees paid to associations, nonstock corporations or tax-exempt organizations under Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended.
(g) "Gift" means anything of value, which is directly and personally received, unless consideration of equal or greater value is given in return. "Gift" shall not include:
(1) A political contribution otherwise reported as required by law or a donation or payment described in subdivision (9) or (10) of subsection (b) of section 9-333b;
(2) Services provided by persons volunteering their time;
(3) A commercially reasonable loan made on terms not more favorable than loans made in the ordinary course of business;
(4) A gift received from (A) the individual's spouse, fiance or fiancee, (B) the parent, brother or sister of such spouse or such individual, or (C) the child of such individual or the spouse of such child;
(5) Goods or services (A) which are provided to the state (i) for use on state property, or (ii) to support an event or the participation by a public official or state employee at an event, and (B) which facilitate state action or functions. As used in this subdivision, "state property" means (i) property owned by the state, or (ii) property leased to an agency in the Executive or Judicial Department of the state;
(6) A certificate, plaque or other ceremonial award costing less than one hundred dollars;
(7) A rebate, discount or promotional item available to the general public;
(8) Printed or recorded informational material germane to state action or functions;
(9) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars in the aggregate per recipient in a calendar year, and consumed on an occasion or occasions at which the person paying, directly or indirectly, for the food or beverage, or his representative, is in attendance;
(10) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed at a publicly noticed legislative reception to which all members of the General Assembly are invited and which is hosted not more than once in any calendar year by a lobbyist or business organization. For the purposes of such limit, (A) a reception hosted by a lobbyist who is an individual shall be deemed to have also been hosted by the business organization which he owns or is employed by and (B) a reception hosted by a business organization shall be deemed to have also been hosted by all owners and employees of the business organization who are lobbyists. In making the calculation for the purposes of such fifty-dollar limit, the donor shall divide the amount spent on food and beverage by the number of persons whom the donor reasonably expects to attend the reception;
(11) Food or beverage or both, costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed at a publicly noticed reception to which all members of the General Assembly from a region of the state are invited and which is hosted not more than once in any calendar year by a lobbyist or business organization. For the purposes of such limit, (A) a reception hosted by a lobbyist who is an individual shall be deemed to have also been hosted by the business organization which he owns or is employed by, and (B) a reception hosted by a business organization shall be deemed to have also been hosted by all owners and employees of the business organization who are lobbyists. In making the calculation for the purposes of such fifty-dollar limit, the donor shall divide the amount spent on food and beverage by the number of persons whom the donor reasonably expects to attend the reception. As used in this subdivision, "region of the state" means the established geographic service area of the organization hosting the reception;
(12) A gift, including but not limited to, food or beverage or both, provided by an individual for the celebration of a major life event;
(13) Gifts costing less than one hundred dollars in the aggregate or food or beverage provided at a hospitality suite at a meeting or conference of an interstate legislative association, by a person who is not a registrant or is not doing business with the state of Connecticut;
(14) Admission to a charitable or civic event, including food and beverage provided at such event, but excluding lodging or travel expenses, at which a public official or state employee participates in his official capacity, provided such admission is provided by the primary sponsoring entity;
(15) Anything of value provided by an employer of (A) a public official, (B) a state employee, or (C) a spouse of a public official or state employee, to such official, employee or spouse, provided such benefits are customarily and ordinarily provided to others in similar circumstances; or
(16) Anything having a value of not more than ten dollars, provided the aggregate value of all things provided by a donor to a recipient under this subdivision in any calendar year shall not exceed fifty dollars.
(h) "Immediate family" means any spouse, dependent children or dependent relatives who reside in the individual's household.
(i) "Individual" means a natural person.
(j) "Legislative action" means introduction, sponsorship, consideration, debate, amendment, passage, defeat, approval, veto, overriding of a veto or any other official action or nonaction with regard to any bill, resolution, amendment, nomination, appointment, report, or any other matter pending or proposed in a committee or in either house of the legislature, or any matter which is within the official jurisdiction or cognizance of the legislature.
(k) "Lobbying" means communicating directly or soliciting others to communicate with any official or his staff in the legislative or executive branch of government or in a quasi-public agency, for the purpose of influencing any legislative or administrative action except that the term "lobbying" does not include (1) communications by or on behalf of a party to, or an intervenor in, a contested case, as described in regulations adopted by the commission in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, before an executive agency or a quasi-public agency, as defined in section 1-79, (2) communications by a representative of a vendor or by an employee of the registered client lobbyist which representative or employee acts as a salesperson and does not otherwise engage in lobbying regarding any administrative action, (3) communications by an attorney made while engaging in the practice of law and regarding any matter other than legislative action as defined in subsection (j) of this section or the proposal, drafting, development, consideration, amendment, adoption or repeal of any rule or regulation, or (4) other communications exempted by regulations adopted by the commission in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.
(l) "Lobbyist" means a person who in lobbying and in furtherance of lobbying makes or agrees to make expenditures, or receives or agrees to receive compensation, reimbursement, or both, and such compensation, reimbursement or expenditures are two thousand dollars or more in any calendar year or the combined amount thereof is two thousand dollars or more in any such calendar year. Lobbyist shall not include:
(1) A public official, employee of a branch of state government or a subdivision thereof, or elected or appointed official of a municipality or his designee other than an independent contractor, who is acting within the scope of his authority or employment;
(2) A publisher, owner or an employee of the press, radio or television while disseminating news or editorial comment to the general public in the ordinary course of business;
(3) An individual representing himself or another person before the legislature or a state agency other than for the purpose of influencing legislative or administrative action;
(4) Any individual or employee who receives no compensation or reimbursement specifically for lobbying and who limits his activities solely to formal appearances to give testimony before public sessions of committees of the General Assembly or public hearings of state agencies and who, if he testifies, registers his appearance in the records of such committees or agencies;
(5) A member of an advisory board acting within the scope of his appointment;
(6) A senator or representative in Congress acting within the scope of his office;
(7) Any person who receives no compensation or reimbursement specifically for lobbying and who spends no more than five hours in furtherance of lobbying unless such person (A) exclusive of salary, receives compensation or makes expenditures, or both, of two thousand dollars or more in any calendar year for lobbying or the combined amount thereof is two thousand dollars or more in any such calendar year or (B) expends fifty dollars or more for the benefit of a public official in the legislative or executive branch, a member of his staff or immediate family;
(8) A communicator lobbyist who receives or agrees to receive compensation, reimbursement, or both, the aggregate amount of which is less than two thousand dollars from each client in any calendar year.
(m) "Member of an advisory board" means any person appointed by a public official as an advisor or consultant or member of a committee, commission or council established to advise, recommend or consult with a public official or branch of government or committee thereof and who receives no public funds other than per diem payments or reimbursement for his actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of his official duties and who has no authority to expend any public funds or to exercise the power of the state.
(n) "Person" means an individual, a business, corporation, limited liability company, union, association, firm, partnership, committee, club or other organization or group of persons.
(o) "Political contribution" has the same meaning as in section 9-333b except that for purposes of this part, the provisions of subsection (b) of that section shall not apply.
(p) "Public official" means any state-wide elected state officer, any member or member-elect of the General Assembly, any person appointed to any office of the legislative, judicial or executive branch of state government by the Governor, with or without the advice and consent of the General Assembly and any person appointed or elected by the General Assembly or any member of either house thereof; but shall not include a member of an advisory board or a senator or representative in Congress.
(q) "Registrant" means a person who is required to register pursuant to section 1-94.
(r) "Reimbursement" means any money or thing of value received or to be received in the form of payment for expenses as a lobbyist, not including compensation.
(s) "State employee" means any employee in the executive, judicial or legislative branch of state government, whether in the classified or unclassified service and whether full or part-time.
(t) "Business organization" means a sole proprietorship, corporation, limited liability company, association, firm or partnership, other than a client lobbyist, which is owned by, or employs one or more individual lobbyists.
(u) "Client lobbyist" means a lobbyist on behalf of whom lobbying takes place and who makes expenditures for lobbying and in furtherance of lobbying.
(v) "Communicator lobbyist" means a lobbyist who communicates directly or solicits others to communicate with an official or his staff in the legislative or executive branch of government or in a quasi-public agency for the purpose of influencing legislative or administrative action.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 1, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 1, 10; P.A. 81-339, S. 1, 7; 81-395, S. 7, 9; P.A. 82-120, S. 1, 2; 82-423, S. 2, 8; P.A. 83-249, S. 10−12, 14; P.A. 84-546, S. 144, 173; P.A. 85-290, S. 3, 4; P.A. 86-99, S. 30, 34; P.A. 89-211, S. 1; 89- 369, S. 4; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 3, 22; P.A. 92-149, S. 8, 12; P.A. 94-69, S. 1, 3; P.A. 95-79, S. 5, 6, 189; 95-144, S. 2, 11; P.A. 96-11, S. 2, 5; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5, S. 18, 19; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 6, 14.)
History: P.A. 79-615 redefined "administrative action", "candidate for public office", "expenditure", "gift", "immediate family", "legislative action", "lobbying", "lobbyist", "member of an advisory board" and "public official"; P.A. 81-339 increased amounts requiring reporting and threshold expenditure and compensation levels from the previous levels of "in excess of twenty-five dollars" and "three hundred dollars" to "thirty-five dollars or more" and "five hundred dollars"; P.A. 81-395 substituted reference to Sec. 9-335(18) for reference to Sec. 9-348q(a) in Subdiv. (o); P.A. 82-120 amended Subdiv. (k) to except communications by or on behalf of public service companies in connection with rate cases; P.A. 82-423 amended Subdivs. (f) and (g) to increase amounts from thirty-five dollars to fifty dollars; P.A. 83-249 amended Subdiv. (j) to refer to "cognizance" of legislature, included an independent contractor employed by a municipality within the definition of lobbyist in Subdiv. (l) and amended Subdiv. (o) to expand definition of "political contribution"; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subdiv. (f); P.A. 85-290 redefined "gift" to include "anything of value" and amended definition of "member of an advisory board" to refer to "per diem payments" rather than to "a flat per diem rate"; P.A. 86-99 amended definition of "political contribution" to reflect technical changes made in chapter 150; P.A. 89-211 clarified reference to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; P.A. 89-369 limited exception from definition of "gift" in Subdiv. (g) for food or beverage costing less than fifty dollars per person and consumed on a single occasion to an occasion "at which the person paying, directly or indirectly, for the food or beverage, or his representative, is in attendance"; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91- 1 substantially amended definition of "gift" and exceptions to "gift" in Subdiv. (g), substituted "one thousand" for "five hundred" in definition of "lobbyist" in Subdiv. (l), and added Subdivs. (t) and (u), defining "business organization" and "client lobbyist"; P.A. 92-149 redefined "client lobbyist"; P.A. 94-69 expanded definition of "administrative action" in Subdiv. (a) by adding provision re contract, grant, award, purchasing agreement, loan, bond certificate, license, permit or any other matter within the official jurisdiction or cognizance of the agency, and amended definition of "lobbying" in Subdiv. (k) by adding "or in a quasi-public agency", deleting provision re public service companies, adding provision re contested cases and adding provision re representatives of a manufacturer or employees of the registered client lobbyist, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" and "business organization" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 95-144 amended Subsec. (k), defining "lobbying", by numbering subdivs., inserting "or an intervenor in" and changing source of definition of "contested case" in Subdiv. (1), changing "manufacturer" to "vendor" and inserting "representative" in Subdiv. (2) and adding Subdiv. (3) re communications by attorneys and Subdiv. (4) re communications exempted by regulations, amended Subsec. (l), defining "lobbyist", by adding Subdiv. (8) re communicator lobbyists, amended Subsec. (u), defining "client lobbyist", by changing "person" to "lobbyist" and added Subsec. (v) defining "communicator lobbyist", effective June 28, 1995; P.A. 96-11 amended Subsec. (l) to change the threshold for meeting the definition of "lobbyist" for purposes of part II of chapter 10 from one thousand to two thousand dollars, effective January 1, 1997; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5 amended Subsec. (g)(1) by changing Sec. 9-333b(b) Subdiv. reference from (11) to (10), effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to elections and primaries held on or after January 1, 1998; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subsec. (g) by expanding Subdiv. (5), by changing limit to fifty dollars in Subdiv. (9), inserting new Subdiv. (11) re food or beverage consumed at a publicly noticed reception, adding new Subdiv. (14) re admission to charitable or civic event, adding new Subdiv. (15) re anything of value provided by employer and adding new Subdiv. (16) re anything of value of not more than ten dollars, effective January 1, 1998.
See Sec. 1-79a re calculation of dollar limit on gifts.
See Sec. 1-101aa re provider participation in informal committees, task forces and work groups of certain state agencies not deemed to be lobbying.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-92. Duties of commission. Regulations. Advisory opinions. The commission shall:
(1) Adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to carry out the purposes of this part. Not later than January 1, 1992, the commission shall adopt regulations which further clarify the meaning of the terms "directly and personally received" and "major life event", as used in subsection (e) of section 1-79 and subsection (g) of section 1-91;
(2) Compile and maintain an index of all reports and statements filed with the commission under the provisions of this part and advisory opinions issued by the commission with regard to the requirements of this part, to facilitate public access to such reports, statements and advisory opinions promptly upon the filing or issuance thereof;
(3) Prepare quarterly and annual summaries of statements and reports filed with the commission and advisory opinions issued by the commission;
(4) Preserve advisory opinions permanently; preserve memoranda filed under subsection (f) of section 1-93a, statements and reports filed by and with the commission for a period of five years from the date of receipt;
(5) Upon the concurring vote of four of its members, issue advisory opinions with regard to the requirements of this part, upon the request of any person, subject to the provisions of this part, and publish such advisory opinions in the Connecticut Law Journal. Advisory opinions rendered by the commission, until amended or revoked, shall be binding on the commission and shall be deemed to be final decisions of the commission for purposes of section 1-98. Any advisory opinion concerning any person subject to the provisions of this part who requested the opinion and who acted in reliance thereon, in good faith, shall be binding upon the commission, and it shall be an absolute defense in any criminal action brought under the provisions of this part that the accused acted in reliance upon such advisory opinion;
(6) Report annually, prior to February fifteenth, to the Governor summarizing the activities of the commission;
(7) Employ necessary staff within available appropriations.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 3, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 2, 10; P.A. 83-493, S. 4, 5; P.A. 84-52, S. 7; P.A. 86-403, S. 95, 132: P.A. 89- 97, S. 3, 7; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 5; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 10, 14.)
History: P.A. 79-615 required concurring vote of four members for issuance of advisory opinion; P.A. 83-493 amended section to provide that advisory opinions shall be deemed to be final decisions of the commission for purposes of Sec. 1- 98; P.A. 84-52 made technical amendment to reflect relettering of subsections in Sec. 1-93; P.A. 86-403 made technical changes; P.A. 89-97 amended Subdiv. (1) by deleting language specifying regulations as those necessary to establish procedures and forms; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subdiv. (1) to require regulations clarifying "directly and personally received" and "major life event"; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subdivs. (2) and (3) to add to the list of items the commission must compile and maintain and prepare summaries of, advisory opinions issued by the commission, effective January 1, 1998.
See Sec. 1-80 re State Ethics Commission generally.
See Sec. 1-81 re commission's duties with regard to public officials.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-93. Complaints. Procedure. Time limits. Investigation; notice; hearings. Damages for complaints without foundation. (a) (1) Upon the complaint of any person on a form prescribed by the commission, signed under penalty of false statement, or upon its own complaint, the commission shall investigate any alleged violation of this part. Not later than five days after the receipt or issuance of such complaint, the commission shall provide notice of such receipt or issuance and a copy of the complaint by registered or certified mail to any respondent against whom such complaint is filed and shall provide notice of the receipt of such complaint to the complainant. When the commission undertakes an evaluation of a possible violation of this part prior to the filing of a complaint by the commission, the subject of the evaluation shall be notified within five business days after a commission staff member's first contact with a third party concerning the matter.
(2) In the conduct of its investigation of an alleged violation of this part, the commission shall have the power to hold hearings, administer oaths, examine witnesses, receive oral and documentary evidence, subpoena witnesses under procedural rules adopted by the commission as regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to compel attendance before the commission and to require the production for examination by the commission of any books and papers which the commission deems relevant in any matter under investigation or in question. In the exercise of such powers, the commission may use the services of the state police, who shall provide the same upon the commission's request. The commission shall make a record of all proceedings conducted pursuant to this subsection. Any witness summoned before the commission shall receive the witness fee paid to witnesses in the courts of this state. The respondent shall have the right to appear and be heard and to offer any information which may tend to clear him of probable cause to believe he has violated any provision of this part. The respondent shall also have the right to be represented by legal counsel and to examine and cross- examine witnesses. Not later than ten days prior to the commencement of any hearing conducted pursuant to this subsection, the commission shall provide the respondent with a list of its intended witnesses. The commission shall make no finding that there is probable cause to believe the respondent is in violation of this part, except upon the concurring vote of four of its members.
(b) If a preliminary investigation indicates that probable cause exists for the violation of a provision of this part, the commission shall initiate hearings to determine whether there has been a violation of this part. A judge trial referee, who shall be assigned by the Chief Court Administrator and who shall be compensated in accordance with section 52-434 out of funds available to the commission, shall preside over such hearing and shall rule on all matters concerning the application of the rules of evidence, which shall be the same as in judicial proceedings. The trial referee shall have no vote in any decision of the commission. All hearings of the commission held pursuant to this subsection shall be open. At such hearing the commission shall have the same powers as under subsection (a) of this section and the respondent shall have the right to be represented by legal counsel, the right to compel attendance of witnesses and the production of books, documents, records and papers and to examine and cross-examine witnesses. Not later than ten days prior to the commencement of any hearing conducted pursuant to this subsection, the commission shall provide the respondent with a list of its intended witnesses. The judge trial referee shall, while engaged in the discharge of his duties as provided in this subsection, have the same authority as is provided in section 51-35 over witnesses who refuse to obey a subpoena or to testify with respect to any matter upon which such witness may be lawfully interrogated, and may commit any such witness for contempt for a period no longer than thirty days. The commission shall make a record of all proceedings pursuant to this subsection. The commission shall find no person in violation of any provision of this part except upon the concurring vote of five of its members. Not later than fifteen days after the public hearing conducted in accordance with this subsection, the commission shall publish its finding and a memorandum of the reasons therefor. Such finding and memorandum shall be deemed to be the final decision of the commission on the matter for the purposes of chapter 54. The respondent, if aggrieved by the finding and memorandum, may appeal therefrom to the Superior Court in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183.
(c) If any complaint brought under the provisions of this part is made with the knowledge that it is made without foundation in fact, the respondent shall have a cause of action against the complainant for double the amount of damage caused thereby and if the respondent prevails in such action, he may be awarded by the court the costs of such action together with reasonable attorneys' fees.
(d) No complaint may be made under this section except within three years next after the violation alleged in the complaint has been committed.
(e) No person shall take or threaten to take official action against an individual for such individual's disclosure of information to the commission under the provisions of this part. After receipt of information from an individual under the provisions of this part, the commission shall not disclose the identity of such individual without his consent unless the commission determines that such disclosure is unavoidable during the course of an investigation.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 4, 21; 77-614, S. 486, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-615, S. 3, 10; P.A. 81-296, S. 2; P.A. 83-586, S. 10, 14; P.A. 84-52, S. 3; 84-519, S. 2; 84-546, S. 145, 173; P.A. 85-290, S. 5; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 16; P.A. 92-29, S. 2; P.A. 94-132, S. 6; P.A. 95-144, S. 3; P.A. 96-37, S. 2.)
History: P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 placed state police within the department of public safety, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-615 required concurring vote of four members for finding of probable cause; P.A. 81-296 added Subsec. (e) establishing a three-year time limit for complaints; P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (a) to apply nondisclosure requirement to all persons having knowledge of investigation and amended Subsec. (b) concerning publication of finding and confidentiality of the record of any investigation; P.A. 84-52 eliminated provisions re confidentiality of investigations and publication of findings; P.A. 84-519 amended section to grant subpoena power to commission at all stages of investigation, to require commission to meet prior to commencing investigation and to exempt such meetings from the freedom of information act and deleted provision authorizing commission witnesses to be paid witness fees awarded court witnesses; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 85-290 amended Subsec. (a) to require that commission notify persons under evaluation within five business days after a commission staff member's first contact with a third party concerning the matter; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsec. (b) to require trial referee or senior judge, instead of commission, to make determinations re violations; P.A. 92-29 amended Subsec. (b) by eliminating references to senior judges; P.A. 94-132 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) by deleting provisions re meeting to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to warrant inquiry, changing notice deadline from five days after meeting to five days after receipt or issuance of complaint, and making technical grammatical changes, amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by adding "of an alleged violation of this part" after "investigation", deleting provision re deadline for adoption of regulations, and adding provisions re record of proceedings and list of intended witnesses, amended Subsec. (b) by specifying trial referee has no vote in commission decision, giving commission, rather than trial referee, the same powers as under Subsec. (a), adding provisions re list of intended witnesses and vote required for finding of violation, changing publisher of finding and memorandum from trial referee to commission, and deleting provision re commission aggrieved by finding and memorandum, and added new Subsec. (e) re individuals who disclose information to commission; P.A. 95-144 amended Subsec. (b) by specifying hearings as those of the commission; P.A. 96-37 amended Subsec. (b) by changing "state trial referee" to "judge trial referee".

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-93a. Confidentiality of complaints, evaluations of possible violations and investigations. Publication of findings. (a) Unless the commission makes a finding of probable cause, a complaint alleging a violation of this part shall be confidential except upon the request of the respondent. A commission evaluation of a possible violation of this part undertaken prior to a complaint being filed by the commission shall be confidential except upon the request of the subject of the evaluation. If the evaluation is confidential, any information supplied to or received from the commission shall not be disclosed to any third party by a subject of the evaluation, a person contacted for the purpose of obtaining information or by a commission or staff member. No provision of this subsection shall prevent the Ethics Commission from reporting the possible commission of a crime to the Chief State's Attorney or other prosecutorial authority.
(b) An investigation conducted prior to a probable cause finding shall be confidential except upon the request of the respondent. If the investigation is confidential, the allegations in the complaint and any information supplied to or received from the commission shall not be disclosed during the investigation to any third party by a complainant, respondent, witness, designated party, or commission or staff member.
(c) Not later than three business days after the termination of the investigation, the commission shall inform the complainant and the respondent of its finding and provide them a summary of its reasons for making that finding. The commission shall publish its finding upon the respondent's request and may also publish a summary of its reasons for making such finding.
(d) If the commission makes a finding of no probable cause, the complaint and the record of its investigation shall remain confidential, except upon the request of the respondent and except that some or all of the record may be used in subsequent proceedings. No complainant, respondent, witness, designated party, or commission or staff member shall disclose to any third party any information learned from the investigation, including knowledge of the existence of a complaint, which the disclosing party would not otherwise have known. If such a disclosure is made, the commission may, after consultation with the respondent if the respondent is not the source of the disclosure, publish its finding and a summary of its reasons therefor.
(e) The commission shall make public a finding of probable cause not later than five business days after the termination of the investigation. At such time the entire record of the investigation shall become public, except that the commission may postpone examination or release of such public records for a period not to exceed fourteen days for the purpose of reaching a stipulation agreement pursuant to subsection (c) of section 4-177.
(P.A. 84-52, S. 4; P.A. 85-290, S. 6; P.A. 88-317, S. 42, 107; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 17; P.A. 94-132, S. 7.)
History: P.A. 85-290 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions re confidentiality of a commission evaluation prior to the filing of a complaint; P.A. 88-317 substituted "subsection (c) of section 4-177" for "subsection (d) of section 4-177" in Subsec. (e), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 repealed former Subsec. (f) re publication of commission finding and memorandum under Sec. 1- 93(b); P.A. 94-132 amended Subsec. (a) by changing "an evaluation" to "a commission evaluation" and authorizing reports to prosecutorial authority other than chief state's attorney.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-94. Lobbyist registration with the commission. A lobbyist shall register with the commission pursuant to this part if it or he:
(1) Receives or agrees to receive compensation or reimbursement for actual expenses, or both, in a combined amount of two thousand dollars or more in a calendar year for lobbying, whether that receipt of compensation or reimbursement or agreement to receive such compensation or reimbursement is solely for lobbying or the lobbying is incidental to that person's regular employment; or
(2) Makes or incurs an obligation to make expenditures of two thousand dollars or more in a calendar year for lobbying.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 5, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 4, 10; P.A. 81-339, S. 2, 7; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 10, 22; P.A. 96-11, S. 3, 5.)
History: P.A. 79-615 changed emphasis of section to require registration as lobbyist prior to actually serving as such; P.A. 81-339 increased monetary thresholds from three hundred to five hundred dollars; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 substituted "one thousand" for "five hundred" and numbered the Subdivs. instead of lettering them; P.A. 96-11 changed registration threshold from one thousand to two thousand dollars, effective January 1, 1997.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-95. Registration procedure. Fees. (a) Each registrant shall file every two years with the commission on a registration form signed under penalty of false statement on or before January fifteenth of odd-numbered years or prior to the commencement of lobbying whichever is later. If the registrant is not an individual, an authorized officer or agent of the registrant shall sign the form. Such registration shall be on a form prescribed by the commission and shall include:
(1) If the registrant is an individual, the registrant's name, permanent address and temporary address while lobbying and the name, address and nature of business of any person who compensates or reimburses, or agrees to compensate or reimburse the registrant and the terms of the compensation, reimbursement or agreement, but shall not include the compensation paid to an employee for his involvement in activities other than lobbying;
(2) If the registrant is a corporation, the name, address, place of incorporation and the principal place of business of the corporation;
(3) If the registrant is an association, group of persons or an organization, the name and address of the principal officers and directors of such association, group of persons or organization. If the registrant is formed primarily for the purpose of lobbying, it shall disclose the name and address of any person contributing two thousand dollars or more to the registrant's lobbying activities in any calendar year;
(4) If the registrant is not an individual, the name and address of each individual who will lobby on the registrant's behalf; and
(5) The identification, with reasonable particularity, of areas of legislative or administrative action on which the registrant expects to lobby.
(b) Each registrant shall pay a reasonable fee not in excess of the cost of administering the registration form provided for in subsection (a) of this section plus the cost of collecting, filing, copying and distributing the information filed by registrants under section 1-96, but not less than twenty-five dollars. A registrant who commences lobbying in an even-numbered year shall file with the commission, on or before January fifteenth of such even-numbered year or prior to the commencement of lobbying, whichever is later, a registration form signed under penalty of false statement and shall pay one-half of the biennial registration fee established by the commission.
(c) Each registrant shall file a notice of termination within thirty days after he ceases the activity that required his registration, provided the registrant does not intend to resume the activity during the biennial period for which he is registered; but termination shall not relieve him of the reporting requirements of section 1-96 for the period preceding the date his notice of termination is received by the commission or for the period commencing on such date and ending on December thirty-first of the year in which termination occurs.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 6, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 5, 10; P.A. 81-339, S. 3, 7; P.A. 83-463, S. 1, 2; 83-586, S. 11, 14; P.A. 84-546, S. 146, 173; P.A. 89-251, S. 58, 203; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 11, 22; P.A. 92-149, S. 2, 12; P.A. 95-144, S. 9, 11; P.A. 96-11, S. 4, 5.)
History: P.A. 79-615 required, as part of registration, the filing of information regarding lobbyist's employer and terms of his compensation for lobbying activities and changed provisions regarding notice of termination; P.A. 81-339 amended Subsec. (a) to raise monetary thresholds from three to five hundred dollars; P.A. 83-463 amended Subsec. (b) by allowing the registration fee to be determined by the cost of collecting, filing, copying and distributing information filed by registrants, as well as by the cost of administering the registration form; P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (c) to extend reporting requirements to the period beginning on the date of termination of registration and ending on the December thirty-first following termination; P.A. 84-546 made technical change to Subsec. (a); P.A. 89-251 set the fee for administration at not less than twenty-five dollars; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 substituted "one thousand" for "five hundred" in Subsec. (a); P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (a) to require disclosure of name and address of persons contributing in excess of one thousand dollars in any calendar year and made technical corrections for statutory consistency; P.A. 95-144 deleted provision in Subsec. (a) re individual registrants who receive $1,000 or more for lobbying, effective June 28, 1995; P.A. 96-11 changed the lobbyist registration period from one to two years and increased contribution amount requiring disclosure from one thousand to two thousand dollars in Subsec. (a) and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for even-year registrations, effective January 1, 1997.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96. Financial reports of registrants. Requirements. (a) Each client lobbyist registrant shall file with the commission between the first and tenth day of April, July and January a financial report, signed under penalty of false statement. The April and July reports shall cover its lobbying activities during the previous calendar quarter and the January report shall cover its lobbying activities during the previous two calendar quarters. In addition to such reports, each client lobbyist registrant which attempts to influence legislative action shall file, under penalty of false statement, interim monthly reports of its lobbying activities for each month the General Assembly is in regular session, except that no monthly report shall be required for any month in which it neither expends nor agrees to expend one hundred dollars or more in furtherance of lobbying. Such interim monthly reports shall be filed with the commission no later than the tenth day of the month following the last day of the month reported. If the client lobbyist registrant is not an individual, an authorized officer or agent of the client lobbyist registrant shall sign the form. A communicator lobbyist for a municipality or any subdivision of a municipality, a branch of state government or any subdivision of state government or a quasi-public agency shall file the reports described in this subsection utilizing the client lobbyist reporting schedule.
(b) Each individual communicator lobbyist registrant and each business organization communicator lobbyist registrant shall file with the commission between the first and tenth day of January a report or reports, signed under penalty of false statement, reporting the amounts of compensation and reimbursement received from each of his clients during the previous year. In addition, each individual communicator lobbyist registrant and each business organization communicator lobbyist registrant shall: (1) Report the fundamental terms of contracts, agreements or promises to pay or receive compensation or reimbursement or to make expenditures in furtherance of lobbying, including the categories of work to be performed and the dollar value or compensation rate of the contract, at the time of registration; (2) report, in accordance with the schedule set forth in subsection (a) of this section, any amendments to these fundamental terms, including any agreements to subcontract lobbying work; and (3) report, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any expenditures for the benefit of a public official in the legislative or executive branch or a member of the staff or immediate family of such official which are unreimbursed and required to be itemized. Such report shall not include the disclosure of food and beverage provided by a communicator lobbyist registrant to a public official in the legislative or executive branch or a member of his staff or immediate family at a major life event, as defined by the commission, of the registrant. All such information shall be reported under penalty of false statement.
(c) An individual communicator lobbyist registrant shall file a separate report for each person from whom he received compensation or reimbursement. Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection to the contrary, a business organization to which one or more individual communicator lobbyist registrants belong may file a single report for each client lobbyist in lieu of any separate reports that individual registrants are required to file pursuant to this subsection.
(d) Each registrant who files a notice of termination under subsection (c) of section 1-95 shall file with the commission a financial report, under penalty of false statement, between the first and tenth day of January of the year following termination.
(e) Each client lobbyist registrant financial report shall be on a form prescribed by the commission and shall state expenditures made and the fundamental terms of contracts, agreements or promises to pay compensation or reimbursement or to make expenditures in furtherance of lobbying. Any such fundamental terms shall be reported once in the monthly, quarterly or post-termination report next following the entering into of such contract. Such financial report shall include an itemized statement of each expenditure of ten dollars or more per person for each occasion made by the reporting registrant or a group of registrants which includes the reporting registrant for the benefit of a public official in the legislative or executive branch, a member of his staff or immediate family, itemized by date, beneficiary, amount and circumstances of the transaction. The requirement of an itemized statement shall not apply to an expenditure made by a reporting registrant or a group of registrants which includes the reporting registrant for (1) the benefit of the members of the General Assembly at an event that is a reception to which all such members are invited or all members of a region of the state, as such term is used in subdivision (11) of subsection (g) of section 1-91, are invited, unless the expenditure is thirty dollars or more per person, or (2) benefits personally and directly received by a public official or state employee at a charitable or civic event at which the public official or state employee participates in his official capacity, unless the expenditure is thirty dollars or more per person, per event. If the compensation is required to be reported for an individual whose lobbying is incidental to his regular employment, it shall be sufficient to report a prorated amount based on the value of the time devoted to lobbying. On the first financial report following registration each client lobbyist registrant shall include any expenditures incident to lobbying activities which were received or expended prior to registration and not previously reported to the commission.
(f) The commission shall, by regulations adopted in accordance with chapter 54, establish minimum amounts for each item required to be reported, below which reporting may be made in the aggregate. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to expenditures made for the benefit of a public official or a member of such person's staff or immediate family.
(g) Each former registrant shall (1) report receipts or expenditures incident to lobbying activities during his period of registration which are received or expended following termination of registration and (2) report each expenditure of ten dollars or more per person for each occasion made by him for the benefit of a public official or a member of such official's immediate family or staff which occurs within six months after termination of registration.
(h) The commission shall, within thirty days after receipt of a financial report which contains the name of a public official in the legislative or executive branch or a member of such official's staff or immediate family, send a written notice to such public official, of the filing of the report and the name of the person who filed it.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 7, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 6, 10; P.A. 81-339, S. 4, 7; P.A. 82-423, S. 3, 8; P.A. 83-586, S. 12, 14; P.A. 84-21, S. 3; 84-425; P.A. 85-290, S. 7; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 12, 22; P.A. 92-149, S. 3, 12; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 7, 14.)
History: P.A. 79-615 required interim monthly reports of lobbying activities during general assembly sessions, added detail to financial report requirements and provided that minimum amounts be established for items required to be reported; P.A. 81-339 raised level of expenditures requiring itemized reporting in Subsec. (b) from twenty-five dollars to thirty-five dollars; P.A. 82-423 increased amount in Subsec. (b) from thirty-five to fifty dollars and authorized waiver of reporting requirement where expenditures are less than fifty dollars; P.A. 83-586 amended Subsec. (a) to require post-termination reports, amended Subsec. (b) to delete notarization requirement and add reporting requirement for preregistration receipts and expenditures and added Subsec. (d) specifying certain post-termination receipts and expenditures required to be reported; P.A. 84-21 added exception in Subsec. (a) to monthly reporting requirement for months in which receipts or expenditures or agreements relating thereto are less than fifty dollars; P.A. 84-425 amended section to permit filing of a single financial report on behalf of all registrants in a business organization for each client, to clarify fifty dollar per occasion reporting requirement and added Subsec. (e) to require the commission to notify public officials of financial reports which contain the name of the official, a member of his staff or a member of his family; P.A. 85-290 amended Subsecs. (b) and (d) to require reporting of expenditures of fifteen dollars or more per person for each occasion rather than of expenditures of fifty dollars or more per occasion and in Subsec. (b) exempted registrants from reporting expenditures in certain cases involving a reception for all members of the general assembly; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsec. (a) by repealing requirement for October report, limiting monthly reports to each month general assembly is in regular session, increasing threshold for monthly report from fifty to one hundred dollars, and allowing business organization to which one or more registrants belong to file single financial report in lieu of separate reports for individual registrants, amended Subsecs. (b) and (d) by decreasing threshold for itemized statement of each expenditure per person for each occasion from fifteen to ten dollars and in Subsec. (b) repealed commission authority to waive reporting of expenditures less than fifty dollars, and added sentence to Subsec. (c) re exemptions from requirements of Subsec. (c); P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (a) to add "client lobbyist" reference, added reporting requirement for communicator lobbyist, added new Subsec. (b) re reporting requirements of individual communicator lobbyist registrant and business organization communicator lobbyist, created a new Subsec. (c) with language taken from the old Subsec. (a) re filing separate reports for each person in a firm receiving compensation or reimbursement, added "individual communicator lobbyist" and "client lobbyist" references, relettered the remaining Subsecs. as necessary and made technical corrections for statutory consistency; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97- 6 amended Subsec. (e) by expanding the exception to the requirement to submit itemized statements and by changing limit to thirty dollars, effective January 1, 1998.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96a. Maintenance of substantiating documents. Random audits of registrants. (a) Each registrant shall obtain and preserve all accounts, bills, receipts and other documents necessary to substantiate the financial reports required by section 1- 96 for a period of three years from the date of the filing of the report referring to such financial matters, provided this section shall apply to each expenditure for the benefit of a public official of ten dollars or more and all other expenditures of fifty dollars or more.
(b) The commission may require, on a random basis, any registrant to make all such documents substantiating financial reports concerning lobbying activities on and after October 1, 1991, available for inspection and copying by the commission for the purpose of verifying such financial reports, provided no registrant shall be subject to such requirement more than one time during any three consecutive years. The commission shall select registrants to be audited by lot in a ceremony which shall be open to the public. Nothing in this subsection shall require a registrant to make any documents concerning nonlobbying activities available to the commission for inspection and copying.
(P.A. 79-615, S. 7, 10; P.A. 81-339, S. 5, 7; P.A. 82-423, S. 4, 8; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 13; P.A. 92-149, S. 4, 12.)
History: P.A. 81-339 increased amount of expenditures for which receipts must be kept from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars or more; P.A. 82-423 increased amount from thirty-five dollars to fifty dollars; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 added Subsec. (b) re commission authority to require registrant to make documents available for inspection and copying; P.A. 92-149 amended Subsec. (a) to specify applicability to expenditures for benefit of public official of ten dollars or more.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96b. Filing of registrants' financial reports in electronic form. (a) Not later than July 1, 1998, the State Ethics Commission shall (1) create a software program for the preparation of financial reports required by section 1-96, and (2) prescribe specifications for other software programs created by vendors for such purpose. The commission shall provide training in the use of the software program created by the commission.
(b) On and after January 1, 1999, each registrant required to file any financial reports under section 1-96 shall do so in electronic form using the software created by the commission under subsection (a) of this section or another software program which meets the specifications prescribed by the commission under said subsection (a).
(June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5, S. 5, 19.)
History: June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5 effective July 1, 1997.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96c. Public access to computerized data from financial reports. On and after January 1, 1999, the State Ethics Commission shall make all computerized data from financial reports required by section 1-96 available to the public through (1) a computer terminal in the office of the commission and (2) the Internet or any other generally available on-line computer network.
(June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5, S. 6, 19.)
History: June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-5 effective July 1, 1997.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96d. Statement whether expenditures for legislative reception are reportable. Each registrant or business organization that hosts a legislative reception to which all members are invited, or all members of a region in the state, as such term is used in subdivision (11) of subsection (g) of section 1-91, are invited, shall include in its invitation or any published notice of such reception whether the registrant or business organization reasonably expects such expenditures to be reportable pursuant to subsection (e) of section 1-96.
(June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 11, 14.)
History: June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 effective January 1, 1998.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-96e. Statements of necessary expenses paid or reimbursed by registrants. Each registrant who pays or reimburses a public official or state employee ten dollars or more for necessary expenses, as defined in section 1-79, shall, within thirty days, file a statement with the State Ethics Commission indicating the name of such individual and the amount of the expenses.
(P.A. 89-97, S. 4; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 9; P.A. 92-149, S. 5, 12.)
History: June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 applied section to registrant paying or reimbursing a public official or state employee for necessary expenses instead of giving a fee or honorarium; P.A. 92-149 amended section to require registrants who pay or reimburse public officials or state employees ten dollars or more for necessary expenses to file a statement with the commission.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-97. Restrictions on activities of registrants. Contingent fees. (a) No registrant or anyone acting on behalf of a registrant shall knowingly give a gift, as defined in subsection (g) of section 1-91, to any state employee, public official, candidate for public office or a member of any such person's staff or immediate family. Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit any activity prohibited under section 53a-147 or 53a-148.
(b) No person shall be employed as a lobbyist for compensation which is contingent upon the outcome of any administrative or legislative action.
(c) No lobbyist may: (1) Do anything with the purpose of placing any public official under personal obligation; (2) attempt to influence any legislative or administrative action for the purpose of thereafter being employed to secure its defeat; (3) cause any communication to be sent to any public official in the name of any other individual except with the consent of such individual.
(d) Any person who gives to a public official, state employee or candidate for public office, or a member of any such person's staff or immediate family anything of value which is subject to the reporting requirements pursuant to subsection (e) of section 1- 96 shall, not later than ten days thereafter, give such recipient a written report stating the name of the donor, a description of the item or items given, the value of such items and the cumulative value of all items given to such recipient during that calendar year. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to a political contribution otherwise reported as required by law.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 8, 21; P.A. 81-339, S. 6, 7; P.A. 82-423, S. 5, 8; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 4, 22; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6, S. 8, 14.)
History: P.A. 81-339 increased aggregate gift limitation from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars; P.A. 82-423 amended Subsec. (a) to increase amount from thirty-five to fifty dollars; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsec. (a) by inserting "knowingly" and making technical changes; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-6 amended Subsec. (a) to delete reference to gifts of fifty dollars or more in value and added new Subsec. (d) re written reports by person who gives to a public official, state employee or candidate or a member of person's staff or family anything of value, effective January 1, 1998.
See Sec. 1-79a re calculation of dollar limit on gifts.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-98. Appeal from commission decision. Any person aggrieved by any final decision of the commission, made pursuant to this part, may appeal such decision in accordance with the provisions of section 4-175 or section 4-183.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 9, 21; P.A. 84-21, S. 4, 5.)
History: P.A. 84-21 added reference to Sec. 4-175.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-99. Authority of commission after finding violation. (a) The commission, upon a finding made pursuant to section 1-93 that there has been a violation of any provision of this part, shall have the authority to order the violator to do any or all of the following: (1) Cease and desist the violation of this part; (2) file any report, statement or other information as required by this part; or (3) pay a civil penalty of not more than two thousand dollars for each violation of this part. The commission may prohibit any person who intentionally violates any provision of this part from engaging in the profession of lobbyist for a period of not more than two years. The commission may impose a civil penalty on any person who knowingly enters into a contingent fee agreement in violation of subsection (b) of section 1-97 or terminates a lobbying contract as the result of the outcome of an administrative or legislative action. The civil penalty shall be equal to the amount of compensation which the registrant was required to be paid under the agreement.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), the commission may, after a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, upon the concurring vote of five of its members, impose a civil penalty not to exceed ten dollars per day upon any registrant who fails to file any report, statement or other information as required by this part. Each distinct violation of this subsection shall be a separate offense and, in case of a continued violation, each day thereof shall be deemed a separate offense. In no event shall the aggregate penalty imposed for such failure to file exceed two thousand dollars.
(c) The commission may also report its finding to the Chief State's Attorney for any action deemed necessary.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 10, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 8, 10; P.A. 80-483, S. 4, 186; P.A. 83-249, S. 13, 14; 83-586, S. 13, 14; P.A. 84-546, S. 147, 173; P.A. 88-317, S. 43, 107; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1, S. 18; P.A. 94-132, S. 8.)
History: P.A. 79-615 provided for civil penalty for failure to file required information; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 83-249 amended Subsec. (b) to require concurring vote of five members; P.A. 83-586 allowed commission to prohibit any person who intentionally violates code from engaging in the profession of lobbyist for up to two years; P.A. 84-546 made technical change to Subsec. (a); P.A. 88-317 substituted "4-176e" for "4-177" in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-1 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize commission to impose civil penalties re contingent fee agreements and termination of contract due to administrative or legislative action; P.A. 94-132 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by changing maximum penalty from one thousand to two thousand dollars.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-100. Violations; penalties. (a) Any person who intentionally violates any provision of this part shall be imprisoned for a term not to exceed one year or shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand dollars, or both.
(b) Any fines, penalties or damages paid, collected or recovered under section 1- 99 or this section for a violation of any provision of this part applying to the office of the Treasurer shall be deposited on a pro rata basis in any trust funds, as defined in section 3-13c, affected by such violation.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 11, 21; P.A. 79-615, S. 9, 10; P.A. 94-132, S. 9; P.A. 00-43, S. 9, 19.)
History: P.A. 79-615 made no substantive changes; P.A. 94-132 changed maximum fine from one thousand to two thousand dollars; P.A. 00-43 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re penalties for violations involving the Treasurer's office, effective May 3, 2000.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-101. Lobbyists to wear badges. Regulations. Each individual who is a lobbyist shall, while engaged in lobbying, wear a distinguishing badge which shall identify him as a lobbyist. The size, color, material and other requirements of such badge shall be prescribed by regulation of the commission.
(P.A. 77-605, S. 17, 21; P.A. 84-546, S. 148, 173.)
History: P.A. 84-546 made technical change.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Secs. 1-101a to 1-101z. Reserved for future use.

PART III
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS


(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)

Sec. 1-101aa. Provider participation in informal committees, task forces and work groups of certain state agencies not deemed to be lobbying. (a) As used in this section, "department" means the Department of Mental Retardation, the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, the Department of Public Health or the Office of Health Care Access, and "provider" means any independent contractor or private agency under contract with the department to provide services.
(b) Notwithstanding any provision of part II of this chapter or any regulation adopted or advisory opinion issued under said part, the department may invite a provider to participate in any informal policy-making committee, task force, work group or other ad hoc committee established by the department, and such participation shall not be deemed to be lobbying for purposes of said part.
(P.A. 00-135, S. 15, 21.)
History: P.A. 00-135 effective May 26, 2000.

(Return to TOC) (Return to Chapters) (Return to Titles)